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1

Pulmonary Metastasectomy: A Common Practice Based on Weak Evidence  

PubMed Central

The resection of secondary metastases from the lungs is a wide-spread surgical practice. Patients are referred from coloproctology teams to thoracic surgeons specifically for this surgery. What is the expected benefit? I have explored the rationale and searched the literature in order to present these patients with a well-informed opinion for their consideration. I find only weak evidence based on uncontrolled retrospective series which have been interpreted as showing a survival benefit. This has been extrapolated to policy and practice that do not stand up to scrutiny. The practice has never been subjected to randomised trial and I will argue that the present evidence is insufficient to justify the uncontrolled use of an intervention with inescapable short-term morbidity, permanent loss of function, and major cost implications. I propose ways in which the evidence may be improved, including a trial in the areas of most uncertainty.

Treasure, Tom

2007-01-01

2

Evidence-Based Practice and Speech-Language Pathology: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based practice poses. This paper reviews the literature to provide an

Barbara Dodd

2007-01-01

3

Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Ameri- cas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol

Thomas F. Babor; Raul Caetano

2005-01-01

4

When good evidence goes bad: the weak evidence effect in judgment and decision-making.  

PubMed

An indispensable principle of rational thought is that positive evidence should increase belief. In this paper, we demonstrate that people routinely violate this principle when predicting an outcome from a weak cause. In Experiment 1 participants given weak positive evidence judged outcomes of public policy initiatives to be less likely than participants given no evidence, even though the evidence was separately judged to be supportive. Experiment 2 ruled out a pragmatic explanation of the result, that the weak evidence implies the absence of stronger evidence. In Experiment 3, weak positive evidence made people less likely to gamble on the outcome of the 2010 United States mid-term Congressional election. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated these findings with everyday causal scenarios. We argue that this "weak evidence effect" arises because people focus disproportionately on the mentioned weak cause and fail to think about alternative causes. PMID:21345428

Fernbach, Philip M; Darlow, Adam; Sloman, Steven A

2011-02-22

5

The expression and interpretation of uncertain forensic science evidence: verbal equivalence, evidence strength, and the weak evidence effect.  

PubMed

Standards published by the Association of Forensic Science Providers (2009, Standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic science expert opinion, Science & Justice, Vol. 49, pp. 161-164) encourage forensic scientists to express their conclusions in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR), in which the value of the evidence is conveyed verbally or numerically. In this article, we report two experiments (using undergraduates and Mechanical Turk recruits) designed to investigate how much decision makers change their beliefs when presented with evidence in the form of verbal or numeric LRs. In Experiment 1 (N = 494), participants read a summary of a larceny trial containing inculpatory expert testimony in which evidence strength (low, moderate, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical) varied. In Experiment 2 (N = 411), participants read the same larceny trial, this time including either exculpatory or inculpatory expert evidence that varied in strength (low, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical). Both studies found a reasonable degree of correspondence in observed belief change resulting from verbal and numeric formats. However, belief change was considerably smaller than Bayesian calculations would predict. In addition, participants presented with evidence weakly supporting guilt tended to "invert" the evidence, thereby counterintuitively reducing their belief in the guilt of the accused. This "weak evidence effect" was most apparent in the verbal presentation conditions of both experiments, but only when the evidence was inculpatory. These findings raise questions about the interpretability of LRs by jurors and appear to support an expectancy-based account of the weak evidence effect. PMID:23750600

Martire, Kristy A; Kemp, Richard I; Watkins, Ian; Sayle, Malindi A; Newell, Ben R

2013-06-01

6

Evidence of Weak Habitat Specialisation in Microscopic Animals  

PubMed Central

Macroecology and biogeography of microscopic organisms (any living organism smaller than 2 mm) are quickly developing into fruitful research areas. Microscopic organisms also offer the potential for testing predictions and models derived from observations on larger organisms due to the feasibility of performing lab and mesocosm experiments. However, more empirical knowledge on the similarities and differences between micro- and macro-organisms is needed to ascertain how much of the results obtained from the former can be generalised to the latter. One potential misconception, based mostly on anedoctal evidence rather than explicit tests, is that microscopic organisms may have wider ecological tolerance and a lower degree of habitat specialisation than large organisms. Here we explicitly test this hypothesis within the framework of metacommunity theory, by studying host specificify in the assemblages of bdelloid rotifers (animals about 350 µm in body length) living in different species of lichens in Sweden. Using several regression-based and ANOVA analyses and controlling for both spatial structure and the kind of substrate the lichen grow over (bark vs rock), we found evidence of significant but weak species-specific associations between bdelloids and lichens, a wide overlap in species composition between lichens, and wide ecological tolerance for most bdelloid species. This confirms that microscopic organisms such as bdelloids have a lower degree of habitat specialisation than larger organisms, although this happens in a complex scenario of ecological processes, where source-sink dynamics and geographic distances seem to have no effect on species composition at the analysed scale.

Fontaneto, Diego; Westberg, Martin; Hortal, Joaquin

2011-01-01

7

When Good Evidence Goes Bad: The Weak Evidence Effect in Judgment and Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An indispensable principle of rational thought is that positive evidence should increase belief. In this paper, we demonstrate that people routinely violate this principle when predicting an outcome from a weak cause. In Experiment 1 participants given weak positive evidence judged outcomes of public policy initiatives to be less likely than…

Fernbach, Philip M.; Darlow, Adam; Sloman, Steven A.

2011-01-01

8

Investigating Acids and Bases: Strong vs Weak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an extension to standard labs that have students generate a pH curve from strong acid/strong base data. Students are asked to predict and test how the the titration end point will shift when titrating vinegar (a weak acid) with NaOH (a strong base).

9

Weakness  

MedlinePLUS

Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... weak, but there is no real loss of strength. For example, you may feel weak if you ... flu . Objective means there is a loss of strength that can be noted during a physical exam.

10

Weak evidence for anticipatory parental effects in plants and animals.  

PubMed

The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity relies on the presence of cues that enable organisms to adjust their phenotype to match local conditions. Although mostly studied with respect to nonsocial cues, it is also possible that parents transmit information about the environment to their offspring. Such 'anticipatory parental effects' or 'adaptive transgenerational plasticity' can have important consequences for the dynamics and adaptive potential of populations in heterogeneous environments. Yet, it remains unknown how widespread this form of plasticity is. Using a meta-analysis of experimental studies with a fully factorial design, we show that there is only weak evidence for higher offspring performance when parental and offspring environments are matched compared with when they are mismatched. Estimates of heterogeneity among studies suggest that effects, when they occur, are subtle. Study features, environmental context, life stage and trait categories all failed to explain significant amounts of variation in effect sizes. We discuss theoretical and methodological reasons for the limited evidence for anticipatory parental effects and suggest ways to improve our understanding of the prevalence of this form of plasticity in nature. PMID:23937440

Uller, T; Nakagawa, S; English, S

2013-08-13

11

Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is questionable whether the Evidence-Based Healdi Care model, whereby end users appraise all potentially pertinent information, is sustainable. A shift to an Evidence-Based Practice model, featuring a new medical knowledge base infrastructure facilitating rapid translation of clinical research into practice should be embraced. This shift would offer new opportunities for health sciences librarians. In this article, the authors: (1)

Gerald J. Perry; Michael R. Kronenfeld

2005-01-01

12

Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important topic in any introductory chemistry course is that of acids and bases. Students generally have no trouble learning the Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Problems often arise, however, when chemistry teachers attempt to explain the difference between weak and strong acids, and between weak and strong bases.

Todd P. Silverstein

2000-01-01

13

[Evidence based medicine].  

PubMed

Evidence based medicine is a systematic method employed to secure the best scientific available evidence when making clinical decisions. Several steps are taken in these process, describing a clinical scenario, formulating a specific clinical question, searching the literature for the pertinent studies, selecting the relevant articles using rules of evidence, understanding and calculating measures of effect, and finally incorporating the evidence and patients preferences in the clinical decision process. PMID:16281423

Cuestas, Eduardo

2005-01-01

14

Evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

D Richards; A Lawrence

1998-01-01

15

Are Foreign Investors Attracted to Weak Environmental Regulations? Evaluating the Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the center of the pollution haven debate is the claim that foreign investors from industrial countries are attracted to weak environment regulations in developing countries. Some recent location choice studies have found evidence of this attraction, but only for inward FDI in industrial countries. The few studies of inward FDI in developing countries have been hampered by weak measures

Judith M Dean; Mary E Lovely; Hua Wang

2008-01-01

16

Are foreign investors attracted to weak environmental regulations? Evaluating the evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the center of the pollution haven debate is the claim that foreign investors from industrial countries are attracted to weak environment regulations in developing countries. Some recent location choice studies have found evidence of this attraction, but only for inward FDI in industrial countries. The few studies of inward FDI in developing countries have been hampered by weak measures

Judith M. Dean; Mary E. Lovely; Hua Wang

2009-01-01

17

Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally varying ACS point-spread function, and improved modelling of charge-transfer inefficiency, we measured a lensing signal that is consistent with pure gravitational modes and no significant shape systematics. We carefully estimated the statistical uncertainty from simulated COSMOS-like fields obtained from ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, including the full non-Gaussian sampling variance. We tested our lensing pipeline on simulated space-based data, recalibrated non-linear power spectrum corrections using the ray-tracing analysis, employed photometric redshift information to reduce potential contamination by intrinsic galaxy alignments, and marginalized over systematic uncertainties. We find that the weak lensing signal scales with redshift as expected from general relativity for a concordance ?CDM cosmology, including the full cross-correlations between different redshift bins. Assuming a flat ?CDM cosmology, we measure ?_8(?_m/0.3)0.51 = 0.75±0.08 from lensing, in perfect agreement with WMAP-5, yielding joint constraints ?_m = 0.266+0.025-0.023, ?_8 = 0.802+0.028-0.029 (all 68.3% conf.). Dropping the assumption of flatness and using priors from the HST Key Project and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis only, we find a negative deceleration parameter q0 at 94.3% confidence from the tomographic lensing analysis, providing independent evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. For a flat wCDM cosmology and prior w ? [-2,0], we obtain w <-0.41 (90% conf.). Our dark energy constraints are still relatively weak solely due to the limited area of COSMOS. However, they provide an important demonstration of the usefulness of tomographic weak lensing measurements from space. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility and the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Schrabback, T.; Hartlap, J.; Joachimi, B.; Kilbinger, M.; Simon, P.; Benabed, K.; Brada?, M.; Eifler, T.; Erben, T.; Fassnacht, C. D.; High, F. William; Hilbert, S.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kuijken, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Mellier, Y.; Morganson, E.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.

2010-06-01

18

From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies  

PubMed Central

In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it is better to live in a country that allows reconstructing biographies in administrative databases then in countries that forbid access by restrictive legislation based on privacy considerations. The benefits of gained knowledge from existing and accessible information are tangible, particularly for the weak and the poor, while the harms of theoretical privacy invasion have not yet materialised. The study shows once again that disadvantage runs in families. Low parental education, parental disability and unstable marital unions predict early disability pensions and premature expulsion out gainful employment. The effect of low parental education is mediated by low education of the index person. However, in a feast of descriptive studies of socio-economic causes of ill health we still face a famine of evaluative intervention studies. An evidence based social policy should be based on effective interventions that are able to break the vicious circles of disability handed down from generation to generation.

2007-01-01

19

From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies.  

PubMed

In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it is better to live in a country that allows reconstructing biographies in administrative databases then in countries that forbid access by restrictive legislation based on privacy considerations. The benefits of gained knowledge from existing and accessible information are tangible, particularly for the weak and the poor, while the harms of theoretical privacy invasion have not yet materialised. The study shows once again that disadvantage runs in families. Low parental education, parental disability and unstable marital unions predict early disability pensions and premature expulsion out gainful employment. The effect of low parental education is mediated by low education of the index person. However, in a feast of descriptive studies of socio-economic causes of ill health we still face a famine of evaluative intervention studies. An evidence based social policy should be based on effective interventions that are able to break the vicious circles of disability handed down from generation to generation. PMID:17657572

Bonneux, Luc

2007-07-27

20

Evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been received with enthusiasm and interest by many nurses. It has, however, raised skepticism and negative reactions from others. This article seeks to address the place of EBP in care of the elderly by outlining EBP and providing some pertinent examples of how it can be used in caring for older people. Finally, it promotes EBP

Rhonda Nay

2003-01-01

21

Evidence-based dentistry.  

PubMed

Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists choose to wait for collective professional standards to reveal acceptable practice or follow a strategy of punctuated equilibrium, only switching out established practice habits when very conspicuous advantages are identified. Integration in medicine appears to follow the statistically sophisticated practice of updating estimates of clinical parameters (probabilities) for diagnoses, treatments, prognoses, and side-effects. This approach is likely beyond the skill or interest of clinical dentists and it fails to incorporate values in the integration. The use of decision trees to integrate both research and experiential parameters and values is illustrated and it is shown that such a technique identifies why there are very few cases in dentistry where evidence needs to be consulted and indicates what such cases are. PMID:21485345

Chambers, David W

2010-01-01

22

Voltage stability based weak area clustering technique in power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the voltage stability based weak area clustering technique in power system. The technique employed voltage stability and line outage contingency analyses. From the voltage stability analysis, the sensitive lines in a system during stressed condition are identified, while line outage contingency analysis identified the critical line outages. A pre-developed voltage stability index was utilised as an indicator

Ismail Musirin; Titik Khawa Abdul Rahman

2004-01-01

23

Evidence-based management.  

PubMed

Healthcare Providers are having to make quicker, riskier decisions in a competitive and regulated environment. Leaders often make these decisions with the advice of management consultants; however, top management generally lacks adequate internal support to rigorously evaluate strategic interventions or consultant recommendations and to learn from industry-wide best practices. In fact, healthcare providers generally underinvest in management support, both in evaluating best practices within the organization and in learning from past strategic interventions. The creation of evidence-based management cooperatives might be a means to change this trend. PMID:11183283

Kovner, A R; Elton, J J; Billings, J

2000-01-01

24

Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology, part 1: the multiple faces of evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine, with its capacity to improve patient outcomes, has grown prominent throughout the medical field. Otolaryngology is at a crucial stage in the expansion of evidence-based medicine, with its impact seen in many arenas. As the evidence continues to shape our field, we hope to serve our otolaryngology community through this invited series, which is dedicated to the exposition of evidence-based medicine and its applications. This first installment examines evidence-based medicine itself and its multiple interpretations, including a purist view, a population-based view, and a view centered on the individual. Strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed, as well the potential for unification and evolution of these concepts. We also place evidence-based medicine in the context of the mindset of traditional medicine and anticipate future developments. PMID:20416448

Shin, Jennifer J; Randolph, Gregory W; Rauch, Steven D

2010-05-01

25

Inhibition of Semliki Forest Virus Penetration by Lysosomotropic Weak Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effect of five lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine, amantadine, tributylamine, methylamine and NH4CI) on Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection has been studied in BHK-21 cells. When present at concentrations equal to or greater than 0-1, 0.5, 2, 15 and 15 mM respectively, the agents inhibited SFV infection by more than 90%. The effect was reversible and involved a process

ARI HELENIUS; M. Marsh; J. White

1982-01-01

26

Weak localization effects as evidence for bulk quantization in Bi2Se3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong spin-orbit coupling in topological insulators results in the ubiquitously observed weak antilocalization feature in their magnetoresistance. Here we present magnetoresistance measurements in ultrathin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and show that in the two-dimensional quantum limit, in which the topological insulator bulk becomes quantized, an additional negative magnetoresistance feature appears. Detailed analysis associates this feature with weak localization of the quantized bulk channels, thus providing evidence for this quantization. Examination of the dephasing fields at different temperatures indicates different scattering mechanism in the bulk vs the surface states.

Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav; Yang, Qi I.; Hammond, Robert H.; Zhou, Bo; Palevski, Alexander; Chen, Yulin; Kapitulnik, Aharon

2013-09-01

27

Evidence-Based Common Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new type of knowledge operator, called evidence- based knowledge, intended to capture the constructive core of common knowledge. An evidence-based knowledge system is obtained by augmenting a multi-agent logic of knowledge with a system of evidence assertions t:' (\\

Sergei Artemov

2005-01-01

28

Evidence-based financial management.  

PubMed

Like the practice of evidence-based medicine, evidence-based financial management can be used by providers to improve results. The concept provides a framework that managers and researchers can use to help direct efforts in gathering and using evidence to support management decisions in health care. PMID:14560582

Finkler, Steven A; Henley, Richard J; Ward, David M

2003-10-01

29

Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.  

PubMed

This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. PMID:21527324

Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

2011-04-16

30

Evidence-Based Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective is to describe how softwareengineering might benefit from an evidence-basedapproach and to identify the potential difficultiesassociated with the approach.Method: We compared the organisation and technicalinfrastructure supporting evidence-based medicine (EBM)with the situation in software engineering. We consideredthe impact that factors peculiar to software engineering(i.e. the skill factor and the lifecycle factor) would haveon our ability to practice evidence-based

Barbara A. Kitchenham; Tore Dyba; Magne Jorgensen

2004-01-01

31

Counterfactual quantum cryptography based on weak coherent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the “counterfactual quantum cryptography” scheme [T.-G. Noh, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.230501 103, 230501 (2009)], two legitimate distant peers may share secret-key bits even when the information carriers do not travel in the quantum channel. The security of this protocol with an ideal single-photon source has been proved by Yin [Z.-Q. Yin, H. W. Li, W. Chen, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.042335 82, 042335 (2010)]. In this paper, we prove the security of the counterfactual-quantum-cryptography scheme based on a commonly used weak-coherent-laser source by considering a general collective attack. The basic assumption of this proof is that the efficiency and dark-counting rate of a single-photon detector are consistent for any n-photon Fock states. Then through randomizing the phases of the encoding weak coherent states, Eve's ancilla will be transformed into a classical mixture. Finally, the lower bound of the secret-key-bit rate and a performance analysis for the practical implementation are both given.

Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2012-08-01

32

Evidence-based implementation of evidence-based guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is evidence that some strategies for guideline implementation are more successful than others. This paper aims to describe the process of developing an evidence-based guideline implementation strategy for use in rural emergency departments. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participation in a nationally funded, research fellowship program involved attendance at workshops run by internationally renowned experts in the field of knowledge

Steven Doherty

2006-01-01

33

Risk Assessment: Evidence Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment): (a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and (b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assess...

K. A. Johnson-Throop

2007-01-01

34

The weak GPS signal parallel processing algorithm in dual-core based GPS software receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic GPS signal acquisition and several weak signal processing algorithms based on FFT is presented in this paper. Considering the sensitivity and the time consuming issues, a weak GPS signal parallel processing algorithm based on Duo-Core is proposed in the framework of a software GPS receiver. This method was developed for the acquisition of weak signals without a priori

Yongrong Sun; Jianfeng Miao; Wu Chen; Jianye Liu

2008-01-01

35

Evidence-Based Practice: Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key steps of evidence-based practice is to critically appraise evidence to best answer a clinical question. Mental health clinicians need to understand the importance of qualitative evidence to their practice, including levels of qualitative evidence, qualitative inquiry methods, and criteria used to appraise qualitative evidence to determine how implementing the best qualitative evidence into their practice will

Kathleen M. Williamson

2009-01-01

36

Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied.

Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

37

Evidence of Landau tricritical behaviour in TGSe by calorimetric measurements: effect of a weak uniaxial stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of a single crystal of triglycine selenate TGSe, whose first- or second-order character is controversial, has been studied using a high sensitivity calorimetric technique. The specific heat of a highly pure TGSe has been measured and no evidence of latent heat has been found. The anomalous part of the specific heat shows Landau tricritical behaviour. Experimental data have been fitted to a 2-6 Landau potential, whose coefficients have also been obtained. A weak uniaxial stress applied along the ferroelectric axis (10 bar) decreases the anomalous part of the specific heat. This effect is different for cooling and heating runs. The equilibrium data are those obtained on heating that fit to a 2-4-6 Landau potential, which indicates that the transition shifts to second order with the effect of uniaxial stress.

Romero, F. J.; Gallardo, M. C.; Jiménez, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Koralewski, M.; del Cerro, J.

2004-11-01

38

Training Evidence-Based Practitioners Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the Training Evidence-based Practitioners Program was to augment evidence-based practice capacity by training clinical specialists and primary care providers to become evidence-based practitioners (EBP) in their respective areas and organizatio...

J. Lau

2001-01-01

39

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups

Kristo´f Iva´n; Pe´ter L. Simon; Ma´ria Wittmann; Zolta´n Noszticzius

2005-01-01

40

Boosting-based on-road obstacle sensing using discriminative weak classifiers.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an extension of the weak classifiers derived from the Haar-like features for their use in the Viola-Jones object detection system. These weak classifiers differ from the traditional single threshold ones, in that no specific threshold is needed and these classifiers give a more general solution to the non-trivial task of finding thresholds for the Haar-like features. The proposed quadratic discriminant analysis based extension prominently improves the ability of the weak classifiers to discriminate objects and non-objects. The proposed weak classifiers were evaluated by boosting a single stage classifier to detect rear of car. The experiments demonstrate that the object detector based on the proposed weak classifiers yields higher classification performance with less number of weak classifiers than the detector built with traditional single threshold weak classifiers. PMID:22163852

Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yoo, Hyeon-Joong; Kim, Hyongsuk

2011-04-14

41

Boosting-Based On-Road Obstacle Sensing Using Discriminative Weak Classifiers  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an extension of the weak classifiers derived from the Haar-like features for their use in the Viola-Jones object detection system. These weak classifiers differ from the traditional single threshold ones, in that no specific threshold is needed and these classifiers give a more general solution to the non-trivial task of finding thresholds for the Haar-like features. The proposed quadratic discriminant analysis based extension prominently improves the ability of the weak classifiers to discriminate objects and non-objects. The proposed weak classifiers were evaluated by boosting a single stage classifier to detect rear of car. The experiments demonstrate that the object detector based on the proposed weak classifiers yields higher classification performance with less number of weak classifiers than the detector built with traditional single threshold weak classifiers.

Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yoo, Hyeon-Joong; Kim, Hyongsuk

2011-01-01

42

Virtually-Synchronous Communication Based on a Weak Failure Suspector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thispaper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e. that delivers failure and recoveryinformation in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronouscommunication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failuresand network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronoussystems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failuresby replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to

Andre Schiper; Aleta Ricciardi

1993-01-01

43

Overwork weakness with evidence of muscle damage in a patient with residual paralysis from polio.  

PubMed

Overwork weakness has been reported in survivors of poliomyelitis with residual paralysis. Investigators have recently reported that approximately 25% of polio survivors experience functional declines with onset of symptoms of new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The diagnosis of overwork weakness has remained a clinical diagnosis, as previous investigations have failed to uncover reliable, objective, diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis in symptomatic individuals. A case is presented in which markedly elevated levels of CPK were present with symptoms of weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. These levels declined after clinical intervention, with resolution of symptoms. This case represents an overuse syndrome in which muscle fibers were being damaged through overuse. This case further suggests the possible role of serum CPK in the diagnosis of, and in monitoring clinical intervention in, some polio survivors who experience overwork weakness. PMID:2317146

Peach, P E

1990-03-01

44

EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW  

PubMed Central

Evidence based medicine (EBM) considered one of the most important developments in the practice of medicine in recent years, has evolved as a tool for improving the quality of health care. Several studies have shown EBM to be safe and cost-effective. Physicians have welcomed EBM and shown a positive attitude toward it and have expressed desire to learn more about it. This is consistent in most studies done in different countries. However, some studies found considerable misunderstanding about terms and websites used in EBM. The major barriers to the practice of EBM perceived by physician in different studies include insufficient time and evidence, patients’ preference and financial constraints. Training has been found to be conducive to the implementation and promotion of EBM. Some Arab countries are already implementing EBM and plan to include it in the undergraduate curriculum. In Saudi Arabia EBM was introduced in the late 90's and a National EBM Advisory Board was formed.

Al-Almaie, Sameeh M.; Al-Baghli, Nadira A.

2003-01-01

45

Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2005-01-01

46

Desired Attributes of Evidence Assessments for Evidence-based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe three approaches to assessing evidence for stakeholders interested in evidence-based practices: narrative reviews, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), and registries. We then compare the approaches in terms of the degree to which they posses desired attributes of evidence assessments. Our review suggests that hybrid approaches that combined the best features of all three should be pursued

H. Stephen Leff; Jeremy A. Conley

2006-01-01

47

The effect of extracellular weak acids and bases on the intracellular buffering power of snail neurones.  

PubMed

1. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured in snail neurones using pH-sensitive glass microelectrodes. The influence of externally applied weak acids and bases on the total intracellular buffering power (beta T) was investigated by monitoring the pHi changes caused by the intracellular ionophoretic injection of HCl. 2. In the absence of weak acids or bases a reduction in the extracellular HEPES concentration had no effect on pHi or on beta T. It did, however, reduce slightly the rate of pHi recovery following HCl injection. 3. The presence of CO2 greatly increased beta T. However, as predicted for an open buffer system, the contributions to intracellular buffering by CO2 (beta CO2) decreased as pHi decreased. 4. When added to the superfusate, procaine, 4-aminopyridine, trimethylamine and NH4Cl (1-10 mM) all increased steady-state pHi. Procaine was fastest at increasing pHi and 4-aminopyridine the slowest. All four of these weak bases increased beta T. 5. The intracellular buffering action by these weak bases varied. HCl injection in the presence of procaine usually resulted in steady-state pHi changes with no pHi transients. In the presence of the other three weak bases HCl injections resulted in intracellular acidifications which were followed by pHi recovery-like transients. However, these were not blocked by SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or by CaCl2 and I thus conclude that these transients were as a result of slow or incomplete intracellular buffering by the weak bases. 6. In many cells there was a good correlation between the measured contributions to intracellular buffering by the weak bases (beta base) and those predicted assuming a simple two-compartment open system. In all cases, as predicted, beta base increased as pHi decreased. 7. I found a clear relationship between the concentration of external buffer (HEPES) and the rate at which weak bases, applied to the superfusate, were able to increase pHi. The greater the extracellular buffer concentration the greater was the speed of intracellular alkalinization. 8. Lowering the extracellular buffer concentration reduced the efficiency of intracellular buffering by weak bases in response to an intracellular acid load. HCl injection in the presence of weak base caused a larger initial intracellular acidification if the extracellular HEPES concentration was reduced. 9. In conclusion, both weak acids and weak bases can make very large, pHi-dependent contributions to intracellular buffering by way of open buffer systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2555474

Szatkowski, M S

1989-02-01

48

HYDROLYSIS OF UNIUNIVALENT SALTS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS. I—THE HYDROLYSIS OF WEAK ACID-WEAK BASE STRONG-ELECTROLYTE SALTSf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previous paper of this series (Bulloff, 1961) dealt with electroneutrality- violation correction calculation for the weak acid-weak base strong-electrolyte case in essentially weakly acidic or basic, but not near-neutral solutions. In near- neutral solutions, the common-ion effect of the ions of water itself adds another factor affecting the electroneutrality balance of solute ions. In this paper, the recursive iterative

JACK J. BULLOFF

49

Research on the weak signal detection technique based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis, based on transfer matrix, is presented of weak signal effects on the mach-zehnder interferometer sensor for detection. The weak signal detector based on Mach-Zehnder optical fiber interferometer is established. Based on wavelet soft-threshold de-noising technology and high-pass filter, a modified demodulation technique is proposed. With the modified demodulation method, experiment results show the system's precision can be improved

Peilin Tao; Fengping Yan; Zhongwei Tan; Yan Liu; Guolu Yin; Shuisheng Jian

2010-01-01

50

Evidence-based Dentistry: A Clinician's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Evidence-based dentistry is a discipline that provides best, explicit-based evidence to dentists and their patients in shared decision-making. Currently, dentists are being trained and directed to adopt the role of translational researchers in develop- ing evidence-based dental practices. Practically, evidence-based dentistry is not usable in its current mode for the provision of

Paolo Prolo; Richard Stevenson

2006-01-01

51

The evidence-based paradox.  

PubMed

Many occupational therapy practitioners consider evidence-based practice (EBP) to be the means by which occupational therapy can prove the validity of its services and thus support the legitimacy of our profession. The unquestioned acceptance of EBP as the way to establish credibility concerns me; unchallenged acceptance of any idea concerns me. Do practitioners accept EBP as the paradigm for guiding occupational therapy practice and research solely because it is presented as what we must do? I believe that practitioners must examine the implications for our profession of accepting EBP without question. In this article, I review EBP, present criticisms and concerns voiced by other professions and, finally, examine the implications of adopting an EBP perspective that replaces theory-directed practice. PMID:23433283

Hinojosa, Jim

52

Analysis of ion channels by modeling the osmotic effects of weak acids and bases.  

PubMed

This paper describes computer programs which may be used to identify and analyze cation and anion channels. Weak acids are used to increase intracellular proton concentrations and by so doing to promote the exchange of osmotically active cations with protons. The time course of cation exchange is readily identified from the changes in cell volume which accompany the net changes in osmotically active cations. Weak bases are used to identify and analyze hydroxyl/anion exchange by a comparable strategy. The model was able to produce data that agreed with experimental data in the literature with an accuracy equal to experimental error. One program, called PROPIONATE, uses the weak acid, propionic acid, to identify cation channels such as the sodium-proton exchanger or the calcium-dependent, potassium channel. A second program, called BASE, is more general because either a weak acid such as propionic acid or a weak base such as ammonia may be used individually or together. When experimental data are available, the programs may be used to calculate permeability coefficients for ion channels and the capacity of intracellular buffers. The programs may be used also in the design of experiments. Initial values may be assigned to intracellular and extracellular electrolyte and proton concentrations. Values for intracellular buffer capacity and channel permeabilities may be chosen. The program will then generate changes in ions, cell volume, and intracellular pH when either a weak acid, a weak base or combination of the two is added to the external medium. PMID:2478709

Hempling, H G

1989-09-01

53

Weak form market efficiency test of oil markets based on generalized spectrum method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of market efficiency is the cornerstone of market analysis. Oil market efficiency test can not only provide the theoretical foundation for oil price forecast but offer evidence of comparing the information efficiency of different markets. The generalized spectrum method is applied on the daily data from January 2001 to July 2008 to test the weak form efficiency of main

Lv Wen-dong; Pan Hui-feng

2009-01-01

54

Hemispheric Differences in Strong versus Weak Semantic Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Goals: Research with lateralized word presentation has suggested that strong ("close") and weak ("remote") semantic associates are processed differently in the left and right cerebral hemispheres [e.g., Beeman, M. j., & Chiarello, C. (1998). Complementary right- and left-hemisphere language comprehension. "Current Directions in Psychological…

Frishkoff, Gwen A.

2007-01-01

55

Hemispheric Differences in Strong versus Weak Semantic Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goals: Research with lateralized word presentation has suggested that strong ("close") and weak ("remote") semantic associates are processed differently in the left and right cerebral hemispheres [e.g., Beeman, M. j., & Chiarello, C. (1998). Complementary right- and left-hemisphere language comprehension. "Current Directions in Psychological…

Frishkoff, Gwen A.

2007-01-01

56

Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). PMID:11299606

Eldredge, J D

2000-01-01

57

EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a definition for evidence-based clinical neuropsychological practice (EBCNP) has yet to emerge, it is likely to integrate the same core features as evidence-based medicine; namely, best research evidence, clinical expertise, and individual patient needs. Given the nascent stage of EBCNP, suggestions are made to advance evidence-based approaches in both research and practice. The common elements are: recognition that clinical

CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY; Gordon J. Chelune

58

Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented.

Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

2012-01-01

59

Really Teaching Lamaze: Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

In this column, a reader identifies the importance of accurate, up-to-date information in making informed decisions. She is shocked to find that the Lamaze classes she observes are not evidence-based. Evidence-based practice is described, and examples of the use of best evidence in childbirth classes are discussed. The implications for childbirth education are explored.

Lothian, Judith A.

2001-01-01

60

Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology  

PubMed Central

American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India.

Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

2013-01-01

61

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

62

Evidence-based recommendations for the use of sealants.  

PubMed

In traditional research, the "level of significance" refers to the probability value used to reject the null hypothesis. In evidence-based research, a similar term, "the level of evidence" refers to the quality of the published report that is analyzed critically in the context of a systematic review. A systematic review, the principal research tool of evidence-based dentistry, is distinct from a classical narrative literature review in that it is focused to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology, design and data analysis of each report included in the review. A systematic review is very clearly defined, and sets out to find what evidence there is for prescribing a particular intervention for a given patient. Evidence-based recommendations are grounded on systematic reviews, and the evaluation of systematic reviews in a given domain of dentistry is critical for the successful implementation of evidence-based dental practice. In the context of sealants, the evidence indicates that the intervention is effective in preventing dental decay on the molars and premolars of susceptible children and adolescents (Level of evidence: II-1). The preventive effect for second-generation sealants ranges from 33 percent to 71 percent. The median preventive effect is higher when sealants are reapplied, compared to a single application, because sealant effectiveness decreases over time. The majority of studies have focused on molars, and fewer studies have examined the preventive effect of sealants on premolars. In this paper, the authors have developed evidence-based recommendations for the use of sealants by discussing the level of evidence and, when applicable, the number needed to treat (NNT) and the prevented fraction (PF), two fundamental criteria in evidence-based dental practice. PMID:16995612

Reeves, Anne; Chiappelli, Francesco; Cajulis, Olivia S

2006-07-01

63

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. II. Numerical model calculations and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of our work dealing with electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. In the first part an approximative analytical solution was derived for the steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of a reverse-biased diode (a quasi-one-dimensional gel connecting an acidic and an alkaline reservoir), applying either strong or weak electrolytes. An approximative analytical solution is compared here

Kristóf Iván; Mária Wittmann; Péter L. Simon; Zoltán Noszticzius; Dalimil Snita

2005-01-01

64

Evidence-Based Review of Subjective Pediatric Sleep Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective?This manuscript provides an evidence-based psychometric review of parent and child-report pediatric sleep measures using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 Evidence-Based Assessment (EBA) Task Force.?Methods?Twenty-one measures were reviewed: four measures of daytime sleepiness, four measures of sleep habits/hygiene, two measures assessing sleep-related attitudes/cognitions, five measures of sleep initiation/maintenance, and six multidimensional sleep measures.?Results?Six of the 21 measures met “well-established” evidence-based assessment criteria. An additional eight measures were rated as “approaching well-established” and seven were rated as “promising.”?Conclusions?Overall, the multidimensional sleep measures received the highest ratings. Strengths and weaknesses of the measures are described. Recommendations for future pediatric sleep assessment are presented including further validation of measures, use of multiple informants, and stability of sleep measures over time.

Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Palermo, Tonya M.

2011-01-01

65

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. II. Numerical model calculations and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second part of our work dealing with electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. In the first part an approximative analytical solution was derived for the steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of a reverse-biased diode (a quasi-one-dimensional gel connecting an acidic and an alkaline reservoir), applying either strong or weak electrolytes. An approximative analytical solution is compared here with a numerical solution free of any approximations and with CVCs measured experimentally with both strong and weak electrolytes. It is shown that the deviations between the numerical and analytical solutions are mostly due to assumptions made for the fixed charge concentration profiles. The concept of optimal analytical solution is introduced which does not use such assumptions and applies only the quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium approximations. It is proven that the slope of the CVC based on the optimum analytical solution can be calculated without the complicated derivation of that solution itself. The calculation of that slope is based on the fact that in the optimum analytical solution all currents are inversely proportional to the length if the boundary conditions are held constant and realizing that in the middle part of the gel the only mobile counterions of the fixed ionized groups are hydrogen ions. In the experimental part the apparatus and the preparation of the gel are described together with the CVCs measured with strong and weak electrolytes. From these CVCs the fixed ion concentration in the middle part of the gel can be determined. That fixed ion concentration is 1.96×10-4M measured with weak electrolytes and 3.48×10-4M measured with strong electrolytes. The deviation indicates that the strong base causes some hydrolysis of the gel. Finally, possible applications of weak acid-weak base diodes are discussed.

Iván, Kristóf; Wittmann, Mária; Simon, Péter L.; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Šnita, Dalimil

2005-10-01

66

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. II. Numerical model calculations and experiments.  

PubMed

This is the second part of our work dealing with electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. In the first part an approximative analytical solution was derived for the steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of a reverse-biased diode (a quasi-one-dimensional gel connecting an acidic and an alkaline reservoir), applying either strong or weak electrolytes. An approximative analytical solution is compared here with a numerical solution free of any approximations and with CVCs measured experimentally with both strong and weak electrolytes. It is shown that the deviations between the numerical and analytical solutions are mostly due to assumptions made for the fixed charge concentration profiles. The concept of optimal analytical solution is introduced which does not use such assumptions and applies only the quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium approximations. It is proven that the slope of the CVC based on the optimum analytical solution can be calculated without the complicated derivation of that solution itself. The calculation of that slope is based on the fact that in the optimum analytical solution all currents are inversely proportional to the length if the boundary conditions are held constant and realizing that in the middle part of the gel the only mobile counterions of the fixed ionized groups are hydrogen ions. In the experimental part the apparatus and the preparation of the gel are described together with the CVCs measured with strong and weak electrolytes. From these CVCs the fixed ion concentration in the middle part of the gel can be determined. That fixed ion concentration is 1.96 x 10(-4)M measured with weak electrolytes and 3.48 x 10(-4)M measured with strong electrolytes. The deviation indicates that the strong base causes some hydrolysis of the gel. Finally, possible applications of weak acid-weak base diodes are discussed. PMID:16268715

Iván, Kristóf; Wittmann, Mária; Simon, Péter L; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Snita, Dalimil

2005-10-22

67

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

68

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force’s report describes psychology’s fundamental commitment to sophisticated EBPP and takes into account the

2006-01-01

69

Separation of boron isotopes by means of weak-base anion exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solution cortaining 5 mmol of boric acid was passed through a ; column packed with weak-base anion exchange re sin, Diaion WA 21 in free base ; form (0.8 cm² x 48 cm bed), and the borate band formed on the column was ; eluted with pure water. The boric acid concentration in each fraction of the ; effluent

M. Kotaka; K. Murayama; H. Kakihana

1973-01-01

70

EMTP modelling of CIGRE benchmark based HVDC transmission system operating with weak AC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EMTP based study of a CIGRE benchmark based HVDC system operating with weak AC systems is carried out. The modelled system provides a starting point for (a) educators teaching HVDC transmission courses, and (b) for utility planners to develop their own low-cost dedicated digital simulators for training purposes. In this paper, modelling details of the AC-DC system, DC converters

V. K. Sood; V. Khatri; H. Jin

1996-01-01

71

Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most

Åsa Liljegren Sundberg; Ann-Charlott Steffen

2007-01-01

72

Voltage and frequency control of inverter based weak LV network microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrid after intentional and unintentional switching events are investigated. The weak low voltage (LV) network based microgrid consists of two inverter based distributed generation (DG) units. One unit is a storage (battery) unit and the other is a photovoltaic (PV) cell. In this case the battery inverter with rapid response is

H. Laaksonen; P. Saari; R. Komulainen

2005-01-01

73

Practice-based evidence – overcoming insecure attachments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines educational psychologists’ (EPs’) engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use psychological theories that have little or no evidence to support their use. The article then

Mark Fox

2011-01-01

74

Evidences for weak crust during Alpine collision in external Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the external Western Alps, the collision started with the shortening of the proximal European (Dauphinois) margin. One peculiar feature is the crustal thickening that finally led to the exhumation of the basement External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) during the Neogene. In these massifs, various age of shortening, structural style and sequence of deformation have been proposed leading to different kinematics along the Alpine arc that in turn do not imply the same crustal/lithospheric strength. In this contribution, we present new structural and microstructural data along with Ar/Ar ages from field studies in the Oisans-Grandes Rousses massifs, between Grenoble and Briançon). From balanced cross-sections, we show that about half of the external zone crustal shortening is accommodated within the ECM with similar Ar/Ar ages in all massifs. Furthermore, the shear zones present very large thicknesses (several hundred meters) and do not reactivated either the inherited Liassic normal faults or the Variscan foliation. Finally, the main shortening structures are localized beneath inherited Liassic syn-rift basins. These results suggest that the crust was weak during its shortening. Such behavior is most likely due to the combination of several factors: the crust burial (below the overthrusting internal units) down to about 10km, the presence of weak inherited syn-rift basins, and the strain softening in shear zones that evolve in mica-rich phyllonites. These results are consistent with the studies in the Aar massif and should most likely apply to the Mont Blanc massif, whose relationships with its cover are still debated.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bellanger, Mathieu; Boutoux, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; Monié, Patrick; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lafosse, Manfred; Lacombe, Olivier; Mouthereau, Frederic; Baudin, Thierry

2013-04-01

75

Testing weak-form market efficiency: Evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random-walk version of the efficient market hypothesis is tested for the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) using its composite, industrial, and financial index weekly closing prices. The results obtained from three of the tests indicate that all three series are a random walk, but a nonparametic test provides some evidence against a random walk.

Cumhur Buguk; B. Wade Brorsen

2003-01-01

76

Is evidence sufficient for evidence-based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopharmacotherapy should now be regulated in the sense of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as is the case in other areas\\u000a of clinical treatment in medicine. In general this is a meaningful development, which will principally have a positive impact\\u000a on routine health care in psychiatry. But several related problems should not be ignored. So far consensus on an internationally\\u000a accepted evidence

Hans-Jürgen Möller

2009-01-01

77

Evidence-based Practice for Mere Mortals  

PubMed Central

The poor translation of evidence into practice is a well-known problem. Hopes are high that information technology can help make evidence-based practice feasible for mere mortal physicians. In this paper, we draw upon the methods and perspectives of clinical practice, medical informatics, and health services research to analyze the gap between evidence and action, and to argue that computing systems for bridging this gap should incorporate both informatics and health services research expertise. We discuss 2 illustrative systems—trial banks and a web-based system to develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines (alchemist)— and conclude with a research and training agenda.

Sim, Ida; Sanders, Gillian D; McDonald, Kathryn M

2002-01-01

78

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for personality disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with personality disorders are prescribed psychotropic medications with greater frequency than almost any other diagnostic group. Prescribing practices in these populations are often based on anecdotal evidence rather than rigorous data. Although evidence-based psychotherapy remains an integral part of treatment, Axis II psychopathology is increasingly conceptualized according to neurobiological substrates that correspond to specific psychopharmacological strategies. We summarize the best available evidence regarding medication treatment of personality disordered patients and provide optimal strategies for evidence-based practice. Most available evidence is concentrated around borderline and schizotypal personality disorders, with some additional evidence concerning the treatment of avoidant and antisocial personality disorders. Although maladaptive personality symptoms respond to antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and other medications, evidence-based pharmacotherapy is most useful in treating circumscribed symptom domains and induces only partial improvement. Most available evidence supports use of medication in reducing impulsivity and aggression, characteristic of borderline and antisocial psychopathology. Efforts have also begun to reduce psychotic-like symptoms and improve cognitive deficits characteristic of schizotypy. Indirect evidence is also provided for psychopharmacological reduction of social anxiety central to avoidant personality disorder. Evidence-based practice requires attention to domains of expected clinical improvement associated with a medication, relative to the potential risks. The development of future rational pharmacotherapy will require increased understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of personality disorders and their component dimensions. Increasing efforts to translate personality theory and social cognitive neuroscience into increasingly specific neurobiological substrates may provide more effective targets for pharmacotherapy. PMID:21320390

Ripoll, Luis H; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J

2011-02-15

79

Evidence-based medicine in dermatology.  

PubMed

EBM is the use of the best current evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. Practicing EBM requires five steps: (1) formulating well-built clinical questions, (2) finding the best evidence to answer the questions, (3) critically appraising the evidence, (4) applying the evidence to specific patients, and (5) saving the critically appraised evidence. The Cochrane Library is the best source for finding the best evidence about treatment. The second best method for finding evidence about treatment and the best source for finding most other types of best evidence in dermatology is by searching the MEDLINE database using the PubMed Clinical search engine of the National Library of Medicine (http://++www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/clin ica l.html). MEDLINE searches have inherent software and operator limitations that make their reliability quite variable. The quality (strength) of evidence is based on a hierarchy of evidence: results of systematic reviews of well-designed clinical studies, results of one or more well-designed clinical studies, results of large case series, and expert opinion. Once the best evidence has been found, the EBM approach involves critically appraising the quality of the evidence, determining its magnitude and precision, and applying it to the specific patient. Guidelines to appraise critically and apply evidence are available. The clinical question, best evidence, and its critical appraisal should be saved in a format that can be easily retrieved for future use. PMID:10791153

Bigby, M

2000-04-01

80

JAMA Patient Page: Evidence-Based Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health www.nih.gov • The Cochrane Collaboration www.cochrane.org • Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine www.cebm. ... No. 8 Sources: National Institutes of Health, The Cochrane Collaboration, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, American Heart ...

81

Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

2010-01-01

82

Evidence-based practice and orthopaedic nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.

Julia Kneale

2000-01-01

83

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

2008-01-01

84

Managing CAP: an evidence-based algorithm.  

PubMed

The 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society are a blend of level-of-evidence strength and consensus opinion--a unified, evidence-based document. These new recommendations address prior discrepancies between the 2 specialties. We developed a CAP treatment algorithm based on the new advisory. PMID:17764643

Bernheisel, Christopher R; Schlaudecker, Jeffrey D

2007-09-01

85

A Kalman Filter Based Tracking Loop in Weak GPS Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GPS software receiver's architecture is reviewed. And a classic second order phase lock loop and the loop parameters' configuration are described. Though analyzing the total phase jitter, it is shown that under a realistic weak signal condition, the tracking loop's ability is inhibited by the noise and transient frequency jump. Then an optimal estimation based intelligent integrated tracking loop

Jianfeng Miao; Yongrong Sun; Jianye Liu; Wu Chen

2009-01-01

86

Potentiometric determination of weak bases by titration to a fixed pH value  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical fundamentals of the pH-metric determination of weak bases by titration with solutions of strong acids to a\\u000a fixed pH value were considered. A simple and rapid procedure for determining ?-aminocaproic acid in medicinal preparations\\u000a was developed.

N. N. Golovnev; O. S. Romanova; N. V. Busygina

2000-01-01

87

The Making of Evidence-based Practice: The Case of Project ALERT  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based practice has been enthusiastically embraced within the field of drug prevention during the past decade. Project ALERT, a school-based universal prevention program, is among the most widely advocated evidence-based interventions. We examined the results of three large-scale evaluations of Project ALERT, and concluded that assessment of data from the total samples shows that the program has little effect on drug use. Despite this, Project ALERT is included on evidence-based drug prevention lists because the criteria for inclusion are extremely weak. We discuss the implications of this for drug prevention evaluation research and the creation of evidence-based practice lists.

Gorman, Dennis M.; Conde, Eugenia

2009-01-01

88

[Evidence-based dermatology: a synopsis].  

PubMed

The aim of evidence-based medicine is to support clinical decision making by providing tools for systematically locating, appraising, and applying the best information currently available to improve patient outcomes. This article summarizes the basic steps for practicing evidence-based medicine in the management of cutaneous diseases. Special emphasis is placed on the following 4 major steps in the process: asking a clinical question taking into consideration 4 elements; finding the evidence; critically appraising the evidence; and integrating the new information into clinical expertise and judgment, in order to make the best decision in each clinical setting. PMID:19445872

Manríquez Moreno, Juan Jorge

2009-03-01

89

Seeds of Evidence: Integrating Evidence-Based Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing interest in Evidence-Based Software Engineering (EBSE), software engi­ neering faculty face the challenge of educating future researchers and industry practitioners regarding the generation and use of EBSE results. We propose development and population of a community-driven web database containing summaries of EBSE studies. We present motivations for inclusion of these activities in a software engineering course, and address

David S. Janzen; Jungwoo Ryoo

2008-01-01

90

The Young, the Weak and the Sick: Evidence of Natural Selection by Predation  

PubMed Central

It is assumed that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals, but even though some studies partially support this idea, evidence with large sample sizes, exhaustive analysis of prey and robust analysis is lacking. We gathered data from a culling program of yellow-legged gulls killed by two methods: by the use of raptors or by shooting at random. We compared both data sets to assess whether birds of prey killed randomly or by relying on specific individual features of the prey. We carried out a meticulous post-mortem examination of individuals, and analysing multiple prey characteristics simultaneously we show that raptors did not hunt randomly, but rather preferentially predate on juveniles, sick gulls, and individuals with poor muscle condition. Strikingly, gulls with an unusually good muscle condition were also predated more than expected, supporting the mass-dependent predation risk theory. This article provides a reliable example of how natural selection may operate in the wild and proves that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals.

Genovart, Meritxell; Negre, Nieves; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Bistuer, Ana; Parpal, Luis; Oro, Daniel

2010-01-01

91

Protamine 3 shows evidence of weak, positive selection in mouse species (genus Mus)--but it is not a protamine.  

PubMed

Protamines are short and highly basic sperm-specific nuclear proteins that replace somatic histones during spermiogenesis in a process that is crucial for sperm formation and function. Many mammals have two protamine genes (PRM1 and PRM2) located in a gene cluster, which appears to evolve fast. Another gene in this cluster (designated protamine 3 [PRM3]) encodes a protein that is conserved among mammals but that does not seem to be involved in chromatin condensation. We have compared protein sequences and amino acid compositions of protamines in this gene cluster, searched for evidence of positive selection of PRM3, and examined whether sexual selection (sperm competition) may drive the evolution of the PRM3 gene. Nucleotide and amino acid analyses of mouse sequences revealed that PRM3 was very different from PRM1 and from both the precursor and the mature sequences of PRM2. Among 10 mouse species, PRM3 showed weak evidence of positive selection in two species, but there was no clear association with levels of sperm competition. In analyses from among mammalian species, no evidence of positive selection was found in PRM3. We conclude that PRM3 exhibits several clear differences from other protamines and, furthermore, that it cannot be regarded as a true protamine. PMID:20944085

Martin-Coello, Juan; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

2010-10-13

92

Evidence-Based Medicine in Surgical Education  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is increasingly important for clinical surgery and for promotion of best practices into surgical decision making. Although barriers exist in the current surgical literature, for certain surgical scenarios, formal efforts to promote evidence-based surgery (EBS) into surgical education are helping to equip future surgeons with these important tools for optimizing patient care. As our evidence-base grows and standards of care evolve, incorporating EBM into everyday practice for trainees and staff surgeons remains an ongoing challenge.

Kwaan, Mary R.; Melton, Genevieve B.

2012-01-01

93

Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy  

PubMed Central

Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence.

Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

94

Allelic association but only weak evidence for linkage to the apolipoprotein E locus in late-onset Swedish Alzheimer families  

SciTech Connect

An association between the {epsilon}4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset AD families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE {epsilon}4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Liu, L.; Forsell, C.; Lilius, L. [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others

1996-05-31

95

An introduction to evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a process in which scientific evidence is evaluated to determine underlying trends and principles of health\\/health care. This information is then translated into information about best clinical practices. EBP affords a systematic way to improve healthcare, improve patient outcomes, and evaluate resources needed. The Star Model of EBP provides a mechanism to transform large collections of

Kathleen R. Stevens

2001-01-01

96

Strong ions, weak acids and base excess: a simplified Fencl-Stewart approach to clinical acid-base disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Fencl-Stewart approach to acid-base disorders uses five equations of varying complexity to estimate the base excess effects of the important components: the strong ion difference (sodium and chloride), the total weak acid concentration (albumin) and unmeasured ions. Although this approach is straightforward, most people would need a calcula- tor to use the equations. We proposed four simpler equations

D. A. Story; H. Morimatsu; R. Bellomo

2004-01-01

97

Weak mode coupling measurement with EMD-based method in polarization-maintaining fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity and position of coupling points in polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs) caused by force and twist can be effectively detected by Polarization Coupling Measurement (PCM). The sensitivity of detection will decrease due to the movement of scanning Michelson interferometer. To detect the weak coupling point, an EMD-based method is proposed in this paper. The experimental results illustrate that the EMD-based method can suppress the noise and improve the SNR effectively. The DWT method is also performed for a comparative study. The results show that the EMD-based method is effective and applicable for PCM and the coupling point can still be detected when the intensity is as weak as - 70 dB.

Zhang, Hongxia; Ye, Wenting; Chen, Xinwei; Ren, Yaguang; Jia, Dagong; Wen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yimo

2012-01-01

98

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.|

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

99

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

100

Integrated chemical–physical processes modelling—I. Development of a kinetic-based model for mixed weak acid\\/base systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model for mixed weak acid\\/base systems is described. In the model, the weak acid\\/base equilibria have been formulated in terms of the kinetics of the forward and reverse reactions for the dissociation of the weak acid\\/bases. The compound H+ is explicitly included and pH is calculated from the H+ concentration via pH=?log(H+)=?logfm[H+]. For the conditions considered, the weak

E. V. Musvoto; M. C. Wentzel; R. E. Loewenthal; G. A. Ekama

2000-01-01

101

Evidence-based medicine and geriatric psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast amount of clinical information available today and the difficulties that clinicians have in applying this information\\u000a have given rise to interest in evidence-based medicine. An additional impetus for the development of the evidencebased medicine\\u000a movement has been the increasing recognition that much of medical practice is not evidence-based. This article presents a\\u000a brief overview of the principles of

Raymond L. Ownby

2004-01-01

102

Evidence-based practice in acute ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo study the overall level of evidence-based practice in an accident and emergency eye unit in the UK and evaluate the extent of evidence-based practice by ophthalmologists and nurse practitioners (NPs).MethodsThe case notes of all new patients attending our accident and emergency department for a period of 1 week were reviewed prospectively. For each case, the diagnosis at presentation and

R Bhatt; S Sandramouli

2007-01-01

103

The Art of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of a self-identified evidence-based practitioner. Discussion of EBP includes choosing an initial intervention and evaluation procedures, the iterative process of rechoosing and refining an intervention over the treatment life span, and the importance of evi- dence within the specific clinical situation. Two illustrative case studies are

David E. Pollio

2006-01-01

104

Evidence-based practice: a critical reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the process of critical reflection to uncover and challenge the hegemonic assumptions of evidence-based practice (EBP). The critical reflection process results in a re-conceptualisation of best practices that, while still honouring empirical research, is less hierarchical and more inclusive of a broad spectrum of interests than traditional EBP. Multidimensional Evidence-Based Practice (MEBP) validates consumer wisdom, professional experience,

Christopher G. Petr; Uta M. Walter

2009-01-01

105

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution.  

PubMed

Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups and connecting reservoirs of an acid and a base. The electric current flowing through the gel is measured as a function of the applied voltage. The steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of such a gel looks like that of a diode under these conditions. Results of our theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations are reported in two parts. In this first, theoretical part governing equations necessary to calculate the steady-state CVC of a reverse-biased electrolyte diode are presented together with an approximate analytical solution of this reaction-diffusion-ionic migration problem. The applied approximations are quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium. It is shown that the gel can be divided into an alkaline and an acidic zone separated by a middle weakly acidic region. As a further approximation it is assumed that the ionization of the fixed acidic groups is complete in the alkaline zone and that it is completely suppressed in the acidic one. The general solution given here describes the CVC and the potential and ionic concentration profiles of diodes applying either strong or weak electrolytes. It is proven that previous formulas valid for a strong acid-strong base diode can be regarded as a special case of the more general formulas presented here. PMID:16268714

Iván, Kristóf; Simon, Péter L; Wittmann, Mária; Noszticzius, Zoltán

2005-10-22

106

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups and connecting reservoirs of an acid and a base. The electric current flowing through the gel is measured as a function of the applied voltage. The steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of such a gel looks like that of a diode under these conditions. Results of our theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations are reported in two parts. In this first, theoretical part governing equations necessary to calculate the steady-state CVC of a reverse-biased electrolyte diode are presented together with an approximate analytical solution of this reaction-diffusion-ionic migration problem. The applied approximations are quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium. It is shown that the gel can be divided into an alkaline and an acidic zone separated by a middle weakly acidic region. As a further approximation it is assumed that the ionization of the fixed acidic groups is complete in the alkaline zone and that it is completely suppressed in the acidic one. The general solution given here describes the CVC and the potential and ionic concentration profiles of diodes applying either strong or weak electrolytes. It is proven that previous formulas valid for a strong acid-strong base diode can be regarded as a special case of the more general formulas presented here.

Iván, Kristóf; Simon, Péter L.; Wittmann, Mária; Noszticzius, Zoltán

2005-10-01

107

Acute Metabolic Alkalosis Enhances Response of C3H Mouse Mammary Tumors to the Weak Base Mitoxantrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of weak acid and weak base chemotherapeutic drugs by tumors is greatly influenced by the tumor extracellular \\/interstitial pH (pHe), the intracellular pH (p Hi ) maintained by the tumor cells, and by the ionization properties of the drug itself. The acid- outside plasmalemmal pH gradient in tumors acts to exclude weak base drugs like the anthracyclines, anthraqui- nones,

Natarajan Raghunand; Brent Mahoney; Robert van Sluis; Brenda Baggett; Robert J Gillies

2001-01-01

108

Improving sublingual delivery of weak base compounds using pH max concept: Application to propranolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present work was to provide theoretical and experimental support in generating an optimal pH (pHmax) for a representative weak base compound (propranolol), that can lead to enhanced sublingual absorption. Initially equations for pH-solubility and pH-permeability profiles were derived and compared to the profiles obtained experimentally. Excellent correlation (R2=0.999) of solubility profiles was obtained using non-linear regression,

Yanfeng Wang; Zhong Zuo; Xiao Chen; Brian Tomlinson; Moses S. S. Chow

2010-01-01

109

A supercapacitor-based energy storage substation for voltage compensation in weak transportation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supercapacitive-storage-based substation for the compensation of resistive voltage drops in transportation networks is proposed. It allows to feed as a current source in any voltage conditions of the line. The system has been designed as a compensation substation to be placed at weak points like end-of-line stations, instead of additional feeding substations. A dedicated power-electronic converter with an associated

Alfred Rufer; David Hotellier; Philippe Barrade

2004-01-01

110

Evaluating of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents.  

PubMed

Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been called the largest mass poisoning calamity in human history and creates severe health problems. The effective adsorbents are imperative in response to the widespread removal of toxic arsenic exposure through drinking water. Evaluation of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents was studied in this paper, aiming at the determination of the effects of pH, competing anions, and feed flow rates to improvement on remediation. Two types of weak-base adsorbents were used to evaluate arsenic(V) removal efficiency both in batch and column approaches. Anion selectivity was determined by both adsorbents in batch method as equilibrium As(V) adsorption capacities. Column studies were performed in fixed-bed experiments using both adsorbent packed columns, and kinetic performance was dependent on the feed flow rate and competing anions. The weak-base adsorbents clarified that these are selective to arsenic(V) over competition of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions. The solution pH played an important role in arsenic(V) removal, and a higher pH can cause lower adsorption capacities. A low concentration level of arsenic(V) was also removed by these adsorbents even at a high flow rate of 250-350 h(-1). Adsorbed arsenic(V) was quantitatively eluted with 1 M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for the next adsorption operation after rinsing with water. The weak-base anion exchange adsorbents are to be an effective means to remove arsenic(V) from drinking water. The fast adsorption rate and the excellent adsorption capacity in the neutral pH range will render this removal technique attractive in practical use in chemical industry. PMID:22562349

Awual, M Rabiul; Hossain, M Amran; Shenashen, M A; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Jyo, Akinori

2012-05-05

111

Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based practice has had a growing impact on chiropractic education and the delivery of chiropractic care. For evidence-based practice to penetrate and transform a profession, the penetration must occur at 2 levels. One level is the degree to which individual practitioners possess the willingness and basic skills to search and assess the literature. Chiropractic education received a significant boost in this realm in 2005 when the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded 4 chiropractic institutions R25 education grants to strengthen their research/evidence-based practice curricula. The second level relates to whether the therapeutic interventions commonly employed by a particular health care discipline are supported by clinical research. A growing body of randomized controlled trials provides evidence of the effectiveness and safety of manual therapies.

LeFebvre, Ron; Peterson, David; Haas, Mitchell

2013-01-01

112

Ion-Exchange Studies in the Removal of Polybasic Acids. Anomalous Sorption Behavior of Phosphoric Acid on Weak Base Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption behavior of phosphoric acid on the weak base resins Amberlite IRA-93 and Dowex WGR-2 is reported. Studies on sorption equilibria and dynamics reveal anomalous sorption behavior as compared to sorption of strong and weak monobasic acids. A mathematical treatment is developed to correlate the experimental data on sorption dynamics. An alternative type of mechanism is also proposed based on

V. M. Bhandari; V. A. Juvekar; S. R. Patwardhan

1997-01-01

113

Tuning Evidence-Based Trust Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many evidence-based trust models require the ad- justment of parameters such as aging- or exploration-factors. What the literature often does not address is the systematic choice of these parameters. In our work, we propose a generic procedure for finding trust model parameters that maximize the expected utility to the trust model user. The procedure is based on game- theoretic considerations

Eugen Staab; Thomas Engel

2009-01-01

114

Evidence-Based Practices and Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and…

Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

2011-01-01

115

Need for Evidence-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educators believe that rather than being a mere possibility to improve as teachers, it is always "necessary" to improve. One way of improving teaching is to adopt teaching methods that are based on or supported by evidence of success in enhancing student learning. Most teachers base their instructional practices on tradition, the opinion of…

Groccia, James E.; Buskist, William

2011-01-01

116

Perspectives of Evidence-Based Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of the optimal treatment option based on best current knowledge is called evidence-based medicine (EBM). Considering the cost explosion in public health systems, EBM should also incorporate proper utilization of the restricted economical resources and should enforce quality assurance in medicine. It is imperative that surgeons realize that randomized controlled trials are applicable to the operative specialties in

Moritz N. Wente; Christoph M. Seiler; Waldemar Uhl; Markus W. Büchler

2003-01-01

117

Wellness Counseling: The Evidence Base for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wellness conceptualized as "the" paradigm for counseling provides strength-based strategies for assessing clients, conceptualizing issues developmentally, and planning interventions to remediate dysfunction and optimize growth. Wellness counseling models have stimulated significant research that helps to form the evidence base for practice in the…

Myers, Jane E.; Sweeney, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

118

Evidence-Based Maternal and Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Present a synopsis of the status of evidence-based global maternal and child health practice and policy, with particular emphasis\\u000a on developing countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discuss the methods, advantages and criticisms of evidence-based practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discuss relevant historical milestones in the emergence of the evidence-based

Alan Tita; John E. Ehiri

119

Weak snow layer detection based on relative differences in snow properties between layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow stratigraphy information plays a prominent role in avalanche forecasting. Therefore, it is important how both manually collected and simulated snow profiles are interpreted in regard to snow stability. In the last few years several semi-quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the subjectivity of stability evaluation derived from snow profiles. One of them is the threshold sum approach (TSA), which identifies structural discontinuities related to mechanical stability within snow profiles by analyzing snow layers (i.e. grain size, type, hardness) and their interface properties (i.e. depth, difference in grain size and hardness). The threshold values identifying the structural properties were defined statistically and are optimized for the data sets they were based on. Since this approach relies entirely on absolute thresholds, problems arise, if properties (e.g. grain size estimation) are collected in a different way. Even though guidelines for collecting snow profiles are internationally defined, slight differences between observers of different avalanche services exist. The same problem arises when using this approach for simulated snow profiles. We propose a revised threshold sum approach for snow profile interpretation. Instead of using absolute values, we applied relative differences and values to the snow profiles, e.g. it was not considered how soft a snow layer is, but rather how soft it was compared to the weighted average value of the profile. This method allows the detection of potential weak layers within a snow profile but does not give an absolute estimation of their weakness. In other words, we give a probability that a particular layer is a weak layer. We tested this relative threshold approach (RTA) on a data set consisting of 128 manually recorded snow profiles, which were collected near the fracture line of or on slopes adjacent to skier-triggered avalanches. Results are encouraging since the RTA detected the weak layers related to the avalanches observed in the field as potential weak layers with a higher probability than the other layers of the profiles. This approach has the advantage to be independent from the subjectivity of the measurements (e.g. grain size estimation) - provided a variable is measured consistently within a profile - and can directly be applied to simulated profiles. A further step includes testing the RTA on simulated profiles and comparing the potential weak layers with failure layers identified in manually observed profiles completed with stability tests.

Monti, Fabiano; Schweizer, Jürg

2013-04-01

120

Evidence-based medicine for neurosurgeons: introduction and methodology.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine is a tool of considerable value for medicine and neurosurgery that provides a secure base for clinical practice and practice improvement, but is not without inherent drawbacks, weaknesses and limitations. EBM finds answers to only those questions open to its techniques, and the best available evidence can be a far cry from scientific truth. With the support and backing of governmental agencies, professional medical societies, the AAMC, the ACGME, and the ABMS, EBM is likely here to stay. The fact that: (1) EBM philosophy and critical appraisal techniques have become fully integrated into the training and culture of our younger colleagues, (2) that maintenance of certification will require individuals to demonstrate personal evidence based practice based on tracking and critical analysis of personal practice outcomes as part of the performance-based learning and improvement competency, and (3) that the progressively growing national healthcare expenditures will necessitate increasing basis of reimbursement and funding based on evidence-based effectiveness and guidelines, all point to the likelihood that complete immersion of neurosurgical practice in EBM is inevitable. This article thoroughly explores the history of EBM in medicine in general and in neurosurgery in particular. Emphasis is placed on identifying the legislative and regulatory motive forces at work behind its promulgation and the role that organized medicine has taken to facilitate and foster its acceptance and implementation. An accounting of resources open to neurosurgeons, and a detailed description EBM clinical decision-making methodology is presented. Special emphasis is placed on outlining the methodology as well as the limitations of meta-analyses, randomized clinic trials, and clinical practice parameter guidelines. Commonly perceived objections, as well as substantive problems and limitations of EBM assumptions, tools, and approaches both for individual clinical practice and health policy design and implementation are explored in detail. PMID:17033146

Linskey, Mark E

2006-01-01

121

Evidence for Weak or Linear Conformity but Not for Hyper-Conformity in an Everyday Social Learning Context  

PubMed Central

Conformity is thought to be an important force in cultural evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cooperation in large groups, potentiate group selection and thus explain uniquely human behaviors. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the way individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options witnessed. Theoretical modeling has suggested that only what we refer to as ‘hyper-conformity’, an exaggerated tendency to perform the most frequent behavior witnessed in other individuals, is able to increase within-group homogeneity and between-group diversity, for instance. Empirically however, few experiments have addressed how the frequency of behavior witnessed affects behavior. Accordingly we performed an experiment to test for the presence of conformity in a natural situation with humans. Visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on A5 cards and potentially win a small prize. We manipulated the proportion of existing writings versus drawings visible to visitors and measured the proportion of written cards submitted. We found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, thus demonstrating social learning. We show that this effect is approximately linear, with potentially a small, weak-conformist component but no hyper-conformist one. The present experiment therefore provides evidence for linear conformity in humans in a very natural context.

Claidiere, Nicolas; Bowler, Mark; Whiten, Andrew

2012-01-01

122

Dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of terahertz vibration, and evidence for weak hydrogen bond formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A weak hydrogen bond (WHB) such as CH--O is very important for the structure, function, and dynamics in a chemical and biological system WHB stretching vibration is in a terahertz (THz) frequency region Very recently, the reasonable performance of dispersion-corrected first-principles to WHB has been proven. In this lecture, we report dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of the vibrational absorption of some organic crystals, and low-temperature THz spectral measurement, in order to clarify WHB stretching vibration. The THz frequency calculation of a WHB crystal has extremely improved by dispersion correction. Moreover, the discrepancy in frequency between an experiment and calculation and is 10 1/cm or less. Dispersion correction is especially effective for intermolecular mode. The very sharp peak appearing at 4 K is assigned to the intermolecular translational mode that corresponds to WHB stretching vibration. It is difficult to detect and control the WHB formation in a crystal because the binding energy is very small. With the help of the latest intense development of experimental and theoretical technique and its careful use, we reveal solid-state WHB stretching vibration as evidence for the WHB formation that differs in respective WHB networks

Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Ito, Hiromasa

2013-03-01

123

Preparation and electrochromatographic characterization of methacrylate-based weak cation exchange columns for capillary electrochromatography.  

PubMed

Polymethacrylate based monolithic columns with weak cation exchange (WCX) properties were synthesized in fused silica capillary columns by capillary electrochromatography. Monolithic columns were prepared by in situ copolymerization of butyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate and N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid (MAGA) in a binary porogenic solvent composed of N,N-dimethyl formamide and phosphate buffer. The carboxyl groups provided by the monomer MAGA on the surface of the stationary phases generated the EOF from anode to cathode, and served as the WCX stationary phase at the same time. One of the originalities of this study was to make it clear the effect of MAGA as a novel weak cation exchange monomer in capillary columns. In this respect, in addition, the weak cation exchange character of MAGA, the effect of MAGA percentage on the electroosmotic mobility and column efficiency were investigated. The prepared columns were evaluated by SEM microphotographs and characterized with regard to the separation of alkyl benzenes. The monoliths prepared under optimized polymerization conditions were successfully characterized by using alkyl benzenes. The applied voltage was changed between 5 kV and 30 kV for separation of alkyl benzenes. The total analysis time of alkyl benzenes was shortened approximately tenfold (i.e. from 60 to 6 min). The synthesised monoliths contained ionizable carboxylic acid groups, which exhibited cation-exchange capability, that are useful for weak cation exchange chromatography. The applications of the optimized column were demonstrated using phenolic compounds and underivatized amino acids. The separation of phenolic compounds was achieved using a mobile phase consisting of 40/60% ACN/PB (10.0 mM, pH 7.0). The theoretical plate number up to 190,000 plates per m was achieved in the separation of phenols. The stability of the column was tested by conducting repeated analyses. PMID:23420459

Aydo?an, Cemil; Denizli, Adil

2013-02-19

124

Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}. Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}:HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with {sup 211}At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after {sup 211}At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens.

Sundberg, Asa Liljegren [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: Asa.Liljegren@bms.uu.se; Steffen, Ann-Charlott [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

2007-01-01

125

Coherent random fiber laser based on nanoparticles scattering in the extremely weakly scattering regime.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the realization of a coherent random fiber laser (RFL) in the extremely weakly scattering regime, which contains a dispersive solution of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye pyrromethene 597 in carbon disulfide that was injected into a hollow optical fiber. Multiple scattering of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes NPs greatly enhanced by the waveguide confinement effect was experimentally verified to account for coherent lasing observed in our RFL system. This Letter extends the NPs-based RFLs from the incoherent regime to the coherent regime. PMID:23368465

Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Qun; Miao, Bo; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Gang; Chen, Yang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Qijin

2012-12-18

126

Evidence-Based Therapy of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine is often misunderstood as ‘cookbook medicine with standard recipes’ that does not take clinical experience into account. It is, however, supposed to be a basis for decision making in caring for individual patients under consideration of patients’ preferences. This seems to be very important, since diabetic retinopathy continues to be the most frequent cause of vision loss

S. Hoerle; P. Kroll

2007-01-01

127

Evidence-based care and the curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based (EB) approach has been a significant driver in reforming healthcare over the past two decades. This change has extended across a broad range of health professions, including oral healthcare. A key element in achieving an EB approach to oral healthcare is educating our practitioners, both current and future. This involves providing opportunities integrated within simulated and actual clinical

T. Winning; I. Needleman; M. Rohlin; A. Carrassi; B. Chadwick; K. Eaton; K. Hardwick; R. Ivancakova; R. L. Jallaludin; D. Johnsen; J.-G. Kim; D. Lekkas; D. Li; D. Onisei; A. Pissiotis; P. Reynolds; I. Tonni; J. Vanobbergen; R. Vassileva; J. Virtanen; P. Wesselink; N. Wilson

2008-01-01

128

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

Parsonson, Barry S.

2012-01-01

129

Nurses' Perceptions of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as a marker for health care quality. However, several barriers prevent the transition of nursing research to practice, such as lack of knowledge, lack of time, and little perceived value. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the extent of current understanding of EBP, knowledge\\/skills, and attitudes among registered nurses in an urban

Karen D. Lehman

130

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

131

Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain…

Klitzing, Sandra

2012-01-01

132

The need for evidence-based conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of current conservation practice is based upon anecdote and myth rather than upon the systematic appraisal of the evidence, including experience of others who have tackled the same problem. We suggest that this is a major problem for conservationists and requires a rethinking of the manner in which conservation operates. There is an urgent need for mechanisms that review

William J. Sutherland; Andrew S. Pullin; Paul M. Dolman; Teri M. Knight

2004-01-01

133

Training Psychologists for Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-base practice (EBP) is now commonplace in many health care services and, in recent years, there has been a healthy debate about the role of EBP in psychology. In this article, I provide information on the nature of EBP and how it is consistent with professional training models and standards in psychology. In discussing some of the concerns that have

John Hunsley

2007-01-01

134

The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.

Laursen, Erik K.

2010-01-01

135

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

136

The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.|

Laursen, Erik K.

2010-01-01

137

Evidence-based orthopaedics: A brief history  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine was recently noted as one of the top 15 most important medical discoveries over the past 160 years. Since the term was coined in 1990, EBM has seen unparalleled adoption in medicine and surgery. We discuss the early origins of EBM and its dissemination in medicine, especially orthopaedic surgery.

Hoppe, Daniel J; Bhandari, Mohit

2008-01-01

138

The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

Todd, Ross

2008-01-01

139

Evidence-based treatment of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with schizophrenia can be helped greatly with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions that are known to be effective.\\u000a Several interventions are now supported by research: use of medications following specific guidelines, training in illness\\u000a self-management, case management based on principles of assertive community treatment, family psychoeducation, supported employment,\\u000a and integrated substance abuse treatment. However, few patients actually receive these evidence-based

Robert E. Drake; Kim T. Mueser; William C. Torrey; Alexander L. Miller; Anthony F. Lehman; Gary R. Bond; Howard H. Goldman; H. Steven Leff

2000-01-01

140

Eminence-based medicine versus evidence-based medicine: level V evidence in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Through extensive survey analysis, we investigated expert opinion in sports medicine. The study had 3 purposes: to provide clinical guidance for cases in which the correct action is not necessarily apparent, to examine expert opinion itself, and to delineate areas of future study. A total of 500 members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine evaluated a set of 25 statements on unresolved issues in sports medicine. The following 10 statements were deemed false: "It's okay for 12-year-old pitchers to throw curve balls; it's the pitch count that matters"; "Resistance training ('weight lifting') should be avoided until physeal closure"; "Jogging during pregnancy is to be avoided"; "At an athletic event, if sideline coverage is offered by an emergency medical technician and athletic trainer, there is little additional benefit from having a physician present"; "Contact sport athletes who sustain a second concussion should be excluded from contact sports permanently"; "The utility of pre-season medical screening is derived from the history; as such, student-athletes should complete a questionnaire, with physical examination reserved for only those with a positive relevant history"; "Femoroacetabular impingement is a myth-the designation of anatomic variation as disease"; "An AC (acromioclavicular) separation in a contact athlete should not be treated surgically if the athlete won't give up the sport; it will fail"; "Ankle taping induces weakness and atrophy of the dynamic stabilizers of the ankle"; "Only autografts should be used in ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) surgery, as allografts have an unnecessary high failure rate in clinical practice." One statement was accepted as true: "Surgery to treat anterior (patello-femoral) knee pain in a patient with normal patellar mechanics and stability is contraindicated." In short, expert opinion may be a helpful adjunct to clinical practice. Expert opinion cannot replace individual judgment and certainly does not trump the primary medical literature. Yet when better evidence is lacking, expert opinion is valuable for even the staunchest practitioner of evidence-based medicine. PMID:22293774

Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Ganley, Theodore J; Kapur, Rahul; Kelly, John; Sennett, Brian J; Bernstein, Joseph

2011-11-01

141

Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.  

PubMed

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

Osborn, John

2002-01-01

142

Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy.…

Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

2004-01-01

143

Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

2004-01-01

144

A NOVEL WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESIN WHICH IS HIGHLY SELECTIVE FOR THE PRECIOUS METALS OVER BASE METALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak base anion exchange copolymer (P-SNTD) which is based on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) with covalently bound 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amino-5-thiol (SNTD) groups shows selectivity for gold and the platinum-group-metals (PGMs) e.g. Pt(IV), Pd(II), Rh(III) and Ir(IV) in the presence of the base metals, e.g. Cu, Fe, Co and Ni in chloride media. The separation is particularly effective from 0.5 M to 3.0 M HCl

BILLY KAR-ON LEUNG; MICHAEL J. HUDSON

1992-01-01

145

Patch-based label fusion using local confidence-measures and weak segmentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for the fully automatic segmentation of the liver and spleen is presented. In a multi-atlas based segmentation framework, several existing segmentations are deformed in parallel to image intensity based registrations targeting the unseen patient. A new locally adaptive label fusion method is presented as the core of this paper. In a patch comparison approach, the transformed segmentations are compared to a weak segmentation of the target organ in the unseen patient. The weak segmentation roughly estimates the hidden truth. Traditional fusion approaches just rely on the deformed expert segmentations only. The result of patch comparison is a confidence weight for a neighboring voxel-label in the atlas label images to contribute to the voxel under study. Fusion is finally carried out in a weighted averaging scheme. The new contribution is the incorporation of locally determined confidence features of the unseen patient into the fusion process. For a small experimental set-up consisting of 12 patients, the proposed method performs favorable to standard classifier label fusion methods. In leave-one-out experiments, we obtain a mean Dice ratio of 0.92 for the liver and 0.82 for the spleen.

Mastmeyer, André; Fortmeier, Dirk; Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Simon, Martin; Handels, Heinz

2013-03-01

146

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

Wilkes, B. J.; McDowell, J.

1994-01-01

147

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2010-07-08

148

Growth inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum by carboxylic acids: A mechanism based on uncoupling by weak acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum strains by acetate and other organic acids (propionate, butyrate) can be explained by a model based on the chemiosmotic theory and uncoupler action. It is proposed that the charged permeant species in the process of anion exclusion is the dimer HA-2. Evidence for this mechanisms is provided by 31P-NMR studies of whole cells and cell

Alejandro A. Herrero; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Brad Snedecor; Cynthia J. Tolman; Mary F. Roberts

1985-01-01

149

Are adjuvant therapies for tonsillectomy evidence based?  

PubMed

Our aim was to ascertain the current practice of adjuvant therapy for tonsillectomy and to determine whether it is evidence based. Anonymized postal questionnaires were sent to all UK otolaryngology consultants registered with the specialty association, and a literature search was performed using relevant search terms in all possible combinations. Among the responders there was little enthusiasm for routine intra-operative local anaesthesia, post-operative topical benzydamine hydrochloride (Difflam) spray or post-operative antibiotics. This is consistent with the lack of robust evidence to support any of these practices. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is prescribed by almost 90 per cent for post-operative analgesia, and the current literature supports its efficacy and safety. Further, most practitioners combine paracetamol with opioids and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Evidence to support the additional use of these agents is, however, non-existent or limited. Some aspects of tonsillectomy care are uniform and evidence based. Others are heterogeneous and suffer from lack of adequate data in the literature. PMID:16102216

Dhiwakar, M; Brown, P M

2005-08-01

150

[The philosophical foundations of evidence-based nursing].  

PubMed

As a branch of evidence-based practice, evidence-based nursing emphasizes the integration of patient needs, the evidence for practical problem solving, and the application of nursing expertise. The criteria of evidence and the application of evidence in practice are the central theoretical foundations of evidence-based practice and evidence-based nursing. Therefore, the main philosophical considerations of evidence-based nursing shall focus on the criteria by which evidence supports propositions and how evidence should be applied in practice. In this paper, we explain the criteria of evidence from an epistemological perspective and explain the application of evidence in practice from the perspective of rational decision-making. Finally, we use these philosophical considerations to propose practical guidelines for evidence-based nursing and explain the philosophical significance of nursing practice. PMID:24096459

Wang, Linton; Ma, Wei-Fen

2013-10-01

151

Weak-link behaviour observed in iron-based superconductors with thick perovskite-type blocking layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of iron-based superconductors with thick perovskite-type blocking layers, (Fe2As2)(Ca4(Mg0.25,Ti0.75)3O8) (22438) and (Fe2As2)(Ca5(Sc0.5Ti0.5)4O11) (225411), has been carried out and their transport properties discussed in comparison with those of fluorine-doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 (Sm1111) superconductors. Microstructural observation revealed that superconducting grains have a platelet shape and are strongly coupled with each other, particularly in 22438. The onset transition temperature (Tc) of 22438 reached up to 47.5 K and its very high upper critical field at low temperatures was suggested by a steep slope (dHc2/dT) near Tc as large as ?19.8 T K?1. The resistance curves under various magnetic fields showed a basically two-step-like character of the superconducting transitions, where the effect of magnetic field is weaker at the onset part near the normal state in comparison to the tail part. The broadening of the tail part suggests a weak-link connection between superconducting grains. Two distinct scales of current flow corresponding to inter- and intragranular currents were confirmed by the remanent magnetization measurement of bulk samples, and their calculated intergranular current densities are relatively low. The analysis of their superconducting properties suggests evidence of the weak-link intergrain nature and high electromagnetic anisotropy of these iron-based superconductors with thick oxide blocking layers.

Singh, Shiv Jee; Ogino, Hiraku; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

2013-10-01

152

Evidence-based labor and delivery management.  

PubMed

Our objective was to provide evidence-based guidance for management decisions during labor and delivery. We performed MEDLINE, PubMed, and COCHRANE searches with the terms labor, delivery, pregnancy, randomized trials, plus each management aspect of labor and delivery (eg, early admission). Each management step of labor and delivery was reviewed separately. Evidence-based good quality data favor hospital births, delayed admission, support by doula, training birth assistants in developing countries, and upright position in the second stage. Home-like births, enema, shaving, routine vaginal irrigation, early amniotomy, "hands-on" method, fundal pressure, and episiotomy can be associated with complications without sufficient benefits and should probably be avoided. We conclude that labor and delivery interventions supported by good quality data as just described should be routinely performed. All aspects with lower data quality should be researched with adequately powered and designed trials. PMID:18984077

Berghella, Vincenzo; Baxter, Jason K; Chauhan, Suneet P

2008-11-01

153

Therapy for sarcoidosis: evidence-based recommendations.  

PubMed

The options for treatment of sarcoidosis have expanded. In this article, we outline a stepwise approach to treatment. Recommendations for treatment are based on available evidence. While corticosteroids remain the treatment of choice for initial systemic therapy, other agents have been shown to be steroid sparing, and therefore useful for long-term management. In addition, new agents have proved to be useful for patients with refractory disease. PMID:22149344

Baughman, Robert P; Nunes, Hilario

2012-01-01

154

Evidence-based Assessment of Pediatric Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To conduct an evidence-based review of pediatric pain measures. Methods Seventeen measures were examined, spanning pain intensity self-report, questionnaires and diaries, and behavioral observations. Measures were classified as ''Well-established,'' ''Approaching well-established,'' or ''Promising'' according to established criteria. Information was highlighted to help professionals evaluate the instruments for particular purposes (e.g., research, clinical work). Results Eleven measures met criteria for

Lindsey L. Cohen; Kathleen Lemanek; L. Blount; Lynnda M. Dahlquist; Crystal S. Lim; Tonya M. Palermo; Kristine D. McKenna; Karen E. Weiss

2007-01-01

155

Modernism, Postmodernism and (Evidence-Based) Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

One dominant discourse in the mental health arena revolves around evidence-based practice (EBP). Although there is ongoing\\u000a debate about the implementation of EBP in the mental health field, most of these discussions have been limited to modernist\\u000a ideas. While discussions about EBP have occurred from alternate perspectives, particularly postmodernism, a lack of open dialogue\\u000a has resulted in these two groups

Heather L. Ramey; Sarah Grubb

2009-01-01

156

What is evidence-based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Three challenges that physicians and decision makers in the health care systems have to meet are a remarkable proportion\\u000a of medical decisions without a sufficient base of scientific evidence, a slow and opaque process of integrating scientific\\u000a knowledge into medical practice and a steadily decreasing half-life period of the medical knowledge. Discussion: During the last two decades, a number

Gerd Antes; Daniel Galandi; Bertil Bouillon

1999-01-01

157

Evidence-based medicine and tort law.  

PubMed

Recent statutes and legal decisions have been aimed at bettering the quality of tort-law decisions by substantively improving "expert" testimony. However, in analogy to the experience of physicians attempting to upgrade medical practice using the principles of evidence-based medicine, lawyers and the courts have found it much easier to describe ideal science than to actualize it. This is particularly so in a system (the Law) that has traditionally not been very discerning about scientific rigor, and which has established procedural priorities that are often incompatible with strict scientific standards. This overview will examine the American tort system from an evidence-based perspective. We include a discussion of standards that could be used for "outcomes analysis" in the Law; recognition and classification of errors made by the courts themselves; the relationship between medical errors, "negligence," and standard of care; and the problem of reconciling the rights of plaintiffs with medical-scientific facts. We also consider selected impediments to developing a legal system that is capable of consistently reaching evidence-based decisions concerning complex scientific information, including pathologic interpretation of tissue specimens. PMID:16639995

Foucar, Elliott; Wick, Mark R

2005-05-01

158

From Evidence-based Medicine to Marketing-based Medicine: Evidence from Internal Industry Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much excitement has been generated surrounding evidence-based medicine, internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry\\u000a suggest that the publicly available evidence base may not accurately represent the underlying data regarding its products.\\u000a The industry and its associated medical communication firms state that publications in the medical literature primarily serve\\u000a marketing interests. Suppression and spinning of negative data and ghostwriting have

Glen I. Spielmans; Peter I. Parry

2010-01-01

159

Teaching Evidence-Based Practice to Administrative Groups: The Professional Academy of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of social work moves toward the implementation of evidence-based practice, agencies require training, mentoring, and peer networking to ensure successful adoption. This article defines successful adoption as knowledge and competence in the process of evidence-based practice. Successful adoption is best accomplished through the education and training of organization teams comprising key leaders—executive staff and board members. The

Stephanie Krauss; Barbara Levin

2010-01-01

160

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure.

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

161

Evidence-Based Recognition of 3-D Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based recognition technique is defined that identifies 3-D objects by looking for their notable features. This technique makes use of an evidence rule base, which is a set of salient or evidence conditions with corresponding evidence weights for various objects in the database. A measure of similarity between the set of observed features and the set of evidence conditions

Anil K. Jain; Richard Hoffman

1988-01-01

162

Evidence-based practice: justifying changes in clinical practice based upon the appraisal of evidence.  

PubMed

Patients with diabetes are known to be at higher risk of foot ulceration that can often lead to limb amputation. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the provision of a multidisciplinary foot clinic for patients with diabetes could improve outcomes. Although this approach appears common sense the author required evidence to support a bid for a change in practice. This paper begins by describing some of the origins and principles of evidence based practice and how they can be applied in practice. The search for evidence and critical appraisal of two papers is explained. The tools used to assist implementation of the change in practice are included. The paper concludes with recommendation for changes in practice based upon the evidence found. PMID:12599986

Thompson, Deb

2003-01-01

163

Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined.Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH\\ctdot B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

2012-06-01

164

A novel fiber Bragg grating sensor for weak pressure measurement based on the Stokes parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike usual spectral analysis of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, a novel weak pressure sensor based on the Stokes parameter of FBG is proposed in this paper. The evolution of the first normalized Stokes parameter s1 with respect to pressure is studied theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model for pressure sensing by use of s1 is built and numerically simulation is also carried out. The dual-wavelength analytical method is proposed to reduce the influence of Bragg wavelength drift and improve the measurement accuracy. Under the pressure conditions of 0-5 N, the experimental pressure sensitivity is 0.0754/N. Good agreements between experiment results and numerical simulations verify the feasibility of the method.

Peng, Hui; Su, Yang; Ye, Zhengxing; Zhou, Bihua

2012-12-01

165

Transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradients in liposomes produce efficient and stable entrapment of amphipathic weak bases.  

PubMed

Gradients of ammonium sulfate in liposomes [(NH4)2SO4]lip. > [(NH4)2SO4]med. were used to obtain 'active' loading of amphipathic weak bases into the aqueous compartment of liposomes. The loading is a result of the base exchange with the ammonium ions. This approach was applied to encapsulate anthracyclines and acridine orange inside the liposomes at very high efficiency (> 90%). Doxorubicin was accumulated in the aqueous phase of the liposomes where it reached a level as high as 100-fold the doxorubicin concentration in the remote loading medium. Most of the intraliposomal doxorubicin was present in an aggregated state. The active entrapment and loading stability were dependent on liposome lipid composition, lipid quality, medium composition and temperature, as well as on the pKa and hydrophobicity of the base. The ammonium sulfate gradient approach differs from most other chemical approaches used for remote loading of liposomes, since it neither requires preparation of the liposomes in acidic pH, nor to alkalinize the extraliposomal aqueous phase. The stability of the ammonium ion gradient is related to the low permeability of its counterion, the sulfate, which also stabilizes anthracycline accumulation for prolonged storage periods (> 6 months) due to the aggregation and gelation of anthracycline sulfate salt. PMID:8373796

Haran, G; Cohen, R; Bar, L K; Barenholz, Y

1993-09-19

166

3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

2010-11-01

167

Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments  

PubMed Central

Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources.

Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

2010-01-01

168

[Evidence based medicine for the gastroenterologist].  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates the best available external evidence in the care of individual patients with the individual clinical expertise and the patient preferences. This method has been designed for use in daily clinical practice. We describe the rationale for EBM and its principles and application in this article. EBM enables gastroenterologists to update the knowledge required to provide patients with high quality medical care. EBM requires four steps: a) formulating a clinical question arising from a doubt concerning a patient; b) conducting an efficient literature search to answer this question; c) critically appraising this evidence using explicit methods to selected articles to determine the validity of their design and the clinical relevance of their results; and d) applying these results to the patient (taking into account their values and preferences and personal and social circumstances). In this paper, we explain the principles and basic concepts of EBM and their application to gastroenterology and we provide an extensive compilation of internet databases of valid information relevant to gastroenterologists. We also provide a selection of useful tools for self-directed learning of critical appraisal skills. Link updates can be accessed at the following URL: http://www.enlacesmedicos.com/e.htm PMID:15098043

Curioso, Walter H; Montori, Víctor M; Curioso, Walter I

169

Decision support based on weak signals-overcoming the implementation gap of strategic early warning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic early warning systems are the company's eyes and ears to the surrounding world. The sensitivity and the perception of weak signals announcing changes in the rules of the game are vital elements of strategic management competencies. It is not only to have eyes and ears, it is also to understand the language of the weak signals. How demanding the

M. Luken; F. Baisch

1998-01-01

170

Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary column with weak cation exchange functionalities for capillary electrochromatography.  

PubMed

Polymethacrylate-based monolith with weak cation exchange functionalities was prepared in capillary column (i.d. 100 ?m, o.d. 375 ?m) by in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate and N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid in presence of porogens. The porogen mixture included N,N-dimethyl formamide and phosphate buffer. The preparation procedure of stationary phase contained the synthesis of monomer, silanization of capillary inner wall and in situ polymerization. The use of amino acid based monomer for the monolith synthesis is one of the originalities of this novel approach. N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid has two carboxyl functionalities. The separation of the solutes were performed at different acetonitrile/phosphate buffer and acetonitrile/sodium hydroxide contents. The applied voltage for the alkyl benzenes was changed between +5 and +30 kV. CEC separations of alkyl benzenes, acidic, basic, phenolic and some polycylic aromatic compounds were succesfully performed under capillary-electrochromatography mode with cathodic electroosmotic flow. PMID:22589162

Aydo?an, Cemil; Tuncel, Ali; Denizli, Adil

2012-04-01

171

Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction for axial flow blade based on weak coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow in whole flow passage of axial flow hydraulic turbine was conducted based on the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-? model. Stress analysis of axial flow blade were carried on by elasticity unsteady FEM. The fluid domain and solid domain were calculated by sequential iteration. Based on weak coupling technology, the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the axial flow blade was conducted. Instantaneous flow field characteristic and stress distribution on blade were analyzed. According to the comparing with the results of pure flow numerical simulation, the pressure difference between press side and suction side increases after considering the FSI, to a certain extent, which will worsen cavitations performance of the blade. Meanwhile, stress distribution on the blades do not change significantly, but the maximum stress value increases markedly, and the maximum displacement reduces slightly. The research demonstrates that the FSI not only changes the distribution of the flow field in blade area, but also have a greater impact on the stress of the blades.

Zheng, X. B.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.

2012-11-01

172

Towards evidence-based policy regarding drugs and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug policy is insufficiently evidence-based. The same is true, but to a lesser extent, for mental health policy. In this commentary, the argument is made that evidence is needed, but that we should ask ourselves the following questions: what kind of evidence is needed, how can evidence be translated into policy, and how can we ensure that evidence is actually

Henk F. L. Garretsen; Evelien P. M. Brouwers

2010-01-01

173

Evidence-based Assessment of Pediatric Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct an evidence-based review of pediatric pain measures. Methods Seventeen measures were examined, spanning pain intensity self-report, questionnaires and diaries, and behavioral observations. Measures were classified as “Well-established,” “Approaching well-established,” or “Promising” according to established criteria. Information was highlighted to help professionals evaluate the instruments for particular purposes (e.g., research, clinical work). Results Eleven measures met criteria for “Well-established,” six “Approaching well-established,” and zero were classified as “Promising.” Conclusions There are a number of strong measures for assessing children's pain, which allows professionals options to meet their particular needs. Future directions in pain assessment are identified, such as highlighting culture and the impact of pain on functioning. This review examines the research and characteristics of some of the commonly used pain tools in hopes that the reader will be able to use this evidence-based approach and the information in future selection of assessment devices for pediatric pain.

Lemanek, Kathleen; Blount, Ronald L.; Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; McKenna, Kristine D.; Weiss, Karen E.

2008-01-01

174

Evidence-based Learning: A Lack of Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents comments on an article by Eitel and Steiner(1999) and a response from the authors, who clarify and elaborate on their earlier article in an answer to criticism that it lacks the necessary evidence to support pedagogical change. (Author/CCM)

Burton, Julian L.; Underwood, James C. E.

2000-01-01

175

Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2007-01-01

176

Determination of acid-base dissociation constants of very weak zwitterionic heterocyclic bases by capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic acid-base dissociation (ionization) constants (pK(a)) of seven zwitterionic heterocyclic bases, first representatives of new heterocyclic family (2,3,5,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-diimidazo[1,2-c:2',1'-f][1,3,2]diazaphosphinin-4-ium-5-olate 5-oxides), originally designed as chiral Lewis base catalysts for enantioselective reactions, were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The pK(a) values of the above very weak zwitterionic bases were determined from the dependence of their effective electrophoretic mobility on pH in strongly acidic background electrolytes (pH 0.85-2.80). Prior to pK(a) calculation by non-linear regression analysis, the CZE measured effective mobilities were corrected to reference temperature, 25°C, and constant ionic strength, 25 mM. Thermodynamic pK(a) values of the analyzed zwitterionic heterocyclic bases were found to be particularly low, in the range 0.04-0.32. Moreover, from the pH dependence of effective mobility of the bases, some other relevant characteristics, such as actual and absolute ionic mobilities and hydrodynamic radii of the acidic cationic forms of the bases were determined. PMID:20887995

Ehala, Sille; Grishina, Anastasiya A; Sheshenev, Andrey E; Lyapkalo, Ilya M; Kaši?ka, Václav

2010-09-29

177

The notion of evidence in evidence-based practice by the nursing philosophy working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions concerning the nature of evidence in evidence-based practice have kindled debate within nursing and other health care disciplines. Such questions include the ends for which evidence is sought, the form(s) of evidence, and the values underlying evidence-based practice. In this article, some of the issues, contradictions, and tensions implicit in these questions are highlighted. It is imperative that the

Donna M Romyn; Marion N Allen; Geertje Boschma; Susan M Duncan; Nancy Edgecombe; Louise A Jensen; Janet C Ross-Kerr; Patricia Marck; Mahvash Salsali; Ann E Tourangeau; Fay Warnock

2003-01-01

178

A new physics-based method for detecting weak nuclear signals via spectral decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new physics-based method to determine the presence of the spectral signature of one or more nuclides from a poorly resolved spectra with weak signatures. The method is different from traditional methods that rely primarily on peak finding algorithms. The new approach considers each of the signatures in the library to be a linear combination of subspectra. These subspectra are obtained by assuming a signature consisting of just one of the unique gamma rays emitted by the nuclei. We propose a Poisson regression model for deducing which nuclei are present in the observed spectrum. In recognition that a radiation source generally comprises few nuclear materials, the underlying Poisson model is sparse, i.e. most of the regression coefficients are zero (positive coefficients correspond to the presence of nuclear materials). We develop an iterative algorithm for a penalized likelihood estimation that prompts sparsity. We illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations using a variety of poorly resolved, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations, which show that the proposed approach enjoys excellent empirical performance even with SNR as low as to -15 db.

Chan, Kung-Sik; Li, Jinzheng; Eichinger, William; Bai, Erwei

2012-03-01

179

Improving sublingual delivery of weak base compounds using pH(max) concept: application to propranolol.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work was to provide theoretical and experimental support in generating an optimal pH (pH(max)) for a representative weak base compound (propranolol), that can lead to enhanced sublingual absorption. Initially equations for pH-solubility and pH-permeability profiles were derived and compared to the profiles obtained experimentally. Excellent correlation (R(2)=0.999) of solubility profiles was obtained using non-linear regression, and the permeability profiles further predicted that at certain pH (pH(max)), optimal mucosal permeation could be achieved. Subsequently, in a pharmacokinetics study, a buffered sublingual propranolol tablet, designed to achieve its pH(max) (when dissolved in saliva), were compared to that from a marketed product (Inderal) which could not achieve pH(max)) in 8 healthy subjects. Each subject received the products sublingually for 15 min followed by swallowing the remaining drug-saliva. The plasma propranolol concentrations of AUC during first 30 min from the buffered tablet were significantly higher than that from the Inderal tablet (p<0.05), and no significant differences in the remaining AUC were observed. These in vitro and in vivo results on propranolol provided experimental confirmation of the pH(max) concept as well as its utility in sublingual drug delivery. Such an approach may be applicable to other similar compounds to improve sublingual drug delivery. PMID:20060467

Wang, Yanfeng; Zuo, Zhong; Chen, Xiao; Tomlinson, Brian; Chow, Moses S S

2010-01-08

180

Sorption of sunset yellow dye by weak base anion exchanger-kinetic and equilibrium studies.  

PubMed

The sorption equilibrium and kinetics of Sunset Yellow dye in aqueous solutions on the weak base anion exchange resin Amberlite FPA51 were examined in this paper. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied by the batch method. The amounts of dye sorbed at equilibrium changed from 9.9 to 48.7 mg/g with increasing initial dye concentration in the range 100-500 mg/L. The experimental data were analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models of adsorption. The maximum monolayer capacity was 130.6 mg/g. The sorption free energy was equal to 14.6 kJ/mol and revealed the nature of the ion exchange mechanism in this system. The kinetic data were modelled using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order (types 1-5) and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by types 1-3 of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:21780713

Wawrzkiewicz, Monika

181

Home-based telehealth to deliver evidence-based psychotherapy in veterans with PTSD.  

PubMed

Although medical service delivery via home-based telehealth technology (HBT) is gaining wider acceptance in managing chronic illnesses such as diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, few studies have tested HBT applications of psychotherapy. Clinicians, administrators, and researchers question whether delivering psychotherapeutic services to patients in their homes via video-conferencing technology compromises patient safety, potency of treatment, or data security. Despite these concerns, HBT service delivery may increase access to evidence-based psychotherapies for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who may be less willing or less able to receive weekly treatment at a VA medical center or outpatient clinic due to symptom severity or other similar barriers to care. Indeed, although combat-exposed service members endorse high rates of psychiatric disorders, few appear to initiate mental health services or receive an adequate dose of treatment. Thus, using HBT technologies to administer evidence-based therapies remains uncharted territory in both the clinical and research arenas. This manuscript describes an ongoing four year randomized controlled trial comparing in-person Prolonged Exposure (PE) - a specialized evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD - and PE delivered via HBT, with a particular focus on the selection, application, and strengths/weaknesses of HBT procedures. PMID:22101225

Strachan, Martha; Gros, Daniel F; Yuen, Erica; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Foa, Edna B; Acierno, Ron

2011-11-11

182

Evidence-based abstracts: what research summaries should contain to support evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from the systematic retrieval of the most current literature. Clinicians need to conduct a critical appraisal of the medical articles they access. However, clinicians in developing countries usually lack access to the best resources for evidence-based practice (EBP). The abstracts of 100 of the most recently published randomised controlled trials were used in the present study. These abstracts were critically appraised using a new questionnaire. Questions 1 to 8 were answerable by 38%, 26%, 52%, 23%, 12%, 53%, 36% and 12%, respectively, of the examined summaries. EBP requires better access to medical resources. Therefore, the summaries of relevant studies should be complete and self-sufficient to support EBP. This means a research summary should adequately report the findings of a clinical trial without needing to access the full text. PMID:22672605

Assadi, Reza; Zarghi, Nazila; Shamloo, Alireza Sapehri; Nikooiyan, Yasaman

2012-06-01

183

Training the Evidence-Based Practitioner  

PubMed Central

An important goal of chiropractic clinical education should be to teach specific evidence-based practice (EBP) skills to chiropractic students, interns, and doctors. Using a nominal group process, the authors produced a document similar to the Council of Chiropractic Education standards for clinical competencies that can be used to drive an EBP curriculum. Standard texts and journal articles were consulted to create the standards for this program and each standard and corresponding learning objective was discussed in detail and was then graded by the committee in terms of importance and the level of competency that should be attained. Six standards and 31 learning objectives were generated with the learning objectives being further divided into lists of specific competencies. It is the hope of these authors that by sharing this document it can serve as a comprehensive and detailed seed document for other institutions.

LeFebvre, Ronald P.; Peterson, David H.; Haas, Mitchell; Gillette, Richard G.; Novak, Charles W.; Tapper, Janet; Muench, John P.

2011-01-01

184

HANDS: standardised intravascular practice based on evidence.  

PubMed

Observed and audited variability in the insertion and care of vascular access devices (VADs), despite national guidance, led an intravascular (i.v.) team to develop seven basic standards under the mnemonic of HANDS. This initiative combined the Saving Lives guidance (Department of Health, 2007) with i.v. care bundles to reinforce best practice. The main reasons for the project were to decrease bacteraemia rates related to i.v. devices and to improve practice. The strategy of strengthening care bundling--Project HANDS--with a targeted education programme was adopted to ensure i.v. practice was consistent and evidence based. This project took a novel approach that evaluated the application of infection control measures, using i.v. device care as a tool to influence organisational change. This resulted in quality improvements and better patient outcomes. Further actions include disseminating the learning from this project to healthcare partners and in the community. PMID:23252175

Caguioa, Jennifer; Pilpil, Fernando; Greensitt, Chris; Carnan, Donna

185

Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in evaluating its viability and validity, and implications for future research are described. Findings from

Sonja K. Schoenwald

2008-01-01

186

Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

Schoenwald, Sonja K.

2008-01-01

187

Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: III. Evidence-based practice in a clinical setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the heart of evidence-based practice in stuttering treatment are four issues: (1) the collection of data to inform treatment; (2) the long standing concern with maintenance of treatment gains; (3) the need to demonstrate accountability to clients, payers and our profession as service providers; and (4) the desire to advance theoretical knowledge. This article addresses the first three of

Marilyn Langevin; Deborah Kully

2003-01-01

188

Overview of Evidence-based Medicine: Challenges for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been driven by the need to cope with information overload, by cost-control, and by a public impatient for the best in diagnostics and treatment. Clinical guidelines, care maps, and outcome measures are quality improvement tools for the appro- priateness, efficiency, and effectiveness of health ser- vices. Although they are imperfect, their value increases with the quality

Matthew J. McQueen

2001-01-01

189

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educa- tional interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tenta- tively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as re- gards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common

BRUCE THOMPSON

190

Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

Srihari, Vinod

2008-01-01

191

Home Health Social Work: Obstacles to Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly describes the mandate for evidence-based practice in social work, the basic principles of evidence-based social work practice, systemic obstacles to evidence-based social work practice in home care, and suggestions for removing these obstacles.

Timothy B. Dyeson

2005-01-01

192

Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Human Service Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the integration of the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of values and expectations of clients. Little is known about the implementation of evidence-based practice in the human services. This article is based on a comprehensive search of the literature related to the organizational factors needed to introduce EBP into

Michael J. Austin; Jennette Ciaassen

2008-01-01

193

The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

194

Case-Based Reasoning in CARE-PARTNER: Gathering Evidence for Evidence-Based Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the CARE-PARTNER system. Functionally, it offers via the WWW knowledge-support assistance to clinicians responsible for the long-term follow-up of stem-cell post-transplant patient care. CARE- PARTNER aims at implementing the concept of evidence-based medical practice, which recommends the practice of medicine based on proven and validated knowledge. From an artificial intelligence viewpoint, it proposes a multimodal reasoning framework

Isabelle Bichindaritz; Emin Kansu; Keith M. Sullivan

1998-01-01

195

Evidence-Based Resources for Public Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000aEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) for clinical medicine involves using the best evidence to care for individual patients. Evidence-based public health (EBPH) involves using the best evidence to develop public health policies and intervention programs. There are various EBM resources available to help clinicians sort through the vast amount of medical literature to find the best evidence for their practice needs,

E. Hatheway Simpson; Elaine Russo Martin; Sharon Telleen; Roger S. Luckmann

2003-01-01

196

Determination of component concentrations in mixtures of weak and strong acids and bases by linear algebraic methods.  

PubMed

A general expression for transforming potentiometric titration curves of mixtures of weak acids into a system of linear equations is derived. The solution of the linear equations gives directly the concentrations of the components. This linear transformation method is illustrated by the analysis of mixtures of weak acids with overlapping dissociation equilibria. The possible presence of a strong acid or strong base in the mixture can also be detected and its concentration simultaneously determined. The method can also be used for analysis of an ampholyte and solutions containing a weak acid and its conjugate base. For example a mixture of hydroxyacetic acid (pK approximately 3.6), acetic acid (pK approximately 4.6) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (pK approximately 6) was analysed in the presence of strong acid with an average relative error of approximately 2%. PMID:18962767

Ivaska, A; Nagypál, I

1980-09-01

197

Basis of antimalarial action: non-weak base effects of chloroquine on acid vesicle pH  

SciTech Connect

Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. This increase in pH results from two mechanisms, one of which is markedly reduced in chloroquine-resistant parasites. Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the delta pH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. The non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine on parasite vesicle pH are also responsible for its safety because these chloroquine concentrations do not affect mammalian cells.

Krogstad, D.J.; Schlesinger, P.H.

1987-03-01

198

The possibility of evidence-based psychiatry: depression as a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering psychiatry as a medical discipline, a diagnosis identifying a disorder should lead to an effective therapy. Such\\u000a presumed causality is the basis of evidence-based psychiatry. We examined the strengths and weaknesses of research onto the\\u000a causality of relationship between diagnosis and therapy of major depressive disorder and suggest what could be done to strengthen\\u000a eventual claims on causality. Four

Drozdstoy Stojanov; Jakob Korf; Peter de Jonge; Georgi Popov

2011-01-01

199

Evidence-Based Research and Practice in Clinical Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a definition for evidence-based clinical neuropsychological practice (EBCNP) has yet to emerge, it is likely to integrate the same core features as evidence-based medicine; namely, best research evidence, clinical expertise, and individual patient needs. Given the nascent stage of EBCNP, suggestions are made to advance evidence-based approaches in both research and practice. The common elements are: recognition that clinical

Gordon J. Chelune

2010-01-01

200

Periodontal self-care: evidence-based support.  

PubMed

The focus of this review on periodontal self-care will be based primarily on the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on the evidence gleaned from systematic reviews, it is notable that most authors of these reviews commented on the relatively small number of trials that could pass the quality-assessment inclusion in the systematic review. Interproximal devices, namely interproximal brushes, are more effective for reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis than are flossing or brushing alone. Some added benefit may be attributed to the use of rotational oscillation powered toothbrushes over manual toothbrushes. Recommendations by the dentist and dental hygienist to add one or more chemotherapeutic agents to the typical oral hygiene regimen has been shown, in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to reduce the level of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients. Oral irrigation does not seem to reduce visible plaque but does tend to reduce inflammation, determined by the presence of bleeding on probing, the gingival index score and probing depth measurements. To date, high-quality evidence is either lacking or weak in some areas regarding the efficacy of self-care and periodontal disease. Low educational attainment, smoking and socio-economic status are related to adverse periodontal health outcomes. Variation in self-esteem, self-confidence and perfectionism are associated with oral health status and oral health behaviors. Better understanding of the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene would be of benefit in further developing strategies to help patients improve their oral hygiene in addition to helping professionals design better programs on prevention and education. PMID:23574470

Drisko, Connie L

2013-06-01

201

Product integration methods based on discrete spline quasi-interpolants and application to weakly singular integral equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrature formulae are established for product integration rules based on discrete spline quasi-interpolants on a bounded interval. The integrand considered may have algebraic or logarithmic singularities. These formulae are then applied to the numerical solution of integral equations with weakly singular kernels.

Allouch, C.; Sablonnière, P.; Sbibih, D.; Tahrichi, M.

2010-04-01

202

Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden.  

PubMed

Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed. PMID:19833498

Dahlén, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

2009-10-14

203

Evidence-based Diagnostics: Adult Septic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Acutely swollen or painful joints are common complaints in the emergency department (ED). Septic arthritis in adults is a challenging diagnosis, but prompt differentiation of a bacterial etiology is crucial to minimize morbidity and mortality. Objectives The objective was to perform a systematic review describing the diagnostic characteristics of history, physical examination, and bedside laboratory tests for nongonococcal septic arthritis. A secondary objective was to quantify test and treatment thresholds using derived estimates of sensitivity and specificity, as well as best-evidence diagnostic and treatment risks and anticipated benefits from appropriate therapy. Methods Two electronic search engines (PUBMED and EMBASE) were used in conjunction with a selected bibliography and scientific abstract hand search. Inclusion criteria included adult trials of patients presenting with monoarticular complaints if they reported sufficient detail to reconstruct partial or complete 2 × 2 contingency tables for experimental diagnostic test characteristics using an acceptable criterion standard. Evidence was rated by two investigators using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). When more than one similarly designed trial existed for a diagnostic test, meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model. Interval likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed when possible. To illustrate one method to quantify theoretical points in the probability of disease whereby clinicians might cease testing altogether and either withhold treatment (test threshold) or initiate definitive therapy in lieu of further diagnostics (treatment threshold), an interactive spreadsheet was designed and sample calculations were provided based on research estimates of diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic risk, and therapeutic risk/benefits. Results The prevalence of nongonococcal septic arthritis in ED patients with a single acutely painful joint is approximately 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17% to 38%). With the exception of joint surgery (positive likelihood ratio [+LR] = 6.9) or skin infection overlying a prosthetic joint (+LR = 15.0), history, physical examination, and serum tests do not significantly alter posttest probability. Serum inflammatory markers such as white blood cell (WBC) counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are not useful acutely. The interval LR for synovial white blood cell (sWBC) counts of 0 × 109–25 × 109/ L was 0.33; for 25 × 109–50 × 109/L, 1.06; for 50 × 109–100 × 109/L, 3.59; and exceeding 100 × 109/L, infinity. Synovial lactate may be useful to rule in or rule out the diagnosis of septic arthritis with a +LR ranging from 2.4 to infinity, and negative likelihood ratio (?LR) ranging from 0 to 0.46. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of synovial fluid may identify the causative organism within 3 hours. Based on 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity for sWBC counts of >50 × 109/L in conjunction with best-evidence estimates for diagnosis-related risk and treatment-related risk/benefit, the arthrocentesis test threshold is 5%, with a treatment threshold of 39%. Conclusions Recent joint surgery or cellulitis overlying a prosthetic hip or knee were the only findings on history or physical examination that significantly alter the probability of nongonococcal septic arthritis. Extreme values of sWBC (>50 × 109/L) can increase, but not decrease, the probability of septic arthritis. Future ED-based diagnostic trials are needed to evaluate the role of clinical gestalt and the efficacy of nontraditional synovial markers such as lactate.

Carpenter, Christopher R.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Everett, Worth W.; Pines, Jesse M.

2011-01-01

204

High upper critical fields and evidence of weak-link behavior in superconducting LaFeAsO1-xFx thin films.  

PubMed

Superconducting LaFeAsO1-xFx thin films were grown on single crystalline LaAlO3 substrates with critical temperatures (onset) up to 28 K. Resistive measurements in high magnetic fields up to 40 T reveal a paramagnetically limited upper critical field mu{0}H{c2}(0) around 77 T and a remarkable steep slope of -6.2 T K-1 near T{c}. From transport measurements we observed weak-link behavior in low magnetic fields and evidence for a broad reversible regime. PMID:20366908

Haindl, S; Kidszun, M; Kauffmann, A; Nenkov, K; Kozlova, N; Freudenberger, J; Thersleff, T; Hänisch, J; Werner, J; Reich, E; Schultz, L; Holzapfel, B

2010-02-18

205

Information literacy for evidence-based practice in perianesthesia nurses: readiness for evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Information literacy, the recognition of information required, and the development of skills for locating, evaluating, and effectively using relevant evidence is needed for evidence-based practice (EBP). The purpose of this study was to examine perianesthesia nurses' perception of searching skills and access to evidence sources. The design was a descriptive, exploratory survey. The sample consisted of ASPAN members (n = 64) and nonmembers (n = 64). The Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice instrument was used. Findings were that ASPAN members read more journal articles, were more proficient with computers, and used Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) more frequently than nonmembers. The three top barriers to use of research were: lack of understanding of organization or structure of electronic databases, lack of skills to critique and/or synthesize the literature, and difficulty in accessing research materials. In conclusion, education is needed for critiquing literature and understanding electronic databases and research articles to promote EBP in perianesthesia areas. PMID:20359640

Ross, Jacqueline

2010-04-01

206

Study on the adsorption property of lysozyme on weak cation exchanger based on monodisperse poly(glycidymethacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) beads.  

PubMed

A type of weak cation exchanger was prepared based on poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate). The effects of pH and ionic strength on the adsorption behavior were studied, and the results suggested that the adsorption of lysozyme onto a weak cation exchanger is electrostatic interaction, and that the adsorption behavior is in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption model with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99. It was also found that increasing ionic strength led to a decrease of the adsorption of lysozyme from 49.50 to 28.09 mg/g. Preliminary chromatographic experiments were conducted to test the separation properties of the weak cation exchanger, and the results demonstrated that the retention time of different proteins could be predicted in order of their isoelectric point. PMID:22776738

Zhang, Jing; Han, Yan-Ting; Bu, Xin-Li; Yue, Xuan-Feng

2012-07-09

207

Applying evidence-based practice in radiology nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiology nursing needs to apply research to practice when the evidence is available and to identify areas of further research. Evidence-based practice is defined as the synthesis and use of evidence from scientific investigations and other types of knowledge to guide practice and clinical decision making. Many practices in nursing are based on tradition–for example, using heparin to maintain IV

Ramona Lynd; Donna J Anderson; Phyllis L Miller; Nelson A Kimberly; Schaffer Judith

2004-01-01

208

Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

2012-01-01

209

Addressing Key Challenges in Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its promise of enhancing the effectiveness of services, evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) appears to offer much to psychologists, patients, and policymakers. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the key challenges facing psychologists who wish to provide evidence-based treatment services, including how research evidence is used in EBPP, whether the results of the treatment research

John Hunsley

2007-01-01

210

Towards evidence-based pharmacotherapy in children.  

PubMed

In daily practice, it is difficult to find a registered drug for children, because about 70% of the drugs prescribed in children are not studied, off-label or unlicensed in this age group. Clinical trials have usually been performed in adults, and then in daily practice dosages are adjusted for children without proper studies in that age group. In some countries, national formularies are being established to overcome the existing variance in prescribing between physicians. Complicating factors in finding the correct dosage for children include the heterogeneity between different age groups in the developmental stages of the organs influencing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as differences in body composition during growth. Growth may also influence the effects and adverse effects of a drug used in a child. For oral administration of drugs in children, the bioavailability, the taste, the composition, and the absence of toxic ingredients for that age group are additional important factors. The EU has recently introduced legislation to stimulate the pharmaceutical industry to investigate the pharmacological effect and safety of new medicines in children. In response to this legislation, research networks are being established to provide the optimal infrastructure for pediatric drug investigation. The goals of this paper are to review the current problems in daily practice and to address the needs for evidence based pharmacotherapy in children. PMID:21199133

Kemper, Elles Marleen; Merkus, Maruschka; Wierenga, Peter C; Van Rijn, Petra C; Van der Werff, Desirée; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Offringa, Martin

2010-12-28

211

Controlling biofilm with evidence-based dentifrices.  

PubMed

This review summarizes research that has assessed the effectiveness of various antimicrobial-containing dentifrices in preventing and/or reducing a number of oral health problems facing our patients today. The results of these studies indicate that, when compared with a conventional fluoride dentifrice, the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice is the one with the most evidence to support its ability to deliver significant oral health benefits with no adverse effects. The benefits maybe summarized as follows: improved levels ofsupragingival plaque control; improved gingival health; reducedlikelihood of gingivitis progressing to periodontitis; arrest progression of periodontitis; prevention of supragingival calculus; and reduction in oral malodor. With increased interest in the association of oral health with systemic health, this dentifrice is well-positioned to help reduce the likelihood of gingivitis establishing itself and possibly developing into periodontitis (Figure 1). It also has the potential to have beneficial effects on general health because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results presented in this article, it is clear that the general population can derive significant clinical benefits from the daily use of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. The dental profession should feel confident to recommend its use to patients to improve oral health and maintain or promote overall health. PMID:21462625

Ciancio, Sebastian G

212

Evidence-based medicine in migraine prevention.  

PubMed

Migraine headache is a chronic, painful, disabling and potentially progressive, condition primarily occurring in early and middle adulthood. For many patients, daily activities are impaired by the sudden and unpredictable occurrence of migraine attacks. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the field of migraine treatment. For the acute treatment of migraine attacks, 5-hydroxytryptophan(1B/D) agonists (so called triptans), were the most innovative development, successfully aborting attacks in less than 1 h. The search for innovative drugs usable for migraine prevention, however, was less successful, mainly due to the lack of reliable and predictive animal models. Recently, neuromodulators such as valproic acid and topiramate, initially developed as anticonvulsants, have been shown in large clinical trials to be effective in the prevention of migraine. As for the acute treatment of migraine attacks more than 10 years ago, large clinical trial programs are now setting new standards for evidence-based medicine in migraine prevention. This review summarizes the current options in migraine prevention with special emphasis on clinical trial design and new developments such as topiramate. PMID:15938666

Yoon, Min-Suk; Savidou, Irini; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Limmroth, Volker

2005-05-01

213

An advanced educational program promoting evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice has led to improved health care quality and safety; greater patient, family, and staff satisfaction; and reduced costs. Despite these promising outcomes, use of evidence-based practice is inconsistent. The purpose of this article is to describe an advanced educational program for nurses in leadership roles responsible for guiding teams and mentoring colleagues through the challenges inherent in the evidence-based practice process. The Advanced Practice Institute: Promoting Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice is an innovative program designed to develop advanced skills essential for completing evidence-based practice projects and building organizational capacity for evidence-based practice programs. Learning is facilitated through group discussion, facilitated work time, networking, and consultation. Content includes finding and synthesizing evidence, learning effective strategies for implementation and evaluation, and discussing techniques for building an EBP program in the nurses' organization. Program evaluations are extremely positive, and the long-term impact is described. PMID:20705775

Cullen, Laura; Titler, Marita G; Rempel, Grace

2010-08-12

214

Evidence for Strong and Weak Turbulence Processes in the Source Region of a Local Type III Radio Burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) observations of a local type III radio burst and the associated plasma wave activity generated in the vicinity of the spacecraft. These observations represent the first clear evidence of (1) the occurrence of ion-acoustic waves as well as whistlers in close association with Langmuir waves, (2) the coexistence of

G. Thejappa; R. J. MacDowall

1998-01-01

215

OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS: STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (SWOT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging discipline, we propose a formal definition of OBIA, describe how OBIA came into existence, and as a road map to future research propose a fundamental objective. In order to provide potential strategies to meet this objective, we undertake a tentative SWOT Analysis to identify current Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats that OBIA faces, and discuss the results.

G. J. Hay; G. Castilla

216

Highly Catalytic Enantioselective Epoxidation of Enones with Weak Base Bicarbonate and Hydrogen Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak basic bicarbonate-activated hydrogen peroxide is applied to the catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of the enones, and the catalyst polyleucine cannot be deteriorated and can successfully be reused in this asymmetric reaction. The ee value of the optically active epoxidation product is up to 95%.

Chao-Shan Da; Jie Wei; Shou-Liang Dong; Zhuo-Qun Xin; Da-Xue Liu; Zhao-Qin Xu; Rui Wang

2003-01-01

217

Process-based Empirical Prediction of Landslides in Weakly Lithified Coastal Cliffs, San Francisco, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal landslides in weakly lithified sediment are a common occurrence in many parts of the world, including the west coast of the United States. Here, geologically young (Quaternary), marine terrace deposits form steep, near vertical cliff exposures up to 30 m in height and extend for many kilometers along the coastlines of the states of California, Oregon, and Washington. A

B. D. Collins; R. Kayen

218

Numerical study on acoustics in bubbly liquids based on weakly nonlinear wave equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper numerically examines weakly nonlinear propagation of plane progressive waves in liquids uniformly containing many gas bubbles. Solving two types of nonlinear wave equations via a finite difference method clarifies and depicts the following results: (i) the dissipation and dispersion effects appear, (ii) nonlinearity generates higher harmonics, and (iii) dispersion causes the separation of each wavenumber component with its own phase velocity.

Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Egashira, Ryu

2013-10-01

219

Weak fault feature extraction of gearbox's bearing based on EMD-bispectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EMD-bispectrum method is proposed to extract the weak fault feature of gearbox's bearing. The vibration signal is decomposed to a series of IMFS by EMD, and bispectrums of main IMFs are added up as the true bispectrum of the vibration signal. The influence of the cross-components created by the direct bispectrum of multicomponents signal and the eliminating principle of

Jianmin Mei; Long Qiao; Yun-kui Xiao

2012-01-01

220

Weak bases and ionophores rapidly and reversibly raise the ph of endocytic vesicles in cultured mouse fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that endocytic vesicles in BALB\\/c 3T3 cells have a pH of 5.0 (Tycko and Maxfield, Cell, 28:643-651). In this paper, a method for measuring the effect of various agents, including weak bases and ionophores, on the pH of endocytic vesicles is presented. The method is based on the increase in fluorescein fluorescence with 490-nm excitation as

FREDERICK R. MAXFIELD

1982-01-01

221

Evidence-based Practices in Infection Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Evidence can be obtained from clinical trials and bacteriological studies. The latter consist mainly of measuring reductions in colonization, or reductions in bacterial counts on naturally or artificially contaminated surfaces, following the introduction of the measure to be tested. Controlled clinical trials usually provide the best evidence, but are infrequently carried out due to the large number of subjects

Graham AJ Ayliffe

2000-01-01

222

Evaluation of evidence-based methods used to teach nursing students to critically appraise evidence.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether students can learn to critically appraise a scientific article through evidence-based teaching methods. The course trains students in three steps of evidence-based practice--formulating a question, searching the evidence, and critically appraising the evidence. We gave the students two scientific articles. The articles were divided into sections, and 1 to 2 days were spent on each section. Every day had the same structure: a brief lecture on the relevant part of the article, group work, and interactive plenary discussions. At the end of the course, the students had a group examination in which they critically appraised a new scientific article. Most students reported that having learned steps one, two, and three involved in evidence-based practice was useful in critically appraising a scientific article. The results from the examination supported this. Knowledge about evidence-based practice can increase students' critical attitudes toward the evidence and their own practice. PMID:18751651

Smith-Strøm, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica W

2008-08-01

223

Variation, Certainty, Evidence, and Change in Dental Education: Employing Evidence-based Dentistry in Dental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a case-based dental scenario, presents systematic evidence-based methods for accessing dental health care information, evaluating this information for validity and importance, and using this information to make informed curricular and clinical decisions. Also discusses barriers inhibiting these systematic approaches to evidence-based

Marinho, Valeria Coelho Catao; Richards, Derek; Niederman, Richard

2001-01-01

224

Intracellular pH and the distribution of weak acids and bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia.  

PubMed Central

1. The steady-state intracellular/extracellular concentration ratios (Ci/Co) of a number of radiolabelled weak bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia were measured. 2. Observed values for Ci/Co (mean +/- S.E. of mean) were [3H]nicotine, 6.17 +/- 0.12; [14C]morphine, 6.08 +/- 0.14 [3H]atropine, 7.10 +/- 0.16; [14C]trimethylamine, 6.73 +/- 0.13; [14C]procaine, 10.13 +/- 0.26. If Ci/Co were determined by the transmembrane pH gradient, the intracellular pH (pHi) appropriate to these concentration gradients lay between 6.4 and 6.6 at an extracellular pH (pHo) of 7.4. 3. the steady-state value of Ci/Co for the weak acid 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) was 0.87 +/- 0.007. The appropriate pHi was 7.31 +/- 0.003. 4. The difference between the values of pHi calculated from the distribution of the weak bases and of DMO could not be attributed to (i) experimental error, (ii) partial permeation of protonated base, (iii) intracellular binding or carrier-mediated transport of base, (iv) lipid uptake of base or (v) different pK'a inside and outside cells. 5. The difference between the measurements of pHi made with DMO and nicotine (pHDMO-pHnic) was reduced or abolished by uncoupling agents, which act as transmembrane proton carriers. This effect was not reproduced by respiratory inhibitors or by exposure to lactate. 6. pHDMO-pHnic was small (less than 0.1 units) in human erythrocytes, which contain no intracellular organelles, and was exaggerated (1.0 unit) in slices of lipid-depleted brown adipose tissue which contained an abundance of mitochondria. 7. It is concluded that the different values of pHi determined using weak acids and bases arise from the presence of membrane-bound intracellular compartments of differing pH, and that where the use of pH-sensitive micro-electrodes is impracticable, it is desirable to measure pHi with both a weak acid and a weak base unless these can be shown equal over a wide range of pHi values.

Brown, D A; Garthwaite, J

1979-01-01

225

Space-Time Correlation of Stable Boundary-Layer, Weak Wind Data from Ground Based Acoustic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data collected using ground based acoustic sensing in order to connect near-surface motions including turbulence and sub-meso modes under stable, weak wind conditions to possible external forcing mechanisms from aloft. Under stable stratification and weak wind conditions the generation of the weak, intermittent turbulence is poorly understood, but critical to understanding and modeling the dispersion and diffusion of pollutants and other trace gases. Recent studies have suggested that the driving processes behind weak wind turbulence may include external forcing on the sub-meso scale. The forcing mechanisms may include gravity waves, 2 dimensional horizontal modes, solitons, or interactions between surface flow and low-level jets. Efforts to detect weak wind, sub-meso scale processes have failed so far due to a lack of sufficient spatial coverage necessary for capturing these events. This research has taken an unconventional observational approach by using a pair of SODAR (Sound Detection And Ranging) units. The SODARs have collected data on short time scales with a significant vertical (15 - 300 meters) and horizontal (200 - 1000 meters) coverage. The experiment took place on Oregon State University's Research Farms located roughly a mile to the east of OSU's campus. The site was chosen for its homogenous terrain which allowed the two SODAR's to be separated across the domain without their measurements being contaminated by influence from surface heterogeneity. The experiment has provided a data set comprised of more than 3 months of semi-continuous SODAR data. By making use of the Multi-resolution Decomposition method we will present results on the space-time correlations of the boundary-layer winds on multiple different time scales. The results will be a significant step towards improving the predictability of weak wind meanderings, identifying scaling parameters for sub-meso scale motions, and help to improve air quality and diffusion models.

Smoot, A. R.; Thomas, C. K.

2011-12-01

226

Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

2010-01-01

227

Attached or not attached—evidence from crustal stress observations for a weak coupling of the Vrancea slab in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustal stress pattern of Romania provides key insights into whether the Vrancea slab with its seismogenic volume between 70 and 175 km depth is still coupled to the crust and thus acts as a stress guide, or whether it is already in a state of detachment from the crust. Knowledge of the state of the slab under Vrancea is particularly critical because the slab attached to the crust can result in future strong earthquake occurrence in the crust and even in the currently aseismic zone between 40 km and 70 km depth, potentially causing severe damage. Our analysis of the contemporary tectonic stress observations in the context of potential stress sources and the comparison with numerical modelling shows that the crustal stress pattern in Romania is heterogeneous and does not contain a long wave-length stress pattern that would be expected if there is a strong present-day coupling between the subducted slab and the upper plate, or if lateral plate boundary forces would control the regional stress pattern. Therefore, we conclude that the crustal stress pattern of Romania is characterised by small differential horizontal stresses where local stress sources (third-order effects) are responsible for the observed heterogeneity of stress orientations and that the subducted slab under Vrancea is only weakly coupled to the crust.

Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Negut, Mihaela; Sperner, Blanka; Buchmann, Thies

2010-02-01

228

Evidence-based operations in paediatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been assumed that only 10% of medical interventions are supported by solid scientific evidence. The aim of this study\\u000a was to determine the type of research evidence supporting operations in a tertiary referral paediatric surgical unit. All\\u000a patients admitted over a 4-week period to two surgical firms were enrolled in the study. All major operations carried out\\u000a on

V. Baraldini; L. Spitz; A. Pierro

1998-01-01

229

Hybrid organic\\/inorganic composites based on silica and weak synthetic polyelectrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterization of new organic\\/inorganic composites by the consecutive adsorption of weak polyelectrolytes\\u000a on silica particles were studied in the article. Two polycations containing primary amine groups in the side chains, poly(vinylamine)\\u000a or poly[N(?-aminoethylene) acrylamide], and poly(acrylic acid) as polyanion were used for the hybrid materials construction. The stability\\u000a of the organic\\/inorganic composites has been increased by a

Marcela Mihai; Ecaterina Stela Dr?gan

2011-01-01

230

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

2011-01-01

231

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than

C Mimura; P Griffiths

2003-01-01

232

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than

C Mimura; P Griffiths

2010-01-01

233

Developing an Integrated Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum for Family Medicine Residency at the University of Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general consensus in the academic community that evidence- based medicine (EBM) teaching is essential. Unfortunately, many postgraduate programs have significant weakness in their EBM programs. The Family Medicine Residency committee at the University of Alberta felt their EBM curriculum would benefit from critical review and revision. An EBM Curriculum Committee was created to evaluate previous components and develop

G. Michael Allan; Christina Korownyk; Amy Tan; Hugh Hindle; Lina Kung; Donna Manca

2008-01-01

234

Evidence-based health policy: A preliminary systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy.Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with ‘evidence based health policy’ in their title was conducted using PubMed as a search engine. The identified papers were critically analysed using

Gareth Morgan

2010-01-01

235

APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an in- tegration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes psychology's fundamental commitment to sophis- ticated EBPP and takes into

Alvin R. Mahrer; Frederick L. Newman; John C. Norcross; Doris K. Silverman; Brian D. Smedley; Bruce E. Wampold; Drew I. Westen; Brian T. Yates; Nolan W. Zane; Geoffrey M. Reed; Lynn F. Bufka; Paul D. Nelson; Cynthia D. Belar; Merry Bullock

236

[Strategy for promoting evidence-based nursing practice in hospital].  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice has been demonstrated to improve quality of care, increase patients' satisfaction, and reduce the costs of medical care. Therefore, evidence-based practice is now central to the clinical decision-making process and to achieving better quality of care. Today, it is one of the important indicators of core competences for healthcare providers and accreditation for healthcare and educational systems. Further, evidence-based practice encourages in-school and continuous education programs to integrate evidence-based elements and concepts into curricula. Healthcare facilities and professional organizations proactively host campaigns and encourage healthcare providers to participate in evidence-based related training courses. However, the clinical evidence-based practice progress is slow. The general lack of a model for organizational follow-up may be a key factor associated with the slow adoption phenomenon. The authors provide a brief introduction to the evidence-based practice model, then described how it may be successfully translated through a staged process into the evidence-based practices of organizational cultures. This article may be used as a reference by healthcare facilities to promote evidence-based nursing practice. PMID:24096462

Chen, Yu-Chih; Tang, Lee-Chun; Chou, Shin-Shang

2013-10-01

237

Optical injection-mode-locking of a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical injection mode-locking of a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring with an intra-cavity power controlled wavelength shift and a reducing chirp linewidth at high intra-cavity coupling ratio condition is demonstrated. Both the strong dark-optical comb and strong feedback coupling contribute to the wavelength spectrum shift toward longer wavelength, a wavelength shift from 1356 nm to 1542 nm of the weak-resonant-cavity FPLD based fiber ring associated with its pulsewidth and linwidth also reduced from from 37.5 to 29.5 ps and from 10 to 6 nm, respectively, can be observed. Furthermore, the peak-to-peak frequency chirp reduced from 3.5 to 1.8 GHz was caused by the shrink of linewidth.

Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Lin, Gong-Ru

2007-11-01

238

Optimization-Based Drift Prevention for Learning Control of Underdetermined Linear and Weakly Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper an optimization-based method of drift prevention is presented for learning control of underdetermined linear and weakly nonlinear time-varying dynamic systems. By defining a fictitious cost function and the associated model-based sub-optimality conditions, a new set of equations results, whose solution is unique, thus preventing large drifts from the initial input. Moreover, in the limiting case where the modeling error approaches zero, the input that the proposed method converges to is the unique feasible (zero error) input that minimizes the fictitious cost function, in the linear case, and locally minimizes it in the (weakly) nonlinear case. Otherwise, under mild restrictions on the modeling error, the method converges to a feasible sub-optimal input.

DRIESSEN,BRIAN JAMES; SADEGH,NADER; KWOK,KWAN S.

2000-10-20

239

Nurses' skill level and access to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Integrating evidence-based practice into the culture of an acute care hospital requires assessment, planning, and intervention by nursing leadership. The authors discuss a statewide study that assessed the skill level of nurses in obtaining evidence for their nursing practice, using computers and databases, as well as evaluating the perceived availability of resources in their hospitals to access evidence. PMID:18997555

Cadmus, Edna; Van Wynen, Elizabeth A; Chamberlain, Barbara; Steingall, Patricia; Kilgallen, Mary Ellen; Holly, Cheryl; Gallagher-Ford, Lynn

2008-11-01

240

Evidence-based health care: challenges and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an exponential growth in the interest in evidence-based health care (EBHC) since the term was first coined. With this interest, discussions arise about potential challenges and limitations to the practice of EBHC including the need for developing new skills, the need to have access to evidence, and the scarcity of evidence in support of its practice. Some

Sharon E. Straus

2007-01-01

241

Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

2008-01-01

242

Need for evidence-based practice in prosthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement Of Problem. Patients, their insurers, the courts, and the scientific community are demanding more evidence to support the effectiveness of health care strategies. Purpose. This article describes evidence-based practice, its origins, and value as a way of addressing the demand for evidence of treatment effectiveness in maxillofacial prosthetics. Material And Methods. A limited review of maxillofacial prosthetics literature was

James D. Anderson

2000-01-01

243

Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

2006-01-01

244

Evidence based practice of chronic pain.  

PubMed

The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2012-09-01

245

The basis for evidence-based practice: evaluating the research evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article is based on a paper presented at the 2005 IFLA World Library and Information Congress. It brings together the findings to date of the author's research project on research quality, to address issues related to research quality as a basis for the use of research evidence in evidence-based practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methods used include a

Laurel Anne Clyde

2006-01-01

246

Why the Evidence-Based Paradigm in Early Childhood Education and Care Is Anything but Evident  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praxeological research is a necessary contribution to the research field in early childhood education and care, which is currently dominated by an evidence-based paradigm that tends to consider the measurement of predefined outcomes as the most valid form of research. We analyse the history of the evidence-based paradigm in the field of medicine…

Vandenbroeck, Michel; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi

2012-01-01

247

Toward a Phylogenetic Classification of Primates Based on DNA Evidence Complemented by Fossil Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly resolved primate cladogram based on DNA evidence is congruent with extant and fossil osteological evidence. A provisional primate classification based on this cladogram and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age. Order Primates

Morris Goodman; Calvin A. Porter; John Czelusniak; Scott L. Page; Horacio Schneider; Jeheskel Shoshani; Gregg Gunnell; Colin P. Groves

1998-01-01

248

Why the Evidence-Based Paradigm in Early Childhood Education and Care Is Anything but Evident  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Praxeological research is a necessary contribution to the research field in early childhood education and care, which is currently dominated by an evidence-based paradigm that tends to consider the measurement of predefined outcomes as the most valid form of research. We analyse the history of the evidence-based paradigm in the field of medicine…

Vandenbroeck, Michel; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi

2012-01-01

249

Investigation of disturbance effects on space-based weak lensing measurements with an integrated model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many astrophysicists consider the mystery of accelerated expansion of the universe by a field called dark energy as the greatest challenge to solve in cosmology. Gravitational weak lensing has been identfied as one of the best methods to provide constraints on dark energy model parameters. Weak lensing introduces image shear which can be measured statistically from a large sample of galaxies by determining the ellipticity parameters. Several papers have suggested that a goal in the ability to measure shape biases should be <0.1% - this goal will be reviewed in terms of the observatory "transfer function" with comments interspersed regarding allocation inconsistencies. Time-varying effects introduced by thermoelastic deformations and vibration add bias and noise to the galaxy shape measurements. This is compounded by the wide field-of-view required for the weak lensing science which leads to a spatially varying point spead function (PSF). To fully understand these effects, a detailed integrated model (IM) was constructed which includes a coupled scene/ structure/ optics/ disturbance model. This IM was applied to the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega design concept. Results indicate that previous models of vibration disturbance effects have been too simplified and the allocation for vibration needs to be re-evaluated. Furthermore, because of the complicated processing required to accurately extract shape parameters, it is argued that an IM is needed for maximizing science return by iterating the telescope/ instrument design against mission cost constraints, and processing e¤ectiveness of shape extraction algorithms, instrument calibration techniques and measurement desensitization of observatory effects.

Lieber, Michael; Kaplan, Michael; Sholl, Michael; Bernstein, Gary

2010-07-01

250

Grid Map Building Based on DS Evidence Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of constructing a grid map using ultrasonic sensors based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S evidence theory) is proposed with respect to the problem of unstructured unknown environment mapping. Mobile robot explores environment with ultrasonic sensors. D-S evidence theory is used to fuse multi-sensor information. The problem that D-S evidence theory can't be applied to information fusion under certain

Hongyu Cao; Zhi Tan; Hanxu Sun; Tao Yu

2009-01-01

251

Bias, racism and evidence-based practice: The case for more focused development of the child welfare evidence base  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of continuing concerns about disproportionate representation of African Americans, American Indians, and selected other groups in foster care, development of the practice and policy evidence base has paid scant attention to incorporating the specific concerns of these communities in intervention research. The authors review the current foundation of evidence-based practice and identify gaps in the knowledge base with

Susan J. Wells; Lani M. Merritt; Harold E. Briggs

2009-01-01

252

Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing

Ronald J Feise; Jaroslaw P Grod; Anne Taylor-Vaisey

2006-01-01

253

Fault zone fabric and fault weakness.  

PubMed

Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals, high fluid pressures within the fault core and dynamic processes such as normal stress reduction, acoustic fluidization or extreme weakening at high slip velocity. Dynamic weakening mechanisms can explain some observations; however, creep and aseismic slip are thought to occur on weak faults, and quasi-static weakening mechanisms are required to initiate frictional slip on mis-oriented faults, at high angles to the tectonic stress field. Moreover, the maintenance of high fluid pressures requires specialized conditions and weak mineral phases are not present in sufficient abundance to satisfy weak fault models, so weak faults remain largely unexplained. Here we provide laboratory evidence for a brittle, frictional weakening mechanism based on common fault zone fabrics. We report on the frictional strength of intact fault rocks sheared in their in situ geometry. Samples with well-developed foliation are extremely weak compared to their powdered equivalents. Micro- and nano-structural studies show that frictional sliding occurs along very fine-grained foliations composed of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). When the same rocks are powdered, frictional strength is high, consistent with cataclastic processes. Our data show that fault weakness can occur in cases where weak mineral phases constitute only a small percentage of the total fault rock and that low friction results from slip on a network of weak phyllosilicate-rich surfaces that define the rock fabric. The widespread documentation of foliated fault rocks along mature faults in different tectonic settings and from many different protoliths suggests that this mechanism could be a viable explanation for fault weakening in the brittle crust. PMID:20016599

Collettini, Cristiano; Niemeijer, André; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

2009-12-17

254

Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

Berg, Kris

2010-01-01

255

Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

Berg, Kris

2010-01-01

256

Hydrogen Bonding Based Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Weak Polyacids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilayer thin films that consist of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and weak polyacids such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) were prepared by hydrogen bonding interactions. Both the degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight of PVA were investigated in terms of their influence on growth behavior and pH stability. Multilayer films containing PVA and PAA could be assembled successfully only by using partially hydrolyzed PVA and low pH solutions. By comparing films containing PAA with those containing a more strongly interacting partner, PMAA, it was shown that the extent of PVA hydrolysis becomes significant only when weak hydrogen bonding pairs such as PVA and PAA were used. pH-triggered dissolution experiments demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis can be used as an additional parameter by which to tune the pH stability of the film. Also, the presence of an abundance of free hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups in the multilayer allowed enhanced pH stability to be obtained by thermal and chemical methods as well as numerous opportunities for post-assembly functionalization.

Lee, Hyomin; Mensire, Remy; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

2012-02-01

257

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

258

Evidence-Based Practice. Part I: General Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term evidence-based medicine originated at McMaster University in Canada in 1981 when staff in the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics began publishing a series of papers designed to teach physicians how to critically review medical research literature (Guyatt & Rennie, 2002). This slowly developed into an approach to using research evidence in routine patient care. Evidence-based medicine has

Nirbhay N. Singh; Donald P. Oswald

2004-01-01

259

The Evidence-Based Practice Special Interest Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several nations, shifts in federal policy, consumer attitudes, and pay-for-services systems have placed a stronger emphasis on evidence-based practice than at any time previously. This emphasis, while generally compatible with the behavior-analytic focus on evidence above all, does not always benefit behavior analysis. For example, in the larger movement of evidence-based practice, most evaluators do not place great weight

Ronnie Detrich

260

Preparing Future Generations of Evidence-Based Endocrinologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much to recommend an increased emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) training in medical education. Evidence-based\\u000a practice has emerged as a national priority in efforts to improve health care quality (1). Physicians are encouraged to identify, appraise, and apply the best evidence in their decision making for individual patients.\\u000a However, this ideal remains far from realization. Physicians leave the

Michael L. Green

261

What is “evidence-based practice” in geography education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educationalists developed the concept of “evidence-based practice” during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses the problematic nature of the concept of “evidence-based” in relation to the

Margaret Roberts

2010-01-01

262

Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice.

Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

2010-01-01

263

Evidence-based approach to abscess management  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an overview of the evidence for managing superficial cutaneous abscesses. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PubMed (from 1950), EMBASE (from 1974), The Cochrane Library (from 1966), and Google (from 1998) were searched as were reference lists of identified articles. Summary sites, such as ACP Journal Club and InfoPOEMs, and background resources were also reviewed. MAIN MESSAGE There are many areas of debate regarding abscess management, including pain control, necessity of culture and sensitivity testing, empiric treatment with antibiotics, and open versus primary closure of wounds. Usefulness of cultures and empiric antibiotic treatment has risen to the forefront with the increasing incidence of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION In immunocompetent patients with no confounding risk factors, incision and drainage under local anesthetic is generally sufficient for abscess management. There is no compelling evidence for routine cultures or empiric treatment with antibiotics. Further research is required.

Korownyk, Christina; Allan, G. Michael

2007-01-01

264

Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak.  

PubMed

We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: (i) human trials, (ii) ??3 weeks duration, (iii) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs and (iv) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons' diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

Kaiser, K A; Shikany, J M; Keating, K D; Allison, D B

2013-06-07

265

Evidence based medicine in neurological rehabilitation — a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years some magic words have delighted the neuroscientific community such as ‘‘plasticity’’ or ‘‘network’’. When it comes to medical services another magic word is ‘‘evidence based medicine’’. Evidence based medicine (EBM) means to use well organized knowledge to shape decisions. This is of course a good idea. Historically the first roots of using knowledge to shape

V. Hömberg

266

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

Sturmey, Peter

2009-01-01

267

Developing the skills required for evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research

Beverley French

1998-01-01

268

Hospital facilities and the role of evidence-based design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Drawing on recent research related to hospital facilities, this paper aims to discuss the role of evidence-based design in facility planning and design as a key element in helping the field of facility planning and management continue to strengthen professional practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The discussion draws on relevant literature and recent research. Findings – Evidence-based design is having

Franklin Becker; Kelley S. Parsons

2007-01-01

269

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

Sturmey, Peter

2009-01-01

270

The Search for Truth: The Case for Evidence Based Chaplaincy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaplaincy and medical science are in search of truth. Should chaplaincy become more scientific in response to health care reform? Yes is the answer. Chaplaincy ought to become more based in evidence for the following reasons. First, the health care culture is evidence based and chaplaincy needs to speak that language. Second, chaplaincy and science are not opposed. Third, tradition-driven

Thomas St. James OConnor

2002-01-01

271

Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

2009-01-01

272

Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Conducting Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…

Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary

2004-01-01

273

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices: Considerations for the Hospice Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased regulation and scrutiny of outcomes, hospice programs are being challenged to consider the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This study reports findings from hospice director interviews and staff focus groups, which occurred following the completion of a multifaceted translating research into practice (TRIP) intervention designed to promote evidence-based pain management practices. The purpose of this article is to

Sara Sanders; Melissa Lehan Mackin; Jimmy Reyes; Keela Herr; Marita Titler; Perry Fine; Chris Forcucci

2010-01-01

274

REAL Evidence-Based Practice Development: A Partnership Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines what has been learnt about practice-academic partnership from two Research in Practice projects aimed at supporting the development of evidence-based practice in social care. Tangible support from organisations is needed to support both the partnership approach and the development of evidence-based practice.

Moira Barratt

2002-01-01

275

Towards evidence-based quality improvement: perspectives from nursing practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how the evidence-based practice and quality improvement movements are informing our understanding of what counts as quality patient care. Implicit in the debate is that we have understood and can manage the concept of patient safety. Using a true case study, the paper will illustrate how a clearer, more integrated understanding of safety, evidence-based practice and quality

ALISON KITSON

2000-01-01

276

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

277

An innovative clinical practicum to teach evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

A clinical practicum was successfully implemented for RN to BSN students to apply evidence-based practice to actual clinical problems affecting nursing practice. The author describes how this practicum was implemented and the requisite resources and support systems. This senior-level capstone course enabled students to understand and value a lifelong learning approach to evidence-based practice. PMID:16980821

Brancato, Vera C

278

Evidence-based Nursing Practice: To Infinity and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an historical background for evidence-based practice and methods for assimilating research into practice. Information searching, systematic reviews, and other decision-making models are discussed using specific questions for establishing policy guidelines. Stresses the need for evidence-based practice implementing the best-known…

Pape, Tess M.

2003-01-01

279

Predictions of high-frequency ground-motion in Taiwan based on weak motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a recent paper we use weak-motion waveforms to calibrate a model for the prediction of earthquake-induced ground-motion in Taiwan, in the 0.25-5.0 Hz frequency range, valid up to Mw 7.6. The excitation/attenuation model is given in terms of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation, Qs(f), geometrical spreading, g(r), a magnitude-dependent stress parameters ?? for the excitation terms, and a site term for each seismic station used in the study. A set of weak-motion data was gathered from about 170 aftershocks of the Chi-Chi earthquake, Mw 7.6, of 1999 September 20, (17:47 UTC), recorded by 10 broad-band seismic stations. The moment magnitudes of the registered aftershocks ranged from Mw 3.0 to 6.5, and the hypocentral distances from a few kilometres to about 250 km. A frequency-dependent crustal quality factor, Q(f) = 350f0.32, was obtained, to be coupled with the geometrical spreading function Earthquake-related excitation spectra were calibrated over our empirical results by using a magnitude-dependent Brune model with a stress drop value of ??= 8.0 ± 1.0 MPa for the largest event of Mw 6.5 in our data set and with a near surface attenuation parameter of ?= 0.05 s. Results on region-specific crustal attenuation and source scaling were used to generate stochastic simulations both for point-source and extended-fault ruptures through the computer codes: Stochastic Model SIMulation, SMSIM and Extended-Fault Model Simulation, EXSIM. The absolute peak ground accelerations (PGA), peak ground velocities (PGV) and 5 per cent-damped Spectral Accelerations (SA) at three different frequencies, 0.33 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 3.0 Hz for several magnitudes and distance ranges were predicted at large magnitudes, well beyond magnitude Mw 6.5, the upper limit for the events of our weak-motion data set. The performance of the stochastic model was then tested against the strong-motion data recorded during the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, and against several other empirical ground-motion models.

D'Amico, Sebastiano; Akinci, Aybige; Malagnini, Luca

2012-04-01

280

Synthesis, structure, and bonding of weakly coordinating anions based on CN adducts.  

PubMed

The addition of alkali or silver salts of dicyanoamide (dca), tricyanomethanide (tcm) and tetracyanoborate (tcb) to a solution of B(C(6)F(5))(3) in diethyl ether affords salts containing very voluminous B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct anions of the type [E(CN)(n)(-)] x [B(C(6)F(5))(3)](n): E = N (dca_nb with n = 1, 2; b = B(C(6)F(5))(3)); E = C (tcm_nb with n = 1, 2, 3), and E = B (tcb_nb with n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Salts bearing these anions such as B[(CN) x B(C(6)F(5))(3)](4)(-) (= [B(CN)(4)(-)] x [B(C(6)F(5))(3)](4)), C[(CN) x B(C(6)F(5))(3)](3)(-) (= [C(CN)(3)(-)] x [B(C(6)F(5))(3)](3)), and N[(CN) x B(C(6)F(5))(3)](2)(-) (=[N(CN)(2)(-)] x [B(C(6)F(5))(3)](2)) can be prepared in good yields. They are thermally stable up to over 200 degrees C and dissolve in polar organic solvents. Depending on the stoichiometry mono-, di-, tri-, or tetraadduct formation is observed. The solid state structures of dca_2b, tcm_3b and tcb_4b salts show only long cation...anion contacts and thereby weak interactions, large anion volumes and only small distortions of the dca, tcm or tcb core enwrapped between B(C(6)F(5))(3) groups. That is why these anions can be regarded as weakly coordinating anions. On the basis of B3LYP/6-31+G(d) computations the energetics, structural trends and charge transfer of the adduct anion formation were studied. Since tcm_3b and tcb_4b are easily accessible and can also be prepared in large quantities, these anions may be utilized as a true alternative to other widely used weakly coordinating anions. Moreover, for both steric and electronic reasons it seems reasonable to expect that as counterions for cationic early transition metal catalysts such anions may show reduced ion pairing and hence increased catalytic activity. PMID:19469540

Bernsdorf, Arne; Brand, Harald; Hellmann, Robert; Köckerling, Martin; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander; Voss, Karsten

2009-07-01

281

Overcoming Challenges to Using Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for School Mental Health Assistance at the University of Maryland recently completed a review of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs that can be used by school mental health clinicians. Based on the review, a school-based program operating in 22 Baltimore City schools has purchased and trained clinicians in a number of protocols for evidence-based interventions. We present findings

Cindy M. Schaeffer; Eric Bruns; Mark Weist; Sharon Hoover Stephan; Julie Goldstein; Yolanda Simpson

2005-01-01

282

Fast physical random-number generation based on room-temperature chaotic oscillations in weakly coupled superlattices.  

PubMed

An all-electronic physical random number generator at rates up to 80??Gbit/s is presented, based on weakly coupled GaAs/Ga0.55Al0.45As superlattices operated at room temperature. It is based on large-amplitude, chaotic current oscillations characterized by a bandwidth of several hundred MHz and do not require external feedback or conversion to an electronic signal prior to digitization. The method is robust and insensitive to external perturbations and its fully electronic implementation suggests scalability and minimal postprocessing in comparison to existing optical implementations. PMID:23931371

Li, Wen; Reidler, Igor; Aviad, Yaara; Huang, Yuyang; Song, Helong; Zhang, Yaohui; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kanter, Ido

2013-07-25

283

Fast Physical Random-Number Generation Based on Room-Temperature Chaotic Oscillations in Weakly Coupled Superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all-electronic physical random number generator at rates up to 80Gbit/s is presented, based on weakly coupled GaAs/Ga0.55Al0.45As superlattices operated at room temperature. It is based on large-amplitude, chaotic current oscillations characterized by a bandwidth of several hundred MHz and do not require external feedback or conversion to an electronic signal prior to digitization. The method is robust and insensitive to external perturbations and its fully electronic implementation suggests scalability and minimal postprocessing in comparison to existing optical implementations.

Li, Wen; Reidler, Igor; Aviad, Yaara; Huang, Yuyang; Song, Helong; Zhang, Yaohui; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kanter, Ido

2013-07-01

284

A Review of Online Evidence-based Practice Point-of-Care Information Summary Providers  

PubMed Central

Background Busy clinicians need easy access to evidence-based information to inform their clinical practice. Publishers and organizations have designed specific tools to meet doctors’ needs at the point of care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe online point-of-care summaries and evaluate their breadth, content development, and editorial policy against their claims of being “evidence-based.” Methods We searched Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and information conference proceedings from January to December 2008. We included English Web-based point-of-care summaries designed to deliver predigested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, periodically updated, evidence-based information to clinicians. Two investigators independently extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of summaries. We assessed and ranked point-of-care products according to: (1) coverage (volume) of medical conditions, (2) editorial quality, and (3) evidence-based methodology. We explored how these factors were associated. Results We retrieved 30 eligible summaries. Of these products, 18 met our inclusion criteria and were qualitatively described, and 16 provided sufficient data for quantitative evaluation. The median volume of medical conditions covered was 80.6% (interquartile range, 68.9% - 84.2%) and varied for the different products. Similarly, differences emerged for editorial policy (median 8.0, interquartile range 5.8 - 10.3) and evidence-based methodology scores (median 10.0, interquartile range 1.0 - 12.8) on a 15-point scale. None of these dimensions turned out to be significantly associated with the other dimensions (editorial quality and volume, Spearman rank correlation r = -0.001, P = .99; evidence-based methodology and volume, r = -0.19, P = .48; editorial and evidence-based methodology, r = 0.43, P =.09). Conclusions Publishers are moving to develop point-of-care summary products. Some of these have better profiles than others, and there is room for improved reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these products.

Liberati, Alessandro; Moschetti, Ivan; Tagliabue, Ludovica; Moja, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

285

Super-rogue waves in simulations based on weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations.  

PubMed

The rogue wave solutions (rational multibreathers) of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) are tested in numerical simulations of weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. Only the lowest order solutions from 1 to 5 are considered. A higher accuracy of wave propagation in space is reached using the modified NLS equation, also known as the Dysthe equation. This numerical modeling allowed us to directly compare simulations with recent results of laboratory measurements in Chabchoub et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 056601 (2012)]. In order to achieve even higher physical accuracy, we employed fully nonlinear simulations of potential Euler equations. These simulations provided us with basic characteristics of long time evolution of rational solutions of the NLS equation in the case of near-breaking conditions. The analytic NLS solutions are found to describe the actual wave dynamics of steep waves reasonably well. PMID:23944540

Slunyaev, A; Pelinovsky, E; Sergeeva, A; Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

2013-07-19

286

Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

2013-04-01

287

Re-evaluation of heat flow data near Parkfield, CA: Evidence for a weak San Andreas Fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved interpretations of the strength of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA based on thermal data require quantification of processes causing significant scatter and uncertainty in existing heat flow data. These effects include topographic refraction, heat advection by topographically-driven groundwater flow, and uncertainty in thermal conductivity. Here, we re-evaluate the heat flow data in this area by correcting for full 3-D terrain effects. We then investigate the potential role of groundwater flow in redistributing fault-generated heat, using numerical models of coupled heat and fluid flow for a wide range of hydrologic scenarios. We find that a large degree of the scatter in the data can be accounted for by 3-D terrain effects, and that for plausible groundwater flow scenarios frictional heat generated along a strong fault is unlikely to be redistributed by topographically-driven groundwater flow in a manner consistent with the 3-D corrected data. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Fulton, P. M.; Saffer, D. M.; Harris, R. N.; Bekins, B. A.

2004-01-01

288

From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

2010-01-01

289

From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

2010-01-01

290

NCLEX-RN success: evidence-based strategies.  

PubMed

Evidence-based nursing requires that students think reflectively and use clinical inquiry to develop clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Likewise, nursing students need a strategy to be successful in passing the NCLEX-RN. The authors identify strategies based on nursing research to facilitate student success. While learning the evidence-based nursing process, the student must begin to think like a nurse while answering clinical practice questions. Using the skills taught for evidence-based nursing can be a powerful tool to approach the NCLEX-RN and succeed. PMID:22024676

Thomas, Marie H; Baker, Susan Scott

291

Evidence-based dentistry and the concept of harm.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine requires the integration of best research evidence with the clinician's expertise and the patient's unique values and circumstances. One of the most important issues in deciding what course of treatment to select is balancing the potential risks and benefits of treatment. A framework for evidence-based decision-making includes formulating the clinical question and then retrieving, appraising, and considering the applicability of the evidence to the patient. It is the duty of all health care providers to reduce patient risk by selecting appropriate therapies and informing patients of unavoidable risks. PMID:19215741

Thomas, Mark V; Straus, Sharon E

2009-01-01

292

Evidence-based practice in psychiatric care: defining levels of evidence.  

PubMed

Identification and application of the current research evidence to a clinical problem is a goal reflected in professional codes and institutional mission statements. The use of expert opinions and traditions is no longer clinically or legally defensible in an era of using emerging evidence. Application of current research evidence is the emerging standard of care for all health care personnel, including psychiatric mental health care. The emergence of evidence-based practice as the new standard of care obliges all health care providers to use the latest research evidence. The need to make an intervention based on the highest level of evidence mandates that clinicians understand levels of research evidence and how the different classification systems of evidence compare. In this article, the levels of research evidence are reviewed to provide a framework for determining the best evidence to use as a basis for clinical interventions. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(3), 181-187. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308321220. PMID:21665764

Rice, Michael J

2008-06-01

293

Extending the evidence hierarchy to enhance evidence-based practice for substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper examines the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in the context of the developmental status of theory, research and practice on substance use disorders. Scope Hierarchical views that favor randomized con- trolled trials (RCTs) over other forms of evidence are reviewed, and the benefits and limitations of RCTs are considered as they intersect with contemporary issues in the field.

Jalie A. Tucker; David L. Roth

2006-01-01

294

A population perspective to evidence based medicine: "evidence for population health"  

PubMed Central

We explore the notion that the public health community could learn lessons from the success of evidence based medicine (EBM) and develop a public health counterpart called "Evidence for Population Health". While EBM focuses on individual patients, its public health counterpart would aim to improve the health of communities effectively and efficiently.

Heller, R; Page, J

2002-01-01

295

Evidence based practice: the practicalities of keeping abreast of clinical evidence while in training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a practical account of why and how to learn to practise evidence based medicine while still in clinical training. It highlights practical benefits to learning the skills (such as passing exams, coping with information overload and helping patients), and explains how to manage each of the four essential steps (asking questions, acquiring information, appraising evidence, and applying

R Phillips; P Glasziou

2008-01-01

296

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education Assignment designed to promote a deeper, more comprehensive and critical understanding of the

Ellen Tuchman; Monique Lalane

2011-01-01

297

Possibility and evidence theory-based design optimization: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To survey the approaches to design optimization based on possibility theory and evidence theory comparatively, as well as their prominent characteristics mainly for epistemic uncertainty. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Owing to uncertainties encountered in engineering design problems and limitations of the conventional probabilistic approach in handling the impreciseness of data or knowledge, the possibility-based design optimization (PBDO), evidence-based design optimization

Li-Ping He; Fu-Zheng Qu

2008-01-01

298

Evidence-Based Practice Problems: Form and Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care reform poses major challenges for psychiatric mental health care. Foremost among the challenges is a mandate for reimbursement based on performance-based outcomes. Clinicians can increase the efficiency of evidence-based practice searches by using the correct form of PICOT (population, intervention, comparator, outcome, time frame) question to focus the search, based on (a) diagnosis, (b) treatment, (c) prognosis, (d)

Michael J. Rice

2010-01-01

299

Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of Science Literacy for All in Science Teaching Journals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science literacy for all is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching journals' recommendations are anchored to high-quality evidence. We found that (a) most National Science Teacher Association journals' science literacy recommendations have weak or no evidence base and (b) those with evidence reference teaching journals, teacher resource books, and literacy education more often than science education research. We concluded that all participants in the knowledge production cycle and transfer process—authors, editors, and reviewers—need to encourage evidence-based practices anchored to ongoing reforms and to literacy and science education research.

Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.

2012-10-01

300

EVIDENCE - BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

A push for the use of evidence?based medicine and evidence?based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence?based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision?making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well?being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence?based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

Lehecka, B.J.

2012-01-01

301

Evidence-based practices for safe patient handling and movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than\\u000a scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver\\u000a injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used\\u000a strategies have demonstrated that they are ineffective.

Audrey Nelson; Andrea S. Baptiste

2006-01-01

302

Meaningful use: intersections with evidence-based practice and outcomes.  

PubMed

In this department, Drs Newhouse and Wilson highlight hot topics in nursing outcomes, research, and evidence-based practice relevant to the nurse administrator. Content includes evidence-based projects and decision making, locating measurement tools for quality improvement and safety projects, using outcome measures to evaluate quality, practice implications of administrative research, and exemplars of projects that demonstrate innovative approaches to organizational problems. In this article, the authors describe the implications of meaningful use implementation to evidence-based practice and outcome measurement and discuss issues facing nurse executives in planning for these changes. PMID:22922746

Wilson, Marisa L; Newhouse, Robin P

2012-09-01

303

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, a consensus has emerged regarding a set of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia that address symptom management and psychosocial functioning. Yet, surveys suggest that the great majority of the population of individuals with schizophrenia do not receive evidence-based care. In this article, we review the empirical literature on implementation of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia patients. We first examine lessons learned from implementation studies in general medicine. We then summarize the implementation literature specific to schizophrenia, including medication practices, psychosocial interventions, information technology, and state- and federal-level interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future directions.

Drake, Robert E.; Bond, Gary R.; Essock, Susan M.

2009-01-01

304

Ion-pair association and acid-base equilibria in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis of weakly basic compounds.  

PubMed

CE in nonaqueous media was used to study the migrating behavior of two weakly basic s-triazine pesticides and one of their metabolites. The target pesticides were selected to be representative for each of the two main groups: propazine and deethylatrazine for the chloro-s-triazines group and ametryn for the methylthio-s-triazines group. To elucidate the phenomena involved, systematic studies were carried out in the different organic media studied. Absolute mobilities were determined in 50% v/v methanol (MeOH)/ACN by extrapolation of the effective mobilities to zero ionic strength in the presence of different concentrations of perchloric acid. Conductivity measurements performed in MeOH and 50 and 20% v/v methanol/ACN permitted the evaluation of the associations of the components of the BGE. The effects of ionic strength on the actual mobilities of the compounds were determined in the presence of perchloric acid and SDS in different organic media. Two different ion-pair equilibria were considered: one due to the presence of perchlorate anions present in the BGE and second that from the added dodecyl sulfate anions. Bearing in mind that these weakly basic compounds can exhibit ion-pair and acid-base equilibria, the acid-base and ion-pair parasite reaction coefficients were determined. Finally, the effects of ionic strength, ion-pair interactions and acid-base properties on the effective electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes are discussed. PMID:16342322

Carabias-Martínez, Rita; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Hernández-Méndez, Jesús; Cruz, Edith Miranda; Domínguez-Alvarez, Javier

2006-02-01

305

Evidence-based management of ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, the exact etiology of which remains unknown. The prevalence in the general population is around 0.25%, and the condition represents a considerable financial burden to the health service. The natural history of the condition is one of periods of remission, punctuated by relapses of disease activity. Medical therapy aims to minimise the frequency of these relapses, as well as the need for glucocorticosteroids, which have potentially deleterious effects. In those with acute severe disease, however, glucocorticosteroids are probably effective, as are infliximab and cyclosporine. In those with a mild to moderate flare of disease activity, oral or topical 5-ASAs, or in combination, are more effective than placebo for induction of remission. Doses of oral 5-ASAs in excess of 2g/day appear to lead to higher likelihood of successful remission. Once remission has been achieved, there is evidence to support the use of oral or topical 5-ASAs, and azathioprine to prevent relapse of disease activity. Again, doses of 5-ASA in excess of 2g/day are associated with a lower risk of relapse. Individuals with chronic relapsing and remitting disease activity are difficult to manage, and may require colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastamosis. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis could be of benefit in this setting, but most trials have been conducted in the Far East, so the efficacy in Western UC patients is unclear. PMID:22643593

Gracie, D J; Ford, A C

2012-06-01

306

Crisis management in schools: evidence- based prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical incidents in or involving schools include shootings, stabbings, other forms of homicide, terrorist activity, suicide, road traffic accidents, major fires and natural disasters, which result or might result in death and\\/or serious injury to students and staff. Where crisis management plans exist, they might be based on 'common sense' or clinical judgement, risking worsening rather than improving outcomes. The

Wilson MacNeil; Keith Topping

2007-01-01

307

Evidence-Based Practice at the Point of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice at the point of care gives advance practice registered nurses and their patients immediate access to the most current evidence and research-backed information to treat the specific issue or health concern with which the patient presents. Patients without current complaints, but with questions and concerns can receive education regarding current preventive guidelines and recommendations for many illnesses, such

Rick Amend; Angela Golden

2011-01-01

308

Classifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present supervised machine-learning approaches to automatically classify medical questions based on a hierarchical evidence taxonomy created by physicians. We show that SVMs is the best classifier for this task and that a ladder approach, which incorporates the knowledge representation of the hierarchical evidence taxonomy, leads to the highest performance. We have explored the use of features from a large,

Hong Yu; Carl Sable; Hai Ran Zhu; Cooper Union

309

Evidence-based policy recommendations on cancer screening and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, practice guidelines for cancer prevention should reflect the available empirical evidence. Although the most persuasive arguments for the efficacy of an intervention come from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), such studies are not always feasible because of ethical or logistical reasons. The advent of evidence-based medicine has underscored the need for consortia of researchers specialized in reviewing the biomedical literature

Eduardo L. Franco; Eliane Duarte-Franco; Thomas E. Rohan

2002-01-01

310

Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

Goldstein, Brian A.

2008-01-01

311

Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

2013-01-01

312

An evidence-based practice primer for infusion nurses.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the process of using current, best evidence to guide nursing care and improve patient outcomes. This article discusses the differences between research and EBP, reviews the process of EBP, and applies EBP guidelines to central catheter infections, a clinical problem relevant to infusion nursing. PMID:20631583

Bays, Cathy L; Hermann, Carla P

313

Practice-Based Evidence--Overcoming Insecure Attachments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines educational psychologists' (EPs') engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use…

Fox, Mark

2011-01-01

314

Evidence-based perioperative care is lost in translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine is one of the most important tools used to improve the quality and efficiency of health- care. However, ensuring the practical impact of the wealth of clinical evi- dence that is available appears harder to realize than expected. The extent to which surgical practice remains impervious to the availability of high- quality clinical evidence is particu- larly apparent

J. Hardman; G. L. Carlson

2008-01-01

315

Integrating Evidence-based Decision Making into Allied Health Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based decision making (EBDM) was incorporated into an institute for 42 dental hygiene, occupational therapy, and physical therapy faculty. The 4-day sessions addressed active teaching techniques, formulation of good questions, critical appraisal of evidence, and application, feedback, and evaluation. Most participants felt prepared to…

Forrest, Jane L.; Miller, Syrene A.

2001-01-01

316

Acupuncture And Evidence-Based Medicine: A Philosophical Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current popularity of evidence-based medicine poses a challenge for acupuncture and other interactive therapies. This article explores the assumption of objectivity involved in gathering evidence, suggests that objectivity is an inappropriate standard for acupuncture, and concludes that where acupuncture and other interactive therapies are concerned, the objective\\/subjective dichotomy is perhaps transcended.

Michael T. Greenwood

2002-01-01

317

What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

Roberts, Margaret

2010-01-01

318

Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

2013-01-01

319

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

320

Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

Kowalski, Theodore

2009-01-01

321

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

322

Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid Base Equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acid base equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acid base pairs for all

Harry L. Pardue; Ihab N. Odeh; Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai

2004-01-01

323

Weak Constraint Programming to Identify Alternative Composite COTS-Based Software Systems from Imperfect Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based software development must deal with the fact that in practical settings, components information may be incomplete, imprecise and uncertain. Architects wanting to evaluate candidate architectures regarding requirements satisfaction need to use whatever information be available about components, however imperfect. This article introduces constraint programming as a formal technique to generate, evaluate and select composite COTS-based software systems (CCSS). This

Carlos Becerra Castro; Hernán Astudillo

2008-01-01

324

Weak and Small Infrared Target Automatic Detection Based on Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method about the infrared small target detection in complicated background is studied. According to the nice localization ability and directional characteristic of wavelet multi-resolution analysis, an effective target detection algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed. Firstly, the original image is decomposed twice by wavelet transform to get its horizontal and vertical high frequency image. Based on the

Wang Ting; Shenyuan Yang

2008-01-01

325

[Building an evidence-based practice culture: incorporating evidence-based nursing in the clinical ladder system].  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice has become a dominant trend in the healthcare with the objective of providing efficient, high quality health care, and policy making. Traditional problem-solving methods may not adequately address consumer needs in the rapidly changing modern healthcare system. In order to make correct decisions, a systematic and scientific approach to the collection, assessment, and interpretation of clinical information is essential for the health care provider. Creating an evidence-based practice nursing culture is the most fundamental way for nurses to recognize the importance of evidence-based nursing and, subsequently, adapt to solving clinical problems. This paper elaborates the strategy for incorporating evidence-based nursing into the clinical ladder system used at the authors' affiliated medical center. Three strategies are introduced. These are: (1) including the EBN concept in newcomer in-service training; (2) adopting evidence-based nursing practice competence as a criterion in the clinical ladder system, with various evidence-based, ladder-related reports required for promotion; and (3) providing support to nurses through centralized and decentralized education as well as individual consultation. The proposed strategy is provided as a practical reference for educators and policy makers working to foster evidence-based practice nursing cultures. PMID:21455895

Kuo, Hsueh-Ming; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Lee, Hsiu-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Jen; Fan, Sheng-Hsin; Chang, Ying-Ju

2011-04-01

326

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang

2013-03-01

327

[Evidence-based treatment of hemorrhoidal disease].  

PubMed

Hemorrhoidal disease represents a prevalent benign condition of the lower gastrointestinal tract. As a common and early symptom of hemorrhoids, patients present with painless rectal bleeding during or after defecation. For the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease, a large variety of operative and non-operative therapeutic options exists. In the present article, the authors aim to provide guidance for stage-directed therapy of hemorrhoidal disease based on up-to-date knowledge and the authors' own clinical experience. PMID:23798019

Grandel, Markus; Hetzer, Franc H

2013-07-01

328

[Evidence-based treatment of atrial fibrillation].  

PubMed

Radiofrequency catheter ablation has emerged as a curative therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation based on studies demonstrating the role of triggering foci in the pulmonary veins for the initiation of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation is performed by a trans-septal approach using radiofrequency energy at the ostium of each pulmonary vein. Mapping is guided by special catheters. Sequential radiofrequency applications eliminates or dissociates pulmonary vein muscle activity. Although complications exists, this procedure can be curative for these patients. PMID:17017102

Máquez, Manlio F; Gómez Flores, Jorge

329

The RCN's literacy competences for evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Professor Alan Glasper discusses the Royal College of Nursing's recently announced information literacy competences, which set out skills required by nurses to deliver safe and effective evidence-based care. PMID:21378643

Glasper, Professor Alan

330

Evidence-Based African First Aid Guidelines and Training Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stijn Van de Velde and colleagues describe the African First Aid Materials project, which developed evidence-based guidelines on administering first aid in the African context as well as training materials to support the implementation of the guidelines.

Stijn Van de Velde; Emmy De Buck; Philippe Vandekerckhove; Jimmy Volmink

2011-01-01

331

Evidence-based health promotion: an emerging field.  

PubMed

There is much debate around the use of evidence in health promotion practice. This article aims to sharpen our understanding of this matter by reviewing and analyzing the 26 case studies presented in this special issue. These case studies suggest that health promotion practitioners are using a wide range of research evidence in interventions for high-risk individuals, entire populations, and vulnerable groups according to all five strategies for action described in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. In nearly every case, practitioners had to mediate and adapt research evidence for their case. Eight key levers helped practitioners embed research evidence into practice: local and cultural relevance of the evidence, community capacity-building, sustained dialogue from the outset with all stakeholders, established academic-supported partnerships, communication that responds to organizational and political readiness, acknowledgement and awareness of gaps between evidence and practice, advocacy, and adequate earmarked resources. These case studies provide some evidence that there is an evidence-based health promotion, that this evidence base is broad, and that practitioners use different strategies to adapt it for their case. PMID:21721308

Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Jones, Catherine M; McQueen, David V; Potvin, Louise

2011-03-01

332

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

333

Evidence-Based Head and Neck Oncology: Principles and Pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Evidence-based Head and Neck Oncology is the implementation of, or the move toward, Evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the care\\u000a of individual patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. While the general principles and pitfalls of EBM apply\\u000a in this subfield as well as in medicine in general, this chapter maintains a head and neck focus. A number of recent

Søren M. Bentzen

334

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier randomized control trial. Behavioral activation was consistently superior to wait list and treatment as usual

Peter Sturmey

2009-01-01

335

Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge and Utilization among Social Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the researchers examined the knowledge, skills, and use of Evidence-Based Practice in a sample of social workers from different practice settings. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a group of social work practitioners (N = 200). Participants in their 30s and 40s demonstrated the most knowledge and use of Evidence-Based Practice. In addition, a high

Natalie D. Pope; Latrice Rollins; Josphine Chaumba; Ed Risler

2011-01-01

336

Evidence-Based Public Health: Origins, Assumptions, and Cautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the origins and assumptions of evidence-based medicine as rooted in the philosophy of science called\\u000a positivism. The basic principles of the positivist approach to science, empiricism, exclusivity, universality, and autonomy\\u000a are explained and identified in reproductive and perinatal health outcomes related studies from the systematic reviews of\\u000a the Cochrane Library, the premier database on evidence-based medicine. A

Luis A. Avilés; Dani Filc

337

Evidence-based design for a safer environment without construction.  

PubMed

This article explores the implementation of evidence-based design elements in the renovation of 1 patient room on a budget of $3500. The functional mock-up was evaluated through survey and focus groups by staff, visitors, and physicians to identify problematic features. Overall, participants perceived that design elements were effective with only minor modification needed before replication. Suggestions are provided for ways to implement evidence-based design with limited funds. PMID:21900861

Turner, Shelly E; Anderson, E Faye; Frith, Karen H; Couch, Bobby

338

Evidence-based practice in stuttering: Some questions to consider  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent forum in JFD (28\\/3, 2003) evaluated the status of evidence-based practice in fluency disorders, and offered recommendations for improvement. This article re-evaluates the level of support available for some popular approaches to stuttering therapy and questions the relative value placed on some types of programs endorsed by the forum. Evidence-based practice is discussed within the context of emerging

Nan Bernstein Ratner

2005-01-01

339

Three Collaborative Models for Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper describes three models of research-practice collaboration to scale-up evidence-based practices (EBP): (1)\\u000a the Rolling Cohort model in England, (2) the Cascading Dissemination model in San Diego County, and (3) the Community Development\\u000a Team model in 53 California and Ohio counties. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and KEEP are the focal evidence-based\\u000a practices that are designed to improve

Patricia Chamberlain; Rosemarie Roberts; Helen Jones; Lynne Marsenich; Todd Sosna; Joseph M. Price

340

Teaching evidence-based practice: implications for psychology.  

PubMed

A movement advocating the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is increasingly influencing health care and the practice of psychology. Thus, teaching evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) is critical to the preparation of future health service psychologists. In this article, the authors address common myths associated with EBP, propose core components involved in teaching EBPP, and describe an example of how such training can be incorporated into a professional psychology education and training curriculum. PMID:17551942

Collins, Frank L; Leffingwell, Thad R; Belar, Cynthia D

2007-07-01

341

Evidence-based medicine - are we boiling the frog?  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine has been defined as 'The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.' There are two major assumptions in this statement. First, it is assumed that the evidence is in fact the best. Unfortunately this is not necessarily so, and published evidence is affected by bias, sponsorship, and blind faith in mathematical probability which may not be clinically relevant. Second, the evidence is population based and may not be applicable to the individual, and blind adherence to this concept may cause harm. We must not abandon clinical experience and judgement in favour of a series of inanimate data points. Medicine is an uncertain science. PMID:23802201

Muckart, D J J

2013-05-28

342

An Informatics Infrastructure Is Essential for Evidence-based Practice  

PubMed Central

The contention of the author is that an informatics infrastructure is essential for evidenced-based practice. Five building blocks of an informatics infrastructure for evidence-based practice are proposed: 1) standardized terminologies and structures, 2) digital sources of evidence, 3) standards that facilitate health care data exchange among heterogeneous systems, 4) informatics processes that support the acquisition and application of evidence to a specific clinical situation, and 5) informatics competencies. Selected examples illustrate how each of these building blocks supports the application of evidence to practice and the building of evidence from practice. Although a number of major challenges remain, medical informatics can provide solutions that have the potential to decrease unintended variation in practice and health care errors.

Bakken, Suzanne

2001-01-01

343

A constructivist model for teaching evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine has reported that it takes roughly 17 years for evidence generated through research to move into clinical practice. Bridging that gap is an urgent need and will require educators to rethink how nurses are prepared for evidence-based practice. The constructivist theory for learning--in which it is assumed that students construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn--may provide a framework for a redesigned baccalaureate curriculum, one that supports evidence-based practice throughout a nursing student's education. PMID:21086866

Rolloff, Mary

344

How to teach evidence-based medicine to urologists  

PubMed Central

The goal of this article is to help develop, disseminate, and evaluate resources that can be used to practice and teach EBM for urology residents and continuing education of urologists to reduce the gap between research and clinical practice. Urology departments should build capacity for residents to shape the future of quality and safety in healthcare through translating evidence into practice. Cutting edge approaches require knowing how to teach Evidence-based urology, to make Bio-statistics easy to understanding and how to lead improvement at every level. The authors shared their experience about ‘what works’ in a surgical department to building an Evidence-based environment and high quality of cares.

Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Mostafaie, Ali

2011-01-01

345

Evidence-based imaging and effective utilization: lessons in neuroradiology.  

PubMed

Expensive advanced imaging, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, contributes to the unsustainable growth of health care costs in the United States. Evidence-based imaging decreases costs and improves outcomes by guiding appropriate utilization of imaging. Low back pain is an important case illustration. Despite strong evidence that early advanced imaging with MR imaging for uncomplicated low back pain leads to increased costs without significant clinical benefit, MR imaging utilization for acute low back pain has increased. Barriers to evidence-based imaging can be traced to patient- and physician-related factors. Radiologists have a critical role in addressing some of these barriers. PMID:22902115

Perez, Francisco A; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

2012-08-01

346

Strengths and Weaknesses of Elementary and Secondary Education in Uganda: Evaluation Based on a Teachers' Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study intends to identify the aspects of the Ugandan teachers' jobs and work environment perceived by selective participants as satisfactory, as well as those perceived as less satisfactory or unsatisfactory. The study is based on the assumption that teachers, being directly involved in the current activities of educational institutions, have…

Walugembe, Frederick

2009-01-01

347

Canadian guidelines for the evidence-based treatment of tic disorders: pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

This article seeks to provide the practising clinician with guidance on the pharmacological management of tic disorders in children and adults. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the treatment of tic disorders. A multi-institutional group of 14 experts in psychiatry, child psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, and psychology engaged in a consensus meeting. The evidence was presented and discussed, and nominal group techniques were employed to arrive at consensus on recommendations. A strong recommendation is made when the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the risks and burdens, and can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation. With a weak recommendation, the benefits, risks, and burdens are more closely balanced, and the best action may differ depending on the circumstances. Based on these principles, weak recommendations were made for the use of pimozide, haloperidol, fluphenazine, metoclopramide (children only), risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, topiramate, baclofen (children only), botulinum toxin injections, tetrabenazine, and cannabinoids (adults only). Strong recommendations were made for the use of clonidine and guanfacine (children only). While the evidence supports the efficacy of many of the antipsychotics for the treatment of tics, the high rates of side effects associated with these medications resulted in only weak recommendations for these drugs. In situations where tics are not severe or disabling, the use of a medication with only a weak recommendation is not warranted. However, when tics are more distressing and interfering, the need for tic suppression to improve quality of life is stronger, and patients and clinicians may be more willing to accept the risks of pharmacotherapy. PMID:22397999

Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Gorman, Daniel; McKinlay, Duncan; Day, Lundy; Billinghurst, Lori; Carroll, Alan; Dion, Yves; Luscombe, Sandra; Steeves, Thomas; Sandor, Paul

2012-03-01

348

Safety profile of Coartem: the evidence base.  

PubMed

This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials. The majority of the reported adverse events seen in these studies are mild or moderate in severity and tend to affect the gastrointestinal or nervous systems. These adverse events, which are common in both adults and children, are also typical of symptoms of malaria or concomitant infections present in these patients. The wealth of safety data on artemether/lumefantrine has not identified any neurological, cardiac or haematological safety concerns. In addition, repeated administration is not associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions including neurological adverse events. This finding is especially relevant for children from regions with high malaria transmission rates who often receive many courses of anti-malarial medications during their lifetime. Data are also available to show that there were no clinically relevant differences in pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to artemether/lumefantrine compared with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy. The six-dose regimen of artemether/lumefantrine is therefore well tolerated in a wide range of patient populations. In addition, post-marketing experience, based on the delivery of 250 million treatments as of July 2009, has not identified any new safety concerns for artemether/lumefantrine apart from hypersensitivity and allergies, known class effects of artemisinin derivatives. PMID:19818173

Falade, Catherine; Manyando, Christine

2009-10-12

349

Safety profile of Coartem®: the evidence base  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials. The majority of the reported adverse events seen in these studies are mild or moderate in severity and tend to affect the gastrointestinal or nervous systems. These adverse events, which are common in both adults and children, are also typical of symptoms of malaria or concomitant infections present in these patients. The wealth of safety data on artemether/lumefantrine has not identified any neurological, cardiac or haematological safety concerns. In addition, repeated administration is not associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions including neurological adverse events. This finding is especially relevant for children from regions with high malaria transmission rates who often receive many courses of anti-malarial medications during their lifetime. Data are also available to show that there were no clinically relevant differences in pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to artemether/lumefantrine compared with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy. The six-dose regimen of artemether/lumefantrine is therefore well tolerated in a wide range of patient populations. In addition, post-marketing experience, based on the delivery of 250 million treatments as of July 2009, has not identified any new safety concerns for artemether/lumefantrine apart from hypersensitivity and allergies, known class effects of artemisinin derivatives.

Falade, Catherine; Manyando, Christine

2009-01-01

350

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s=1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb{sup -1}. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c{sup 2}. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c{sup 2}. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /INFN, Padua

2012-07-01

351

Connections between the central posterior/prepacemaker nucleus and hypothalamic areas in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus: evidence for an indirect, but not a direct, link.  

PubMed

The central posterior/prepacemaker nucleus (CP/PPn) of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus consists of a few thousands of neurons in the dorsal thalamus. Subpopulations of this complex play a crucial role in neural control of transient modulations of the otherwise extremely constant electric organ discharges. Because both the propensity to execute these modulations and the type of modulations produced may vary enormously with the behavioral situation, it has been hypothesized that this behavioral plasticity is, partially, mediated by peptidergic neuromodulators originating from hypothalamic areas. To define the structural basis of this proposed modulatory input, we have in the present study examined the connections between the CP/PPn proper and hypothalamic areas by employing an in vitro tract-tracing technique. Neither anterograde nor retrograde tracing experiments could provide evidence for the existence of a direct link between the CP/PPn proper and hypothalamic areas. However, the results of our investigation suggest an indirect connection between the CP/PPn proper and two hypothalamic regions, the hypothalamus ventralis and the hypothalamus lateralis, with the preglomerular nucleus serving as a relay station. PMID:11793339

Corrêa, Sônia A L; Zupanc, Günther K H

2002-01-21

352

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in higgs boson searches at the tevatron.  

PubMed

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359

Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alvarez González, B; Alverson, G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Bu, X B; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chevalier-Théry, S; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cihangir, S; Ciocci, M A; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Croc, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Das, A; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Dell'orso, M; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; d'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Dong, P; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Garcia, J E; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gomez, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hagopian, S; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Heck, M; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hewamanage, S; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kasper, P A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S

2012-08-14

353

Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7fb-1. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150GeV/c2. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135GeV/c2. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Álvarez González, B.; Alverson, G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Bu, X. B.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cihangir, S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Croc, A.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Das, A.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; d'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia, J. E.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hagopian, S.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, M.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hewamanage, S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.

2012-08-01

354

Reflection and Evidence-Based Practice in Action: A Case Based Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective practice and evidence-based practice are essential to clinical practice. The former provides a retrospective look at current practice and questions the reason for doing so. The latter provides the means by which best evidence can be used to make foundationally sound and clinically relevant decisions. This article demonstrates the utility of and the dynamics between reflective practice and evidence-based

Ronald De Vera Barredo

355

Imaging of Weak-Source Distributions in LSO-Based Small-Animal PET Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)- or lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosili- cate (LYSO)-based PET scanners have intrinsic radioactivity in the scintillator crystals due to the presence of 176Lu, which decays by b-emission followed by one or more prompt g-ray emissions. This leads to intrinsic true counts that can influence the image when scanning low levels of activity. An evaluation of the effects of this intrinsic

Andrew L. Goertzen; Joon Young Suk; Christopher J. Thompson

2007-01-01

356

Two new chiral EDTA-based metal chelates for weak alignment of proteins in solution.  

PubMed

[structure: see text] A short synthesis of EDTA-based metal chelates that can be attached to the cysteine residue of a protein via a disulfide bond is described. The complexes were used after coordination of lanthanides to align trigger factor and apo-calmodulin in solution to yield residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts. Alignment tensors for the new tags are linearly independent compared to those of previously published tags. PMID:16562870

Haberz, Peter; Rodriguez-Castañeda, Fernando; Junker, Jochen; Becker, Stefan; Leonov, Andrei; Griesinger, Christian

2006-03-30

357

Information Technology and Evidence-based Practices: A Commentary on “Evidence-Based Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congratulations to Rapp and his colleagues (2008) for a helpful explication of important factors in the implementation of evidence-based practices in Kansas. This article is the latest to appear from the National Evidence-based Practices Project (http:\\/\\/www.mentalhealthpractices.com). The steady flow of articles from that project will significantly expand the field’s empirical knowledge regarding the implementation of effective psychosocial interventions in mental

Robert E. Drake; Gary R. Bond

2008-01-01

358

Expanding the Domains of Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence Based Practice Attitude Scale50  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development\\u000a and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61–74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership.\\u000a However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current

Gregory A. AaronsGuy; Guy Cafri; Lindsay Lugo; Angelina Sawitzky

359

Fluoxetine: a review on evidence based medicine.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fluoxetine was the first molecule of a new generation of antidepressants, the Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). It is recurrently the paradigm for the development of any new therapy in the treatment of depression. Many controlled studies and meta-analyses were performed on Fluoxetine, to improve the understanding of its real impact in the psychiatric area. The main objective of this review is to assess the quality and the results reported in the meta-analyses published on Fluoxetine. METHODS: Published articles on Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases reporting meta-analyses were used as data sources for this review.Articles found in the searches were reviewed by 2 independent authors, to assess if these were original meta-analyses. Only data belonging to the most recent and comprehensive meta-analytic studies were included in this review. RESULTS: Data, based on a group of 9087 patients, who were included in 87 different randomized clinical trials, confirms that fluoxetine is safe and effective in the treatment of depression from the first week of therapy. Fluoxetine's main advantage over previously available antidepressants (TCAs) was its favorable safety profile, that reduced the incidence of early drop-outs and improved patient's compliance, associated with a comparable efficacy on depressive symptoms. In these patients, Fluoxetine has proven to be more effective than placebo from the first week of therapy.Fluoxetine has shown to be safe and effective in the elderly population, as well as during pregnancy. Furthermore, it was not associated with an increased risk of suicide in the overall evaluation of controlled clinical trials.The meta-analysis available on the use of Fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia nervosa shows that the drug is as effective as other agents with fewer patients dropping out of treatment.Fluoxetine has demonstrated to be as effective as chlomipramine in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder (OCD). CONCLUSION: Fluoxetine can be considered a drug successfully used in several diseases for its favorable safety/efficacy ratio. As the response rate of mentally ill patients is strictly related to each patient's personal characteristics, any new drug in this area, will have to be developed under these considerations. PMID:14962351

Rossi, Andrea; Barraco, Alessandra; Donda, Pietro

2004-02-12

360

Evidence-based practices in geriatric mental health care.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen dramatic growth in research on treatments for the psychiatric problems of older adults. An emerging evidence base supports the efficacy of geriatric mental health interventions. The authors provide an overview of the evidence base for clinical practice. They identified three sources of evidence-evidence-based reviews, meta-analyses, and expert consensus statements-on established and emerging interventions for the most common disorders of late life, which include depression, dementia, substance abuse, schizophrenia, and anxiety. The most extensive research support was found for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for geriatric major depression and for dementia. Less is known about the effectiveness of treatments for the other disorders, although emerging evidence is promising for selected interventions. Empirical support was also found for the effectiveness of community-based, multidisciplinary, geriatric psychiatry treatment teams. The authors discuss barriers to implementing evidence-based practices in the mental health service delivery system for older adults. They describe approaches to overcoming these barriers that are based on the findings of research on practice change and dissemination. Successful approaches to implementing change in the practices of providers emphasize moving beyond traditional models of continuing medical education to include educational techniques that actively involve the learner, as well as systems change interventions such as integrated care management, implementation toolkits, automated reminders, and decision support technologies. The anticipated growth in the population of older persons with mental disorders underscores the need for a strategy to facilitate the systematic and effective implementation of evidence-based practices in geriatric mental health care. PMID:12407270

Bartels, Stephen J; Dums, Aricca R; Oxman, Thomas E; Schneider, Lon S; Areán, Patricia A; Alexopoulos, George S; Jeste, Dilip V

2002-11-01

361

Chasing equilibrium: measuring the intrinsic solubility of weak acids and bases.  

PubMed

A novel procedure is described for rapid (20-80 min) measurement of intrinsic solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes. In this procedure, a quantity of substance was first dissolved at a pH where it exists predominantly in its ionized form, and then a precipitate of the neutral (un-ionized) species was formed by changing the pH. Subsequently, the rate of change of pH due to precipitation or dissolution was monitored and strong acid and base titrant were added to adjust the pH to discover its equilibrium conditions, and the intrinsic solubility of the neutral form of the compound could then be determined. The procedure was applied to a variety of monoprotic and diprotic pharmaceutical compounds. The results were highly repeatable and had a good correlation to available published values. Data collected during the procedure provided good diagnostic information. Kinetic solubility data were also collected but provided a poor guide to the intrinsic solubility. PMID:15858976

Stuart, Martin; Box, Karl

2005-02-15

362

Highly efficient SO? absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.  

PubMed

A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process. PMID:23323771

Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

2013-01-25

363

20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease...Submitting Evidence Evidence and Burden of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational...

2010-04-01

364

20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease...Submitting Evidence Evidence and Burden of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational...

2009-04-01

365

20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease...Submitting Evidence Evidence and Burden of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational...

2013-04-01

366

A research of weak absorption measurements in crystal based on photothermal interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important for testing the process of crystal growing and crystal quality. This paper built a mathematical model based on principle of photothermal common-path interferometry, the index change induced in the crystal by the heating pump beam and the phase distortion of probe beam in the heated area are presented then obtain the intensity distribution of the interference in the near filed. Optical geometry of focusing pump beam and intersecting pump and probe beams at waist position of the pump beam is used. This optical instruction can be adjusted easily and stabilized. Now CRYSTECH have the largest NLO crystals product line in the world, especially KTP crystals. With absorption measurements in nonlinear laser crystal KTP as an example to investigate the experimental parameters affecting the photothermal interference signal and high measuring precision. The analysis of experimental data showed this kind of instruction can reach the measurement accuracy of 0.1ppm.

Chen, Bing; Liu, Zongkai; Wang, Shiwu

2013-07-01

367

Biochemical differences in the mechanism of macrophage lysosomal exocytosis initiated by zymosan particles and weak bases.  

PubMed Central

By utilizing compounds with different inhibitory properties, discrete biochemical differences were found in the mechanism of selective lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages in response to stimulation with zymosan particles and methylamine. Pretreatment of macrophages with trypsin markedly impaired the capacity of the cells to respond to stimulation with zymosan particles, but had no effect on methylamine-stimulated lysosomal enzyme secretion. Similarly, the addition of phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride or EDTA to the incubation medium substantially inhibited zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion, whereas the methylamine-stimulated response was unaffected by these agents. The addition of 2-deoxyglucose to incubation media, however, strongly inhibited both zymosan- and methylamine-stimulated beta-galactosidase secretion. These findings are consistent with a mechanism for lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages, based on a receptor-dependent uptake of zymosan particles and a receptor-independent uptake of methylamine.

Riches, D W; Watkins, J L; Stanworth, D R

1983-01-01

368

Evidence-based management of common chronic lower extremity ulcers.  

PubMed

Chronic lower extremity ulcers are a significant burden on patients and health care systems worldwide. Although relatively common, these wounds can be difficult to treat and present a challenge to physicians. Treatment has often been based on anecdotal accounts; however, there is a growing emphasis on using evidence-based conclusions to guide clinical decisions. In this review article, the standard of care and adjuvant therapies of venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers are presented from an evidence-based perspective. PMID:23742279

Richmond, Nicholas A; Maderal, Andrea D; Vivas, Alejandra C

369

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

370

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

371

Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine: Supporting Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an implicit acceptance that an evidence-based culture underpins the practice of laboratory medicine, in part because it is perceived as the scientific foundation of medicine. However, several reviews of specific test procedures or technologies have shown that the evi- dence base is limited and in many cases flawed. One of the key deficiencies in the scientific literature on

Christopher P. Price

2000-01-01

372

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology. Method Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of

Melissa A. Alderfer; Barbara H. Fiese; Jeffrey I. Gold; J. J. Cutuli; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Lutz Goldbeck; Christine T. Chambers; Mona Abad; Dante Spetter; Joan Patterson

2008-01-01

373

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

374

Physical stability of salts of weak bases in the solid-state.  

PubMed

When selecting the physical form of an active pharmaceutical substance, there is often a question of when a molecule's pKa renders it too low for salt formation and formulation into a product that will be sufficiently physically stable to provide adequate shelf life. In the paper, a graph is provided that tabulates pKa values of active pharmaceuticals versus the salt or free base form that was chosen to be developed as an orally administered drug product. Tabulation of the data provides insight into where, if any, practical cutoff exists, under which salt formation should not be considered. Specific examples of disproportionation reactions are reviewed and are described in light of the concepts of pH maximum, pH microenvironment, and Gibbs free energy to gain further insight into when such reactions become favorable. The driving force for disproportionation reactions is substantially greater than that for polymorphic form conversion, and as a consequence, its probability of occurring in the solid-state is much greater when formulated in favorable microenvironments. Factors that influence the reaction rate are examined. It is concluded that each salt should be evaluated on the merit of its physical properties and often the most soluble salt will not be one's best choice. Unfortunately, compounds that stand to benefit the most from salt formation due to their exceptionally low intrinsic solubility are the ones that will be most likely to disproportionate if their pKa is relatively low. PMID:21374599

Stephenson, Gregory A; Aburub, Aktham; Woods, Timothy A

2010-12-22

375

Ground-based methods reproduce space-flight experiments and show that weak vibrations trigger microtubule self-organisation.  

PubMed

The effect of weightlessness on physical and biological systems is frequently studied by experiments in space. However, on the ground, gravity effects may also be strongly attenuated using methods such as magnetic levitation and clinorotation. Under suitable conditions, in vitro preparations of microtubules, a major element of the cytoskeleton, self-organise by a process of reaction-diffusion: self-organisation is triggered by gravity and samples prepared in space do not self-organise. Here, we report experiments carried out with ground-based methods of clinorotation and magnetic levitation. The behaviour observed closely resembles that of the space-flight experiment and suggests that many space experiments could be carried out equally well on the ground. Using clinorotation, we find that weak vibrations also trigger microtubule self-organisation and have an effect similar to gravity. Thus, in some in vitro biological systems, vibrations are a countermeasure to weightlessness. PMID:16380203

Glade, Nicolas; Beaugnon, Eric; Tabony, James

2005-12-27

376

Evidence-Based Macro Practice: Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steps involved in the process of evidence-based practice are reviewed in terms of their applicability to macro-level social work. These steps include (1) posing answerable questions; (2) locating credible research studies, (3) critically evaluating this research and its applicability to a practice situation; 4. selecting an intervention(s) by integrating research evidence with professional expertise, ethical standards, and the situation's unique

Bruce A. Thyer

2008-01-01

377

Evidence-based emergency medicine at the 'coal face'.  

PubMed

While evidence-based medicine may be trumpeted by zealots, managers and politicians, incorporating it into clinical practice is easier said than done. The present article aims to show that it can be achieved and gives some clinical examples to illustrate this. An appendix contains a summary of useful databases and websites for accessing good medical information and evidence, quickly and reliably near the bedside. PMID:16091095

Than, Martin; Bidwell, Susan; Davison, Carol; Phibbs, Rebecca; Walker, Marg

2005-08-01

378

American Dental Association evidence-based dentistry website  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2009, the American Dental Association (ADA) launched a new evidence-based dentistry (EBD) website (ebd.ada.org). The site has been established to provide the dental profession with access to evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and is supported by a grant from the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research(Grant Number G08 LM008956).

Derek Richards

2009-01-01

379

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement,(QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between,clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing,provider behavior or achieving

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

2005-01-01

380

Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they

J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest

2011-01-01

381

Optical injection mode-locking and DWDM channeling of the weak-resonant-cavity FPLD-based fiber ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

10-GHz optical injection mode-locking of a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) with 10%-end-facet reflectivity based fiber ring with an intra-cavity power controlled wavelength shift and a reducing chirp linewidth at high intra-cavity coupling ratio condition is demonstrated. Both the strong dark-optical comb and strong feedback coupling contribute to the red shift of mode-locking spectrum. The wavelength shift from 1536 to 1542 nm of the WRC-FPLD based fiber ring associated with its pulsewidth and linewidth also reduced from 27 to 19 ps and from 10 to 6 nm, respectively, can be observed. The peak-to-peak frequency chirp reduced from 3.5 to 1.8 GHz was caused by the shrink of linewidth. The WRC-FPLD exhibits relatively weak cavity modes and a gain profile covering > 33.5 nm. The least common multiple of the WRC-FPLD and the fiber-ring mode-spacing is tunable by adjusting length of the fiber ring cavity to approach intracavity mode spacing of 1.6 nm. Up to 12 lasing modes naturally and a mode-locking pulsewidth up to 19 ps can be observed. With an additional intracavity bandpass filter, the operating wavelength can further extend from 1520 to 1553.5 nm. After channel filtering and linear dispersion compensating, the pulsewidth can be further compressed to 8 ps with corresponding chirp reducing from 9.7 to 4.3 GHz. Such a mode-spacing tunable pulsed fiber laser matching ITU-T DWDM channels can be employed as a novel optical carrier to integrate the OTDM function into the DWDM system with a channel spacing tunable from 50 to 200 GHz.

Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chan; Lin, Kuen-Cherng; Lin, Gong-Ru

2008-11-01

382

Evidence-based dentistry: Part IV. Research design and levels of evidence.  

PubMed

Previous papers in this series on evidence-based dentistry have discussed the first 2 steps in seeking answers to clinical problems formulating a clear question and strategically searching for evidence. The next step, critical appraisal of the evidence, is made easier if one understands the basic concepts of clinical research design. The strongest design, especially for questions related to therapeutic or preventive interventions, is the randomized, controlled trial. Questions relating to diagnosis, prognosis and causation are often studied with observational, rather than experimental, research designs. The strongest study design should be used whenever possible. Rules have been established to grade research evidence. This paper, the fourth in the series, presents an overview of research methodology most commonly used in the dental literature. PMID:11468093

Sutherland, S E

383

How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?  

PubMed Central

Background All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of interest to chiropractors, there are still many areas such as diagnosis, prognosis, choice of treatment, and management that have not been subjected to extensive scrutiny. Discussion In this paper we argue that a simple system consisting of three questions will help clinicians deal with some of the complexities of clinical practice, in particular what to do when clear clinical evidence is lacking. Question 1 asks: are there objectively tested facts to support the concept? Question 2: are the concepts that form the basis for this clinical act or decision based on scientifically acceptable concepts? And question three; is the concept based on long-term and widely accepted experience? This method that we call the “Traffic Light System” can be applied to most clinical processes. Summary We explain how the Traffic Light System can be used as a simple framework to help chiropractors make clinical decisions in a simple and lucid manner. We do this by explaining the roles of biological plausibility and clinical experience and how they should be weighted in relation to scientific evidence in the clinical decision making process, and in particular how to proceed, when evidence is missing.

2013-01-01

384

Instruments to assess organizational readiness for evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

In this department, Dr Newhouse highlights hot topics in nursing outcomes, research, and evidence-based practice relevant to the nurse administrator. The goal is to discuss the practical implications for nurse leaders in diverse healthcare settings. Content includes evidence-based projects and decision making, locating measurement tools for quality improvement and safety projects, using outcome measures to evaluate quality, practice implications of administrative research, and exemplars of projects that demonstrate innovative approaches to organizational problems. In this article, the author discusses the importance of assessing the readiness of the organization in accelerating evidence-based practice initiatives and provides a description and references of potential instruments to measure organizational readiness. PMID:20859089

Newhouse, Robin P

2010-10-01

385

Evidence-based policy on dietary calcium and vitamin D.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine's report on calcium and vitamin D makes a positive contribution by grounding its recommendations on the available evidence base. The committee does not substantially change recommended dietary intakes for calcium and modestly increases those for vitamin D based on the need for a median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 40 nmol/L. They do not support the suggestion that all adults should have levels >75 nmol/L. The committee concludes that current evidence does not support nonskeletal benefits for vitamin D or calcium, and notes that higher intakes of both could have adverse health consequences. The present authors are generally in agreement with these conclusions, with some caveats regarding the evidence base used. However, we believe that the central role of sunlight exposure in determining vitamin D status needs to be explicitly reflected in public policy in this area. PMID:21337616

Reid, Ian R; Avenell, Alison

2011-03-01

386

Evidence-based practice: how nursing administration makes IT happen.  

PubMed

As the voice of and advocate for nurses, nursing administration should assume the leadership position in the development of evidence-based practice models. One of its most important tasks is to advocate for ubiquitous information technology (IT) to support these models. This article examines evidence-based nursing and the importance of IT to its development and growth. It explains the role of nursing administration in guiding IT implementation, as well as key issues that must be examined in system selection and development. PMID:16878015

Simpson, Roy L

387

The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

388

EVIDENCE, EMOTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: THE LIMITS TO EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

While 'evidence-based' or 'rationalist' approaches to criminal policy may appeal to technocrats or bureaucrats, they often fail to compete successfully with the affective approaches to law and order policies which resonate with the public and which appear to meet deep-seated psychological needs. They also fail to recognise that 'policy' and 'politics' are related concepts and that debates about criminal justice

ARIE FREIBERG

389

Pediatric Depression: Is There Evidence to Improve Evidence-Based Treatments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there have been advances in our ability to treat child and adolescent depression, use of evidence-based treatments still results in many patients with residual symptoms. Advances in our understanding of cognitive, emotional, and ecological aspects of early-onset depression have the potential to lead to improvements in the assessment and…

Brent, David A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.

2009-01-01

390

A prototype system to support evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Translating evidence into clinical practice is a complex process that depends on the availability of evidence, the environment into which the research evidence is translated, and the system that facilitates the translation. This paper presents InfoBot, a system designed for automatic delivery of patient-specific information from evidence-based resources. A prototype system has been implemented to support development of individualized patient care plans. The prototype explores possibilities to automatically extract patients problems from the interdisciplinary team notes and query evidence-based resources using the extracted terms. Using 4,335 de-identified interdisciplinary team notes for 525 patients, the system automatically extracted biomedical terminology from 4,219 notes and linked resources to 260 patient records. Sixty of those records (15 each for Pediatrics, Oncology & Hematology, Medical & Surgical, and Behavioral Health units) have been selected for an ongoing evaluation of the quality of automatically proactively delivered evidence and its usefulness in development of care plans. PMID:18998835

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Seckman, Charlotte; Fisher, Cheryl; Hauser, Susan E; Clayton, Jennifer; Thoma, George R

2008-11-06

391

Premenstrual syndrome. Evidence-based treatment in family practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength of evidence for treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to derive a set of practical guidelines for managing PMS in family practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An advanced MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1990 to December 2001. The Cochrane Library and personal contacts were also used. Quality of evidence in studies ranged from level I to level III, depending on the intervention. MAIN MESSAGE: Good scientific evidence shows that calcium carbonate (1200 mg/d) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for PMS. The most commonly used therapies (including vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, and oral contraceptives) are based on inconclusive evidence. Other treatments for which there is inconclusive evidence include aerobic exercise, stress reduction, cognitive therapy, spironolactone, magnesium, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various hormonal regimens, and a complex carbohydrate-rich diet. Although evidence for them is inconclusive, it is reasonable to recommend healthy lifestyle changes given their overall health benefits. Progesterone and bromocriptine, which are still widely used, are ineffective. CONCLUSION: Calcium carbonate should be recommended as first-line therapy for women with mild-to-moderate PMS. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be considered as first-line therapy for women with severe affective symptoms and for women with milder symptoms who have failed to respond to other therapies. Other therapies may be tried if these measures fail to provide adequate relief.

Douglas, Sue

2002-01-01

392

Miniaturized transfer models to predict the precipitation of poorly soluble weak bases upon entry into the small intestine.  

PubMed

For poorly soluble weak bases, the possibility of drug precipitation upon entry into the small intestine may affect the amount of drug available for uptake through the intestinal mucosa. A few years ago, a transfer model was introduced which has been developed to simulate the transfer of a dissolved drug out of the stomach into the small intestine. However, this setup requires the use of clinically relevant doses of the drug, which are typically not available in the early stages of formulation development. The present series of tests was performed to check whether it is possible to create a miniaturized but physiologically relevant transfer model that can be applied in the early formulation development. Experiments were performed with two miniaturized setups: a 96-well plate model and a mini-paddle transfer system. Itraconazole and tamoxifen were used as model drugs. An appropriate amount of each drug formulation was dissolved in simulated gastric fluid and then transferred into an acceptor phase consisting of fasted/fed state simulated small intestinal fluid. The amount of drug dissolved in the acceptor phase was monitored over a period of 4 h. Results from both setups were very similar. The tamoxifen preformulation did not precipitate, whereas the itraconazole formulation precipitated to the same extent in both setups. Due to the possibility of generating physiologically relevant results but using smaller sample sizes and smaller volumes of media, both miniaturized transfer systems offer various advantages in terms of substance and analytical and material cost savings when evaluating the precipitation potential of poorly soluble weakly basic drug candidates. PMID:22968547

Klein, Sandra; Buchanan, Norma L; Buchanan, Charles M

2012-09-12

393

Ketamine in chronic pain management: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Ketamine has diverse effects that may be of relevance to chronic pain including: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, kainate, gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors; inhibition of voltage gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and serotonin, dopamine re-uptake. Ketamine has been in clinical practice for over 30 yr; however, there has been little formal research on the effectiveness of ketamine for chronic pain management. In this review we evaluate the available clinical data as a basis for defining the potential use of ketamine for chronic pain. Literature referenced in this review was obtained from a computer search of EMBASE and MEDLINE from 1966 through August, 2002. Search terms included ketamine, ketalar, pain, painful, analgesic, and analgesia. Abstracts were screened for relevance and publications relating to chronic pain use were obtained. Levels of evidence were stratified according to accepted guidelines (level I-IV). For central pain, there is level II and level IV evidence of efficacy for parenteral and oral ketamine. For complex regional pain syndromes, there is only level IV evidence of efficacy of epidural ketamine. For fibromyalgia, there is level II evidence of pain relief, reduced tenderness at trigger points, and increased endurance. For ischemic pain, a level II study reported a potent dose-dependent analgesic effect, but with a narrow therapeutic window. For nonspecific neuropathic pain, level II and level IV studies reported divergent results with questionable long-term effects on pain. For phantom limb pain and postherpetic neuralgia, level II and level II studies provided objective evidence of reduced hyperpathia and pain relief was usually substantial either after parenteral or oral ketamine. Acute on chronic episodes of severe neuropathic pain represented the most frequent use of ketamine as a "third line analgesic," often by IV or subcutaneous infusion (level IV). In conclusion, the evidence for efficacy of ketamine for treatment of chronic pain is moderate to weak. However, in situations where standard analgesic options have failed ketamine is a reasonable "third line" option. Further controlled studies are needed. PMID:14633551

Hocking, Graham; Cousins, Michael J

2003-12-01

394

A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.  

PubMed

Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

2011-12-15

395

An Evidence-Based Approach to Hamstring Strain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Hamstring strain injury is a common problem within sport. Despite research interest, knowledge of risks for and management of hamstring strain is limited, as evidenced by high injury rates. Objective: To present the current best evidence for hamstring strain injury risk factors and the management of hamstring strain injury. Methods: MEDLINE, AMED, SportDiscus, and AUSPORT databases were searched (key terms “hamstring” and “strain,” “injury,” “pull,” or “tear”) to identify relevant literature published between 1982 and 2007 in the English language. Studies of adult athlete populations (older than 18 years) pertaining to hamstring strain incidence, prevalence, and/or intervening management of hamstring strain injury were included. Articles were limited to full-text randomized, controlled studies or cohort studies. Twenty-four articles were included. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster Quantitative Review Guidelines instrument. Data pertaining to injury rates and return to sport outcomes were extracted. Each author undertook independent appraisal of a random selection of articles after establishing inter-rater agreement of appraisal. Results: Previous strain, older age, and ethnicity were consistently reported as significant risks for injury, as was competing in higher levels of competition. Associations with strength and flexibility were conflicting. Functional rehabilitation interventions had preventive effects and resulted in significantly earlier return to sport. Additionally, weak evidence existed for other interventions. Conclusion: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding most interventions for hamstring strain injury, while the effect of potentially modifiable risks is unclear. Further high-quality prospective studies into potential risks and management are required to provide a better framework within which to target interventions.

Prior, Mathew; Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen

2009-01-01

396

Evidence based practice in postgraduate healthcare education: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Training in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely implemented throughout medical school and residency curricula. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies that assessed the effectiveness of EBP teaching to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior of postgraduate healthcare workers, and to describe instruments available to evaluate EBP teaching. METHODS: The design is a systematic review

Gemma Flores-Mateo; Josep M Argimon

2007-01-01

397

An evidence-based approach to studies of gastrointestinal therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an evidence-based medicine framework to critically assess the validity of study design and clinical significance of study results in the context of gastrointestinal therapies for a common clinical scenario. Without systems for critically appraising and applying clinical research, we may become dependent on outdated information. When used in conjunction with clinical judgment, critical appraisal of clinical research

Philip Schoenfeld; James Scheiman

2003-01-01

398

Toward Evidence-Based Practice with Domestic Violence Perpetrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the policy and practice of interventions with male perpetrators of domestic violence in light of the widely accepted principles of evidence-based practice. Thus far, these policies and practices have enjoyed immunity from the external, empirical accountability available through implementing the findings from evaluations research and other empirical practice analyses. This immunity is supported by a policy framework

Kenneth Corvo; Donald Dutton; Wan-Yi Chen

2008-01-01

399

Evidence-based periodontology, systematic reviews and research quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. A simple MEDLINE search of Peri- odontal Diseases OR Periodontitis alone from 1966 to 2003 brings up more than 45,000 hits. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach, accelerating the introduction of the

IAN NEEDLEMAN; D AVID R. MOLES; H ELEN WORTHINGTON

400

Vitiligo: concise evidence based guidelines on diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitiligo is a common disease that causes a great degree of psychological distress. In its classical forms it is easily recognised and diagnosed. This review provides an evidence based outline of the management of vitiligo, particularly with the non-specialist in mind. Treatments for vitiligo are generally unsatisfactory. The initial approach to a patient who is thought to have vitiligo is

David J Gawkrodger; Anthony D Ormerod; Lindsay Shaw; Inma Mauri-Sole; Maxine E Whitton; M Jane Watts; Alex V Anstey; Jane Ingham; Katharine Young

2010-01-01

401

Developing Research Competence to Support Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy pro- grams, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the

Lora E. Burke; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Susan M. Sereika; Susan M. Cohen; Mary Beth Happ; Janice S. Dorman

2005-01-01

402

Implementing an Evidence-Based Practice: Seeking Safety Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings from a multisite study on adopting and implementing an evidence-based practice, Seeking Safety, for women with co-occurring disorders and experiences of physical and sexual abuse. It focuses on what implementation decisions different sites made to optimize the compatibility of Seeking Safety with the site's needs and experiences and on issues posed by Rogers (1995) as relevant

Vivian B. Brown; Lisa M. Najavits; Sharon Cadiz; Norma Finkelstein; Jennifer P. Heckman; Elke Rechberger

2007-01-01

403

Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine: Updates, Feedback, and Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editors’ note: The goal of the Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine (EBEM) series is to teach the process of translating research into clinical practice. In this issue, we introduce a new component of the series titled “Updates, Feedback, and Links.” Because biomedical research is constantly and rapidly changing, we will provide “Updates” to previously addressed clinical questions. And because there is more

Peter C Wyer; William H Cordell

1999-01-01

404

How Evidence-Based Practices Contribute to Community Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In

Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Charles A. Rapp; Anthony M. Zipple

2004-01-01

405

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #833A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, research on dropout prevention has become focused on using evidence-based practice, and data-driven decisions, to mitigate students' dropping out of high school and instead, support and prepare students for career and college. Early warning systems or on-track indicators, in which readily available student-level data are used…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

2011-01-01

406

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

407

Evidence-Based Therapies for Oppositional Behavior in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this chapter is to present and critically evaluate current evidence-based interventions for oppositional behavior (OB) in young children. Children with OB are typically described by parents and teachers as argumentative, disobedient, disruptive, demanding, and defiant. We have operationalized “young children” as including children between the ages of 3 and 8, thus encompassing the preschool and early

Robert J. McMahon; Julie S. Kotler

408

Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From diverse perspectives, there is little doubt that depressive symptoms cohere to form a valid and distinct syndrome. Research indicates that an evidence-based assessment of depression would include (a) measures with adequate psychometric properties; (b) adequate coverage of symptoms; (c) adequate coverage of depressed mood, anhedonia, and…

Joiner, Thomas E.; Walker, Rheeda L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

2005-01-01

409

Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.  

PubMed

Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

2010-08-01

410

Marketing evidence-based practice: what a CROC™!  

PubMed

Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center. PMID:20880823

Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry

2010-10-01

411

Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

2010-01-01

412

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

413

Evidence-based Management Strategies for Treatment of Chronic Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The care and management of patients with chronic wounds and their far-reaching effects challenge both the patient and the practitioner. Further complicating this situation is the paucity of evidence-based treatment strategies for chronic wound care. After searching both MEDLINE and Cochrane databases, we reviewed currently available articles con- cerning chronic wound care. Utilizing this information, we have outlined a review

Frank Werdin; Hans-Eberhardt Schaller; Hans-Oliver Rennekampff

414

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

415

Using Family Paradigms to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) describes clinical decision making using research, clinical experience, and client values. For family-centered practices, the client's family is integral to this process. This article proposes that using family paradigms, a family science framework, may help elicit and understand client/family values within…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Jones, Rebecca S.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.

2009-01-01

416

Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

2007-01-01

417

Specific dermatoses of pregnancy: An evidence-based systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We conducted an evidence-based systematic analysis of the literature on specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Study Design: The bibliographic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were screened for studies and reports in all languages about herpes gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy, and prurigo of pregnancy from January 1962 to January 2002. As main index terms,

George Kroumpouzos; Lisa M. Cohen

2003-01-01

418

Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

419

Evidence-based toxicology: a comprehensive framework for causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies deficiencies in some current practices of causation and risk evaluation by toxicologists and formulates an evidence-based solution. The practice of toxicology focuses on adverse health events caused by physical or chemical agents. Some relations between agents and events are identified risks, meaning unwanted events known to occur at some frequency. However, other relations that are only possibilities

Philip S Guzelian; Michael S Victoroff; N Christine Halmes; Robert C James; Christopher P Guzelian

2005-01-01

420

Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered for recommendation if their efficacy was supported by at least one methodologically-sound, randomized clinical trial (RCT) demonstrating superiority to placebo or a relevant comparison

Robert H. Dworkin; Alec B. O’Connor; Miroslav Backonja; John T. Farrar; Nanna B. Finnerup; Troels S. Jensen; Eija A. Kalso; John D. Loeser; Christine Miaskowski; Turo J. Nurmikko; Russell K. Portenoy; Andrew S. C. Rice; Brett R. Stacey; Rolf-Detlef Treede; Dennis C. Turk; Mark S. Wallace

2007-01-01

421

The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

2010-01-01

422

Evidence-based Policy: The Promise of `Realist Synthesis'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation research is tortured by time constraints. The policy cycle revolves more quickly than the research cycle, with the result that `real time' evaluations often have little influence on policy making. As a result, the quest for evidence-based policy (EBP) has turned increasingly to systematic reviews of the results of previous inquiries in the relevant policy domain. However, this shifting

Ray Pawson

2002-01-01

423

Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: An evidence based proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

New studies of the treatment of neuropathic pain have increased the need for an updated review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to support an evidence based algorithm to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Available studies were identified using a MEDLINE and EMBASE search. One hundred and five studies were included. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH)

N. B. Finnerup; M. Otto; H. J. McQuay; T. S. Jensen; S. H. Sindrup

2005-01-01

424

Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

425

Evidence-Based Rehabilitation Counseling Practice: A Pedagogical Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how rehabilitation educators can aid students and practitioners in learning about and engaging in evidence-based rehabilitation counseling practice (EBRCP). Information describing (a) the definition and rationale for EBRCP, (b) controversies surrounding EBRCP, (c) facilitating rehabilitation counselor enthusiasm for EBRCP,…

Kosciulek, John F.

2010-01-01

426

Incorporating Evidence-Based Practice into the Macro Practice Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has been directed in preparing social work students to understand the paradigm of evidence-based practice (EBP). The infusion of EBP through training, course instruction, and assignments has the potential to enhance EBP knowledge acquisition in the macro practice curriculum. This article examines an approach to integrating EBP into the curriculum through a training model that is linked with

Ramon M. Salcido

2008-01-01

427

Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

2010-01-01

428

Clear and present questions: formulating questions for evidence based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to provide an overview and update of thinking in relation to the theory and practice of formulation of answerable research questions within evidence based information practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the healthcare and information literature on question formulation, augmented by structured and purposive internet searches. Findings – Although a few key authors have published

Andrew Booth

2006-01-01

429

Evidence-Based Practices With Students Who Are Deaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, professionals in all fields that work with students with disabilities, including education, face a “demand” that their decisions about which interventions to use be guided by evidence-based practices. The “gold standard” for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions is the use of randomized, controlled trials that are well designed and implemented. In this article, the author identifies the challenges in

John L. Luckner

2006-01-01

430

Not Funding the Evidence-Based Model in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this descriptive case study was to describe the implementation of Ohio's version of the Evidence-Based Model (OEBM) state school finance system in 2009. Data sources included state budget documents and analyses as well as interviews with local school officials. The new system was responsive to three policy objectives ordered by the…

Edlefson, Carla

2010-01-01

431

Organizing mental health services: an evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims. Health policy makers and program developers seek evidence-based guidance on how to organize and finance mental health services. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) commissioned a conceptual framework for thinking about health care services as a medical technology. The following framework was developed, citing empirical research from mental health services research as the

Howard H. Goldman; Sten Thelander

2000-01-01

432

Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

Leimer, Christina

2012-01-01

433

Sharable simulations of public health for evidence based policy making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local health policies are not as evidence based as they could be if the public health impacts of policies were easier to simulate. Here we address the inaccessibility of high quality models of public health and policy presenting the concepts of a new simulation framework, IMPACT, built on Semantic Web principles. Model and simulation data are persisted with rich semantics

P. A. Couch; J. Ainsworth; I. Buchan

2011-01-01

434

Integrating Evidence-Based Practices in Middle Science Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an evidence-based practice that addresses the learning needs of middle school students who have difficulty comprehending science texts. The teachers used a single-subject reversal design to implement peer-mediated instruction while asking to what degree the use of peer-mediated…

Kroeger, Stephen D.; Burton, Cathy; Preston, Christopher

2009-01-01

435

Building evidence-based practice with staff nurses through mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence- based practice (EBP) is an effective way for nurses to improve patient outcomes. Although EBP has gained popularity, barriers to implementation exist. This study explored whether mentoring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in EBP would increase their participation in EBP. A sample of 20 nurses were mentored in an EBP project. The EBP Beliefs Scale and EBP Implementation

Kathleen DiGaudio Mariano; Linda M. Caley; Linda Eschberger; Ann Woloszyn; Patricia Volker; Michael S. Leonard; Ying Tung

2009-01-01

436

An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities.

Hughes, Jeff

2012-01-01

437

The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

2010-01-01

438

Evidence-Based Rehabilitation Counseling Practice: A Pedagogical Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how rehabilitation educators can aid students and practitioners in learning about and engaging in evidence-based rehabilitation counseling practice (EBRCP). Information describing (a) the definition and rationale for EBRCP, (b) controversies surrounding EBRCP, (c) facilitating rehabilitation counselor enthusiasm for EBRCP,…

Kosciulek, John F.

2010-01-01

439

Evidence-Based Practice among Speech-Language Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A total of 240 speech-language pathologists responded to a questionnaire examining attitudes toward and use of research and evidence-based practice (EBP). Perceived barriers to EBP were also explored. Positive attitudes toward research and EBP were reported. Attitudes were predicted by exposure to research and EBP practice during graduate…

Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Kennedy, Marianne

2005-01-01

440

Leadership and implementation of evidence-based practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the role of leadership styles in the implementation of evidence-based treatment methods (EBP) for drug abuse and criminal behaviour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employs a triangulation approach through mail questionnaires to 112 treatment personnel (49 per cent response rate), interviews with 65 employees and managers, observations and feedback workshops. Findings – Responses from

Robert Holmberg; Mats Fridell; Patrick Arnesson; Mia Bäckvall

2008-01-01

441

Evidence-Based Hand Surgery: The Role of Cochrane Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed literature search was performed to investigate whether the increasing importance of evidence-based hand surgery is reflected in the actual status of Cochrane reviews. Fourteen Cochrane reviews were found and evaluated. Of these, five reviews were in the field of distal radial fractures and four concerned carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane reviews were also found for antibiotic treatment, rehabilitation after

J. WINDOLF; G. ANTES; S. SAUERLAND; M. K. DIENER

2008-01-01

442

Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: Progress Not Perfection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This commentary is written in response to a companion paper by Nan Bernstein Ratner ("Evidence-Based Practice: An Examination of its Ramifications for the Practice of Speech-Language Pathology"). Method: The comments reflect my experience as Vice President for Research and Technology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association…

Kent, Ray D.

2006-01-01

443

Using Family Paradigms to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) describes clinical decision making using research, clinical experience, and client values. For family-centered practices, the client's family is integral to this process. This article proposes that using family paradigms, a family science framework, may help elicit and understand client/family values within…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Jones, Rebecca S.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.

2009-01-01

444

Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Practice in College Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lead off article to the special volume on evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) in college and university counseling and mental health centers presents an overview of the topic and outlines the structure of this publication. A focus on EBP research and practice generally, and in institutions of higher education specifically, is provided for…

Cooper, Stewart E.

2005-01-01

445

Work-Based Knowledge, Evidence-Informed Practice and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts from an examination of an epistemological framework that underpins practice in particular educational contexts. It examines work-based knowledge, relating this to practitioner research and evidence informed practice. This is followed by an exploration of arguments that call for increased rigour in educational research as well as the use of systematic reviews. The paper examines tensions within educational

James Avis

2003-01-01

446

Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison

2009-01-01

447

Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices that show promise for enhancing school completion of students with disabilities. For conceptual purposes, the article

Catherine H. Fowler; James White; Sharon Richter; Allison Walker

2009-01-01

448

Evidence-based drug therapy for chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine requires that clinical benefits should be evaluated by 'hard' end-points (i.e. morbidity and mortality). 'Soft' intermediate end-points such as haemodynamic improvement are not always associated with improvements in quality of life or survival. Changes in clinical practice should be based on statistically significant effects on primary end-points, and not on subgroup analyses. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are of

E Zannad

449

Evidence-based Interventions Using HomeSchool Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home-school collaboration refers to the relationship between families and schools where parents and educators work together to promote the academic and social development of children. Eighteen empirical studies of home-school collaboration interventions that also measured a school-based outcome were identified and evaluated according to guidelines outlined by the American Psychological Association’s Division 16 Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School

Diane D. Cox

2005-01-01

450

Determining Evidence-based Practices in Asthma Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: One aim of this study will focus on determining what are evidence-based studies in asthma control. A second aim focuses on determining which asthma interventions, selfmonitoring tools and asthma management programs have shown to be the most significant in improving outcomes in patients with asthma. Recommendations will be made to future asthma self-management programs based on the findings.\\u000aMethodology:

Erin Smiley

2011-01-01

451

Towards evidence-based medicine in cardiothoracic surgery: best BETS.  

PubMed

Cardiothoracic surgeons are faced with the dilemma that many clinical questions in their daily practice to do not have universally agreed answers, but patients increasingly demand the 'best practice' from their doctors. In addition time pressures mean that clinicians are unable to keep up with the full spectrum of published research and current resources that collate evidence for clinicians have few if any resources for cardiothoracic surgeons. We have adopted an approach pioneered in emergency medicine, namely the Best Evidence Topic or BestBET. Clinicians select a clinical scenario from their daily practice that highlighted an area of controversy. From this, a three-part question is generated and this is used to search Medline for relevant papers. Once the relevant papers are found, these papers are critically appraised using validated checklists and the results are summarized. A clinical bottom line is reached after this process. To add confidence to the quality of the search a second author and then an Evidence Based Journal Club checks the BET to ensure that no relevant evidence is missed. These BETs will then be posted on the ICVTS website prior to publication for widespread commentary. The resulting BETs, written by practising cardiothoracic surgeons, will then provide robust evidence-based answers to important clinical questions asked during our daily practice. PMID:17670084

Dunning, Joel; Prendergast, Brian; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

2003-12-01

452

Evidence-based toxicology: a comprehensive framework for causation.  

PubMed

This paper identifies deficiencies in some current practices of causation and risk evaluation by toxicologists and formulates an evidence-based solution. The practice of toxicology focuses on adverse health events caused by physical or chemical agents. Some relations between agents and events are identified risks, meaning unwanted events known to occur at some frequency. However, other relations that are only possibilities--not known to occur (and may never be realized)--also are sometimes called risks and are even expressed quantitatively. The seemingly slight differences in connotation among various uses of the word 'risk' conceal deeply philosophic differences in the epistemology of harm. We label as 'nomological possibilities' (not as risks) all predictions of harm that are known not to be physically or logically impossible. Some of these nomological possibilities are known to be causal. We term them 'epistemic'. Epistemic possibilities are risks. The remaining nomological possibilities are called 'uncertainties'. Distinguishing risks (epistemic relationships) from among all nomological possibilities requires knowledge of causation. Causality becomes knowable when scientific experiments demonstrate, in a strong, consistent (repeatable), specific, dose-dependent, coherent, temporal and predictive manner that a change in a stimulus determines an asymmetric, directional change in the effect. Many believe that a similar set of characteristics, popularly called the 'Hill Criteria', make it possible, if knowledge is robust, to infer causation from only observational (nonexperimental) studies, where allocation of test subjects or items is not under the control of the investigator. Until the 1980s, medical decisions about diagnosis, prevention, treatment or harm were often made authoritatively. Rather than employing a rigorous evaluation of causal relationships and applying these criteria to the published knowledge, the field of medicine was dominated by authority-based opinions, expressed by experts (or consensus groups of experts) relying on their education, training, experience, wisdom, prestige, intuition, skill and improvisation. In response, evidence-based medicine (EBM) was developed, to make a conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in deciding about the care of individual patients. Now globally embraced, EBM employs a structured, 'transparent' protocol for carrying out a deliberate, objective, unbiased and systematic review of the evidence about a formally framed question. Not only in medicine, but now in dentistry, engineering and other fields that have adapted the methods of EBM, it is the quality of the evidence and the rigor of the analysis through evidence-based logic (EBL), rather than the professional standing of the reviewer, that leads to evidence-based conclusions about what is known. Recent studies have disclosed that toxicologists (individually or in expert groups), not unlike their medical counterparts prior to EBM, show distressing variations in their biases with regard to data selection, data interpretation and data evaluation when performing reviews for causation analyses. Moreover, toxicologists often fail to acknowledge explicitly (particularly in regulatory and policy-making arenas) when shortcomings in the evidence necessitate reliance upon authority-based opinions, rather than evidence-based conclusions (Guzelian PS, Guzelian CP. Authority-based explanation. Science 2004; 303: 1468-69). Accordingly, for answering questions about general and specific causation, we have constructed a framework for evidence-based toxicology (EBT), derived from the accepted principles of EBM and expressed succinctly as three stages, comprising 12 total steps. These are: 1) collecting and evaluating the relevant data (Source, Exposure, Dose, Diagnosis); 2) collecting and evaluating the relevant knowledge (Frame the question, Assemble the relevant (delimited) literature, Assess and critique the literature); and 3) Joining data with knowledge to arrive at a conclusion (General causation--answ

Guzelian, Philip S; Victoroff, Michael S; Halmes, N Christine; James, Robert C; Guzelian, Christopher P

2005-04-01

453

Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area. PMID:20686476

Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

2010-08-04

454

Lithium Therapy and Hyperparathyroidism: An Evidence-Based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prolonged therapeutic exposure to lithium compounds can have adverse consequences on calcium homeostasis. A unique form of\\u000a hyperparathyroidism appears to be causally linked to chronic lithium exposure. We provide a comprehensive review of relevant\\u000a literature using a structured, evidence-based approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Published data were identified from systematic electronic literature searches. References are assigned a level of evidence\\u000a according to a validated

Brian D. Saunders; Erika F. H. Saunders; Paul G. Gauger

2009-01-01

455

Vitamin D deficiency: identifying gaps in the evidence base.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Vitamin D has attracted attention since evidence emerged that it may have functions beyond the control of serum calcium, for example immune system functioning and protection against damage to blood vessels. Gaps in the evidence base relating to vitamin D are also acknowledged. In this article, the production and functions of vitamin D are described, and the effects of vitamin D deficiency on pregnant women, infants, older people and other at-risk individuals are outlined. The management of vitamin D deficiency and the benefits of vitamin D supplementation are also identified. PMID:23987882

Bentley, Jackie

456

The personalised medicine. A paradigm of evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

The practice of "evidence-based medicine" aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the individualised patient care. The clinical genetics evolved from translational genetics research and contributes to the clinical care of patients and families through evidence-based health care in managing inherited disorders through accurate diagnosis, molecular pathology and assessing phenotypic correlations. Translational genetics and genomics research has led to the development of powerful tools for clinical diagnosis, assessing individual's genomic profile for disease prediction/prevention, high-throughput genome-wide screening for predisposition and/or protection to complex medical conditions, and discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines. Gene mapping and deciphering pathogenic mutations have helped in unravelling the basic biological mechanisms leading to new drug discovery and development. Targeted pharmacotherapy is now possible for managing the highly penetrant multi-system dominantly inherited conditions. Notable examples include rapamycin (sirolimus) in suppressing the mTOR pathway associated hamartomas in dominantly inherited cancer family syndromes and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers (ACE-RB) in preventing aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome and related familial arteriopathies. The translational genomic research is the essential prerequisite for developing sound evidence-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic clinical protocols for the practice of personalised clinical medicine. PMID:21430336

Kumar, Dhavendra

2011-01-01

457

Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center.

Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

2008-01-01

458

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research.

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

459

[Computer work and De Quervain's tenosynovitis: an evidence based approach].  

PubMed

The debate around the role of the work at personal computer as cause of De Quervain's Tenosynovitis was developed partially, without considering multidisciplinary available data. A systematic review of the literature, using an evidence-based approach, was performed. In disorders associated with the use of VDU, we must distinguish those at the upper limbs and among them those related to an overload. Experimental studies on the occurrence of De Quervain's Tenosynovitis are quite limited, as well as clinically are quite difficult to prove the professional etiology, considering the interference due to other activities of daily living or to the biological susceptibility (i.e. anatomical variability, sex, age, exercise). At present there is no evidence of any connection between De Quervain syndrome and time of use of the personal computer or keyboard, limited evidence of correlation is found with time using a mouse. No data are available regarding the use exclusively or predominantly for personal laptops or mobile "smart phone". PMID:23405595

Gigante, M R; Martinotti, I; Cirla, P E

460

Self-efficacy-based training for research literature appraisal: a competency for evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice requires nurses to integrate research findings into patient care. The lack of skill and confidence in effective literature appraisal remains a barrier for many nurses. The author describes a self-efficacy-based pilot project designed to enhance nurses' skill and confidence, thus increasing their ability and willingness to critically evaluate research findings. After the intervention, nurses were better prepared to critically appraise the literature and, through enhanced readiness, were more inclined to make evidence-based practice a clinical reality. This approach may be beneficial to staff development educators to develop and enhance an evidence-based practice culture. PMID:20683302

Kiss, Teri Lynn; O'Malley, Maureen; Hendrix, Thomas J

461

20 CFR 416.806 - Expedited adjudication based on documentary evidence of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Expedited adjudication based on documentary evidence of age. 416.806 Section 416.806 Employees...of Age § 416.806 Expedited adjudication based on documentary evidence of age. Where documentary evidence...

2013-04-01

462

Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a scientifically sound and clinically relevant evidence-based guideline for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1960 to August 2008 and classified the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for a therapeutic article, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. The basic question asked was: “What is the efficacy of a given treatment (pharmacologic: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids, others; and nonpharmacologic: electrical stimulation, magnetic field treatment, low-intensity laser treatment, Reiki massage, others) to reduce pain and improve physical function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with PDN?” Results and Recommendations: Pregabalin is established as effective and should be offered for relief of PDN (Level A). Venlafaxine, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, valproate, opioids (morphine sulfate, tramadol, and oxycodone controlled-release), and capsaicin are probably effective and should be considered for treatment of PDN (Level B). Other treatments have less robust evidence or the evidence is negative. Effective treatments for PDN are available, but many have side effects that limit their usefulness, and few studies have sufficient information on treatment effects on function and QOL.

Bril, V.; England, J.; Franklin, G.M.; Backonja, M.; Cohen, J.; Del Toro, D.; Feldman, E.; Iverson, D.J.; Perkins, B.; Russell, J.W.; Zochodne, D.

2011-01-01

463

History and development of evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

This article illustrates the timeline of the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The term "evidence-based medicine" is relatively new. In fact, as far as we can tell, investigators from McMaster's University began using the term during the 1990s. EBM was defined as "a systemic approach to analyze published research as the basis of clinical decision making." Then in 1996, the term was more formally defined by Sacket et al., who stated that EBM was "the conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence from clinical care research in the management of individual patients." Ancient era EBM consists of ancient historical or anecdotal accounts of what may be loosely termed EBM. This was followed by the development of the renaissance era of EBM, which began roughly during the seventeenth century. During this era personal journals were kept and textbooks began to become more prominent. This was followed by the 1900s, during an era we term the transitional era of EBM (1900-1970s). Knowledge during this era could be shared more easily in textbooks and eventually peer-reviewed journals. Finally, during the 1970s we enter the modern era of EBM. Technology has had a large role in the advancement of EBM. Computers and database software have allowed compilation of large amounts of data. The Index Medicus has become a medical dinosaur of the past that students of today likely do not recognize. The Internet has also allowed incredible access to masses of data and information. However, we must be careful with an overabundance of "unfiltered" data. As history, as clearly shown us, evidence and data do not immediately translate into evidence based practice. PMID:15827845

Claridge, Jeffrey A; Fabian, Timothy C

2005-05-01

464

Evidence-based staff training: a guide for practitioners.  

PubMed

Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees. PMID:23730462

Parsons, Marsha B; Rollyson, Jeannia H; Reid, Dennis H

2012-01-01

465

An evidence-based nephrology column in the JN.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) combines clinical experience with the best available patient-centred medical knowledge. EBM is not restricted to randomised trials and meta-analyses. It involves finding the best studies (the best "external evidence") to answer the clinical questions we face in everyday clinical practice. This is a challenging framework where medical decisions absolutely cannot be based on a superficial or automatic approach to patient care. Interest in this approach is growing fast. The EB Nephrology Section of the Journal of Nephrology aims to help readers to update and extend their knowledge of the foundations, the tools and the products of EBM, with specific applications in the field of clinical nephrology. PMID:10630694

Zoccali, C

466

Evidence-Based Staff Training: A Guide for Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees.

Parsons, Marsha B.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Reid, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

467

Evidence-Based Ethics for Neurology and Psychiatry Research  

PubMed Central

Summary: American bioethics, historically arising out of theology and philosophy, has been dominated by the method of normative analysis. Ethics as policy, however, requires in addition a solid evidence base. This paper discusses the background conditions that make neurotherapeutics research particularly challenging. Three key ethical issues are discussed within an evidence-based ethics framework: the ethical challenges arising from changes in the financial incentive structures for academic researchers and their institutions, the challenges of risk-benefit analysis for neurotherapeutics protocols testing innovative interventions, and the evolving issues surrounding impaired decision-making capacity and surrogate consent for research. For each of these issues, selected empirical data are reviewed, areas for further inquiry are noted, and the need for development of novel methods for bioethics policy research is discussed.

Kim, Scott Y. H.

2004-01-01

468

A conceptual model for growing evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Nursing administration at a small medical center is developing and implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) model of care to support a culture of quality care, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth. The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model for EBP that addresses how to overcome barriers to implementation. Clinician expertise and values, experience, patient preference and expectation, and caring become grounded in a practice environment that must strive to become rooted in clinical research to evolve into a practice that is evidence-based. Education helps to nourish EBP, but leadership, enthusiasm, mentorship, clinical inquiry, and reflective practice make EBP thrive. The EBP ambassadors branch out to each department to grow journal clubs, EBP Web pages, EBP projects, research utilization projects, and staff-led practice reviews. The fruits are quality patient care and outcomes, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth. PMID:17413511

Vratny, Amy; Shriver, Deb

469

Surgical Treatment of Graves’ Disease: Evidence-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The optimal treatment of Graves´ disease (GD) is still controversial. Surgery is one treatment option along with radioactive\\u000a iodine (RAI) and antithyroid medication. In this evidence-based review, we examine four issues: (1) Is surgery better than\\u000a RAI or long-term antithyroid medication? (2) What is the recommended surgical approach? (3) How does the presence of Graves’\\u000a ophthalmopathy (GO) influence the role

Peter Stålberg; Anna Svensson; Ola Hessman; Göran Åkerström; Per Hellman

2008-01-01

470

The pros and cons of evidence-based surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been proposed as a new paradigm of practising medicine. However, an unproductive polarisation\\u000a between supporters and opponents can make its unbiased assessment difficult. This review gives an overview of the arguments\\u000a and discusses their surgeon-specific importance. Discussion: As EBM claims a position in the centre of medicine, it borders with other highly debated topics as,

Stefan Sauerland; Rolf Lefering; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer

1999-01-01

471

An Evidence-Based Manual for Abdominal Paracentesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide evidence-based approaches to detect ascites, perform paracentesis, order tests, and\\u000a interpret the results. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant articles. Of 731 identified articles, 50 articles\\u000a were used. The most sensitive findings for ascites detection are ankle edema (93%), increased abdominal girth (87%), flank\\u000a dullness (84%), and bulging flanks (81%).

Angela McGibbon; Grant I. Chen; Kevork M. Peltekian; Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten

2007-01-01

472

Implementing evidence-based practice: Walking the talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russworm and Larrabee’s (1999) six-step model for evidence-based practice (EBP) was used by 10 nursing teams to seek answers to clinical questions. These teams, primarily composed of staff nurses, participated in a health region-wide EBP program over 1 year. Overall, the model served as a useful mechanism for examining practice-derived questions. However, additional strategies needed to be incorporated by the

Norma E. Thurston; Kathryn M. King

2004-01-01

473

Telehealth for underserved families: an evidence-based parenting program.  

PubMed

Families with a child diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder completed an 8-session parenting program, the Group Triple P Positive Parenting Program, provided by videoconferencing technology. Families reported improved child behavior (effect size of d = -1.23) and decreased parent distress (d = -0.34). Parent training implemented with videoconferencing technology can be an effective way of delivering evidence-based services to families with specialized needs. PMID:22867126

Reese, Robert J; Slone, Norah C; Soares, Neelkamal; Sprang, Rob

2012-08-01

474

Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. METHOD: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were

Roberto S Perez; Paul E Zollinger; Pieter U Dijkstra; Ilona L Thomassen-Hilgersom; Wouter WA Zuurmond; Jan H Geertzen

2010-01-01

475

Evidence-Based Practice Among Nurses in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 449 nurses in Italy, using a self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding evidence-based practice (EBP). A significantly higher level of knowledge was observed among nurses who (a) did not work in medical and surgical wards; (b) believed that the evaluation of the efficacy of the health interventions

Alberico Filippini; Alessandra Sessa; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Italo F. Angelillo

2011-01-01

476

The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Educators have sometimes been chided for the enthusiasm with which they embrace new trends and concepts. Their enthusiasm\\u000a regarding evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial, however, as it will be key to the movement of EBP from the laboratory\\u000a to real-world settings, such as public schools. Generalizing from the laboratory to public schools is essential if EBP are\\u000a to ever reach

Peter Doehring; Vincent Winterling

477