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1

Is WTI crude oil market becoming weakly efficient over time?: New evidence from multiscale analysis based on detrended fluctuation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the work in Tabak and Cajueiro [Are the crude oil markets becoming weakly efficient over time, Energy Economics 29 (2007) 28-36] and Alvarez-Ramirez et al. [Short-term predictability of crude oil markets: a detrended fluctuation analysis approach, Energy Economics 30 (2008) 2645-2656]. In this paper, we test for the efficiency of WTI crude oil market through observing the

Yudong Wang; Li Liu

2010-01-01

2

Neutron-Diffraction Evidence for the Ferrimagnetic Ground State of a Molecule-Based Magnet with Weakly Coupled Sublattices  

SciTech Connect

The diruthenium compound [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two weakly coupled, ferrimag- netically ordered sublattices occupying the same volume. The magnetic field Hc 800 Oe required to align the two sublattice moments is proportional to the antiferromagnetic dipolar interaction Kc B Hc 5 10 3 meV between sublattices. Powder neutron-diffraction measurements on a deuterated sample reveal that the sublattice moments are restricted by the anisotropy of the diruthenium paddle-wheel complexes to the cubic diagonals. Those measurements also suggest that the quantum corrections to the ground state are significant.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Campo, Javier [University of Zaragoza, Spain; Vos, Thomas E. [University of Utah; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

2012-01-01

3

Evidence for weak antilocalization in epitaxial graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport in ultrathin graphite on silicon carbide is graphene-like and appears to be dominated by the electron-doped epitaxial graphene layer at the interface. Weak antilocalization in 2D samples manifests itself as a broad cusp-like depression in the longitudinal resistance for magnetic fields 10 mT < B < 5 T. An extremely sharp weak-localization resistance peak at B = 0 is also observed. These features quantitatively agree with recent graphene weak-localization theory. Scattering contributions from charges in the substrate and from trigonal warping due to the graphite layer are tentatively identified. The Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations show an anomalous Berry's phase. Their small amplitudes may be related to graphene scattering processes.

Wu, Xiaosong; Li, Xuebin; Song, Zhimin; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.

2007-03-01

4

Evidence of Weak Habitat Specialisation in Microscopic Animals  

PubMed Central

Macroecology and biogeography of microscopic organisms (any living organism smaller than 2 mm) are quickly developing into fruitful research areas. Microscopic organisms also offer the potential for testing predictions and models derived from observations on larger organisms due to the feasibility of performing lab and mesocosm experiments. However, more empirical knowledge on the similarities and differences between micro- and macro-organisms is needed to ascertain how much of the results obtained from the former can be generalised to the latter. One potential misconception, based mostly on anedoctal evidence rather than explicit tests, is that microscopic organisms may have wider ecological tolerance and a lower degree of habitat specialisation than large organisms. Here we explicitly test this hypothesis within the framework of metacommunity theory, by studying host specificify in the assemblages of bdelloid rotifers (animals about 350 µm in body length) living in different species of lichens in Sweden. Using several regression-based and ANOVA analyses and controlling for both spatial structure and the kind of substrate the lichen grow over (bark vs rock), we found evidence of significant but weak species-specific associations between bdelloids and lichens, a wide overlap in species composition between lichens, and wide ecological tolerance for most bdelloid species. This confirms that microscopic organisms such as bdelloids have a lower degree of habitat specialisation than larger organisms, although this happens in a complex scenario of ecological processes, where source-sink dynamics and geographic distances seem to have no effect on species composition at the analysed scale. PMID:21887355

Fontaneto, Diego; Westberg, Martin; Hortal, Joaquín

2011-01-01

5

Evidence of weak conscious experiences in the exclusion task  

PubMed Central

Exclusion tasks have been proposed as objective measures of unconscious perception as they do not depend upon subjective ratings. In exclusion tasks, participants have to complete a task without using a previously presented prime. Use of the prime is taken as evidence for unconscious processing in the absence of awareness, yet it may also simply indicate that participants have weak experiences but fail to realize that these affect the response or fail to counter the effect on the response. Here, we tested this claim by allowing participants to rate their experience of a masked prime on the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) after the exclusion task. Results showed that the prime was used almost as often when participants reported having seen a “weak glimpse” of the prime as when they claimed to have “no experience” of the prime, thus suggesting participants frequently have weak (possibly contentless) experiences of the stimulus when failing to exclude. This indicates that the criteria for report of awareness is lower (i.e., more liberal) than that for exclusion and that failure to exclude should not be taken as evidence of complete absence of awareness. PMID:25295024

Sandberg, Kristian; Del Pin, Simon H.; Bibby, Bo M.; Overgaard, Morten

2014-01-01

6

Evidence of weak conscious experiences in the exclusion task.  

PubMed

Exclusion tasks have been proposed as objective measures of unconscious perception as they do not depend upon subjective ratings. In exclusion tasks, participants have to complete a task without using a previously presented prime. Use of the prime is taken as evidence for unconscious processing in the absence of awareness, yet it may also simply indicate that participants have weak experiences but fail to realize that these affect the response or fail to counter the effect on the response. Here, we tested this claim by allowing participants to rate their experience of a masked prime on the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) after the exclusion task. Results showed that the prime was used almost as often when participants reported having seen a "weak glimpse" of the prime as when they claimed to have "no experience" of the prime, thus suggesting participants frequently have weak (possibly contentless) experiences of the stimulus when failing to exclude. This indicates that the criteria for report of awareness is lower (i.e., more liberal) than that for exclusion and that failure to exclude should not be taken as evidence of complete absence of awareness. PMID:25295024

Sandberg, Kristian; Del Pin, Simon H; Bibby, Bo M; Overgaard, Morten

2014-01-01

7

Evidence-based dermatology.  

PubMed

Evidence-based dermatology (EBD) is the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine to the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders. EBD does not discount the individual dermatologist's clinical judgment. In fact, EBD is based on the interaction of external evidence, the physician's clinical experience, and the patient's experience. Randomized controlled trials constitute one of the highest levels of evidence and are the gold standard for validating a therapeutic intervention. For the treatment of rosacea, oral tetracycline, topical metronidazole, topical azelaic acid, and topical sulfur/sodium sulfacetamide have been validated by more than one randomized controlled trial. PMID:15810804

Margolis, David J

2005-03-01

8

Evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

D Richards; A Lawrence

1998-01-01

9

[Evidence-based medicine].  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool. PMID:8762653

Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

1996-01-01

10

Evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed Central

Clinical practice guidelines are an important product of the National Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). Recent guidelines have been published on the guiding principles for clinical practice guidelines. The ninth principle states: "Clinical practice guidelines should: (a) cite the specific evidence bearing upon the conclusion, (b) indicate the strength of the evidence [and] (c) specify the date of the most recent evidence considered." The following is CATMAT's statement on evidence-based medicine and the scales used to grade its recommendations. PMID:7820803

MacPherson, D W

1995-01-01

11

Evidence-Based Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Anatomy is a descriptive basic medical science that is no longer considered a research-led discipline. Many publications in clinical anatomy are prevalence studies treating clinically relevant anatomical variations and reporting their frequencies and/or associations with variables such as age, sex, side, laterality, and ancestry. This article discusses the need to make sense of the available literature. A new concept, evidence-based anatomy (EBA), is proposed to find, appraise, and synthetize the results reported in such publications. It consists in applying evidence-based principles to the field of epidemiological anatomy research through evidence synthesis using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to generate weighted pooled results. Pooled frequencies and associations based on large pooled sample size are likely to be more accurate and to reflect true population statistics and associations more closely. A checklist of a typical systematic review in anatomy is suggested and the implications of EBA for practice and future research, along with its scope, are discussed. The EBA approach would have positive implications for the future preservation of anatomy as a keystone basic science, for sound knowledge of anatomical variants, and for the safety of medical practice. Clin. Anat. 27:847–852, 2014. PMID:24797314

Yammine, Kaissar

2014-01-01

12

Evidence-Based Nursing Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine and, more generally, evidence-based practice (EBP), is the integration of the best available patient care evidence and clinical expertise—guided by and sensitized to patient values—into a patient-oriented decision-making process. It is increasingly clear that all health professions neither equally value nor draw upon the same pool of evidence. Although there are areas of overlap between evidence-based nursing and

Mark A. Spasser

2005-01-01

13

Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zum Thema  \\u000a Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), die auf klinischer Forschung gegründete wissenschaftliche Medizin, wird beschrieben als „gewissenhafter,\\u000a ausdrücklicher und vernüftiger Gebrauch der gegenwärtig besten externen, wissenschaftlichen Evidenz für Entscheidungen in\\u000a der medizinischen Versorgung individueller Patienten. Die Praxis der EBM bedeutet die Integration individueller klinischer\\u000a Expertise mit der externen Evidenz aus systematischer Forschung”.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Auf den ärztlichen Entscheidungsprozeß sei also ausdrücklich hingewiesen, auch wenn

G. Antes

1998-01-01

14

Weak Antilocalization in Epitaxial Graphene: Evidence for Chiral Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport in ultrathin graphite grown on silicon carbide is dominated by the electron-doped epitaxial layer at the interface. Weak antilocalization in 2D samples manifests itself as a broad cusplike depression in the longitudinal resistance for magnetic fields 10mTweak-localization resistance peak at B=0 is also observed. These features quantitatively agree with graphene weak-(anti)localization theory implying the chiral electronic character of the samples. Scattering contributions from the trapped charges in the substrate and from trigonal warping due to the graphite layer on top are tentatively identified. The Shubnikov de Haas oscillations are remarkably small and show an anomalous Berry’s phase.

Wu, Xiaosong; Li, Xuebin; Song, Zhimin; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.

2007-03-01

15

Evidence-based management.  

PubMed

It's OK to be lucky when you're lucky, but it's not OK when the issues are critical. Too often, we manage by anecdote, which is OK when you can afford to be wrong, but when finances are tight, or the market is overregulated, or a lot is at stake, making mistakes is not an option. Evidence-based management depends on attention to three components: analytics, decision making, and problem solving. These are skills that should be required of everyone who assumes a management position, no matter how high or low one is on the totem pole. Understanding basic analytical techniques, knowing how to apply these techniques to making good decisions, and learning how to become a skilled problem solver ensure that, when we manage our businesses, we minimize the risk of mistakes and maximize the potential for positive outcomes. PMID:22594062

Cohen, Frank

2012-01-01

16

Principles of evidence based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care professionals are increasingly required to base clinical decisions on the best available evidence. Evidence based medicine (EBM) is a systematic approach to clinical problem solving which allows the integration of the best available research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. This paper explains the concept of EBM and introduces the five step EBM model: formulation of answerable

A K Akobeng

2005-01-01

17

Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important topic in any introductory chemistry course is that of acids and bases. Students generally have no trouble learning the Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Problems often arise, however, when chemistry teachers attempt to explain the difference between weak and strong acids, and between weak and strong bases.

Todd P. Silverstein

2000-01-01

18

Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

2013-01-01

19

Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman. PMID:25364558

Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina

2014-01-01

20

Evidence for a weak angiogenic response to human colorectal cancers.  

PubMed Central

Many previous qualitative studies have shown that tumours are less vascular in the centre, and that host tissues become more vascular in close proximity to tumours. However, quantitative findings presented here for human colorectal cancer reveal some significant differences. Sections from 20 colorectal carcinomas (ten moderately and ten poorly differentiated) were immunostained with the QB/end/10 monoclonal to demonstrate blood vessels. These were measured by interactive morphometry and vascular volume density, surface density (Sv) and length density were recorded. In poorly differentiated carcinomas, the tumour centre was significantly less vascular than the periphery for all three parameters (P = 0.008 for Sv). However, no significant difference was seen for moderately differentiated tumours, which constitute the majority of colorectal cancers. Surrounding host tissues did not show a general increase in vascular density close to tumours. Furthermore, when total viable tissue was considered, the vascular density of carcinomas was not markedly different from normal mucosa. In the centre of moderately differentiated carcinomas for example, the mean value for Sv was only 1.4 times higher than the mean value for normal mucosa. These findings suggest that colorectal cancers may elicit a relatively weak angiogenic response, consistent with their exceptionally slow growth rate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7537517

Pritchard, A. J.; Chatterjee, T.; Wilkinson, M.; Powe, D. G.; Gray, T.; Hewitt, R. E.

1995-01-01

21

Experimentally Quantifying the Advantages of Weak-Values-Based Metrology  

E-print Network

We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-values-based metrology versus standard methods. To accomplish this we, measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-values-based technique), or by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external modulations of the detector, and transverse beam-jitter, we quantify the mitigation of these sources in the weak values-based experiment versus the standard focusing experiment. The experiments are compared using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. In all cases, the weak-values technique performs the same or better than the standard technique by up to two orders of magnitude in precision for our parameters. We further measure the statistical efficiency of the weak-values-based technique. By post-selecting on $1\\%$ of the photons, we obtain $99\\%$ of the available Fisher information of the beam deflection parameter.

Gerardo I. Viza; Julián Martínez-Rincón; Gabriel B. Alves; Andrew N. Jordan; John C. Howell

2014-10-31

22

On the interpretation of likelihood ratios in forensic science evidence: Presentation formats and the weak evidence effect.  

PubMed

Likelihood ratios are increasingly being adopted to convey expert evaluative opinions to courts. In the absence of appropriate databases, many of these likelihood ratios will include verbal rather than numerical estimates of the support offered by the analysis. However evidence suggests that verbal formulations of uncertainty are a less effective form of communication than equivalent numerical formulations. Moreover, when evidence strength is low a misinterpretation of the valence of the evidence - a "weak evidence effect" - has been found. We report the results of an experiment involving N=404 (student and online) participants who read a brief summary of a burglary trial containing expert testimony. The expert evidence was varied across conditions in terms of evidence strength (low or high) and presentation method (numerical, verbal, table or visual scale). Results suggest that of these presentation methods, numerical expressions produce belief-change and implicit likelihood ratios which were most commensurate with those intended by the expert and most resistant to the weak evidence effect. These findings raise questions about the extent to which low strength verbal evaluative opinions can be effectively communicated to decision makers at trial. PMID:24814330

Martire, K A; Kemp, R I; Sayle, M; Newell, B R

2014-07-01

23

Risk Assessment: Evidence Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

2007-01-01

24

Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification  

E-print Network

Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification KEY FACTS Module Code: RCM005 Department: Evidence Based Practice Summary Description Evidence based practice is an approach to clinical problem solving and health care provision based on "good evidence". The purpose of evidence based practice

Weyde, Tillman

25

Escape of DNA from a Weakly Biased Thin Nanopore: Experimental Evidence for a Universal Diffusive Behavior  

E-print Network

Escape of DNA from a Weakly Biased Thin Nanopore: Experimental Evidence for a Universal Diffusive halfway through a thin solid-state nanopore. We find a universal behavior of the escape time distributions molecule trapping in the nanopore. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.248301 PACS numbers: 82.37.Rs, 05.40.Ã?a, 82

Golovchenko, Jene A.

26

EVN+MERLIN Observations of RadioIntermediate Quasars: Evidence for Boosted RadioWeak Quasars  

E-print Network

EVN+MERLIN Observations of Radio­Intermediate Quasars: Evidence for Boosted Radio­Weak Quasars­intermediate PG quasars (RIQ) with flat and variable radio spectrum (III Zw 2, PG 1309+355, PG 2209+184). Their radio­to­optical flux ratio (R) is slightly lower than the average R for steep­spectrum quasars

Falcke, Heino

27

Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally

Tim Schrabback; Jan Hartlap; Benjamin Joachimi; Martin Kilbinger; Patrick Simon; Karim Benabed; M. Bradac; Tim Eifler; Thomas Erben; C. D. Fassnacht; F. William High; Stefan Hilbert; Hendrik Hildebrandt; Henk Hoekstra; Konrad Kuijken; P. J. Marshall; Yannick Mellier; Eric Morganson; Peter Schneider; Elisabetta Semboloni; L. van Waerbeke; Malin Velander

2010-01-01

28

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

29

Evidence-based chinese medicine for hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

30

Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important topic in any introductory chemistry course is that of acids and bases. Students generally have no trouble learning the Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Problems often arise, however, when chemistry teachers attempt to explain the difference between weak and strong acids, and between weak and strong bases. For acids in aqueous solution, discussing complete in contrast to partial ionization works well for those with a strong grasp of the equilibrium concept, but for many students it does not seem to do the trick. Partial ionization may not evoke much in the mind of a "visual learner". Accordingly, I have developed a football analogy for acids and bases in which acids are compared to quarterbacks, whose job is to get rid of the ball (H+). A strong acid, like an excellent quarterback, delivers the ball effectively; a weak acid, like a poor quarterback, is often left holding the ball. Furthermore, bases may be likened to wide receivers, whose job is to catch and hold onto the ball (H+). A strong base, like an excellent wide receiver, holds onto the ball; a weak base, like a poor receiver, often drops the ball. The concept of throwing and catching a ball is easy to visualize and the analogy to acids and bases can help even students unfamiliar with the mores of the gridiron to comprehend the mores of aqueous protons.

Silverstein, Todd P.

2000-07-01

31

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

2005-01-01

32

Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2005-01-01

33

Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ?2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (?eff ? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-10-01

34

The Politics of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impetus for these essays on evidence in medicine and law is commonly called evidence-based medicine: the movement to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and cost of medical practices using tools from science and social science and to base clinical practice on such knowledge. Evidence-based medicine is portrayed as an alternative to medicine based on authority, tradition, and the physician's personal

Marc A. Rodwin

2001-01-01

35

Boosting weak classifiers for visual tracking based on kernel regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an online learning boosting method based on kernel regression for robust visual tracking. Although much progress has been made in using boosting for tracking, it remains a big challenge to get a robust tracker that is insensitive to illumination change, clutter, object deformation, and occlusion. In this paper, we use a nonlinear version of the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm so as to derive weak classifiers for visual tracking, which performs linear regression in a high-dimensional feature space induced by a Mercer kernel. In order to alleviate the computational burden and increase efficiency, we apply online sparsification to filter samples in feature space. In our boosting framework, adaptive linear weak classifiers are performed, the form of which is modified adaptively to cope with scene changes in every frame. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method has advantages in dealing with complex background in visual tracking, and often outperforms the state of the art on the popular datasets.

Ma, Bo; Ma, Weizhang

2011-11-01

36

Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public  

E-print Network

Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public Engagement in Transportation Kathryn Quick Assistant Questions for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we move beyond

Minnesota, University of

37

The need for evidence-based conservation  

E-print Network

to which medical practice was based on research evidence of effectiveness and led to the conclusionThe need for evidence-based conservation William J. Sutherland1 , Andrew S. Pullin2 , Paul M Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. NR4 7TJ 2 Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School

Kark, Salit

38

Translating Research and Building the Evidence Base  

E-print Network

promoting evidence-based, rigorously-tested programs and practices throughout all program areas, including Discovery Practice-based Evidence DIFFUSION #12;What's New About Translational Research? Hasn't CCE beenTranslating Research and Building the Evidence Base John Eckenrode Professor of Human Development

Keinan, Alon

39

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of  

E-print Network

(Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium

Connor, Ed

40

Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice  

PubMed Central

There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down questions into searchable statements, and adapting statements to suit both the question being asked and the resource being searched. A number of free, evidence-based resources are listed. Knowing how and where to access this information will enable practitioners to more easily use an evidence-based approach to their practice. PMID:21503266

Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel

2010-01-01

41

Evidence-based Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

Kahan, D.

2012-12-01

42

A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

2009-02-01

43

The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

Kvernbekk, Tone

2011-01-01

44

Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

2009-01-01

45

Inleiding in evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  In Capita selecta worden evidence based handelen en de theorievorming daarover verder uitgediept. Belangwekkende publicaties,\\u000a methoden, technieken, definities en discussies zullen in deze rubriek regelmatig aan de orde komen. Evidence based handelen\\u000a wordt op deze wijze voor de paramedici in een breder perspectief geplaatst. In deze tweede aflevering van Capita selecta een\\u000a gedeelte uit `Inleiding in evidence-based medicine’ (Offringa e.a.,

M. Offringa; W. J. J. Assendelft; R. J. P. M. Scholten

2003-01-01

46

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

47

Evidence-Based Research in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational newsletter highlights a lead article, "Evidence-Based Research in Education." The article explains that evidence-based research emerged in the field of medicine over 50 years ago, resulting in major advances in the treatment and prevention of disease. It adds that clinical guidelines and protocols are based on the results of…

Research Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

48

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for depression.  

PubMed

Depression is a distressing emotion that occurs during various times of the cancer trajectory. Depression often goes unrecognized and untreated, which can significantly affect cost, quality of life, and treatment adherence. The Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice depression project team reviewed current literature to identify evidence-based interventions to reduce depression in people with cancer. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions were evaluated, and opportunities for nurses to integrate recommendations into practice are offered in this article. PMID:25427607

Fulcher, Caryl D; Kim, Hee-Ju; Smith, Patsy R; Sherner, Tammie L

2014-12-01

49

Evidence-based Practice for Mere Mortals  

PubMed Central

The poor translation of evidence into practice is a well-known problem. Hopes are high that information technology can help make evidence-based practice feasible for mere mortal physicians. In this paper, we draw upon the methods and perspectives of clinical practice, medical informatics, and health services research to analyze the gap between evidence and action, and to argue that computing systems for bridging this gap should incorporate both informatics and health services research expertise. We discuss 2 illustrative systems—trial banks and a web-based system to develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines (alchemist)— and conclude with a research and training agenda. PMID:11972727

Sim, Ida; Sanders, Gillian D; McDonald, Kathryn M

2002-01-01

50

Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented. PMID:22980676

Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

2012-01-01

51

Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

2010-01-01

52

Multicultural Issues in Evidence-Based Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists involved in the delivery of psychological and educational interventions face the challenge of identifying interventions that will work within their schools. The evidence-based intervention (EBI) approach has received attention as a promising way to identify effective interventions. The national Task Force on Evidence Based

Ingraham, Colette L.; Oka, Evelyn R.

2006-01-01

53

EVIDENCE-BASED CARE AND THE CURRICULUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based approach has been a significant driver in reforming healthcare over the past two decades. This change has extended across a broad range of health professions, including oral healthcare. A key element in achieving an evidence-based approach to oral healthcare is educating our practitioners, both current and future. This involves providing opportunities integrated within simulated and actual clinical settings

Tracey Winning; Ian Needleman; Madeleine Rohlin; Antonio Carrassi

54

Weak bonding of Zn in an Al-based approximant based on surface measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied two surfaces of a new Al–Pd–Zn approximant using mass spectrometry, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Zn is bonded weakly in this approximant, perhaps as weakly as in elemental Zn. This is based upon three observations: (1) the low vapor pressure of Zn above the approximant (detectable in the gas phase at 600?K), (2)

Chad D. Yuen; Baris Unal; Dapeng Jing; Patricia A. Thiel

2011-01-01

55

Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We set out to assess, within the context of evidence-based medicine, the levels of supporting evidence for therapeutic recommendations made in leading otolaryngology journals. Design: We used a cross-sectional survey of clinical research articles published in 1999 in 4 high-circulation otolaryngology journals. Outcome Measures: We used study design methodology and level of evidence for clinical research articles with therapeutic

Boris L. Bentsianov; Marina Boruk; Richard M. Rosenfeld

2002-01-01

56

Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy  

PubMed Central

Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence. PMID:19608941

Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

57

Evidence-Based Medicine in Surgical Education  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is increasingly important for clinical surgery and for promotion of best practices into surgical decision making. Although barriers exist in the current surgical literature, for certain surgical scenarios, formal efforts to promote evidence-based surgery (EBS) into surgical education are helping to equip future surgeons with these important tools for optimizing patient care. As our evidence-base grows and standards of care evolve, incorporating EBM into everyday practice for trainees and staff surgeons remains an ongoing challenge. PMID:23997670

Kwaan, Mary R.; Melton, Genevieve B.

2012-01-01

58

Understanding evidence-based medicine: A primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidenced-based medicine is the concept of formalizing the scientific approach to the practice of medicine for identification of “evidence” to support our clinical decisions. It requires an understanding of critical appraisal and the basic epidemiologic principles of study design, point estimates, relative risk, odds ratios, confidence intervals, bias, and confounding. By using this information, clinicians can categorize evidence, assess causality,

J. Kell Williams; Fla Tampa

2001-01-01

59

The Principles of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates individual clinical expertise with the best available external evidence in the care of individual patients. By enabling clinicians to directly appraise and apply current clinical research, EBM deals with the problems of deterioration in clinical performance, information overload, and lag in application of research findings to clinical practice. Thus, EBM is a useful tool to address

S Wiebe

2000-01-01

60

Evidence-Based Medicine and Medical Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last five years evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been promoted in mainstream medical literature in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom as a new paradigm in medical education and practice. \\

Keith Denny

1999-01-01

61

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

62

The Art of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of a self-identified evidence-based practitioner. Discussion of EBP includes choosing an initial intervention and evaluation procedures, the iterative process of rechoosing and refining an intervention over the treatment life span, and the importance of evi- dence within the specific clinical situation. Two illustrative case studies are

David E. Pollio

2006-01-01

63

Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1) Bone-patellar tendon-bone reconstruction (BPTB-R) or hamstrimg reconstruction (H-R); 2) Double bundle or single bundle; 3) Allograft or authograft; 4) Early or late reconstruction; 5) Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6) Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE) search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II) of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

2015-01-01

64

GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

2010-12-01

65

Metadata for Evidence Based Medicine resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new metadata element set based on Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DC) and Admin- Core: Administrative Container C ore (A-Core) was proposed for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) sources after reviewing metadata elements and contents of current EBM sources and medical metadata for Internet resources. The metadata schema was designed to provide a common format for existing primary and secondary

Yukiko Sakai

2001-01-01

66

Psychiatric Mental Health Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element

Michael J. Rice

2008-01-01

67

Evidence-Based Practices and Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

2011-01-01

68

Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews,  

E-print Network

Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews, and the Need for Automated Text Storage and Retrieval, Text-Mining, Evidence-Based Medicine. 1. Introduction The practice of Evidence-Based available, most appropriate evidence in the care of each patient, a practice known as Evidence-based

Meng, Weiyi

69

eEvidence: Information Seeking Support for Evidence-based Practice: An Implementation Case Study  

E-print Network

eEvidence: Information Seeking Support for Evidence-based Practice: An Implementation Case Study an evidence-based practice resource collection with up-to-date coverage, and then apply automated Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise

Kan, Min-Yen

70

Evidence-based radiology: why and how?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To provide an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in relation to radiology and to define a policy for adoption of this\\u000a principle in the European radiological community.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Starting from Sackett’s definition of EBM we illustrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches to EBM as well as EBM’s limitations.\\u000a Delayed diffusion and peculiar features of evidence-based radiology (EBR) are defined with emphasis

Francesco Sardanelli; Myriam G. Hunink; Fiona J. Gilbert; Giovanni Di Leo; Gabriel P. Krestin

2010-01-01

71

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

2003-01-01

72

EVN+MERLIN Observations of Radio-Intermediate Quasars: Evidence for Boosted Radio-Weak Quasars  

E-print Network

We present VLBI (EVN+MERLIN) observations of a sample of three low-redshift radio-intermediate PG quasars (RIQ) with flat and variable radio spectrum (III Zw 2, PG 1309+355, PG 2209+184). Their radio-to-optical flux ratio (R) is slightly lower than the average R for steep-spectrum quasars, but their radio spectral properties are those of core-dominated quasars. It was proposed previously that these sources might be relativistically boosted jets in radio-weak quasars. Our VLBI observations now indeed confirm the presence of a high brightness temperature core in all three of these objects --- two of them have lower limits on T_B well in excess of 10^10 Kelvin. Moreover, we find no ``missing-flux'' which means that basically all the flux of these quasars is concentrated in the compact radio core. As the total radio flux is already at the low end for radio-loud quasars, we can place a strong limit on the presence of any extended emission. This limit is consistent with the extended emission in radio-weak quasars, but excludes that the flat-spectrum RIQ reside in typical radio-loud quasars. The observations therefore strongly support the idea that relativistic jets are present in radio-weak quasars and hence that radio-loud and radio-weak quasars have very similar central engines.

Heino Falcke; Alok Patnaik; William Sherwood

1996-10-08

73

Evidence-based medicine for occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

inusing medical subject headings, and unreliable search strategies. With the use of the abstracts only, most clinical questions could be answered satisfactorily, but concrete risk estimates were often lacking. The lack of availability of full text journals decreased the reliability of the critical appraisal and risk estimation. Conclusions Evidence-based medicine is a feasible and useful method for occupational medicine. Instruction

J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Dijk van F. J. H; A. Malmivaara; C. T. J. Hulshof; K. Rasanen; E. Kankaanpaa; K. Mukala

2002-01-01

74

Evidence-based Medicine in Animal Reproduction.  

PubMed

With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious. PMID:25220744

Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W

2014-09-01

75

Evidence Based Practice for Library Instruction  

E-print Network

tutorials significantly more effective in teaching first-year students information literacy skills? #12;© M Literacy · Evidence Based Library & Information Practice · Journal of Education for Library & Information-year students information literacy skills? #12;© M. Oakleaf 2011 #12;© M. Oakleaf 2011 #12;© M. Oakleaf 2011

Oakleaf, Megan

76

Exploring the evidence base for museum value  

Microsoft Academic Search

As museums argue their case for sustainable funding in an increasingly challenging economic climate, the requirement to prove their value will be rigorous. But the concept of value is an evolving one and developing an evidence base is a challenging task. This article examines the concept of value as an emerging phenomenon, how we describe the value of museums and

Carol A. Scott

2009-01-01

77

Finding an Evidence-Based Program  

Cancer.gov

Know how to use your needs assessment and program goals and objectives to help you select your program. Be able to find evidence-based program resources. Know how to use search options to narrow your program choices and find out what programs will and will not work with your community.

78

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

Parsonson, Barry S.

2012-01-01

79

Nurses' Perceptions of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as a marker for health care quality. However, several barriers prevent the transition of nursing research to practice, such as lack of knowledge, lack of time, and little perceived value. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the extent of current understanding of EBP, knowledge\\/skills, and attitudes among registered nurses in an urban

Karen D. Lehman

80

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

81

Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

2004-01-01

82

Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain knowledge…

Klitzing, Sandra

2012-01-01

83

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

84

Evidence Against Hydrogen-Based Microbial  

E-print Network

Evidence Against Hydrogen-Based Microbial Ecosystems in Basalt Aquifers Robert T. Anderson, Francis H. Chapelle, Derek R. Lovley* It has been proposed that hydrogen produced from basalt is not produced from basalt at an environmentally relevant, alkaline pH. Small amounts of hydrogen were produced

Lovley, Derek

85

Evidence-based orthopaedics: A brief history  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine was recently noted as one of the top 15 most important medical discoveries over the past 160 years. Since the term was coined in 1990, EBM has seen unparalleled adoption in medicine and surgery. We discuss the early origins of EBM and its dissemination in medicine, especially orthopaedic surgery. PMID:19826513

Hoppe, Daniel J; Bhandari, Mohit

2008-01-01

86

Evidence-based care and the curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based (EB) approach has been a significant driver in reforming healthcare over the past two decades. This change has extended across a broad range of health professions, including oral healthcare. A key element in achieving an EB approach to oral healthcare is educating our practitioners, both current and future. This involves providing opportunities integrated within simulated and actual clinical

T. Winning; I. Needleman; M. Rohlin; A. Carrassi; B. Chadwick; K. Eaton; K. Hardwick; R. Ivancakova; R. L. Jallaludin; D. Johnsen; J.-G. Kim; D. Lekkas; D. Li; D. Onisei; A. Pissiotis; P. Reynolds; I. Tonni; J. Vanobbergen; R. Vassileva; J. Virtanen; P. Wesselink; N. Wilson

2008-01-01

87

Virtually-synchronous communication based on a weak failure suspector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure detectors (or, more accurately Failure Suspectors (FS)) appear to be a fundamental service upon which to build fault-tolerant, distributed applications. This paper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e., that delivers failure and recovery information in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronous communication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failures and network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronous systems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failures by replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to implement virtually-synchronous communication: (1) at the lowest level, the FS component; (2) on top of it, a component (2a) that defines new views; and (3) a component (2b) that reliably multicasts messages within a view. The issues covered in this paper also lead to a better understanding of the various membership service semantics proposed in recent literature.

Schiper, Andre; Ricciardi, Aleta

1993-01-01

88

Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.  

PubMed

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

Osborn, John

2002-01-01

89

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

90

Evidence-based treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

People with schizophrenia can be helped greatly with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions that are known to be effective. Several interventions are now supported by research: use of medications following specific guidelines, training in illness self-management, case management based on principles of assertive community treatment, family psychoeducation, supported employment, and integrated substance abuse treatment. However, few patients actually receive these evidence-based interventions because they are not provided in routine mental health settings. Therefore, implementing effective treatments in mental health treatment programs is a critical challenge for the field. We review the six areas of evidence-based treatment of schizophrenia, as well as knowledge regarding implementation of mental health programs in routine practice settings. PMID:11122986

Drake, R E; Mueser, K T; Torrey, W C; Miller, A L; Lehman, A F; Bond, G R; Goldman, H H; Leff, H S

2000-10-01

91

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation  

E-print Network

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Sara Faisal Shash properties of medi- cal publications for the aim of Evidence Based Medicine summarisa- tion. Given a dataset of such clustering for natural language processing tasks in Evidence Based Medicine. 1 Introduction Evidence Based

Aliod, Diego Mollá

92

Underdetermination in evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

This article explores the philosophical implications of evidence-based medicine's (EBM's) epistemology in terms of the problem of underdetermination of theory by evidence as expounded by the Duhem-Quine thesis. EBM hierarchies of evidence privilege clinical research over basic science, exacerbating the problem of underdetermination. Because of severe underdetermination, EBM is unable to meaningfully test core medical beliefs that form the basis of our understanding of disease and therapeutics. As a result, EBM adopts an epistemic attitude that is sceptical of explanations from the basic biological sciences, and is relegated to a view of disease at a population level. EBM's epistemic attitude provides a limited research heuristic by preventing the development of a theoretical framework required for understanding disease mechanism and integrating knowledge to develop new therapies. Medical epistemology should remain pluralistic and include complementary approaches of basic science and clinical research, thus avoiding the limited epistemic attitude entailed by EBM hierarchies. PMID:25406418

Chin-Yee, Benjamin H

2014-11-19

93

From evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence: the idea of situated generalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments across the world are seeking improvements in school performance. One avenue to improvement that has been widely promulgated is the reform of teaching through the development of evidence-based practice. This paper reports evaluation data from a national programme in England that sought to put teachers at the heart of the search for evidence on which improvements in practice could

Helen Simons; Saville Kushner; Keith Jones; David James

2003-01-01

94

Evidence-Based Recognition of 3-D Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based recognition technique is defined that identifies 3-D objects by looking for their notable features. This technique makes use of an evidence rule base, which is a set of salient or evidence conditions with corresponding evidence weights for various objects in the database. A measure of similarity between the set of observed features and the set of evidence conditions

Anil K. Jain; Richard Hoffman

1988-01-01

95

Integrating evidence-based decision making into allied health curricula.  

PubMed

An evidence-based approach may decrease variations in practice and time delays in adopting new procedures. This report describes the process for incorporating evidence-based decision making (EBDM) into curricula using active teaching techniques. The process centers on a national four-day Faculty Development Institute (FDI) program for dental hygiene, occupational therapy, and physical therapy faculty. Phase I assesses pre-Institute EBDM knowledge, skills, and teaching strategies. Phase II, onsite, involves learning EBDM principles and teaching skills and developing an educational package. Phase III integrates these into the curriculum, with ongoing follow-up. At baseline, faculty were unfamiliar with EBDM but were incorporating related skills. Formulation of questions and evidence gathering for patient-care decisions were weak. Phase II follow-up showed a significant increase in EBDM knowledge, p < 0.001, and 100% agreed or strongly agreed that they were prepared to integrate EBDM into their courses; 93% felt better prepared to use EBDM. Curricula and educational experiences need to include EBDM skills. The three-phase process can support faculty in making needed changes. PMID:11828582

Forrest, J L; Miller, S A

2001-01-01

96

The Evidence Base for the Evaluation and Management of Dizziness  

PubMed Central

Objective Dizziness presentations pose many clinical challenges. The objective of this study is to broadly summarize the evidence base that supports clinical decisions in dizziness presentations. Methods MEDLINE (1966 to September 2007), Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles with clinical relevance on topics concerning dizziness. Additional sources were also searched for clinical practice guidelines. The following information was abstracted from each article: year of publication, journal type, type of article, and the topics of the article. Results Of nearly 3000 articles identified, 1244 articles met the inclusion criteria. The most common article type was a case report or case series, followed by expert opinion or review articles, studies of medical tests, and clinical trials. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews were found on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere’s disease, but only a few other topics. No clinical practice guidelines were found that focus specifically on dizziness. Conclusions The evidence base for the evaluation and management of dizziness seems to be weak. Future work to establish or summarize evidence in clinically meaningful ways could contribute to efforts to optimize patient care and healthcare utilization for one of the most common presenting symptoms. PMID:20367831

Kerber, Kevin A.; Fendrick, A. Mark

2009-01-01

97

CCO Pulsars as Anti-Magnetars: Evidence of Neutron Stars Weakly Magnetized at Birth  

E-print Network

Our new study of the two central compact object pulsars, PSR J1210-5226 (P = 424 ms) and PSR J1852+0040 (P = 105 ms), leads us to conclude that a weak natal magnetic field shaped their unique observational properties. In the dipole spin-down formalism, the 2-sigma upper limits on their period derivatives, birth equal to their present periods to three significant digits. Their X-ray luminosities exceed their respective spin-down luminosities, implying that their thermal spectra are derived from residual cooling and perhaps partly from accretion of supernova debris. For sufficiently weak magnetic fields an accretion disk can penetrate the light cylinder and interact with the magnetosphere while resulting torques on the neutron star remain within the observed limits. We propose the following as the origin of radio-quiet CCOs: the magnetic field, derived from a turbulent dynamo, is weaker if the NS is formed spinning slowly, which enables it to accrete SN debris. Accretion excludes neutron stars born with both B_s 0.1 s from radio pulsar surveys, where such weak fields are not encountered except among very old (> 40 Myr) or recycled pulsars. We predict that these birth properties are common, and may be attributes of the youngest detected neutron star, the CCO in Cassiopeia A, as well as an undetected infant neutron star in the SN 1987A remnant. In view of the far-infrared light echo discovered around Cas A and attributed to an SGR-like outburst, it is especially important to determine via timing whether Cas A hosts a magnetar or not. If not a magnetar, the Cas A NS may instead have undergone a one-time phase transition (corequake) that powered the light echo.

E. V. Gotthelf; J. P. Halpern

2007-11-10

98

Evidence-Based Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) is still based on speculative and unproven paradigms in many centers. Therefore, we performed an evidence-based analysis to assess the best available treatment. Methods: A comprehensive Medline and Cochrane Library search was performed evaluating the indication and timing of interventional and surgical approaches, and the value of aprotinin, lexipafant, gabexate mesylate, and octreotide treatment. Each study was ranked according to the evidence-based methodology of Sackett; whenever feasible, we performed new meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Recommendations were based on the available level of evidence (A = large randomized; B = small randomized; C = prospective trial). Results: None of the evaluated medical treatments is recommended (level A). Patients with AP should receive early enteral nutrition (level B). While mild biliary AP is best treated by primary cholecystectomy (level B), patients with severe biliary AP require emergency endoscopic papillotomy followed by interval cholecystectomy (level A). Patients with necrotizing AP should receive imipenem or meropenem prophylaxis to decrease the risk of infected necrosis and mortality (level A). Sterile necrosis per se is not an indication for surgery (level C), and not all patients with infected necrosis require immediate surgery (level B). In general, early necrosectomy should be avoided (level B), and single necrosectomy with postoperative lavage should be preferred over “open-packing” because of fewer complications with comparable mortality rates (level C). Conclusions: While providing new insights into key aspects of AP management, this evidence-based analysis highlights the need for further clinical trials, particularly regarding the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and surgery. PMID:16432347

Heinrich, Stefan; Schäfer, Markus; Rousson, Valentin; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-01-01

99

Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

2004-01-01

100

Weaknesses of commercial data base management systems in engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years many engineering organizations have come to the conclusion that a centralized data base, containing all of their design\\/manufacturing data, is the most cost effective solution to their needs. Increasing numbers of the designers of these central data bases are utilizing commercially available DBMS packages to implement their systems. There are many good reasons for using an “off

Thomas W. Sidle

1980-01-01

101

[Communication problems in evidence-based medicine].  

PubMed

From a humanistic, social scientific perspective, the most complex task in evidence-based medicine lies in the communication of specialized medical knowledge to non-professionals. Information is never simply the neutral transmission of facts, not even when dealing with scientific knowledge and research. It is always interpreted and evaluated from a particular perspective in a specific context. That information can be neutral is thus a myth. In all medical consultations the process of communication is not just a matter of transmitting information from one who knows to one who does not. Knowledge created and formulated in a scientific context is thus recontextualised first in a clinical situation and then as an interpreted version in people's real lives. Furthermore there are difficulties when practice must be based on current research, in a situation in which no prior clinical experience exists and in which results are interpreted and used regardless of the relative certainty of current evidence. PMID:11894613

Sachs, Lisbeth

2002-02-21

102

What is evidence-based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Three challenges that physicians and decision makers in the health care systems have to meet are a remarkable proportion\\u000a of medical decisions without a sufficient base of scientific evidence, a slow and opaque process of integrating scientific\\u000a knowledge into medical practice and a steadily decreasing half-life period of the medical knowledge. Discussion: During the last two decades, a number

Gerd Antes; Daniel Galandi; Bertil Bouillon

1999-01-01

103

Evidence-based medicine in de praktijk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  Evidence-based medicine (EBM) heeft de laatste jaren een grote vlucht genomen in veel gebieden van de geneeskunde, maar over\\u000a de toepasbaarheid van deze methode in de bedrijfsgeneeskunde is relatief weinig bekend. Aan de hand van vier verschillende\\u000a vraagstukken uit de dagelijkse praktijk zijn met behulp van de EBM-methode, zoekvragen opgesteld die met de publiek toegankelijke\\u000a database van medische literatuur Medline,

J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Frank van Dijk; Antti Malmivaara; Carel Hulshof; Kimmo Räsänen; Eilo Kankaanpää; Kristiina Mukala

2004-01-01

104

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

105

Evidences for weak crust during Alpine collision in external Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the external Western Alps, the collision started with the shortening of the proximal European (Dauphinois) margin. One peculiar feature is the crustal thickening that finally led to the exhumation of the basement External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) during the Neogene. In these massifs, various age of shortening, structural style and sequence of deformation have been proposed leading to different kinematics along the Alpine arc that in turn do not imply the same crustal/lithospheric strength. In this contribution, we present new structural and microstructural data along with Ar/Ar ages from field studies in the Oisans-Grandes Rousses massifs, between Grenoble and Briançon). From balanced cross-sections, we show that about half of the external zone crustal shortening is accommodated within the ECM with similar Ar/Ar ages in all massifs. Furthermore, the shear zones present very large thicknesses (several hundred meters) and do not reactivated either the inherited Liassic normal faults or the Variscan foliation. Finally, the main shortening structures are localized beneath inherited Liassic syn-rift basins. These results suggest that the crust was weak during its shortening. Such behavior is most likely due to the combination of several factors: the crust burial (below the overthrusting internal units) down to about 10km, the presence of weak inherited syn-rift basins, and the strain softening in shear zones that evolve in mica-rich phyllonites. These results are consistent with the studies in the Aar massif and should most likely apply to the Mont Blanc massif, whose relationships with its cover are still debated.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bellanger, Mathieu; Boutoux, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; Monié, Patrick; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lafosse, Manfred; Lacombe, Olivier; Mouthereau, Frederic; Baudin, Thierry

2013-04-01

106

Evidence-based practice: A challenge for European developmental psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the evidence-based practice movement has been seeing great gains in impact. Standards for research leading to evidence-based practice have been defined. So far, however, in the area of education standards of evidence are not extensively implemented and in most federal European policies an evidence-based reform has not been attained. The present paper advocates investing effort in evidence-based

Christiane Spiel

2009-01-01

107

The evidence that exercise during growth or adulthood reduces the risk of fragility fractures is weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been, and will never be, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrating that exercise in youth, adulthood or old age reduces fragility or osteoporosis-related fractures in old age. The next level of evidence, a randomized, controlled but unblinded study with fractures as an end-point is feasible but has never been done. The basis for the belief that exercise

Magnus Karlsson; Shona Bass; Ego Seeman

2001-01-01

108

Sample preparation: the weak link in microfluidics-based biodetection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a broad generalization, clinicians and laboratory personnel who use microfluidics-based automated or semi-automated instrumentation\\u000a to perform biomedical assays on real-world samples are more pleased with the state of the assays than they are with the state\\u000a of the front-end sample preparation. The end-to-end procedure requires one to collect, manipulate, prepare, and analyze the\\u000a sample. The appeal of microfluidics for

Raymond Mariella Jr

2008-01-01

109

Evidence-based psychiatric nursing practice: Rhetoric or reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most desirable basis to substantiate clinical practice is the evidence of well-established research findings. Developing evidence-based care involves defining the clinical question, finding the evidence, analyzing the evidence, using the evidence, and evaluating the outcome. Practice guidelines and clinical algorithms are useful tools for applying research findings in a practical way. Other mental health professionals are actively incorporating an

Gail W. Stuart

2001-01-01

110

Evidence for fault weakness and fluid flow within an active low-angle normal fault.  

PubMed

Determining the composition and physical properties of shallow-dipping, active normal faults (dips < 35 degrees with respect to the horizontal) is important for understanding how such faults slip under low resolved shear stress and accommodate significant extension of the crust and lithosphere. Seismic reflection images and earthquake source parameters show that a magnitude 6.2 earthquake occurred at about 5 km depth on or close to a normal fault with a dip of 25-30 degrees located ahead of a propagating spreading centre in the Woodlark basin. Here we present results from a genetic algorithm inversion of seismic reflection data, which shows that the fault at 4-5 km depth contains a 33-m-thick layer with seismic velocities of about 4.3 km s(-1), which we interpret to be composed of serpentinite fault gouge. Isolated zones exhibit velocities as low as approximately 1.7 km s(-1) with high porosities, which we suggest are maintained by high fluid pressures. We propose that hydrothermal fluid flow, possibly driven by a deep magmatic heat source, and high extensional stresses ahead of the ridge tip have created conditions for fault weakness and strain localization on the low-angle normal fault. PMID:11459052

Floyd, J S; Mutter, J C; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

2001-06-14

111

Evidence for weak genetic recombination at the PTP2 locus of Nosema ceranae.  

PubMed

The microsporidian Nosema ceranae is an emergent pathogen that threatens the health of honeybees and other pollinators all over the world. Its recent rapid spread across a wide variety of host species and environments demonstrated an enhanced ability of adaptation, which seems to contradict the lack of evidence for genetic recombination and the absence of a sexual stage in its life cycle. Here we retrieved fresh data of the patterns of genetic variation at the PTP2 locus in naturally infected Apis mellifera colonies, by means of single genome amplification. This technique, designed to prevent the formation of chimeric haplotypes during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), provides more reliable estimates of the diversity levels and haplotype structure than standard PCR-cloning methods. Our results are consistent with low but significant rates of recombination in the history of the haplotypes detected: estimates of the population recombination rate are of the order of 30 and support recent evidence for unexpectedly high levels of variation of the parasites within honeybee colonies. These observations suggest the existence of a diploid stage at some point in the life cycle of this parasite and are relevant for our understanding of the dynamics of its expanding population. PMID:25052231

Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Bartolomé, Carolina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Maside, Xulio

2014-07-23

112

Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2007-01-01

113

Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based-  

E-print Network

Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based- Nursing Unit) Dr Emily Ang Deputy Quanzhen, RN Lin Qianqian (Front row) eEvidence: Evidence based care supported by Technology Paula M is determined by the nurses in clinical and community practice · Evidence available immediately at the point

Kan, Min-Yen

114

The notion of evidence in evidence-based practice by the nursing philosophy working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions concerning the nature of evidence in evidence-based practice have kindled debate within nursing and other health care disciplines. Such questions include the ends for which evidence is sought, the form(s) of evidence, and the values underlying evidence-based practice. In this article, some of the issues, contradictions, and tensions implicit in these questions are highlighted. It is imperative that the

Donna M Romyn; Marion N Allen; Geertje Boschma; Susan M Duncan; Nancy Edgecombe; Louise A Jensen; Janet C Ross-Kerr; Patricia Marck; Mahvash Salsali; Ann E Tourangeau; Fay Warnock

2003-01-01

115

Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25507879

Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

2014-01-01

116

Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25438362

Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

2014-01-01

117

Hawaii's statewide evidence-based practice program.  

PubMed

Hawaii's innovative statewide evidence-based practice program facilitates practice change across multiple health care systems. The innovation eliminated duplicative efforts and provided resources, was compatible with the values of health care organizations, and had experience with a pilot program. Interpersonal and mass media communication promoted and embedded the practice change. Users included nurse champions with multidisciplinary team members. The rate of adoption varied across projects and, although resources seemed to be a major determinant of successful institutionalization, there does not seem to be a predictable pattern of successful project implementation. PMID:25155528

Mark, Debra D; Latimer, Rene'e W; White, Joan P; Bransford, Deborah; Johnson, Katherine G; Song, Valerie L

2014-09-01

118

Allelic association but only weak evidence for linkage to the apolipoprotein E locus in late-onset Swedish Alzheimer families  

SciTech Connect

An association between the {epsilon}4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset AD families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE {epsilon}4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Liu, L.; Forsell, C.; Lilius, L. [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others] [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden); and others

1996-05-31

119

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence from Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when…

Thompson, Bruce; Diamond, Karen E.; McWilliam, Robin; Snyder, Patricia; Snyder, Scott W.

2005-01-01

120

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educa- tional interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tenta- tively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as re- gards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common

BRUCE THOMPSON

121

Evidence for Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields over the Hellas, Chryse, and Acidalia Planitiae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electron Reflectometer (ER) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected a plasma boundary between the ionosphere and the solar wind as the latter is diverted around and past the planet [Mitchell et al., GRL, 27, 1871, 2000; Mitchell et al., JGR, 106, 23419, 2001]. Above this boundary the 10-1000 eV electron population is dominated by solar wind electrons, while below the boundary it is dominated by ionospheric photoelectrons. This "photoelectron boundary", or PEB, is sensitive to pressure variations and moves vertically in response to changes in the ionospheric pressure from below and the solar wind pressure from above. The PEB is also sensitive to crustal magnetic fields, which locally increase the total ionospheric pressure and positively bias the PEB altitude. We have empirically modeled and removed systematic variations in the PEB altitude associated with the solar wind interaction, thus isolating perturbations caused by crustal magnetic fields. A map of the PEB altitude perturbations closely resembles maps of the horizontal component of the crustal magnetic field measured at 400 km by the MGS Magnetometer (MAG). We find a PEB altitude bias over the Hellas basin that is consistent with a horizontal magnetic field with an intensity of several nanotesla at 400 km altitude. This is compatible with upper limits to the horizontal crustal field strength set by MGS MAG measurements. Since there is no evidence for significant crustal magnetic sources within the basin from MAG data obtained during aerobraking [Acuna et al. Science, 284, 790, 1999] or from electron reflection data obtained in the mapping orbit [Lillis et al., this conference], the most likely explanation is that the observed horizontal field originates from sources around the Hellas perimeter. No detectable PEB or magnetic signature is observed over the younger Argyre and Isidis Basins. There is also evidence for a significant enhancement (several nanoteslas) in the crustal field strength over Chryse Planitia and much of Acidalia Planitia, which are thought to contain hundreds of meters of material from the main outflow channels on Mars [Carr, Lunar Planetary Sci., 18, 155, 1987]. These fields appear to extend northward from a group of crustal magnetic sources along the dichotomy boundary that were mapped by the MGS Magnetometer.

Lee, C. O.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.; Cloutier, P. A.; Acuna, M. H.

2003-04-01

122

Evidence-based Assessment of Pediatric Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct an evidence-based review of pediatric pain measures. Methods Seventeen measures were examined, spanning pain intensity self-report, questionnaires and diaries, and behavioral observations. Measures were classified as “Well-established,” “Approaching well-established,” or “Promising” according to established criteria. Information was highlighted to help professionals evaluate the instruments for particular purposes (e.g., research, clinical work). Results Eleven measures met criteria for “Well-established,” six “Approaching well-established,” and zero were classified as “Promising.” Conclusions There are a number of strong measures for assessing children's pain, which allows professionals options to meet their particular needs. Future directions in pain assessment are identified, such as highlighting culture and the impact of pain on functioning. This review examines the research and characteristics of some of the commonly used pain tools in hopes that the reader will be able to use this evidence-based approach and the information in future selection of assessment devices for pediatric pain. PMID:18024983

Lemanek, Kathleen; Blount, Ronald L.; Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; McKenna, Kristine D.; Weiss, Karen E.

2008-01-01

123

Teaching residents evidence-based medicine skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To measure the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to teach residents four essential evidence-based medicine\\u000a (EBM) skills: question formulation, literature searching, understanding quantitative outcomes, and critical appraisal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Firm-based, controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Urban public hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five first-year internal medicine residents: 18 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTION: An EBM course, taught 2

Christopher A. Smith; Pamela S. Ganschow; Brendan M. Reilly; Arthur T. Evans; Robert A. McNutt; Albert Osei; Muhammad Saquib; Satish Surabhi; Sunil Yadav

2000-01-01

124

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation  

E-print Network

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Sara Faisal Shash a study of the clustering properties of medical publications for the aim of Evidence Based Medicine-document summarisation system for Evidence Based Medicine that groups (clusters) the input documents according

Aliod, Diego Mollá

125

Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

Srihari, Vinod

2008-01-01

126

The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

127

Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies #12;#12;Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based

Alpay, S. Pamir

128

Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

Morgan, Gareth

2010-01-01

129

Evidence for a weakly stratified Europan ocean sustained by seafloor heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret chaos-type features on the surface of Europa as melt-through structures formed by rotationally confined, steady and\\/or episodic oceanic plumes that rise to the base of the ice shell from magmatically heated regions of the seafloor. Smaller lenticular features in the vicinity of chaos-type regions might be formed by baroclinically unstable vortices that spin off the main convective plume

Richard E. Thomson; John R. Delaney

2001-01-01

130

Evidence of surface transport and weak antilocalization in a single crystal of the Bi2Te2Se topological insulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators are known for their metallic surface states, a result of strong spin-orbit coupling, that exhibit unique surface transport phenomenon. However, these surface transport phenomena are buried in the presence of metallic bulk conduction. We synthesized very high quality Bi2Te2Se single crystals by using a modified Bridgman method that possess high bulk resistivity of >20 ? cm below 20 K, whereas the bulk is mostly inactive and surface transport dominates. The temperature dependence of resistivity follows an activation law like a gap semiconductor in temperature range 20-300 K. To extract the surface transport from that of the bulk, we designed a special measurement geometry to measure the resistance and found that single-crystal Bi2Te2Se exhibits a crossover from bulk to surface conduction at 20 K. Simultaneously, the material also shows strong evidence of weak antilocalization in magnetotransport owing to the protection against scattering by conducting surface states. This simple geometry facilitates finding evidence of surface transport in topological insulators, which are promising materials for future spintronic applications.

Shekhar, Chandra; Viol Barbosa, C. E.; Yan, Binghai; Ouardi, Siham; Schnelle, W.; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia

2014-10-01

131

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

132

Overview of Evidence-based Medicine: Challenges for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been driven by the need to cope with information overload, by cost-control, and by a public impatient for the best in diagnostics and treatment. Clinical guidelines, care maps, and outcome measures are quality improvement tools for the appro- priateness, efficiency, and effectiveness of health ser- vices. Although they are imperfect, their value increases with the quality

Matthew J. McQueen

2001-01-01

133

Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

Schoenwald, Sonja K.

2008-01-01

134

An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

Joy C. MacDermid

2004-01-01

135

Evidence-based assessment of personality disorders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for the development of evidence-based guidelines for the assessment of personality disorders, focusing in particular on integrated assessment strategies. The general strategy recommended herein is to first administer a self-report inventory to alert oneself to the potential presence of particular maladaptive personality traits followed by a semistructured interview to verify their presence. This strategy is guided by the existing research that suggests particular strengths of self-report inventories and semistructured interviews relative to unstructured clinical interviews. However, the authors also consider research that suggests that further improvements to the existing instruments can be made. The authors emphasize, in particular, a consideration of age of onset, distortions in self-perception and presentation, gender bias, culture and ethnicity, and personality change. PMID:16262454

Widiger, Thomas A; Samuel, Douglas B

2005-09-01

136

Case-Based Reasoning in CARE-PARTNER: Gathering Evidence for Evidence-Based Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the CARE-PARTNER system. Functionally, it offers via the WWW knowledge-support assistance to clinicians responsible for the long-term follow-up of stem-cell post-transplant patient care. CARE- PARTNER aims at implementing the concept of evidence-based medical practice, which recommends the practice of medicine based on proven and validated knowledge. From an artificial intelligence viewpoint, it proposes a multimodal reasoning framework

Isabelle Bichindaritz; Emin Kansu; Keith M. Sullivan

1998-01-01

137

Weak antilocalization effect in LPE-grown p-Hg0.8Cd0.2Te thin film and the evidence of Te-precipitation  

E-print Network

The weak antilocalization effect is observed in a p-type Hg0.8Cd0.2Te thin film with thickness ~10 micrometers. Based on the analysis of composition, carrier species and excellent fitting of data with a model concerning weak antilocalization effect in Te crystal, the most plausible explanation is that the observed weak antilocalization effect is caused by Te-precipitation.

R. Yang; L. M. Wei; G. L. Yu

2010-06-07

138

Developing a Robust Evidence Base for Nursing.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews provide robust evidence for nursing practice because of the exhaustiveness of search, the critical appraisal methods to determine the risks of bias, and synthesis methods that pool evidence to increase the power of statistical estimates or credibility of aggregated metasynthesis of qualitative findings. More consistency in publication standards will enhance the rigor of available evidence and allow nursing to live up to the promise of best available evidence. PMID:25458132

Hopp, Lisa

2014-12-01

139

Increasing capacity for evidence-based practice through the evidence-based practice academy.  

PubMed

Although mentoring is an important aspect of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP), few models exist for EBP education. The EBP Academy is an innovative, 6-month educational program designed to develop clinical staff as EBP nurse mentors. Sessions provide protected time for participants to work on their EBP projects with assigned mentors who have EBP expertise and similar clinical or research interests. Participants develop EBP projects focused on improving care in their clinical areas. Evaluation of the EBP Academy is based on a four-level model, including participant feedback about the program, perception of meeting program objectives, ability to apply knowledge to practice through EBP projects, and outcome data measured as a result of implementing the EBP changes. By developing EBP mentors, capacity to move nursing practice to a stronger evidence-based foundation can be enhanced. Positive, professional nursing and patient outcomes have been demonstrated when structured EBP education is provided. PMID:24494661

Green, Angela; Jeffs, Debra; Huett, Amy; Jones, Luann R; Schmid, Barbara; Scott, Angela R; Walker, Liz

2014-02-01

140

OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF HASH TABLE BASED MULTIMEDIA FINGERPRINT DATABASES USING WEAK BITS  

E-print Network

multimedia content has created a need for technologies to search and identify multime- dia files. MultimediaOPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF HASH TABLE BASED MULTIMEDIA FINGERPRINT DATABASES USING WEAK BITS Claus fingerprinting has been widely researched and successfully commercialized as a technology to trace and recognize

Bauer, Claus

141

Evolution of the evidence-based Papanicolaou smear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer rates have decreased over the past century, but rates have remained relatively constant during the last decade. Evidence-based management of the abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and the use of additional testing at the time of the Pap smear are discussed in light of the current evidence. Also explored in-depth is the evidence base for Papanicolaou smear collection and

Jane Mashburn

2001-01-01

142

Accuracy degradation of LR-based evidence evaluation: an experimental  

E-print Network

Accuracy degradation of LR-based evidence evaluation: an experimental study with glass evidence Outline Accuracy of likelihood-ratio (LR) based evidence evaluation Empirical cross-entropy (ECE) Detecting LR values which degrade accuracy Hypothesis-dependent histograms Contribution of "bad" LR values

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

143

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

144

Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

145

[Evidence-based treatment of canine demodicosis].  

PubMed

This article briefly reviews pathogenesis, clinics and diagnosis of canine demodicosis and summarizes treatment options for this disease based on published evidence. The disease is caused by excessive proliferation of Demodex mites in the hair follicles that may be due to genetic factors or immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. The disease is characterized by alopecia, papules, pustules and crusts. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of several mites in deep skin scrapings or trichograms. Based on published studies, licensed successful treatments for many patients are weekly amitraz rinses in a concentration of 0.05% and (in dogs with mild to moderate clinical signs) weekly spot-ons containing moxidectin. In severe, treatment-resistant cases, daily oral macrocyclic lactones such as milbemycin oxim (1-2 mg/kg), ivermectin or moxidectin (0.3 mg/kg after daily gradual dose increases from 0.05mg/kg) may be used. Doramectin orally or subcutaneously at 0.6 mg/kg has also been reported as successful therapy. Secondary bacterial skin infections are common and should be treated with antimicrobial shampoos and possibly oral antibiotics. PMID:22167167

Mueller, R S

2011-01-01

146

Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads to systematic, but in general small, corrections to earlier theoretical predictions describing the behavior of weak polyelectrolyte layers. However, polyelectrolyte uncharging results in a decrease in the concentration of counterions and inclusion of the Born Energy can result in a substantial decrease of the counterion concentration. The effect of considering the Born energy contribution is explored for end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers by calculating experimental observables which are known to depend on the presence of charges within the polyelectrolyte layer: inclusion of the Born energy contribution leads to a decrease in the capacitance of polyelectrolyte-modified electrodes, a decrease of conductivity of polyelectrolyte-modified nanopores and an increase in the repulsion exerted by a planar polyelectrolyte layer confined by an opposing wall.

Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I., E-mail: igalsz@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3100 (United States)

2014-01-14

147

Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads to systematic, but in general small, corrections to earlier theoretical predictions describing the behavior of weak polyelectrolyte layers. However, polyelectrolyte uncharging results in a decrease in the concentration of counterions and inclusion of the Born Energy can result in a substantial decrease of the counterion concentration. The effect of considering the Born energy contribution is explored for end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers by calculating experimental observables which are known to depend on the presence of charges within the polyelectrolyte layer: inclusion of the Born energy contribution leads to a decrease in the capacitance of polyelectrolyte-modified electrodes, a decrease of conductivity of polyelectrolyte-modified nanopores and an increase in the repulsion exerted by a planar polyelectrolyte layer confined by an opposing wall.

Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

2014-01-01

148

Using Evidence-Based Principles in Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

To help students better understand how to use evidence-based principles in clinical practice, Prof. Storkel is revising her SPLH 880 course so that students can access evidence from clinical research and apply it to specific patients....

Storkel, Holly Lynn

2004-01-01

149

Study of weak vibrating signal detection based on chaotic oscillator in MEMS resonant beam sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the application of weak signal detection based on chaotic oscillator is studied in a MEMS resonant beam sensor. Chaotic oscillator can detect weak signal which is submerged in the background of large noise. According to the frequency and phase characteristic of the output vibrating signal, reference current signal with fixed frequency difference and same phase to the output signal is set. Frequency and phase of the signal are fixed by detection resistor which works as a multiplier. By calculating the maximum Lyapunov exponent, detection threshold is obtained, and motion change of detection system is monitored. The results of numerical simulation and experiment show that this method can effectively detect the weak resonant signal and find the resonant frequency accurately by setting the threshold of the chaotic oscillator, and it is immune to the noise.

Shi, Huichao; Fan, Shangchun; Xing, Weiwei; Sun, Jinhao

2015-01-01

150

Performance analysis of weak target detection via ground-based synthetic aperture radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-InSAR) is an emerging technique that combines interferometric SAR and polarimetric SAR techniques and has shown its effectiveness in the detection of buried weak targets. The detection performance is affected by the SAR parameters as well as the covering characteristics. In this paper, the effects of covering characteristics on the detection performance were emphasized and experimentally investigated by a ground-based Pol-InSAR system. Firstly, the detection principle for buried weak target by Pol-InSAR technique was presented, which is based on the use of interferometric coherence variation with polarization. Then the ground-based two dimensional rail (TDR) SAR used for investigation was introduced. Furthermore, the experiment target scene was designed and the effects of different covering type, different covering moisture, and different covering depth on the detection performance of weak targets were shown and analyzed. Preliminary results confirmed the effectiveness of Pol-InSAR technique used for weak target detection and it would be helpful for the further investigation of this technique.

Zhou, Yong-sheng; Zhou, Mei; Tang, Ling-li; Li, Chuan-rong

2011-10-01

151

Variation, Certainty, Evidence, and Change in Dental Education: Employing Evidence-based Dentistry in Dental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a case-based dental scenario, presents systematic evidence-based methods for accessing dental health care information, evaluating this information for validity and importance, and using this information to make informed curricular and clinical decisions. Also discusses barriers inhibiting these systematic approaches to evidence-based

Marinho, Valeria Coelho Catao; Richards, Derek; Niederman, Richard

2001-01-01

152

'We hold these truths to be self-evident': deconstructing 'evidence-based' medical practice.  

PubMed

Rationale, aims and objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) claims to be based on 'evidence', rather than 'intuition'. However, EBM's fundamental distinction between quantitative 'evidence' and qualitative 'intuition' is not self-evident. The meaning of 'evidence' is unclear and no studies of quality exist to demonstrate the superiority of EBM in health care settings. This paper argues that, despite itself, EBM holds out only the illusion of conclusive scientific rigour for clinical decision making, and that EBM ultimately is unable to fulfil its own structural criteria for 'evidence'. Methods Our deconstructive analysis of EBM draws on the work of the French philosopher, Jacques Derrida. Deconstruction works in the name of justice to lay bare, to expose what has been hidden from view. In plain language, we deconstruct EBM's paradigm of 'evidence', the randomized controlled trial (RCT), to demonstrate that there cannot be incontrovertible evidence for EBM as such. We argue that EBM therefore 'auto-deconstructs' its own paradigm, and that medical practitioners, policymakers and patients alike ought to be aware of this failure within EBM itself. Results EBM's strict distinction between admissible evidence (based on RCTs) and other supposedly inadmissible evidence is not itself based on evidence, but rather, on intuition. In other words, according to EBM's own logic, there can be no 'evidentiary' basis for its distinction between admissible and inadmissible evidence. Ultimately, to uphold this fundamental distinction, EBM must seek recourse in (bio)political ideology and an epistemology akin to faith. PMID:20367689

Devisch, Ignaas; Murray, Stuart J

2009-12-01

153

Evidence for Weak or Linear Conformity but Not for Hyper-Conformity in an Everyday Social Learning Context  

PubMed Central

Conformity is thought to be an important force in cultural evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cooperation in large groups, potentiate group selection and thus explain uniquely human behaviors. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the way individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options witnessed. Theoretical modeling has suggested that only what we refer to as ‘hyper-conformity’, an exaggerated tendency to perform the most frequent behavior witnessed in other individuals, is able to increase within-group homogeneity and between-group diversity, for instance. Empirically however, few experiments have addressed how the frequency of behavior witnessed affects behavior. Accordingly we performed an experiment to test for the presence of conformity in a natural situation with humans. Visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on A5 cards and potentially win a small prize. We manipulated the proportion of existing writings versus drawings visible to visitors and measured the proportion of written cards submitted. We found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, thus demonstrating social learning. We show that this effect is approximately linear, with potentially a small, weak-conformist component but no hyper-conformist one. The present experiment therefore provides evidence for linear conformity in humans in a very natural context. PMID:22363524

Claidière, Nicolas; Bowler, Mark; Whiten, Andrew

2012-01-01

154

Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE) and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT. PMID:25431447

Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Simard, Stéphanie; Leclerc, Claude

2014-01-01

155

Evidence-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms.  

PubMed

This article presents a new model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, for improving patient care. The model merges 2 extant paradigms currently used for quality improvement initiatives-evidence-based practice and practice or performance improvement. The literature expounds on the virtues of each of these approaches, yet no authors have moved beyond parallel play between them. The merged model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, may provide a more effective and practical approach to reach our quality goals. PMID:19680149

Levin, Rona F; Keefer, Jeffrey M; Marren, Joan; Vetter, MaryJo; Lauder, Bonnie; Sobolewski, Sally

2010-01-01

156

Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-based practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement ratings for evidence-based and nonevidence-based behavior management practices for children…

Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith

2011-01-01

157

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

2011-01-01

158

Opening Pandora's Box: Evidence-based practice for educational psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years evidence-based practice has become of central concern to health and social services in this country. The fundamental tenant is that there must be a clear link between professional practice and its research base. This paper outlines the concept of evidence-based practice and how it rests on the concept of good quality research -- defined as

Mark Fox

2003-01-01

159

Wavelet filter-based weak signature detection method and its application on rolling element bearing prognostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-noising and extraction of the weak signature are crucial to fault prognostics in which case features are often very weak and masked by noise. The wavelet transform has been widely used in signal de-noising due to its extraordinary time-frequency representation capability. In this paper, the performance of wavelet decomposition-based de-noising and wavelet filter-based de-noising methods are compared based on signals from mechanical defects. The comparison result reveals that wavelet filter is more suitable and reliable to detect a weak signature of mechanical impulse-like defect signals, whereas the wavelet decomposition de-noising method can achieve satisfactory results on smooth signal detection. In order to select optimal parameters for the wavelet filter, a two-step optimization process is proposed. Minimal Shannon entropy is used to optimize the Morlet wavelet shape factor. A periodicity detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to choose the appropriate scale for the wavelet transform. The signal de-noising results from both simulated signals and experimental data are presented and both support the proposed method.

Qiu, Hai; Lee, Jay; Lin, Jing; Yu, Gang

2006-02-01

160

Need for evidence-based practice in prosthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement Of Problem. Patients, their insurers, the courts, and the scientific community are demanding more evidence to support the effectiveness of health care strategies. Purpose. This article describes evidence-based practice, its origins, and value as a way of addressing the demand for evidence of treatment effectiveness in maxillofacial prosthetics. Material And Methods. A limited review of maxillofacial prosthetics literature was

James D. Anderson

2000-01-01

161

Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

2008-01-01

162

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

General interest in functional gastrointestinal disorders is increasing among Japanese doctors as well as patients. This increase can be attributed to a number of factors, including recent increased interest in quality of life and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disease. Japan recently became the world's first country to list "functional dyspepsia" as a disease name for national insurance billing purposes. However, recognition and understanding of functional dyspepsia (FD) remain poor, and no standard treatment strategy has yet been established. Accordingly, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) developed an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for FD, consisting of five sections: concept, definition, and epidemiology; pathophysiology; diagnosis; treatment; and prognosis and complications. This article summarizes the Japanese guideline, with particular focus on the treatment section. Once a patient is diagnosed with FD, the doctor should carefully explain the pathophysiology and benign nature of this condition, establish a good doctor-patient relationship, and then provide advice for daily living (diet and lifestyle modifications, explanations, and reassurance). The proposed pharmacological treatment is divided into two steps: initial treatment including an acid inhibitory drug (H2RA or PPI) or prokinetics, (strong recommendation); second-line treatment including anxiolytics, antidepressants, and Japanese traditional medicine (weak recommendation). H. pylori eradication, strongly recommended with a high evidence level, is positioned separately from other treatment flows. Conditions that do not respond to these treatment regimens are regarded as refractory FD. Patients will be further examined for other organic disorders or will be referred to specialists using other approaches such as psychosomatic treatment. PMID:25586651

Miwa, Hiroto; Kusano, Motoyasu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Joh, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Nakada, Koji; Nagahara, Akihito; Futagami, Seiji; Manabe, Noriaki; Inui, Akio; Haruma, Ken; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Yakabi, Koji; Hongo, Michio; Uemura, Naomi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2015-02-01

163

Toward a Phylogenetic Classification of Primates Based on DNA Evidence Complemented by Fossil Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly resolved primate cladogram based on DNA evidence is congruent with extant and fossil osteological evidence. A provisional primate classification based on this cladogram and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age. Order Primates

Morris Goodman; Calvin A. Porter; John Czelusniak; Scott L. Page; Horacio Schneider; Jeheskel Shoshani; Gregg Gunnell; Colin P. Groves

1998-01-01

164

The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting  

PubMed Central

In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

Jiang, Kuosheng.; Xu, Guanghua.; Liang, Lin.; Tao, Tangfei.; Gu, Fengshou.

2014-01-01

165

The recovery of weak impulsive signals based on stochastic resonance and moving least squares fitting.  

PubMed

In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

Jiang, Kuosheng; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Tao, Tangfei; Gu, Fengshou

2014-01-01

166

Evidence Based Practice of Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2012-01-01

167

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

168

Back to basics: implementing evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

As health care transitions from volume-based care to value-based care, it is imperative that perioperative nurses implement evidence-based practices that support effective care. Implementing evidence-based practice is a challenge but improves patient outcomes, standardizes care, and decreases patient care costs. Understanding how care interventions work and how to implement them is important to compete in today's health care market. This "Back to Basics" article discusses how to identify, review, and appraise research; make recommendations to implement new practices; evaluate the outcomes of the implementations; and make necessary changes to facilitate evidence-based practice. PMID:25537331

Spruce, Lisa

2015-01-01

169

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastric Cancer in Korea: An Evidence-Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase. PMID:25061536

Lee, Jun Haeng; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

170

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

Sturmey, Peter

2009-01-01

171

Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

2009-01-01

172

Evidence-based Nursing Practice: To Infinity and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an historical background for evidence-based practice and methods for assimilating research into practice. Information searching, systematic reviews, and other decision-making models are discussed using specific questions for establishing policy guidelines. Stresses the need for evidence-based practice implementing the best-known practices…

Pape, Tess M.

2003-01-01

173

Developing the skills required for evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research

Beverley French

1998-01-01

174

Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

Foster, Robyn

2014-01-01

175

Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have seen a rise in the use of the term "evidence-based practice" and a simultaneous increase in the variations in its definition and evaluation. Subsequently, this rise in interest for evidence-based practices has become a double-edged sword for practitioners--that is, while there are a number of interpretations on the…

Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

2008-01-01

176

Counting what counts: performance measurement and evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual and practical links between performance measurement and evidence-based library and information practice (EBLIP) and to identify lessons to be learned from evidence-based healthcare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a selective review of key writings in EBLIP for reference to performance measurement. Findings – The paper finds that performance measurement

Andrew Booth

2006-01-01

177

Combination approach of highly conflicting evidence based on weighted distance of evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fuse highly conflicting evidence effectively, a novel combination method based on weighted distance of evidence is proposed by taking the ideas of Murphy's averaging method and Deng's weighted averaging method. Firstly, the essentiality of each element in the frame of discernment is given by Murphy's idea. Secondly, the weighted averaging distance between any two bodies of evidence(BOEs) is calculated under the modified City Block distance norm, further the support degree of each evidence supported by other evidences can be obtained. Thirdly, the normalized total support degree of each evidence is considered as the weights of BOEs, and a new weighted averaging BOE will be gained. Finally, the information fusion process can be realized by using the Dempster's rule of combination. Simulation results show that the proposed method can deal with the highly conflicting evidence with better performance of convergence, and it also can recognize the target more effectively and fleetly.

Liu, Zhicheng; He, Jiazhou; Qiao, Hui

2013-10-01

178

Triggered single-photon emitters based on stimulated parametric scattering in weakly nonlinear systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a scheme of single-photon emission based on four-wave mixing in a three mode system with weak Kerr-type nonlinearity. A highly populated lower energy mode results in strong stimulated scattering of particle pairs out of the central mode, which consequently limits the central mode occupation. Thus, the system can be reduced to a ?(2 ) nonlinear medium with greatly enhanced interaction constant. As a model setup we consider dipolaritons in semiconductor microcavities. Using the master equation approach we show strong antibunching under continuous-wave pump, which largely exceeds the conventional blockade mechanism. Finally, using a pulsed excitation we demonstrate theoretically a triggered single-photon emitter in a weakly nonlinear system with 33 % emission probability.

Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Liew, Timothy C. H.

2014-12-01

179

Triggered single photon emitters based on stimulated parametric scattering in weakly nonlinear systems  

E-print Network

We introduce a scheme of single photon emission based on four-wave mixing in a three mode system with weak Kerr-type nonlinearity. A highly populated lower energy mode results in strong stimulated scattering of particle pairs out of the central mode, which consequently limits the central mode occupation. Thus, the system can be reduced to a $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear medium with greatly enhanced interaction constant. As a model setup we consider dipolaritons in semiconductor microcavities. Using the master equation approach we show strong antibunching under continuous wave pump, which largely exceeds the conventional blockade mechanism. Finally, using a pulsed excitation we demonstrate theoretically a triggered single photon emitter in a weakly nonlinear system with 33% emission probability.

Oleksandr Kyriienko; Timothy C. H. Liew

2014-12-08

180

Weak feature extraction of gear fault based on stochastic resonance denoising  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the problem of feature extraction of weak gear fault under strong noise background, an early feature extraction method based on cascaded monostable stochastic resonance (CMSR) system and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with teager energy operator demodulation was proposed. The model of monostable stochastic resonance expanded the processing range of characteristic frequency of the measured signal, and had a good effect on denoising performance by cascading. Firstly CMSR was employed as the preprocessor to remove noise, then the denoised signal was decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of different scales by EMD, and finally teager energy operator demodulation was applied to obtain amplitudes and frequencies of each effective IMF to extract the weak gear fault feature. Simulation and application results showed that the proposed method could effectively detect the characteristic frequency of gear fault of local damage after the noise reduction by CMSR.

Zhao, Jun; Lai, Xin-huan; Kong, Ming; Guo, Tian-tai

2013-01-01

181

Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

Berg, Kris

2010-01-01

182

Price Discrimination Based on Downstream Regulation: Evidence  

E-print Network

for flue-gas desulfurization devices [scrubbers] in the U.S. is used to show that the choice and stringency University of East Anglia July 9, 2010 Abstract Evidence from the market for flue-gas desulfurization devices of environmental regulation have substantial effects on the mark-up of an abatement technology. The imperfectly

Feigon, Brooke

183

Three Lenses of Evidence-Based Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses recent trends to incorporate the results of systematic research (or 'evi- dence') into policy development, program evaluation and program improvement. This process is consistent with the New Public Management (NPM) emphasis on efficiency and effective- ness. Analysis of evidence helps to answer the questions 'what works? and 'what happens if we change these settings?' Secondly, some of

Brian W. Head

2008-01-01

184

Resisting Evidence: The Study of Evidence-Based Medicine as a Contemporary Social Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) emerged relatively recently to describe the explicit process of applying research evidence to medical practice. The movement was high profile, yet not overly successful: many clinicians do not use up-to-date evidence in their everyday work. This article shows how a social movement perspective can be used to analyse the emerg- ence of EBM and shed light on

Catherine Pope

2003-01-01

185

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Abeed Sarker Diego Molla  

E-print Network

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Statistics Abeed Sarker system achieves a percentile rank of 97.3%. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) urges that this approach improves summarisation results in the challenging domain of Evidence Based Medicine. 1www

Aliod, Diego Mollá

186

From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

2010-01-01

187

A population perspective to evidence based medicine: “evidence for population health”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the notion that the public health community could learn lessons from the success of evidence based medicine (EBM) and develop a public health counterpart called “Evidence for Population Health”. While EBM focuses on individual patients, its public health counterpart would aim to improve the health of communities effectively and efficiently.

R F Heller; J Page

2002-01-01

188

Extending the evidence hierarchy to enhance evidence-based practice for substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper examines the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in the context of the developmental status of theory, research and practice on substance use disorders. Scope Hierarchical views that favor randomized con- trolled trials (RCTs) over other forms of evidence are reviewed, and the benefits and limitations of RCTs are considered as they intersect with contemporary issues in the field.

Jalie A. Tucker; David L. Roth

2006-01-01

189

Weak snow layer detection based on relative differences in snow properties between layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow stratigraphy information plays a prominent role in avalanche forecasting. Therefore, it is important how both manually collected and simulated snow profiles are interpreted in regard to snow stability. In the last few years several semi-quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the subjectivity of stability evaluation derived from snow profiles. One of them is the threshold sum approach (TSA), which identifies structural discontinuities related to mechanical stability within snow profiles by analyzing snow layers (i.e. grain size, type, hardness) and their interface properties (i.e. depth, difference in grain size and hardness). The threshold values identifying the structural properties were defined statistically and are optimized for the data sets they were based on. Since this approach relies entirely on absolute thresholds, problems arise, if properties (e.g. grain size estimation) are collected in a different way. Even though guidelines for collecting snow profiles are internationally defined, slight differences between observers of different avalanche services exist. The same problem arises when using this approach for simulated snow profiles. We propose a revised threshold sum approach for snow profile interpretation. Instead of using absolute values, we applied relative differences and values to the snow profiles, e.g. it was not considered how soft a snow layer is, but rather how soft it was compared to the weighted average value of the profile. This method allows the detection of potential weak layers within a snow profile but does not give an absolute estimation of their weakness. In other words, we give a probability that a particular layer is a weak layer. We tested this relative threshold approach (RTA) on a data set consisting of 128 manually recorded snow profiles, which were collected near the fracture line of or on slopes adjacent to skier-triggered avalanches. Results are encouraging since the RTA detected the weak layers related to the avalanches observed in the field as potential weak layers with a higher probability than the other layers of the profiles. This approach has the advantage to be independent from the subjectivity of the measurements (e.g. grain size estimation) - provided a variable is measured consistently within a profile - and can directly be applied to simulated profiles. A further step includes testing the RTA on simulated profiles and comparing the potential weak layers with failure layers identified in manually observed profiles completed with stability tests.

Monti, Fabiano; Schweizer, Jürg

2013-04-01

190

Evidence Based Dental Care: Integrating Clinical Expertise with Systematic Research  

PubMed Central

Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the “gold standard” in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21st century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24701551

Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R.; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

191

Evidence-based programs registry: Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development.  

PubMed

There is a growing demand for evidence-based programs to promote healthy youth development, but this growth has been accompanied by confusion related to varying definitions of evidence-based and mixed messages regarding which programs can claim this designation. The registries that identify evidence-based programs, while intended to help users sift through the findings and claims regarding programs, has oftentimes led to more confusion with their differing standards and program ratings. The advantages of using evidence-based programs and the importance of adopting a high standard of evidence, especially when taking programs to scale,are described. One evidence-based registry is highlighted-Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development hosted at the University of Colorado Boulder.Unlike any previous initiative of its kind, Blueprintsestablished unmatched standards for identifying evidence-based programs and has acted in a way similar to the FDA - evaluating evidence, data and research to determine which programs meet their high standard of proven efficacy. PMID:25193177

Mihalic, Sharon F; Elliott, Delbert S

2015-02-01

192

Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}. Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}:HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with {sup 211}At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after {sup 211}At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens.

Sundberg, Asa Liljegren [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: Asa.Liljegren@bms.uu.se; Steffen, Ann-Charlott [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

2007-01-01

193

EVIDENCEBASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

A push for the use of evidence?based medicine and evidence?based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence?based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision?making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well?being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence?based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy. PMID:23091778

Lehecka, B.J.

2012-01-01

194

Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care  

PubMed Central

Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries. PMID:22355229

Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

2011-01-01

195

Retrieval-based face annotation by weak label regularized local coordinate coding.  

PubMed

Auto face annotation, which aims to detect human faces from a facial image and assign them proper human names, is a fundamental research problem and beneficial to many real-world applications. In this work, we address this problem by investigating a retrieval-based annotation scheme of mining massive web facial images that are freely available over the Internet. In particular, given a facial image, we first retrieve the top $(n)$ similar instances from a large-scale web facial image database using content-based image retrieval techniques, and then use their labels for auto annotation. Such a scheme has two major challenges: 1) how to retrieve the similar facial images that truly match the query, and 2) how to exploit the noisy labels of the top similar facial images, which may be incorrect or incomplete due to the nature of web images. In this paper, we propose an effective Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding (WLRLCC) technique, which exploits the principle of local coordinate coding by learning sparse features, and employs the idea of graph-based weak label regularization to enhance the weak labels of the similar facial images. An efficient optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the WLRLCC problem. Moreover, an effective sparse reconstruction scheme is developed to perform the face annotation task. We conduct extensive empirical studies on several web facial image databases to evaluate the proposed WLRLCC algorithm from different aspects. The experimental results validate its efficacy. We share the two constructed databases "WDB" (714,454 images of 6,025 people) and "ADB" (126,070 images of 1,200 people) with the public. To further improve the efficiency and scalability, we also propose an offline approximation scheme (AWLRLCC) which generally maintains comparable results but significantly reduces the annotation time. PMID:24457510

Wang, Dayong; Hoi, Steven C H; He, Ying; Zhu, Jianke; Mei, Tao; Luo, Jiebo

2014-03-01

196

On evidence and evidence-based medicine: Lessons from the philosophy of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term “evidence-based medicine” has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that

Maya J. Goldenberg

2006-01-01

197

Further statistics in dentistry Part 10: Sherlock Holmes, evidence and evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one were to go by the explosion of interest in evidence-based clinical practice in the past decade of the second millennium, one could be forgiven for thinking that the idea was new. In fact, a quick search of Medline revealed 9,306 references to 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) and 291 when the search was restricted to dentistry. It is claimed (Sackett

J. F. Osborn; J. S. Bulman; A. Petrie

2003-01-01

198

A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

2014-01-01

199

Evidence-Based Practice Problems: Form and Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care reform poses major challenges for psychiatric mental health care. Foremost among the challenges is a mandate for reimbursement based on performance-based outcomes. Clinicians can increase the efficiency of evidence-based practice searches by using the correct form of PICOT (population, intervention, comparator, outcome, time frame) question to focus the search, based on (a) diagnosis, (b) treatment, (c) prognosis, (d)

Michael J. Rice

2010-01-01

200

General Analytical Procedure for Determination of Acidity Parameters of Weak Acids and Bases  

PubMed Central

The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pKa values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pKa values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pKa values and the reference literature data for compounds studied.

Pilarski, Bogus?aw; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; M?odzianowski, Janusz; Bali?ska, Agata

2015-01-01

201

An interrogation system based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers for weak fiber Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interrogation system based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers for weak fiber Bragg gratings(FBGs) was proposed in this study. The first Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) was used to modulate the light and the second SOA separated the signal through delayed switching. The proposed system has lower insertion loss and higher spatial resolution, and can interrogate time-division and wavelength-division multiplexed FBG array. Up to 50 FBGs, with a reflectivity of 0.2% and a spatial resolution of 5m along the optical fiber, were distinguished to demonstrate the interrogation system.

Luo, Zhihui; Wen, Hongqiao; Guo, Huiyong

2013-09-01

202

Applying Evidence-Based Medicine Principles to Hip Fracture Management  

PubMed Central

Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury – sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) – but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion – all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients – to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L.; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

2014-01-01

203

Narrow Scale Flow and a Weak Field by the Top of Earth's Core: Evidence from Orsted, Magsat and Secular Variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.

Voorhies, Coerte V.

2004-01-01

204

The Outcomes Movement and Evidence Based Medicine in Plastic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Evidence based medicine is analyzed from its inception. The authors take the reader through the early formation of ‘scientific medicine’ that has evolved into the multi-purpose tool it has become today. Early proponents and their intentions that sparked evidence base and outcomes are presented: the work of David Sackett, Brian Haynes, Peter Tugwell, and Victor Neufeld is discussed - how they perceived the need for better clinical outcomes that led to a more formalized evidence based practice. The fundamentals are discussed objectively in detail and potential flaws are presented that guide the reader to deeper comprehension. PMID:23506764

Kowalski, Evan.; Chung, Kevin C.

2012-01-01

205

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, a consensus has emerged regarding a set of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia that address symptom management and psychosocial functioning. Yet, surveys suggest that the great majority of the population of individuals with schizophrenia do not receive evidence-based care. In this article, we review the empirical literature on implementation of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia patients. We first examine lessons learned from implementation studies in general medicine. We then summarize the implementation literature specific to schizophrenia, including medication practices, psychosocial interventions, information technology, and state- and federal-level interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future directions. PMID:19491315

Drake, Robert E.; Bond, Gary R.; Essock, Susan M.

2009-01-01

206

Evidence-based nutritional advice for patients affected by age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

This paper presents the evidence available in the literature on the role of nutrients in preventing the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its progression to more advanced stages. In our analysis we considered publications on vitamins B, C, E and D, carotenoids (i.e. lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene), ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and zinc published between 2003 and 2013. While the evidence supporting supplementation and higher dietary intake of nutrients for AMD prevention is weak to moderate, large and robust randomised controlled trials showed that the AREDS formula leads to a 25% reduction in progression to advanced AMD in individuals belonging to AREDS categories 3 and 4. After reviewing the current literature, which includes the AREDS2 study, we suggest an 'evidence-based formula'. PMID:24821294

Andreatta, Walter; El-Sherbiny, Samer

2014-01-01

207

Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

2014-01-01

208

What Works? Evidence-Based Practice in Education Is Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a nascent movement towards evidence-based practice in education in Australia, evident in Federal and State education documents, if not in classrooms. Such a classroom-level outcome would require a number of conditions to be met. One of the critical requirements is that teachers be provided with knowledge and training in practices that…

Hempenstall, Kerry

2014-01-01

209

Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

Goldstein, Brian A.

2008-01-01

210

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

211

What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

Roberts, Margaret

2010-01-01

212

Evidence-Based Practice in the Early Childhood Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is a decision-making process that integrates the best available scientific research evidence with family and professional wisdom and values. The editors argue that it has the potential to transform the services provided to children and families because it incorporates the "different ways of knowing" that characterize early…

Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Wesley, Patricia W., Ed.

2006-01-01

213

Practice-Based Evidence--Overcoming Insecure Attachments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines educational psychologists' (EPs') engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use…

Fox, Mark

2011-01-01

214

History and Development of Evidence-based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates the timeline of the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The term “evidence-based medicine” is relatively new. In fact, as far as we can tell, investigators from McMaster’s University began using the term during the 1990s. EBM was defined as “a systemic approach to analyze published research as the basis of clinical decision making.” Then in 1996, the

Jeffrey A. Claridge; Timothy C. Fabian

2005-01-01

215

Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries  

E-print Network

to information, and to data-driven decision making, anticipated the current movement toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. He suggests that libraries embrace the premises, philosophy, values, and practices of organizational development (OD... control over an ever-growing body of intellectual content and bibliographic information. Lancaster is one Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries Keith Russell LIBRARY TRENDS, Vol. 56, No. 4, Spring 2008 (“The Evaluation...

Russell, Keith

2008-01-01

216

Evidence-Based Practice: Beyond Empirically Supported Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Must the clinician choose between a practice that is strictly objective and data based and one that is purely subjective and experience based? Optimally, practitioners need to follow a model of evidence-based psychotherapy practice, such as the disciplined inquiry or local clinical scientist model, that encompasses a theoretical formulation, empirically supported treatments (ESTs), empirically supported therapy relationships, clinicians' accumulated practical

Stanley B. Messer

2004-01-01

217

Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the mechanism of proton recombination with a weak base.  

PubMed

Despite its fundamental nature, many of the microscopic features of acid–base recombination remain poorly understood. In this work, we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study the recombination of the proton with a weak base, the carbonate ion CO3(2–). Our simulations elucidate the network structure around CO3(2–) that provides a distribution of pathways over which recombination can occur. We observe that the penultimate neutralization step involves a correlated behavior of the transferred protons that is mediated by the water wires decorating the carbonate. These concerted proton transfers are coupled to collective compressions of these water wires. We show further that these processes are dynamically coupled to the reorganization of the water molecules hydrating the CO3(2–) ion. The insights from these simulations help to bridge the structural and dynamical complexity of the microscopic mechanisms with those of phenomenological models invoked by experiments in this field. PMID:25415885

Cuny, Jérôme; Hassanali, Ali A

2014-12-01

218

Some Results of Weak Anticipative Concept Applied in Simulation Based Decision Support in Enterprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation models are used as for decision support and learning in enterprises and in schools. Tree cases of successful applications demonstrate usefulness of weak anticipative information. Job shop scheduling production with makespan criterion presents a real case customized flexible furniture production optimization. The genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling optimization is presented. Simulation based inventory control for products with stochastic lead time and demand describes inventory optimization for products with stochastic lead time and demand. Dynamic programming and fuzzy control algorithms reduce the total cost without producing stock-outs in most cases. Values of decision making information based on simulation were discussed too. All two cases will be discussed from optimization, modeling and learning point of view.

Kljaji?, Miroljub; Kofja?, Davorin; Kljaji? Borštnar, Mirjana; Škraba, Andrej

2010-11-01

219

Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice in the Software Industrial Setting  

E-print Network

Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice folklore; organizational culture; team practices; evidence-based and empirical software engineering. I]. The area calls for effective approaches to the dissemi- nation of empirical evidence into practice

220

Proteomic tools for the investigation of human hair structural proteins and evidence of weakness sites on hair keratin coil segments.  

PubMed

Human hair is principally composed of hair keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) that form a complex network giving the hair its rigidity and mechanical properties. However, during their growth, hairs are subject to various treatments that can induce irreversible damage. For a better understanding of the human hair protein structures, proteomic mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies could assist in characterizing numerous isoforms and posttranslational modifications of human hair fiber proteins. However, due to their physicochemical properties, characterization of human hair proteins using classical proteomic approaches is still a challenge. To address this issue, we have used two complementary approaches to analyze proteins from the human hair cortex. The multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPit) approach allowed identifying all keratins and the major KAPs present in the hair as well as posttranslational modifications in keratins such as cysteine trioxidation, lysine, and histidine methylation. Then two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MS (2-DE gel MS) allowed us to obtain the most complete 2-DE gel pattern of human hair proteins, revealing an unexpected heterogeneity of keratin structures. Analyses of these structures by differential peptide mapping have brought evidence of cleaved species in hair keratins and suggest a preferential breaking zone in ?-helical segments. PMID:22056946

Barthélemy, Nicolas R; Bednarczyk, Audrey; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Jullien, Dominique; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cavusoglu, Nükhet

2012-02-01

221

Crisis management in schools: evidence- based prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical incidents in or involving schools include shootings, stabbings, other forms of homicide, terrorist activity, suicide, road traffic accidents, major fires and natural disasters, which result or might result in death and\\/or serious injury to students and staff. Where crisis management plans exist, they might be based on 'common sense' or clinical judgement, risking worsening rather than improving outcomes. The

Wilson MacNeil; Keith Topping

2007-01-01

222

Towards Trustable Digital Evidence with PKIDEV: PKI Based Digital Evidence Verification Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to Capture and Preserve Digital Evidence Securely? For the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities that involve computers, digital evidence collected in the crime scene has a vital importance. On one side, it is a very challenging task for forensics professionals to collect them without any loss or damage. On the other, there is the second problem of providing the integrity and authenticity in order to achieve legal acceptance in a court of law. By conceiving digital evidence simply as one instance of digital data, it is evident that modern cryptography offers elegant solutions for this second problem. However, to our knowledge, there is not any previous work proposing a systematic model having a holistic view to address all the related security problems in this particular case of digital evidence verification. In this paper, we present PKIDEV (Public Key Infrastructure based Digital Evidence Verification model) as an integrated solution to provide security for the process of capturing and preserving digital evidence. PKIDEV employs, inter alia, cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and secure time-stamping as well as latest technologies such as GPS and EDGE. In our study, we also identify the problems public-key cryptography brings when it is applied to the verification of digital evidence.

Uzunay, Yusuf; Incebacak, Davut; Bicakci, Kemal

223

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

2012-03-01

224

Developing Evidence-Based Practice: The Role of Case-Based Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can practitioners engage in evidence-based practice when the evidence for effectiveness of psychological treatments comes from randomized controlled trials using patient populations different from those encountered in everyday settings and treatment manuals that seem oversimplified and inflexible? The authors argue that important evidence about best practice comes from case-based research, which builds knowledge in a clinically useful manner and

David J. A. Edwards; Frank M. Dattilio; Dennis B. Bromley

2004-01-01

225

Cauchy prior distribution-based AVO elastic parameter estimation via weakly nonlinear waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cauchy priori distribution-based Bayesian AVO reflectivity inversion may lead to sparse estimates that are sensitive to large reflectivities. For the inversion, the computation of the covariance matrix and regularized terms requires prior estimation of model parameters, which makes the iterative inversion weakly nonlinear. At the same time, the relations among the model parameters are assumed linear. Furthermore, the reflectivities, the results of the inversion, or the elastic parameters with cumulative error recovered by integrating reflectivities are not well suited for detecting hydrocarbons and fluids. In contrast, in Bayesian linear AVO inversion, the elastic parameters can be directly extracted from prestack seismic data without linear assumptions for the model parameters. Considering the advantages of the abovementioned methods, the Bayesian AVO reflectivity inversion process is modified and Cauchy distribution is explored as a prior probability distribution and the time-variant covariance is also considered. Finally, we propose a new method for the weakly nonlinear AVO waveform inversion. Furthermore, the linear assumptions are abandoned and elastic parameters, such as P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, and density, can be directly recovered from seismic data especially for interfaces with large reflectivities. Numerical analysis demonstrates that all the elastic parameters can be estimated from prestack seismic data even when the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic data is low.

Ma, Ji-Qiang; Geng, Jian-Hua

2013-12-01

226

Evidence-Based Cardiology in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Cardiac events are the major cause of death in hemodialysis patients. Because of the paucity of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in hemodialysis patients, most cardiovascular therapies in this population are based on observational studies or results extrapolated from studies that excluded hemodialysis patients. However, associations discovered in observational studies do not prove causality, and these studies often report surrogate outcomes rather than clinical end points. Furthermore, interventions that show effectiveness in the general population may have drastically different outcomes and side effect profiles in hemodialysis patients. This review discusses the results of RCTs undertaken recently to evaluate cardiovascular therapies in hemodialysis patients and emphasizes clinically relevant outcomes. Although some interventions have produced similar outcomes in hemodialysis patients and the general population, others have not, suggesting that the management of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients may require strategies that differ from the best practice guidelines applied to general population. PMID:24136920

2013-01-01

227

Thermooptic-based differential measurements of weak solute absorptions with an interferometer.  

PubMed

An interferometric method of measuring small differences between weak optical absorptions of solutions has been developed using the thermooptic effect. To record the small changes in optical path length ~lambda/200 due to heating, it was necessary to stabilize the fringe pattern with respect to slow thermal drift using a galvanometer-driven compensator plate controlled by a closed feedback loop. Fringe shifts from background absorptions were nulled out to better than 1 part in 400, permitting the measurement of differences in absorptions between two solutions that were l/100th of background. Using laser powers of 100 mW, absorptions approximately 5 x 10(-6) cm(-1) (base e) could be measured with CC1(4) solutions. PMID:20389912

Cremers, D A; Keller, R A

1982-05-01

228

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

229

Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

Eileen Gambrill

2006-01-01

230

Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…

Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

231

Improving the evidence base of nursing education programs.  

PubMed

The need for evidence-based practice (EBP) has been supported by many professional groups. However, nurses face many barriers to involvement in the EBP process. Continuing nursing education program planners can play a key role in helping to overcome these barriers by working with presenters and content developers to ensure that the content they prepare is rooted in the best available evidence. PMID:25081120

Lubejko, Barbara G

2014-08-01

232

Promoting Evidence-Based Practice in Child Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for the adoption of an evidence-based approach to decision-making in child protection. Such a change hinges upon the availability of good quality, up-to-date evidence that is readily accessible to practitioners and policy-makers. Following a resume' of the arguments for recognizing controlled trials as methodologically superior to other forms of methodology in evaluating professional interventions, the article presents

Geraldine Macdonald

1998-01-01

233

American Dental Association evidence-based dentistry website  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2009, the American Dental Association (ADA) launched a new evidence-based dentistry (EBD) website (ebd.ada.org). The site has been established to provide the dental profession with access to evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and is supported by a grant from the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research(Grant Number G08 LM008956).

Derek Richards

2009-01-01

234

Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Is There a Conflict?  

PubMed Central

This article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, and traps to which evidence-based medicine (EBM) may lead and suggests that, to be ethically valid, EBM must be aimed at the patient's best interests and not at the financial interests of others. While financial considerations are by no means trivial, it is hypocritical – if not dangerous – to hide them behind words like “evidence” or “quality.” PMID:18092036

Loewy, Erich H.

2007-01-01

235

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement,(QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between,clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing,provider behavior or achieving

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

2005-01-01

236

An Approach for Query-focused Text Summarisation for Evidence Based Medicine  

E-print Network

An Approach for Query-focused Text Summarisation for Evidence Based Medicine Abeed Sarker1 , Diego Processing, Evidence Based Medicine, Query-focused Summarisation 1 Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM

Aliod, Diego Mollá

237

76 FR 57742 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices AGENCY: Substance...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a...

2011-09-16

238

77 FR 40634 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Pretrial Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...organizational change principles (evidence-based practices) in achieving measurable...of a system informed by evidence-based practice. It defines a vision of...the capacity to implement evidence-based practices; Establish...

2012-07-10

239

3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

2010-11-01

240

Cochrane Lecture 1997. What evidence do we need for evidence based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As presently understood, evidence based medicine aims to advance practice from its traditional unverifiable mix of art and science to rational use of measurable inputs and outputs. In practice, however, its advocates accept uncritically a desocialised definition of science, assume that major clinical decisions are taken at the level of secondary specialist rather than primary generalist care, and ignore the

J T Hart

1997-01-01

241

The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities available…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

242

Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

Todd, Ross J.

2015-01-01

243

Untangling the Evidence: Introducing an Empirical Model for Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This research is the first to investigate the experiences of teacher-librarians as evidence-based practice. An empirically derived model is presented in this paper. Method: This qualitative study utilised the expanded critical incident approach, and investigated the real-life experiences of fifteen Australian teacher-librarians,…

Gillespie, Ann

2014-01-01

244

EVIDENCE, EMOTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: THE LIMITS TO EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

While 'evidence-based' or 'rationalist' approaches to criminal policy may appeal to technocrats or bureaucrats, they often fail to compete successfully with the affective approaches to law and order policies which resonate with the public and which appear to meet deep-seated psychological needs. They also fail to recognise that 'policy' and 'politics' are related concepts and that debates about criminal justice

ARIE FREIBERG

245

Simultaneous Binding of Fluoride and NO to the Nonheme Iron of Photosystem II: Quantitative EPR Evidence for a Weak Exchange  

E-print Network

Simultaneous Binding of Fluoride and NO to the Nonheme Iron of Photosystem II: Quantitative EPR of the acceptor side of Photosystem II (PSII) are examined by X- and Q-band EPR spectroscopy. It is found of Photosystem II (PSII)1 is an iron-quinone complex. On the basis of ample spectroscopic evidence2 and sequence

Hendrich, Mike

246

Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.  

PubMed

Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. PMID:25221988

Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

2014-10-01

247

Mental Health Clinicians’ Experiences of Implementing Evidence-Based Treatments  

PubMed Central

Implementation research has tremendous potential to bridge the research-practice gap; however, we know more about barriers to evidence-based care than the factors that contribute to the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). This qualitative study explores the experiences of clinicians (N = 11) who were implementing EBTs, highlighting the factors that they perceived to be most critical to successful implementation. The clinicians’ narratives reveal many leverage points that can inform administrators, clinical supervisors, and clinicians who wish to implement EBTs, as well as other stakeholders who wish to develop and test strategies for moving EBTs into routine care. PMID:24066630

Powell, Byron J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; McMillen, J. Curtis

2013-01-01

248

An iterative framework for EEG-based image search: robust retrieval with weak classifiers.  

PubMed

We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

Uš?umli?, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José Del R

2013-01-01

249

Evidence Based Medicine and Shared Decision Making: The challenge of getting both evidence and preferences into health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and Shared Medical Decision Making (SDM) are changing the nature of health care decisions. It is broadly accepted that health care decisions require the integration of research evidence and individual preferences. These approaches are justified on both efficacy grounds (that evidence based practice and Shared Decision Making should lead to better health outcomes and may lead

Alexandra Barratt

2008-01-01

250

Nursing implementation science: how evidence-based nursing requires evidence-based implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Evidence is not always used in practice, and many examples of problematic implementation of research into practice exist. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction and overview of current developments in implementation science and to apply these to nursing. METHODS: We discuss a framework for implementation, describe common implementation determinants, and provide a rationale for choosing

Theo van Achterberg; Lisette Schoonhoven; Richard Grol

2008-01-01

251

Evidence-based practice day: an innovative educational opportunity.  

PubMed

To maximize patient outcomes, the latest research and practice updates must be disseminated across the patient care continuum to include all members of the nursing team. The Clinical Research Council (CRC) recognized the need to bridge the gap between nursing research and practice, using evidence to decrease variation in practice. To meet this challenge, a Magnet-designated, rural community hospital developed an innovative educational program. This article describes Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) day, an interactive learning environment that engages nursing staff and strengthens their understanding of the science that guides practice. Topics for inclusion were selected based on staff requests, current research, quality improvement data, and institutional priorities. Evidence was provided in a format that supported rapid implementation into practice. Key components of the program included a clinical scenario, internal and external data, nursing interventions, patient outcomes (nursing-sensitive and organizational), and regulatory requirement updates. PMID:20921130

Bromirski, Bridget H; Cody, Jean Lemieux; Coppin, Karen; Hewson, Karen; Richardson, Barbara

2011-04-01

252

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia Sarah-Lan Mathez, 3012 Berne, Switzerland 2 Institute of Economic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern

Richner, Heinz

253

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

2008-01-01

254

Critical Thinking: Knowledge and Skills for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP…

Finn, Patrick

2011-01-01

255

Interteaching: An Evidence-Based Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "interteaching" as an evidence-based method of instruction. Instructors often rely on more traditional approaches, such as lectures, as means to deliver instruction. Despite high usage, these methods are ineffective at achieving desirable academic outcomes. We discuss an innovative approach to delivering instruction…

Brown, Thomas Wade; Killingsworth, Kenneth; Alavosius, Mark P.

2014-01-01

256

Using Family Paradigms to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) describes clinical decision making using research, clinical experience, and client values. For family-centered practices, the client's family is integral to this process. This article proposes that using family paradigms, a family science framework, may help elicit and understand client/family values within…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Jones, Rebecca S.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.

2009-01-01

257

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

258

Evidence-Based Youth Psychotherapy in the Mental Health Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why…

Weisz, John R.; Ugueto, Ana M.; Cheron, Daniel M.; Herren, Jenny

2013-01-01

259

Arbitrary Metrics: Implications for Identifying Evidence-Based Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research designed to establish the empirical underpinnings of psychotherapy relies heavily on arbitrary metrics, and researchers often do not know if clients receiving an evidence-based treatment have improved in everyday life or changed in a way that makes a difference, apart from the changes the arbitrary metrics may have shown. In other words,…

Kazdin, Alan E.

2006-01-01

260

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applied to Parkinson's disease treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a narrative review of the concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and its application in the movement disorders field. The paper has three parts:1.Discussion of the generic concept of EBM and of the most commonly voiced criticisms; explanation of how relevant are for the comprehension of EBM procedures the notion of implicit and explicit knowledge; discussion of the

Cristina Sampaio; Joaquim J. Ferreira; João Costa

2002-01-01

261

Evidence-Based Library Management: The Leadership Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new opportunities for data analysis, assessment delivery, and

Amos Lakos

2007-01-01

262

Fostering Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based nursing practice is impeded by low numbers of baccalaureate nurses, lack of critical perspectives toward research, the volume of information, and conflicting worldviews. Teaching strategies to address the challenge include fostering the ability to question and initiating teacher/student dialog. (SK)

Rambur, Betty

1999-01-01

263

Building evidence-based practice with staff nurses through mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence- based practice (EBP) is an effective way for nurses to improve patient outcomes. Although EBP has gained popularity, barriers to implementation exist. This study explored whether mentoring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in EBP would increase their participation in EBP. A sample of 20 nurses were mentored in an EBP project. The EBP Beliefs Scale and EBP Implementation

Kathleen DiGaudio Mariano; Linda M. Caley; Linda Eschberger; Ann Woloszyn; Patricia Volker; Michael S. Leonard; Ying Tung

2009-01-01

264

Evidence-Based Teaching: Now and in the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of assembling this "New Directions in Teaching and Learning" volume was to introduce college and university teachers to a broad range of approaches that reflect evidence-based teaching (EBT). As each of the preceding chapters has shown, EBT not only can increase student learning across a variety of measures, it also can increase…

Buskist, William; Groccia, James E.

2011-01-01

265

Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

Littek, Celeste

2013-01-01

266

Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

2013-01-01

267

How Evidence-Based Practices Contribute to Community Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In

Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Charles A. Rapp; Anthony M. Zipple

2004-01-01

268

Developing Research Competence to Support Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy pro- grams, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the

Lora E. Burke; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Susan M. Sereika; Susan M. Cohen; Mary Beth Happ; Janice S. Dorman

2005-01-01

269

Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional techniques that meet prescribed criteria related to the research design, quality, quantity, and effect size of supporting research, which have the potential to help bridge the research-to-practice gap and improve student outcomes. In this article, the authors (a) discuss the importance of clear…

Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Sara Cothren

2013-01-01

270

Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

2013-01-01

271

Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

272

Is there an evidence-based practice for burns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doublts and questions about clinical decision making need to be answered. Evidence-based medicine aims to provide answers by systematically finding information from the vast assortmment of research papers in the literature and bringing it together to use in everyday practice and in the best interests of the patient. Although clinical (and experimental) studies have a variety of methodologics, ranging from

Charmaine Childs

1998-01-01

273

INTEGRATING EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND SOCIAL WORK FIELD EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work academic community is currently considering and critiquing the idea of evidence-based practice (EBP). Given the vital part that practicum education plays in the social work profession, understanding the views of field instructors on this subject is essential. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University surveyed 283 field instructors within 180 agencies and found

Tonya Edmond; Deborah Megivern; Cynthia Williams; Estelle Rochman; Matthew Howard

2006-01-01

274

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

275

Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

Lisa Given

2006-01-01

276

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

277

Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation: From Insight to Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on accountability and evidence-based practice, evaluation has become increasingly important in the contexts in which educational psychologists (EPs) practice. This paper describes a Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) system, derived from Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) which was developed to evaluate outcomes of a wide…

Dunsmuir, Sandra; Brown, Emma; Iyadurai, Suzi; Monsen, Jeremy

2009-01-01

278

Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Practice in College Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lead off article to the special volume on evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) in college and university counseling and mental health centers presents an overview of the topic and outlines the structure of this publication. A focus on EBP research and practice generally, and in institutions of higher education specifically, is provided for…

Cooper, Stewart E.

2005-01-01

279

Toward Evidence-Based Practice with Domestic Violence Perpetrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the policy and practice of interventions with male perpetrators of domestic violence in light of the widely accepted principles of evidence-based practice. Thus far, these policies and practices have enjoyed immunity from the external, empirical accountability available through implementing the findings from evaluations research and other empirical practice analyses. This immunity is supported by a policy framework

Kenneth Corvo; Donald Dutton; Wan-Yi Chen

2008-01-01

280

The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

2010-01-01

281

Evidence-Based Parent Consultation with School-Related Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, 18 studies using parent consultation to effect a change in children's school-related behavior were evaluated according to guidelines set forth by the APA's Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. Results indicate that parent consultation is an effective method of intervention delivery for a variety of…

Guli, Laura A.

2005-01-01

282

Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

Leimer, Christina

2012-01-01

283

Vitiligo: concise evidence based guidelines on diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitiligo is a common disease that causes a great degree of psychological distress. In its classical forms it is easily recognised and diagnosed. This review provides an evidence based outline of the management of vitiligo, particularly with the non-specialist in mind. Treatments for vitiligo are generally unsatisfactory. The initial approach to a patient who is thought to have vitiligo is

David J Gawkrodger; Anthony D Ormerod; Lindsay Shaw; Inma Mauri-Sole; Maxine E Whitton; M Jane Watts; Alex V Anstey; Jane Ingham; Katharine Young

2010-01-01

284

Teaching Evidence-based Medicine: Caveats and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three caveats to the evidence-based paradigm in medical education: (1) detection of abnormalities that may not ever be overtly expressed inflates apparent diagnostic test performance; (2) probability revision is valuable primarily as an exercise to gain qualitative insights; and (3) patients are likely to be interested in more than just…

Welch, H. Gilbert; Lurie, Jon D.

2000-01-01

285

Protonation and ion exchange equilibria of weak base anion-exchange resins.  

PubMed

Protonation and ion exchange equilibria of weak base anion-exchange resins, in which tertiary amine moieties were introduced as a functional group, were investigated by applying NMR spectroscopy to species adsorbed into the resins. (31)P NMR signals of the phosphinate ion in the resin phases shifted to a lower field due to the influence of protonation of the tertiary amine groups of the resins in the pH range of 4-10. Protonation constants of the tertiary amine groups in styrene-divinylbenzene (DVB)-based resins were estimated to be K(H)=10(6.4) for Amberlite IRA96 and 10(6.5) for DIAION WA30 by the (31)P NMR method using the phosphinate ion as a probe species. In addition to the low field shift caused by the protonation of the tertiary amine moieties, another low field shift was observed for the phosphinate ion in acrylic acid-DVB-based resins at a rather high pH. This shift should be due to an unexpected deprotonation in the acrylic resin: a tautomerism accompanying the proton release from the amide form to the imide one in the functional group, thus, the resin could exhibit a cation exchange property at the high pH. Protonation constants of the tertiary amine moieties in the acrylic resins were estimated to be 10(8.8) for DIAION WA10, 10(9.0) for Amberlite IRA67 and 10(9.3) for Bio-Rad AG 4-X4 on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation using the resin phase pH estimated by the (133)Cs and (1)H NMR signal intensities. PMID:21872022

Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Nakai, Mariko

2011-09-30

286

[Evidence-based medicine: a movement in crisis?].  

PubMed

A recent paper published in The BMJ has argued that the evidence-based medicine movement is now facing a serious crisis. In the authors' opinion, the first problem is that the EBM "quality mark" has been misappropriated by vested interests. The second aspect is that the volume of evidence, especially clinical guidelines, has become unmanageable. Moreover, the statistically significant benefits may be marginal in clinical practice. Also, inflexible rules and technology driven prompts may produce care that is management driven rather than patient centred. In the end, evidence-based guidelines often map poorly to complex multimorbidity. To address the above concerns, the authors believe that a campaign for real EBM is needed: patients must demand better evidence, better presented, better explained, and applied in a more personalised way. All the relevant stakeholders (researchers, editors, publishers, etc.) should contribute to return to the movement's founding principles. The article is a detailed summary of issues already known of great interest, but perhaps with an over-emphasis in the title and tone, without focusing on the key aspect: the production and shaping of the evidence. PMID:25229758

Ciccone, Giovannino

2014-09-01

287

An evaluation of the evidence in "evidence-based" integrative medicine programs.  

PubMed

Alternative therapies are popular, and information about them should be included in the curricula of health profession schools. During 2000 to 2003, the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded five-year education grants to 14 health professions schools in the United States and to the American Medical Students Association Foundation. The purpose of the grants was to integrate evidence-based information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into the curriculum. The authors reviewed the educational material concerning four popular CAM therapies-herbal remedies, chiropractic, acupuncture, and homeopathy-posted on the integrative medicine Web sites of the grant recipients and compared it with the best evidence available. The curricula on the integrative medicine sites were strongly biased in favor of CAM, many of the references were to poor-quality clinical trials, and they were five to six years out of date. These "evidence-based CAM" curricula, which are used all over the country, fail to meet the generally accepted standards of evidence-based medicine. By tolerating this situation, health professions schools are not meeting their educational and ethical obligations to learners, patients, or society. Because integrative medicine programs have failed to uphold educational standards, medical and nursing schools need to assume responsibility for their oversight. The authors suggest (1) appointing faculty committees to review the educational materials and therapies provided by integrative medicine programs, (2) holding integrative medicine programs' education about CAM to the same standard of evidence used for conventional treatments, and (3) providing ongoing oversight of integrative medicine education programs. PMID:19707062

Marcus, Donald M; McCullough, Laurence

2009-09-01

288

Integrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence-based approaches.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has thus far failed to adequately account for the appropriate incorporation of other potential warrants for medical decision making into clinical practice. In particular, EBM has struggled with the value and integration of other kinds of medical knowledge, such as those derived from clinical experience or based on pathophysiologic rationale. The general priority given to empirical evidence derived from clinical research in all EBM approaches is not epistemically tenable. A casuistic alternative to EBM approaches recognizes that five distinct topics, 1) empirical evidence, 2) experiential evidence, 3) pathophysiologic rationale, 4) patient goals and values, and 5) system features are potentially relevant to any clinical decision. No single topic has a general priority over any other and the relative importance of a topic will depend upon the circumstances of the particular case. The skilled clinician must weigh these potentially conflicting evidentiary and non-evidentiary warrants for action, employing both practical and theoretical reasoning, in order to arrive at the best choice for an individual patient. PMID:16722902

Tonelli, Mark R

2006-06-01

289

An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

2013-01-01

290

Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

2013-01-01

291

Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

Birbeck, Gretchen L; Wiysonge, Charles S; Mills, Edward J; Frenk, Julio J; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jha, Prabhat

2013-01-01

292

Secure Optical Networks Based on Quantum Key Distribution and Weakly Trusted Repeaters  

E-print Network

In this paper we explore how recent technologies can improve the security of optical networks. In particular, we study how to use quantum key distribution (QKD) in common optical network infrastructures and propose a method to overcome its distance limitations. QKD is the first technology offering information theoretic secret-key distribution that relies only on the fundamental principles of quantum physics. Point-to-point QKD devices have reached a mature industrial state; however, these devices are severely limited in distance, since signals at the quantum level (e.g. single photons) are highly affected by the losses in the communication channel and intermediate devices. To overcome this limitation, intermediate nodes (i.e. repeaters) are used. Both, quantum-regime and trusted, classical, repeaters have been proposed in the QKD literature, but only the latter can be implemented in practice. As a novelty, we propose here a new QKD network model based on the use of not fully trusted intermediate nodes, referred as weakly trusted repeaters. This approach forces the attacker to simultaneously break several paths to get access to the exchanged key, thus improving significantly the security of the network. We formalize the model using network codes and provide real scenarios that allow users to exchange secure keys over metropolitan optical networks using only passive components. Moreover, the theoretical framework allows to extend these scenarios not only to accommodate more complex trust constraints, but also to consider robustness and resiliency constraints on the network.

David Elkouss; Jesus Martinez-Mateo; Alex Ciurana; Vicente Martin

2013-04-15

293

Zwitterionic weak-link approach complexes based on anionic icosahedral monocarbaboranes.  

PubMed

The anionic hemilabile phosphinothioether ligand, [1-(Ph2PCH2CH2S)-closo-1-CB11H11 ](-), which is functionalized with an anionic icosahedral monocarbaborane anion, was synthesized in three steps from [HNMe3][closo-CB11H12]. The ligand was used to synthesize a family of zwitterionic Weak-Link Approach (WLA) complexes that contain platinum(II), palladium(II), and rhodium(I). These complexes were characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Although the C-bound [closo-CB11H11](-) anion behaves as an electron-withdrawing moiety, hemilabile phosphinothioether ligands that are based on this unit are strongly chelating, as determined via the measurement of the chloride association constant. The chelating strength is comparable to that of hemilabile ligands that are functionalized with the very electron-rich B-bound closo-1,7-C2B10H11 moiety, thus demonstrating the use of charge to influence ligand coordination strength. The anionic Rh(I) WLA complex that is synthesized using this ligand can act as the noncoordinating anion of a regular cationic Rh(I) WLA complex. Thus, an unprecedented type of salt, in which the anion and cation are mutually isostructural and isoelectronic WLA complexes, has been synthesized and characterized crystallographically. PMID:24266387

Kennedy, Robert D; Stern, Charlotte L; Mirkin, Chad A

2013-12-16

294

Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

2010-01-01

295

Calibration Technique for Superfluid 4He Weak-Link Cells Based on the Fountain Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of superfluid 4He weak-links require calibration constants which permit the determination of the pressure and temperature differences which drive Josephson oscillations. We describe a technique for calibrating 4He weak-link cells in which a heater is used to induce fountain pressures detected by the deflection of a diaphragm. The technique determines the diaphragm spring constant, the inner cell volume, and the thermal conductance of the inner cells walls. This information is used to convert the measured deflection of the diaphragm into the total chemical potential difference across the weak link.

Hoskinson, E.; Packard, R. E.

2006-09-01

296

Basis of antimalarial action: non-weak base effects of chloroquine on acid vesicle pH  

SciTech Connect

Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. This increase in pH results from two mechanisms, one of which is markedly reduced in chloroquine-resistant parasites. Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the delta pH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. The non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine on parasite vesicle pH are also responsible for its safety because these chloroquine concentrations do not affect mammalian cells.

Krogstad, D.J.; Schlesinger, P.H.

1987-03-01

297

Intravenous salbutamol for childhood asthma: evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed

Intravenous salbutamol is commonly used to treat children with severe asthma unresponsive to inhaled ?2-agonist therapy. However, in this setting, there is little clinical trial data demonstrating its effectiveness. Additionally, there are significant concerns that intravenous salbutamol-dosing recommendations for children with acute asthma are excessive, and unnecessarily raise the potential for adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis and tachycardia which, by increasing respiratory workload, exacerbate respiratory failure. Here, we review salbutamol clinical pharmacology and toxicology, evidence relating to its use in acute asthma and highlight gaps in the evidence base. PMID:24938536

Starkey, E S; Mulla, H; Sammons, H M; Pandya, H C

2014-09-01

298

Lithium Therapy and Hyperparathyroidism: An Evidence-Based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prolonged therapeutic exposure to lithium compounds can have adverse consequences on calcium homeostasis. A unique form of\\u000a hyperparathyroidism appears to be causally linked to chronic lithium exposure. We provide a comprehensive review of relevant\\u000a literature using a structured, evidence-based approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Published data were identified from systematic electronic literature searches. References are assigned a level of evidence\\u000a according to a validated

Brian D. Saunders; Erika F. H. Saunders; Paul G. Gauger

2009-01-01

299

Overview of evidence-based practice and translation science.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice and translation science are not interchangeable terms; EBP is the application of evidence in practice (the doing of EBP), whereas translation science is the study of implementation interventions, factors, and contextual variables that affect knowledge uptake and use in practices and communities. The use of collaborative networks such as the National Nursing Practice Network maximizes sharing of resources and knowledge about EBPs, an infrastructure for conducting multi-site translation studies, and a venue for large scale-up of EBP projects across multiple healthcare settings. PMID:25155527

Titler, Marita G

2014-09-01

300

Evidence-based macro practice: addressing the challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Steps involved in the process of evidence-based practice are reviewed in terms of their applicability to macro-level social work. These steps include (1) posing answerable questions; (2) locating credible research studies, (3) critically evaluating this research and its applicability to a practice situation; 4. selecting an intervention(s) by integrating research evidence with professional expertise, ethical standards, and the situation's unique circumstance; and (5) evaluating outcomes. This process has clear and compelling applications to macro-practice. A substantial body of research applicable to macro-level social work currently exists. Widespread adoption of EBP has great potential to improve social work programs and policies. PMID:19042876

Thyer, Bruce A

2008-01-01

301

Developing evidence-based practice champions in the Maldives.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach that has gained recognition for facilitating the transfer of evidence into clinical practice. EBP champions is a strategy that can be adopted to encourage the uptake of EBP. This paper describes an action research project that was undertaken in Maldives. EBP champion model has been introduced in the Maldives early 2012 and aims to produce clinical leaders from variety of backgrounds who could implement EBP. This paper provides an extended discussion of the process that was undertaken to prepare EBP champions and their roles in implementing EBP. PMID:24330210

Shifaza, Fathimath; Evans, David; Bradley, Helen; Ullrich, Sandra

2013-12-01

302

Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak  

PubMed Central

We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

2014-01-01

303

Evidence-Based Review of Interventions for Medically At-Risk Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To conduct an evidence-based review of intervention studies of older drivers with medical conditions. METHOD. We used the American Occupational Therapy Association’s classification criteria (Levels I–V, I = highest level of evidence) to identify driving interventions. We classified studies using letters to represent the strength of recommendations: A = strongly recommend the intervention; B = recommend intervention is provided routinely; C = weak evidence that the intervention can improve outcomes; D = recommend not to provide the intervention; I = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the intervention. RESULTS. For clients with stroke, we recommend a graded simulator intervention (A) and multimodal training in traffic theory knowledge and on-road interventions (B); we make no recommendation for or against Dynavision, Useful Field of View, or visual–perceptual interventions (I). For clients with visual deficits, we recommend educational intervention (A) and bioptic training (B); we make no recommendation for or against prism lenses (I). For clients with dementia, we recommend driving restriction interventions (C) and make no recommendation for or against use of compensatory driving strategies (I). CONCLUSION. Level I studies are needed to identify effective interventions for medically at-risk older drivers. PMID:25005514

Monahan, Miriam; Auten, Beth; Yarney, Abraham

2014-01-01

304

Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health provider attitudes toward organizational change have not been well studied. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into real-world settings represent organizational change that may be limited or facilitated by provider attitudes toward adoption of new treatments, interventions, and practices. A brief measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBPs was developed and attitudes were examined

Gregory A. Aarons

2004-01-01

305

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

306

Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

2008-01-01

307

The Notion of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice by the Nursing Philosophy Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses these questions: To what end is evidence sought? What is the nature of evidence? What kinds of evidence are valued by the nursing profession? and What kinds of evidence should underlie clinical decision making? (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

Romyn, Donna M.; Allen, Marion N.; Boschma, Geertje; Duncan, Susan M.; Edgecombe, Nancy; Jensen, Louise A.; Ross-Kerr, Janet C.; Marck, Patricia; Salsali, Mahvash; Tourangeau, Ann E.; Warnock, Fay

2003-01-01

308

Clinical skills: an evidence-based approach to preoperative fasting.  

PubMed

The procedure of fasting from midnight until induction of anaesthesia arose from concern that patients could regurgitate during induction of general anaesthesia when the pharyngeal and laryngeal refluxes are depressed. In this situation, the contents of the stomach do not come out of the patient's mouth, but go up into the oesophagus and trachea and are drawn back down into the lungs. This can damage the lungs, causing chemical inflammation, a condition referred to as aspiration pneumonitis or Mendelson's syndrome, a serious although rare complication of general anaesthesia. For many years, preoperative fasting has been a traditional practice for reducing this risk, but patients are being fasted for considerably longer than the evidence indicates is necessary. This article considers the current evidence for preoperative fasting times and examines why patients are still being subjected to prolonged preoperative fasting. Based on the evidence presented, recommendations are made regarding this aspect of care. PMID:15389137

Oshodi, Titilayo O

309

Meta-Analyses and Orthodontic Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aim of this systematic review was to assess the orthodontic related issues which currently provide the best evidence as documented by meta-analyses, by critically evaluating and discussing the methodology used in these studies. Material and Methods: Several electronic databases were searched and handsearching was also performed in order to identify the corresponding meta-analyses investigating orthodontic related subjects. In total, 197 studies were retrieved initially. After applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were identified as meta-analyses treating orthodontic-related subjects. Results: Many of these 27 papers presented sufficient quality and followed appropriate meta-analytic approaches to quantitatively synthesize data and presented adequately supported evidence. However, the methodology used in some of them presented weaknesses, limitations or deficiencies. Consequently, the topics in orthodontics which currently provide the best evidence, include some issues related to Class II or Class III treatment, treatment of transverse problems, external apical root resorption, dental anomalies, such as congenital missing teeth and tooth transposition, frequency of severe occlusal problems, nickel hypersensitivity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education. Conclusions: Only a few orthodontic related issues have been so far investigated by means of MAs. In addition, for some of these issues investigated in the corresponding MAs no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to significant methodological deficiencies of these studies. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that at the begin of the 21st century there is evidence for only a few orthodontic related issues as documented by meta-analyses, and more well-conducted high quality research studies are needed to produce strong evidence in order to support evidence-based clinical practice in orthodontics. PMID:21673839

Papadopoulos, Moschos A.

2010-01-01

310

Therapeutic management of anal eczema: an evidence-based review  

PubMed Central

Aim To conduct a systematic review of treatments for anal eczema (AE). Methods We conducted a Medline search for clinical trial data for the treatment of perianal diseases including AE, including papers not published in the English language. We assessed the study reports using the system recommended by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. No meta-analysis was attempted. Results The evidence base for topical treatments used to treat AE is very poor: there are very few studies and many of those that exist are of poor quality. The best evidence was found for medications that are yet to be licensed for AE. Among products with existing licences for the treatment of eczema, our assessment found some evidence to support the continued use of mild-to-moderate corticosteroids first line in most patients. Discussion Features of the perianal region, and the fact that it is almost always occluded, mean that not all medications recommended in the general treatment guidelines for eczema are appropriate for AE. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for these patients. This may in part be because of the lack of high-quality evidence-based medicine in this therapy area. Many frequently prescribed medications were developed and licensed many years ago, in an era when clinical trial design was not expected to be as rigorous as it is today. Conclusion This review highlights the need to conduct more high-quality clinical trials in patients with AE in order that specific guidelines for the management of this difficult proctological condition can be prepared. PMID:24898365

Havlickova, B; Weyandt, G H

2014-01-01

311

Bowel anastomoses: The theory, the practice and the evidence base  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of stapling instruments in the 1970s various studies have compared the results of sutured and stapled bowel anastomoses. A literature search was performed from 1960 to 2010 and articles relating to small bowel, colonic and colorectal anastomotic techniques were reviewed. References from these articles were also reviewed, and relevant articles obtained. Either a stapled or sutured gastrointestinal tract anastomosis is acceptable in most situations. The available evidence suggests that in the following situations, however, particular anastomotic techniques may result in fewer complications: A stapled side-to-side ileocolic anastomosis is preferable following a right hemicolectomy for cancer. A stapled side-to-side anastomosis is likely also preferable after an ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Colorectal anastomoses can be sutured or stapled with similar results, although the incidence of strictures is higher following stapled anastomoses. Following reversal of loop ileostomy there is some evidence to suggest that a stapled side-to-side anastomosis or sutured enterotomy closure (rather than spout resection and sutured anastomosis) results in fewer complications. Non-randomised data has indicated that small bowel anastomoses are best sutured in the trauma patient. This article reviews the theory, practice and evidence base behind the various gastrointestinal anastomoses to help the practising general surgeon make evidence based operative decisions. PMID:23293735

Goulder, Frances

2012-01-01

312

A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Telehospice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of telehealth technologies to overcome the geographic distances in the delivery of hospice care has been termed telehospice. Although telehospice research has been conducted over the last 10 years, little is known about the comprehensive findings within the field. The purpose of this systematic article was to focus on available research and answer the question, What is the state of the evidence related to telehospice services? The article was limited to studies that had been published in the English language and indexed between January 1, 2000 and March 23, 2010. Indexed databases included PubMed and PsycINFO and contained specified key words. Only research published in peer review journals and reporting empirical data, rather than opinion or editorials, were included. A two-part scoring framework was modified and applied to assess the methodological rigor and pertinence of each study. Scoring criteria allowed the evaluation of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Twenty-six studies were identified with the search strategy. Although limited in number and in strength, studies have evaluated the use of a variety of technologies, attitudes toward use by providers and consumers, clinical outcomes, barriers, readiness, and cost. A small evidence base for telehospice has emerged over the last 10 years. Although the evidence is of medium strength, its pertinence is strong. The evidence base could be strengthened with randomized trials and additional clinical-outcome-focused research in larger randomized samples and in qualitative studies with better-described samples. PMID:22085114

Demiris, George; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Day, Tami; Novak, Hannah

2012-01-01

313

Psychodynamic psychotherapies: evidence-based practice and clinical wisdom.  

PubMed

This article is based on an exhaustive review of the psychotherapy outcomes literature, undertaken originally at the instigation of the UK Department of Health by Roth and Fonagy (Department of Health, 1995). We have recently updated this review (Fonagy, Target, Cottrell, Phillips, & Kurtz, 2002; Roth & Fonagy, 2004) and extended it to identify all studies of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The usual methods for identifying studies were employed (Fonagy, Target, et al., 2002; Roth & Fonagy, in press). The key questions that should be asked of this literature given the current state of research in this area (also see Westen, Morrison, & Thompson-Brenner, 2004) are: Are there any disorders for which short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) can be considered evidence-based, Are there any disorders for which STPP is uniquely effective as either the only evidence-based treatment or as a treatment that is more effective than alternatives, and Is there any evidence base for long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) either in terms of achieving effects not normally associated with short-term treatment or addressing problems that have not been addressed by STPP? In this context, short-term therapy is conceived of as a treatment of around 20 sessions delivered usually once weekly. PMID:15899755

Fonagy, Peter; Roth, Anthony; Higgitt, Anna

2005-01-01

314

Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

2013-06-01

315

Weak superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

This Proceedings consist of invited papers and contributions presented at the Fifth Czechoslovak Symposium on Weak Superconductivity (5CSSWS) held at Smolenice Castle from May 29 to June 2, 1989. This five-days meeting was organized by the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Electro-Physical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, in cooperation with the Institute of Measurement and Measuring Techniques, EPRC, SAS, Bratislava and the Institute of Physics, CSAS, in Prague. From the beginning the Czechoslovak activities in weak superconductivity were concerned with preparation and study of properties of weak links based on superconducting thin films of Pb, Nb, and Nb{sub 3}Sn, as well as bulk point contacts and rf SQUIDs for magnetometry. The possibility of application of superconducting weak links with tunnel and bridge junctions in measuring techniques, magnetometry, medicine, metrology, radiometry, etc., were studied. Some of these activities are still in progress. These Proceedings include contributions on the properties of tunnel junctions, electrodynamics of SQUIDs, computer simulation of interferometers, multi-channel magnetometry for biomagnetic applications, etc. The discovery of high T{sub c} superconductivity influenced strongly the topics of 5CSSWS. Most contributions of this volume are devoted to the preparation of high T{sub c} superconductor thin films by vacuum deposition techniques because of their dominant role in technology of cryoelectronic microcircuits. Further, results in the study of physical properties of high T{sub c} superconducting thin films by means of both dc and rf methods, tunnel and microcontact spectroscopy, are documented. Other contributions deal with preparation of rf SQUIDs, radiation detectors, etc.

Benacka, S.; Kedro, M.

1990-01-01

316

Evidence-based practice: a model for clinical application.  

PubMed

Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews provide clear, unbiased evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Yet translating the interventions into the practice setting requires additional clinical skills and judgments extending beyond the scientific assessment of the EBP literature. Effective use of EBP interventions requires clinicians effectively answering an additional set of questions specific to the case and clinical context. These questions focus on correctly identifying the problem and increased level of specificity for any given situation. Using a clinical application of the PICO model, the clinician and the patient should be able to achieve a higher level of clinical outcomes. PMID:23950547

Rice, Michael J

2013-01-01

317

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. Conclusion SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders. PMID:23071200

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2014-01-01

318

Miocene climate seasonality in southern India - first direct evidence for a weak Indian monsoon during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian monsoon is an integral component of the global climate system. This large-scale atmospheric circulation comprises the East Asian summer and winter monsoon and the Indian monsoon subsystems, all characterized by seasonal reversing winds and precipitation changes associated with asymmetric heating of land and sea. The Neogene monsoon history is mainly reconstructed from chemical and physical weathering rates recorded in widely continuous marine sequences of the Indus Fan, Bengal Fan and South China Sea, which, depending on the source, physiography and sediment, indicate drier or wetter climates. These indirect climate proxies display an unusually dry period during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, 16.5-15 Ma). As part of the FWF-projects P18189, P21414 and P23492, we present an Early/Middle Miocene coastal palynoflora record from the siliciclastic Ambalapuzha Formation at the coastal cliff of Varkala (Kerala Basin, SW India). Pollen assemblages and facies document a coastal wetland with mangrove vegetation. The Coexistence Approach was applied for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. This method uses climatic tolerances of all nearest living relatives known for a fossil flora by assuming that the tolerances of a fossil taxon are not significantly different from its modern counterpart. The maximum overlap of the environmental tolerances of all nearest living relatives (coexistence interval) is then regarded as being indicative of the most likely palaeoenvironment. By enquiring the Palaeoflora Database (http://www.palaeoflora.de/), the palaeoclimatic parameters of the pollen flora were calculated. The reconstructed climatic parameters for the MMCO show a seasonal precipitation pattern with a dry and a wet period and moderate rainfalls during the warmest period, which is comparable to the present day annual precipitation cycle in coastal Kerala, and affirms the presence of a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation over South India during the MMCO. However, the precipitation amounts during the wet (average 75%) and the warmest period (average 68%) were significantly reduced compared to today, while the rainfalls during the dry seasons are in the same order. This implies a weak Indian monsoon during the MMCO and a low thermal land - sea gradient between the Eurasian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Although a ~3°C warmer global climate during the MMCO and a weaker monsoon accounts for a higher near-surface air temperature during summer, the calculated mean annual temperature (MAT; 24.4°C) is 2.7°C lower than at present. The estimated warmest month temperature is, however, in the same range as today. Therefore, the low coldest month temperature (CMT; 20.6-22.8°C) in the Miocene has to account for the high MAT difference. This parameter represents the lower temperature threshold of the Varkala flora, and displays only the minimum temperature during the coldest month, which is significantly lower than the average CMT. Accordingly, the Miocene CMT approximates the present 24-h minimum temperature during the coldest month in Kerala (22.4°C). The reconstructed seasonal temperature cycle supports climate models, which suggest a higher temperature increase in mid-latitudes than in low-latitudes as well as warmer equatorial sea surface temperatures during the MMCO.

Piller, W. E.; Reuter, M.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.

2012-04-01

319

Whither our art? Clinical wisdom and evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute.\\u000a For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other,\\u000a human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why\\u000a particular beliefs are held,

Malcolm Parker

2002-01-01

320

The Promises And Pitfalls Of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Evidence-based medicine,(EBM) aims to address,the persistent problem,of clinical practice variation with the help of various tools, including standardized practice guidelines. While advocates welcome the stronger scientific foundation of such guidelines, critics fear that they will lead to “cookbook medicine.” Studies show, however, that few guidelines lead to consistent changes in provider behavior. The hopes, fears, and mixed re- cord

Stefan Timmermans; Aaron Mauck

2005-01-01

321

Unterschiede zwischen Evidence-Based Medicine und konventionell bester Medizin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  ? Die Umsetzung rationaler Konzepte im Gesundheitssystem wird möglich sein, wenn zwei Bedingungen erfüllt sind: Die gesetzlichen\\u000a Rahmenbedingungen müssen auf dieses Ziel abgestimmt sein, und neue Strategien sind zu etablieren. Die neuen Strategien werden\\u000a benötigt, um aus der Informationsflut die Daten zu finden, welche tatsächlich «Evidenz» zur Begründung des medizinischen Fortschritts\\u000a enthalten.\\u000a \\u000a Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) bietet diese Strategien an. Um

Franz Porzsolt; Regina Kunz

1997-01-01

322

Evidence-based medicine training in internal medicine residency programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize evidence-based medicine (EBM) curricula in internal medicine residency programs, a written survey was mailed\\u000a to 417 program directors of U.S. internal medicine residency programs. For programs offering a freestanding (dedicated curricular\\u000a time) EBM curriculum, the survey inquired about its objectives, format, curricular time, attendance, faculty development,\\u000a resources, and evaluation. All directors responded to questions regarding integrating EBM teaching

Michael L. Green

2000-01-01

323

Social Media, Evidence-Based Tweeting, and JCEHP.  

PubMed

Medical practice and medical journals must adapt to a constantly changing environment, in which social media plays an ever-increasing role. Social media platforms such as Twitter can provide an opportunity to disseminate information in innovative ways. The concept of evidence-based tweeting is introduced, especially as "tweeting the meeting" continues to expand within medical conferences and other venues important for continuing education for health care providers. Future social media strategies for the journal are outlined. PMID:25530289

Djuricich, Alexander M

2014-10-01

324

Evidence-based Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past two decades have seen a knowledge explosion in the field of cardiovascular diseases, in general, and in the understanding\\u000a of chronic heart failure (HF) as a complex neurohumoral syndrome in particular. A new staging system for chronic HF has been\\u000a developed within the last decade to facilitate the evidence-based prescription of medications and medical devices for each\\u000a of

David Rosen; Matthew V. Decaro; Mark G. Graham

2007-01-01

325

How Much of CAM Is Based on Research Evidence?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to provide a preliminary estimate of how much CAM is evidence-based. For this purpose, I calculated the percentage of 685 treatment/condition pairings evaluated in the “Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine” which are supported by sound data. The resulting figure was 7.4%. For a range of reasons, it might be a gross over-estimate. Further investigations into this subject are required to arrive at more representative figures. PMID:19465405

Ernst, Edzard

2011-01-01

326

Using motivational interviewing: through evidence-based health coaching.  

PubMed

To enhance compliance and achieve better outcomes, providers must actively engage their patients and caregivers in different ways than in the past. One strategy that has gained national attention is motivational interviewing through evidence-based health coaching. A closer look at this exciting new clinical skill reveals what it is, how it works, why it is so successful, and why our traditional patient approach has fallen short. PMID:25268529

Huffman, Melinda

2014-10-01

327

Gained in translation: evidence-based medicine meets pediatric psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) represents a powerful model for clinicians to translate everyday clinical tasks of finding and applying scientific literature into explicit and systematic steps. This article uses a question about treating adolescent depression to illustrate this approach in the context of a particular patient and his family. By helping the clinician apply population data to the 'bedside', EBM can supplement information from individual patient narratives and can facilitate informed decisions. PMID:16321734

Srihari, Vinod; Martin, Andrés

2006-01-01

328

Evidence-Based Practice Among Nurses in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 449 nurses in Italy, using a self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding evidence-based practice (EBP). A significantly higher level of knowledge was observed among nurses who (a) did not work in medical and surgical wards; (b) believed that the evaluation of the efficacy of the health interventions

Alberico Filippini; Alessandra Sessa; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Italo F. Angelillo

2011-01-01

329

Implementing evidence-based practice: Walking the talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russworm and Larrabee’s (1999) six-step model for evidence-based practice (EBP) was used by 10 nursing teams to seek answers to clinical questions. These teams, primarily composed of staff nurses, participated in a health region-wide EBP program over 1 year. Overall, the model served as a useful mechanism for examining practice-derived questions. However, additional strategies needed to be incorporated by the

Norma E. Thurston; Kathryn M. King

2004-01-01

330

Practitioner Attitudes Toward Evidence-based Practice: Themes and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

 Abstract  The widespread successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into community mental health settings will require\\u000a a thorough understanding of practitioner attitudes toward these approaches. This study reports on the results of two community\\u000a mental health practitioner focus groups investigating attitudes toward EBPs, perceived challenges to implementing EBPs, and\\u000a recommendations for researchers interested in facilitating EBP use in community settings. The

Timothy D. Nelson; Ric G. Steele; Jennifer A. Mize

2006-01-01

331

The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Educators have sometimes been chided for the enthusiasm with which they embrace new trends and concepts. Their enthusiasm\\u000a regarding evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial, however, as it will be key to the movement of EBP from the laboratory\\u000a to real-world settings, such as public schools. Generalizing from the laboratory to public schools is essential if EBP are\\u000a to ever reach

Peter Doehring; Vincent Winterling

332

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and

Stanley J. Huey Jr; Antonio J. Polo

2008-01-01

333

Route of hysterectomy: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

The number of hysterectomies performed has long been a concern; now the appropriateness of the surgical method is under more careful scrutiny. What is the clinically appropriate route and method for hysterectomy in a given patient? To ensure that each patient receives the best possible care at reasonable costs, physicians must closely examine recent data comparing surgical approaches to hysterectomy. So, what is the most evidence-based approach for hysterectomy? PMID:24351441

Kovac, S Robert

2014-03-01

334

Social construction and the evidence-based drug policy endeavour.  

PubMed

'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug policy processes, how problems are constructed and represented, and the ways in which different voices and knowledge(s) come to bear on that process, we may begin to see avenues for reform which may not at present seem obvious. PMID:24491356

Lancaster, Kari

2014-09-01

335

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective?To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology.?Method?Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.”?Results?Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above.?Conclusions?Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures. PMID:17905801

Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joän

2008-01-01

336

Evidence-based approach to harmonised reference intervals.  

PubMed

Although we are in the era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a substantial gap between theory and current practice with the application of reference intervals as decision making tools. Different laboratories may have different reference intervals for the same tests using the same analytical methods and platforms. These differences have the potential to confuse physicians making the assessment and monitoring of patients more difficult by providing discordant information. This paper attempts to demonstrate how to use evidence-based approach for harmonising reference intervals. In order to consider harmonisation we must first have an appreciation of the various factors that influence the determination of that reference interval such as the choice of individuals within the population studied, biological variability of the analyte studied, partitioning, sample collection, analytical aspects such as bias and statistical models. An a priori approach for determining reference intervals, whilst recommended, may be beyond the scope of most laboratories and consideration should be given to the use of a validated indirect a posteriori approach. Regardless of method used, the continuing application of an evidence-based approach in harmonised reference intervals to meet the quality expectations of physicians should be pursued. PMID:24183842

Koerbin, Gus; Sikaris, Ken Andrew; Jones, Graham Ross Dallas; Ryan, Julie; Reed, Maxine; Tate, Jill

2014-05-15

337

Understanding the Evolution of NSAID: A Knowledge Domain Visualization Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine  

E-print Network

in the practice of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). In this article, we describe a knowledge domain visualization in the medical literature? What is the big picture of all the available evidence? Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM the evolution of a pharmacological field, which is intrinsically evidence-based medicine. The goal of the study

Chen, Chaomei

338

Age and response bias: evidence from the strength-based mirror effect.  

PubMed

Performance in episodic memory is determined both by accurate retrieval from memory and by decision processes. A substantial body of literature suggests slightly poorer episodic memory accuracy for older than younger adults; however, age-related changes in the decision mechanisms in memory have received much less attention. Response bias, the willingness to endorse an item as remembered, is an important decision factor that contributes to episodic memory performance, and therefore understanding age-related changes in response bias is critical to theoretical development. We manipulate list strength in order to investigate two aspects of response bias. First, we evaluate whether criterion placement in episodic memory differs for older and younger adults. Second, we ask whether older adults have the same degree of flexibility to adjust the criterion in response to task demands as younger adults. Participants were tested on weakly and strongly encoded lists where word frequency (Experiment 1) or similarity between targets and foils (Experiment 2) was manipulated. Both older and younger adults had higher hit rates and lower false-alarm rates for strong lists than for weak lists (i.e., a strength-based mirror effect). Older adults were more conservative (less likely to endorse an item as studied) than younger adults, and we found no evidence that older and younger adults differ in their ability to flexibly adjust their criterion based on the demands of the task. PMID:24386987

Criss, Amy H; Aue, William; K?l?ç, Asl?

2014-10-01

339

Intracellular pH and the distribution of weak acids and bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia.  

PubMed Central

1. The steady-state intracellular/extracellular concentration ratios (Ci/Co) of a number of radiolabelled weak bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia were measured. 2. Observed values for Ci/Co (mean +/- S.E. of mean) were [3H]nicotine, 6.17 +/- 0.12; [14C]morphine, 6.08 +/- 0.14 [3H]atropine, 7.10 +/- 0.16; [14C]trimethylamine, 6.73 +/- 0.13; [14C]procaine, 10.13 +/- 0.26. If Ci/Co were determined by the transmembrane pH gradient, the intracellular pH (pHi) appropriate to these concentration gradients lay between 6.4 and 6.6 at an extracellular pH (pHo) of 7.4. 3. the steady-state value of Ci/Co for the weak acid 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) was 0.87 +/- 0.007. The appropriate pHi was 7.31 +/- 0.003. 4. The difference between the values of pHi calculated from the distribution of the weak bases and of DMO could not be attributed to (i) experimental error, (ii) partial permeation of protonated base, (iii) intracellular binding or carrier-mediated transport of base, (iv) lipid uptake of base or (v) different pK'a inside and outside cells. 5. The difference between the measurements of pHi made with DMO and nicotine (pHDMO-pHnic) was reduced or abolished by uncoupling agents, which act as transmembrane proton carriers. This effect was not reproduced by respiratory inhibitors or by exposure to lactate. 6. pHDMO-pHnic was small (less than 0.1 units) in human erythrocytes, which contain no intracellular organelles, and was exaggerated (1.0 unit) in slices of lipid-depleted brown adipose tissue which contained an abundance of mitochondria. 7. It is concluded that the different values of pHi determined using weak acids and bases arise from the presence of membrane-bound intracellular compartments of differing pH, and that where the use of pH-sensitive micro-electrodes is impracticable, it is desirable to measure pHi with both a weak acid and a weak base unless these can be shown equal over a wide range of pHi values. PMID:43889

Brown, D A; Garthwaite, J

1979-01-01

340

Tactics for teaching evidence-based practice: improving self-efficacy in finding and appraising evidence in a master's evidence-based practice unit.  

PubMed

This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741-6787. PMID:25131896

Chang, Anne; Levin, Rona F

2014-08-01

341

Hepatocellular carcinoma review: Current treatment, and evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

We read with great interest the recent article entitled “Hepatocellular carcinoma review: Current treatment, and evidence-based medicine” by Raza et al, published in World Journal of Gastroenterology. Authors evaluated treatments for early and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma based on an extensive review of the relevant literature. They reported that radiofrequency ablation is the most effective local ablative therapy. They concluded that RF ablation is equivalent to surgical resection in well selected patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, we want to mention microwave ablation besides RF ablation. PMID:25548509

Karaman, Bulent; Battal, Bilal; Sari, Sebahattin; Verim, Samet

2014-01-01

342

Methods, levels of evidence, strength of recommendations for treatment statements for evidence-based report cards: a new beginning.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Journal began publishing a special feature the Evidence-Based Report Card. These articles were designed to systematically identify and review evidence pertaining to wound, ostomy and continence specialty practice and summarize recommendations for clinical practice. Based on feedback from WOCN members and Society leadership, the Journal will relaunch this popular and valuable special feature. This article describes methods used to generate Evidence-Based Report Cards, a taxonomy of levels of evidence, and criteria for ranking the strength of recommendations for treatment. PMID:25549305

Gray, Mikel; Bliss, Donna; Klem, Mary Lou

2015-01-01

343

The Development of a Research Template to Assist Music Therapy Clinicians in Evidence-Based Practice  

E-print Network

One of the most prevalent trends in healthcare today is the movement toward evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice requires that health care providers base their treatment decisions not only on their own professional experiences...

Edwards, Robin

2009-04-23

344

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions to prevent and manage anorexia.  

PubMed

Anorexia is defined as an involuntary loss of appetite.Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed patients with cancer experience the symptom, which often is accompanied by weight loss and most typically associated with advanced disease.Anorexia significantly affects the clinical course of cancer; it can lead to the development or exacerbation of disease- or treatment-related symptoms, decreased functional status, and diminished quality of life.As part of the Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice initiative, a team of oncology nurses examined and evaluated published research literature for the purpose of developing an evidence-based practice resource focused on the management of cancer-related anorexia.Even though anorexia is common among newly diagnosed patients and those with advanced disease, interventions to prevent, treat, and manage the symptom are limited.The evidence revealed that only two pharmacologic interventions, corticosteroids and progestins, can be recommended for use in clinical practice, and dietary counseling was identified as likely to be effective.This article summarizes selected empirical literature on interventions used to prevent and manage anorexia in patients with cancer.Familiarity with the literature will assist oncology nurses in proactively identifying and effectively managing patients experiencing this distressing symptom. PMID:19193554

Adams, Lynn A; Shepard, Nancy; Caruso, Rose Ann; Norling, Martha J; Belansky, Heather; Cunningham, Regina S

2009-02-01

345

Perspectives--A Problem in Our Field: Making Distinctions between Evidence-Based Treatment and Evidence-Based Practice as a Decision-Making Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contend that the term "evidence-based treatment" (EBT) is often used synonymously with the term "evidence-based practice" (EBP) without making an important distinction. If a practitioner is applying an EBT, it should not be assumed that one is "practicing" the evidence. Within the infant-family and early childhood field, this confusion…

Brandt, Kristie; Diel, James; Feder, Joshua; Lillas, Connie

2012-01-01

346

Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

2011-01-01

347

Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations of deformed weakly bound nuclei using continuous bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations for deformed weakly bound nuclei are solved using a basis of Poschl-Teller-Ginocchio and Bessel/Coulomb wave functions, which possess proper asymptotic behavior. Results compare well with standard Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov calculations using box boundary condition or transformed harmonic oscillator basis.

Stoitsov, M.; Michel, N.; Matsuyanagi, K.

2014-09-01

348

Building a Performance-Based Assessment System To Diagnose Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief description of the development of the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTTS) program by F. G. Roswell and J. S. Chall. It also describes the editorial and statistical procedures that were used to validate the program for determining students' strengths and weaknesses in important areas…

Hennings, Sara S.; Hughes, Kay E.

349

Re-evaluation of heat flow data near Parkfield, CA: Evidence for a weak San Andreas Fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved interpretations of the strength of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA based on thermal data require quantification of processes causing significant scatter and uncertainty in existing heat flow data. These effects include topographic refraction, heat advection by topographically-driven groundwater flow, and uncertainty in thermal conductivity. Here, we re-evaluate the heat flow data in this area by correcting for full 3-D terrain effects. We then investigate the potential role of groundwater flow in redistributing fault-generated heat, using numerical models of coupled heat and fluid flow for a wide range of hydrologic scenarios. We find that a large degree of the scatter in the data can be accounted for by 3-D terrain effects, and that for plausible groundwater flow scenarios frictional heat generated along a strong fault is unlikely to be redistributed by topographically-driven groundwater flow in a manner consistent with the 3-D corrected data. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Fulton, P.M.; Saffer, D.M.; Harris, R.N.; Bekins, B.A.

2004-01-01

350

The Care and Feeding of Evidence Based Medicine  

PubMed Central

Wide interest in evidence based medicine (EBM) and its value in patient care, insurance payment decisions, and public health planning has triggered intense medical journal and media coverage that merits review, explanation, and comment. Published EBM data vary in quality for reasons that have been the subject of many perceptive literature reviews. Study design can be faulted, and conflicts of interest, personal and economic, can potentially bias study results and their publication. Practical guides for data evaluation are presented here, with discussion of technical and sociological issues that affect information quality and its clinical application. Clinical practice often appears to resist good evidence in making clinical choices. Personal views of some practicing physicians about EBM are presented that underlie the occasional difficulties in applying valid research information in patient care. Improvements in study design and publication standards may enhance the clinical application of evidence-based information. EBM guided practice holds promise to improve outcomes and expense, to standardize and streamline process in ways that make for much safer patient care. PMID:22532934

2012-01-01

351

Evidence Based Conservative Management of Patello-femoral Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is defined as pain surrounding the patella when sitting with bent knees for prolonged periods of time or when performing activities like ascending or descending stairs, squatting or athletic activities. Patella dislocation is not included in PFPS. This review analyzes the evidence based conservative management of PFPS. A Cochrane Library search related to PFPS was performed until 18 January 2014. The key words were: patellofemoral pain syndrome. Eight papers were found, of which three were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. We also searched the PubMed using the following keywords: evidence based conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Twelve articles were found, of which seven were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. Overall ten articles were analyzed. Different treatments can be tried for PFPS, including pharmacotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, exercise therapy, and taping and braces. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce pain in the short term, but pain does not improve after three months. Therapeutic ultrasound appears not to have a clinically important effect on pain relief for patients with PFPS. The evidence that exercise therapy is more effective in treating PFPS than no exercise is limited with respect to pain reduction, and conflicting with respect to functional improvement. No significant difference has been found between taping and non-taping. The role of knee braces is still controversial. More well-designed studies are needed. PMID:25207305

Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

2014-01-01

352

Evidence-based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence  

PubMed Central

This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some kernels may produce longer lasting behavioral shifts. The analysis of kernels could contribute to an empirically based theory of behavioral influence, augment existing prevention or treatment efforts, facilitate the dissemination of effective prevention and treatment practices, clarify the active ingredients in existing interventions, and contribute to efficiently developing interventions that are more effective. Kernels involve one or more of the following mechanisms of behavior influence: reinforcement, altering antecedents, changing verbal relational responding, or changing physiological states directly. The paper describes 52 of these kernels, and details practical, theoretical, and research implications, including calling for a national database of kernels that influence human behavior. PMID:18712600

Biglan, Anthony

2008-01-01

353

Evaluation of nurse engagement in evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to explore nurses' willingness to question and change practice. Nurses were invited to report practice improvement opportunities, and participants were supported through the process of a practice change. The project leader engaged to the extent desired by the participant. Meetings proceeded until the participant no longer wished to continue, progress was blocked, or practice was changed. Evaluation of the evidence-based practice change process occurred. Fifteen nurses reported 23 practice improvement opportunities. The majority (12 of 15) preferred to have the project leader review the evidence. Fourteen projects changed practice; 4 were presented at conferences. Multiple barriers were identified throughout the process and included loss of momentum, the proposed change involved other disciplines, and low level or controversial evidence. Practice issues were linked to quality metrics, cost of care, patient satisfaction, regulatory compliance, and patient safety. Active engagement by nurse leaders was needed for a practice change to occur. Participants identified important problems previously unknown to hospital administrators. The majority of nurses preferred involvement in practice change based on clinical problem solving when supported by others to provide literature review and manage the process through committees. Recommendations include supporting a culture that encourages employees to report practice improvement opportunities and provide resources to assist in navigating the identified practice change. PMID:24441453

Davidson, Judy E; Brown, Caroline

2014-01-01

354

The care and feeding of evidence based medicine.  

PubMed

Wide interest in evidence based medicine (EBM) and its value in patient care, insurance payment decisions, and public health planning has triggered intense medical journal and media coverage that merits review, explanation, and comment. Published EBM data vary in quality for reasons that have been the subject of many perceptive literature reviews. Study design can be faulted, and conflicts of interest, personal and economic, can potentially bias study results and their publication. Practical guides for data evaluation are presented here, with discussion of technical and sociological issues that affect information quality and its clinical application. Clinical practice often appears to resist good evidence in making clinical choices. Personal views of some practicing physicians about EBM are presented that underlie the occasional difficulties in applying valid research information in patient care. Improvements in study design and publication standards may enhance the clinical application of evidence-based information. EBM guided practice holds promise to improve outcomes and expense, to standardize and streamline process in ways that make for much safer patient care. PMID:22532934

Tabrah, Frank L

2012-04-01

355

Minimally invasive treatment of Peyronie's disease: evidence-based progress.  

PubMed

Peyronie's disease (PD) is often physically and psychologically devastating for patients, and the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and sexual function without adding treatment-related morbidity. The potential for treatment-related morbidity after more invasive interventions, e.g. surgery, creates a need for effective minimally invasive treatments. We critically examined the available literature using levels of evidence to determine the reported support for each treatment. Most available minimally invasive treatments lack critical support for effectiveness due to the absence of randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) or non-significant results after RCTs. Iontophoresis, oral therapies (vitamin E, potassium para-aminobenzoate, tamoxifen, carnitine, and colchicine), extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and intralesional injection with verapamil or nicardipine have shown mixed or negative results. Treatments that have decreased penile curvature deformity in Level 1 or Level 2 evidence-based, placebo-controlled studies include intralesional injection with interferon ?-2b or collagenase clostridium histolyticum. PMID:24447536

Jordan, Gerald H; Carson, Culley C; Lipshultz, Larry I

2014-07-01

356

Evidence-based medicine and primary care: keeping up is hard to do.  

PubMed

Primary-care physicians feel pressure to be knowledgeable, efficient, comprehensive, and compassionate while delivering evidence-based medical care. Incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice requires training in the skills of finding and applying good evidence to patients, and, increasingly, infrastructure that supports the incorporation of evidence into electronic health records. Physicians cite many barriers to the use of evidence-based medicine in practice. In this review, we examine evidence of the value of evidence-based medicine in clinical practice, discuss the interface of evidence and shared decision-making, suggest tools and approaches for incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice, and discuss the impact of recent health insurance reform on expectations and incentives for physicians with respect to evidence-based practice. PMID:22976360

Zipkin, Daniella A; Greenblatt, Lawrence; Kushinka, Jeffrey T

2012-01-01

357

Weak magnetic field annealing effect on magneto-optical and magnetostatic properties of Co-based amorphous ribbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated modifications of magneto-optical properties in the weak-field annealed Co-based amorphous ribbons. It is found that spectral and magnetic field dependences of the transverse Kerr effect significantly change with the time of annealing in air and the magnetic field magnitude. The analysis reveals the existence of two anisotropies, one in low fields up to 300Oe and another in

E. A Ga?shina; N. S Perov; M. Yu Kochneva; P. M Sheverdyaeva; C. G Kim; C. O Kim

2003-01-01

358

A Redox-Controllable Molecular Switch Based on Weak Recognition of BPX26C6 at a Diphenylurea Station.  

PubMed

The Na+ ion-assisted recognition of urea derivatives by BPX26C6 has allowed the construction of a redox-controllable [2]rotaxane-type molecular switch based on two originally very weakly interacting host/guest systems. Using NOBF4 to oxidize the triarylamine terminus into a corresponding radical cation attracted the macrocyclic component toward its adjacent carbamate station; subsequent addition of Zn powder moved the macrocyclic component back to its urea station. PMID:25621422

Chang, Jia-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien

2015-01-01

359

Mechanism of action of NH4Cl and other weak bases in the activation of sea urchin eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPOSURE of unfertilised sea urchin eggs to NH4Cl and other weak bases such as procaine or nicotine results in the activation of some of the events which normally follow fertilisation, such as the acceleration of protein synthesis and the initiation of DNA synthesis1,2. The initial events of normal fertilisation, for example, the cortical reaction and respiratory burst, are bypassed. It

Matthew M. Winkler; James L. Grainger

1978-01-01

360

Practice-based evidence to evidence-based practice: building the National Radiation Oncology Registry.  

PubMed

The National Radiation Oncology Registry (NROR), sponsored by the Radiation Oncology Institute and the American Society for Radiation Oncology, is designed to collect standardized information on cancer care delivery among patients treated with radiotherapy in the United States and will focus on patients with prostate cancer. Stakeholders were engaged through a forum that emphasized the need for patient-centered outcomes, minimal data burden, and maximal connectivity to existing registries and databases. An electronic infrastructure is under development to provide connectivity across radiation oncology and hospital information systems. The NROR Gateway features automatic abstraction as well as aggregation of treatment and outcome data. The prostate cancer data dictionary provides standardized elements in four domains: facility, physician, patient, and treatment. The pilot phase will consist of clinical centers chosen to provide a representative mix of radiation treatment modalities, facility types, population-based settings, and regional locations. The initial set of radiation practice metrics includes physician board certification and maintenance, ordering of staging scans, active surveillance discussion, dose prescriptions for low-risk/high-risk disease, radiation fields for low-risk/high-risk disease, image-guided radiation therapy use, androgen deprivation therapy use, post-brachytherapy implant computed tomography dosimetry, collection of toxicity assessments, and longitudinal patient follow-up. The NROR pilot study will provide the framework for expansion to a nationwide electronic registry for radiation oncology. PMID:23942508

Efstathiou, Jason A; Nassif, Deborah S; McNutt, Todd R; Bogardus, C Bob; Bosch, Walter; Carlin, Jeffrey; Chen, Ronald C; Chou, Henry; Eggert, Dave; Fraass, Benedick A; Goldwein, Joel; Hoffman, Karen E; Hotz, Ken; Hunt, Margie; Kessler, Marc; Lawton, Colleen A F; Mayo, Charles; Michalski, Jeff M; Mutic, Sasa; Potters, Louis; Rose, Christopher M; Sandler, Howard M; Sharp, Gregory; Tomé, Wolfgang; Tran, Phuoc T; Wall, Terry; Zietman, Anthony L; Gabriel, Peter E; Bekelman, Justin E

2013-05-01

361

Detection of weak forces based on noise-activated switching in bistable optomechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use cavity optomechanical systems in the regime of optical bistability for the detection of weak harmonic forces. Due to the optomechanical coupling an external force on the mechanical oscillator modulates the resonance frequency of the cavity and consequently the switching rates between the two bistable branches. A large difference in the cavity output fields then leads to a strongly amplified homodyne signal. We determine the switching rates as a function of the cavity detuning from extensive numerical simulations of the stochastic master equation as appropriate for continuous homodyne detection. We develop a two-state rate equation model that quantitatively describes the slow switching dynamics. This model is solved analytically in the presence of a weak harmonic force to obtain approximate expressions for the power gain and signal-to-noise ratio that we then compare to force detection with an optomechanical system in the linear regime.

Aldana, Samuel; Bruder, Christoph; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

2014-12-01

362

[Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology - evidence-based medicine with medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Phytomedicine has become an increasingly important treatment option for patients in the western world. Patients who experienced failure or adverse reactions with conventional western medicine often switch to natural and holistic methods. In eastern countries, with their long history of traditional medicine, patients often resort to herbal preparations as the majority of western medicines are unaffordable. The desire of western physicians for evidence-based medicine also applies in the sector of phytomedicine. A serious perception of natural products in scientific medicine can therefore only be based on data from prospective, controlled, randomized double-blind clinical trials. In order to illuminate the present scientific foundation of effective and reliable phytomedicine, a literature search in PubMed (Medline) was conducted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main focus was on the field of otorhinolaryngology. Besides the presentation of selected, reliable studies and the evaluation of the efficacy of various medicinal plants, shortcomings of selected publications are discussed. PMID:22159338

Sertel, S

2011-12-01

363

Caught on Video! Using Handheld Digital Video Cameras to Support Evidence-Based Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging elementary students in evidence-based reasoning is an essential aspect of science and engineering education. Evidence-based reasoning involves students making claims (i.e., answers to questions, or solutions to problems), providing evidence to support those claims, and articulating their reasoning to connect the evidence to the claim. In…

Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Nealy, Jennifer; Roland, Christine; Ryan, Amy

2011-01-01

364

A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture WenQian Liu  

E-print Network

A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture Research WenQian Liu , Charles L. Chen, Vidya studies. The first step is to collect evidence about practice in industry before design- ing relevant issues on evidence-based SE particularly on combining and using evidence, describe triangulation

Perry, Dewayne E.

365

Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: Novel Performance Based Evidence  

PubMed Central

Existing research into perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is limited by a reliance upon self-report measures. This study used novel performance based measures to investigate whether there is behavioural evidence for elevated perfectionism in AN. 153 participants took part in the study – 81 with a diagnosis of AN and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants completed two performance based tasks assessing perfectionism – a text replication task and a bead sorting task – along with self-report measures of perfectionism. Significant group differences were observed on both tasks. In the text replication task the AN group took significantly longer compared with healthy controls (p?=?0.03, d?=?0.36) and produced significantly higher quality copies (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). In the bead sorting task, there was a trend towards more participants in the AN group choosing to check their work compared with the HC group (p?=?0.07, d?=?0.30) and the AN group took significantly longer checking than those in the HC group (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). Only copy quality uniquely predicted scores on self report measures of perfectionism. This study provides empirically tested evidence of elevated performance based perfectionism in AN compared with a healthy control group. PMID:25360690

Lloyd, Samantha; Yiend, Jenny; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tchanturia, Kate

2014-01-01

366

Evidence-based practice among nurses in Italy.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 449 nurses in Italy, using a self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding evidence-based practice (EBP). A significantly higher level of knowledge was observed among nurses who (a) did not work in medical and surgical wards; (b) believed that the evaluation of the efficacy of the health interventions is needed in their activity; (c) believed that the clinical experience must be combined with the evidence; (d) attended a course about EBP in the last year; and (e) received information from courses and scientific journals. The perceived importance of the application of guidelines and protocols was significantly higher among nurses who (a) worked in medical wards; (b) agreed that the guidelines are useful in identifying and selecting interventions; (c) believed that the evaluation of the efficacy of the health interventions is needed in their activity; (d) believed that the clinical experience must be combined with the evidence; (e) attended a course about EBP in the last year; and (f) received information from courses and scientific journals. Nurses were more likely to have modified their practice in the last year if they attended a course about EBP in the last year and if they often/always read scientific journals and guidelines. While these data were cross-sectional and the response rate was only 49%, the results suggest that continuing education programs are needed for improving nurses' knowledge and practice of EBP among nurses in Italy. PMID:21138912

Filippini, Alberico; Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F

2011-09-01

367

Promoting Health Equity in Cities Through Evidence-Based Action  

PubMed Central

The impact of the urban setting on health and, in particular, health inequities has been widely documented. However, only a few countries have examined their inter- or intra-city health inequalities, and few do so regularly. Information that shows the gaps between cities or within the same city is a crucial requirement to trigger appropriate local actions to promote health equity. To generate relevant evidence and take appropriate actions to tackle health inequities, local authorities need a variety of tools. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of health systems performance, these tools should: (1) adopt a multi-sectoral approach; (2) link evidence to actions; (3) be simple and user-friendly; and (4) be operationally feasible and sustainable. In this paper we have illustrated the use of one such tool, The World Health Organization’s Urban HEART, which guides users through a process to identify health inequities, focusing on health determinants and then developing actions based on the evidence generated. In a time of increasing financial constraints, there is a pressing need to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. Tools are needed to guide policy makers in their planning process to identify best-practice interventions that promote health equity in their cities. PMID:20811780

Kumaresan, Jacob; Alwan, Ala; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

2010-01-01

368

Evidence base for pre-employment medical screening  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper examines the evidence base for the use of pre-employment/pre-placement medical examinations. The use of pre?employment examinations is often driven more by cultural practices than evidence. There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness in preventing health-related occupational risks. Hypertension screening is highlighted as a common pre-employment practice for which there is no standardized criteria to use to determine fitness for work. There are inherent problems in screening for psychiatric disorders and substance abuse as well as potential for racial bias and other unintended negative effects. This paper questions the economic case for this practice and also expresses concerns about paternalism related to identified risk factors. Health assessments should only be included when appropriate to the task environment and the general use of pre-employment exams and drug screening should be eliminated. Generally, a health assessment by questionnaire should suffice. Occupational health providers should advise against the application of physical or mental standards that are not relevant to fulfilment of the essential job functions. Consensus development regarding best practice, as well as consideration for acquiring outcome data related to pre-employment practice, is recommended. PMID:19649367

2009-01-01

369

Complementary medicine: evidence base, competence to practice and regulation.  

PubMed

This paper describes the current status and evidence base for acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal and manipulative medicine, as well as the regulatory framework within which these therapies are provided. It also explores the present role of the Royal College of Physicians' Subcommittee on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in relation to these developments. A number of CAM professions have encouraged the Royal College of Physicians Subcommittee to act as a reference point for their discussions with the conventional medical profession and the subcomittee believes that they are able to fulfil this function. PMID:12848257

Lewith, George T; Breen, Alan; Filshie, Jacqueline; Fisher, Peter; McIntyre, Michael; Mathie, Robert T; Peters, David

2003-01-01

370

Creating a nursing strategic planning framework based on evidence.  

PubMed

This article describes an evidence-informed strategic planning process and framework used by a Magnet-recognized public health system in California. This article includes (1) an overview of the organization and its strategic planning process, (2) the structure created within nursing for collaborative strategic planning and decision making, (3) the strategic planning framework developed based on the organization's balanced scorecard domains and the new Magnet model, and (4) the process undertaken to develop the nursing strategic priorities. Outcomes associated with the structure, process, and key initiatives are discussed throughout the article. PMID:21320657

Shoemaker, Lorie K; Fischer, Brenda

2011-03-01

371

Evidence-based practice readiness of ASORN members.  

PubMed

Due to the importance of evidence-based practice and its impact on patient outcomes, a research study was conducted in early 2013 soliciting participation of ASORN members. Findings indicate the collegiality and curiosity of nurses, who identify a gap in practice due to lack of knowledge/skills and organizational barriers. Since nurses value EBP and research, as noted in study findings and ASORN Board of Directors support, efforts to advance the art and science of ophthalmic nursing will continue in the future. PMID:24319821

Fowler, Susan B

2013-01-01

372

Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing.  

PubMed

The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles. PMID:24860267

Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C; Allen, Margaret Peg

2014-04-01

373

[Stress ulcer prophylaxis in septic patients. Evidence-based overview].  

PubMed

In spite of decreasing incidence stress-related gastrointestinal bleeding is still an important problem in intensive care medicine. Especially patients with severe sepsis or septic shock are prone to develop lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract with consecutive bleeding. In order to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding various pharmacological agents are used to either suppress gastric acid or neutralize its effect. The following article presents an update on important aspects of stress-related mucosal disease. It further reviews current literature to provide evidence-based recommendations for stress ulcer prophylaxis in septic patients. PMID:18464210

Elke, Gunnar; Schädler, Dirk; Zick, Günther; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

2008-05-01

374

Evidence-based interventions for cancer treatment-related mucositis: putting evidence into practice.  

PubMed

Mucositis is an inflammatory process that can involve the mucosal epithelial cells from the mouth to the rectum. Historically, mucositis and stomatitis were used interchangeably, but momentum has increased toward more specific terminology since the 2000s. Stomatitis refers to inflammatory diseases of the mouth, including the mucosa, dentition, periapices, and periodontium, whereas mucositis refers more globally to an inflammatory process involving the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, differentiation is needed regarding mucositis involving the oral cavity and the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract that require use of a scope-type device for close examination. As a result, oral cavity mucositis has been the focus of the majority of the studies reported to date. The mucous membranes beyond the oral cavity are more challenging to view, so the mouth has been presented as revealing potential changes in the gastrointestinal tract. However, because of the variation in morphology, function of different locations, and risks associated with procedures to validate that speculation, evidence is limited. The purpose of this article is to review evidence-based interventions for mucositis, particularly in the oral cavity, and provide clinicians with guidelines for nursing interventions. PMID:25427611

Eilers, June; Harris, Debra; Henry, Karen; Johnson, Lee Ann

2014-12-01

375

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for sleep-wake disturbances.  

PubMed

Symptom management is a vital aspect of the practice of oncology nursing. The Oncology Nursing Society has identified outcomes sensitive to nursing intervention, known as nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. This article presents information about sleep-wake disturbances that occur in patients with cancer and makes recommendations for evidence-based interventions to improve sleep for patients. Sleep-wake disturbances occur in 30%-75% of people with cancer and have a negative impact on other symptoms and quality of life. Despite the frequency and severity of sleep-wake disturbances, limited research has tested interventions to improve sleep-wake outcomes. Although no interventions currently receive the highest recommendations for implementation into practice, several nonpharmacologic interventions show initial positive findings in promoting high-quality sleep and daytime functioning. Oncology nurses can screen for sleep-wake disturbances and suggest tailored interventions. Four categories of promising interventions are cognitive-behavioral therapy, complementary therapies, psychoeducation and information, and exercise. Clinicians can use the Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) card and PEP resources at www.ons.org/outcomes to improve sleep-wake outcomes. PMID:17193942

Page, Margaretta S; Berger, Ann M; Johnson, Lauran B

2006-12-01

376

Online tools for teaching evidence-based veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians. PMID:23975071

Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C

2013-01-01

377

Do short courses in evidence based medicine improve knowledge and skills? Validation of Berlin questionnaire and before and after study of courses in evidence based medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessed knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills PMID:12468485

Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R

2002-01-01

378

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron  

E-print Network

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p-pbar collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^-1. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c^2. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c^2. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

CDF Collaboration; D0 Collaboration

2012-07-27

379

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s=1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb{sup -1}. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c{sup 2}. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c{sup 2}. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /INFN, Padua

2012-07-01

380

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in higgs boson searches at the tevatron.  

PubMed

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359

Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alvarez González, B; Alverson, G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Bu, X B; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chevalier-Théry, S; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cihangir, S; Ciocci, M A; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Croc, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Das, A; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Dell'orso, M; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; d'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Dong, P; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Garcia, J E; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gomez, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hagopian, S; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Heck, M; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hewamanage, S; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kasper, P A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S

2012-08-17

381

Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7fb-1. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150GeV/c2. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135GeV/c2. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Álvarez González, B.; Alverson, G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Bu, X. B.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cihangir, S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Croc, A.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Das, A.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; d'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia, J. E.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hagopian, S.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, M.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hewamanage, S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.

2012-08-01

382

Three Collaborative Models for Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices  

PubMed Central

The current paper describes three models of research-practice collaboration to scale-up evidence-based practices (EBP): (1) the Rolling Cohort model in England, (2) the Cascading Dissemination model in San Diego County, and (3) the Community Development Team model in 53 California and Ohio counties. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and KEEP are the focal evidence-based practices that are designed to improve outcomes for children and families in the child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health systems. The three scale-up models each originated from collaboration between community partners and researchers with the shared goal of wide-spread implementation and sustainability of MTFC/KEEP. The three models were implemented in a variety of contexts; Rolling Cohort was implemented nationally, Cascading Dissemination was implemented within one county, and Community Development Team was targeted at the state level. The current paper presents an overview of the development of each model, the policy frameworks in which they are embedded, system challenges encountered during scale-up, and lessons learned. Common elements of successful scale-up efforts, barriers to success, factors relating to enduring practice relationships, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21484449

Roberts, Rosemarie; Jones, Helen; Marsenich, Lynne; Sosna, Todd; Price, Joseph M.

2015-01-01

383

Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

2010-01-01

384

Updated Evidence-Based Treatment Algorithm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled and controlled clinical trials with different compounds and procedures are reviewed to define the risk-benefit profiles for therapeutic options in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A grading system for the level of evidence of treatments based on the controlled clinical trials performed with each compound is used to propose an evidence-based treatment algorithm. The algorithm includes drugs approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of PAH and/or drugs available for other indications. The different treatments have been evaluated mainly in idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, and in PAH associated with the scleroderma spectrum of diseases or with anorexigen use. Extrapolation of these recommendations to other PAH subgroups should be done with caution. Oral anticoagulation is proposed for most patients; diuretic treatment and supplemental oxygen are indicated in cases of fluid retention and hypoxemia, respectively. High doses of calcium channel blockers are indicated only in the minority of patients who respond to acute vasoreactivity testing. Nonresponders to acute vasoreactivity testing, or responders who remain in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class III, should be considered candidates for treatment with either an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or an oral endothelin-receptor antagonist. Continuous intravenous administration of epoprostenol remains the treatment of choice in WHO functional class IV patients. Combination therapy is recommended for patients treated with PAH monotherapy who remain in New York Heart Association functional class III. Atrial septostomy and lung transplantation are indicated for refractory patients or where medical treatment is unavailable. PMID:19555861

Barst, Robyn J.; Gibbs, J. Simon; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Hoeper, Marius M.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Sitbon, Olivier; Tapson, Victor; Galiè, Nazzareno

2009-01-01

385

Causation and evidence-based practice: an ontological review.  

PubMed

This paper explores the nature of causation within the framework of evidence-based practice (EBP) for health care. The aims of the paper were first to define and evaluate how causation is presently accounted for in EBP; second, to present an alternative causal account by which health care can develop in both its clinical application and its scientific research activity. The paper was premised on the idea that causation underlies medical and health care practices and impacts on the way we understand health science research and daily clinical practice. The question of what causation is should therefore be of utmost relevance for all concerned with the science, philosophy and progress of EBP. We propose that the way causation is thought of in contemporaneous health care is exposed by evidential frameworks, which categorize research methods on their epistemological strengths. It is then suggested that the current account of causation is limited in respect of both the functionality of EBP, and its inherent scientific processes. An alternative ontology of causation is provided, which has its roots in dispositionalism. Here, causes are not seen as regular events necessitating an effect, but rather phenomena that are highly complex, context-sensitive and that tend towards an effect. We see this as a better account of causation for evidence-based health care. PMID:22994999

Kerry, Roger; Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Lie, Svein Anders Noer; Mumford, Stephen D; Anjum, Rani Lill

2012-10-01

386

Evidence-based Estimates of the Demand for Radiotherapy.  

PubMed

There are different methods that may be used to estimate the future demand for radiotherapy services in a population ranging from expert opinion through to complex modelling techniques. This manuscript describes the use of evidence-based treatment guidelines to determine indications for radiotherapy. It also uses epidemiological data to estimate the proportion of the population who have attributes that suggest a benefit from radiotherapy in order to calculate the overall proportion of a population of new cases of cancer who appropriately could be recommended to undergo radiotherapy. Evidence-based methods are transparent and adaptable to different populations but require extensive information about the indications for radiotherapy and the proportion of cancer cases with those indications in the population. In 2003 this method produced an estimate that 52.4% of patients with a registered cancer-type had an indication for radiotherapy. The model was updated in 2012 because of changes in cancer incidence, stage distributions and indications for radiotherapy. The new estimate of the optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate was 48.3%. The decrease was due to changes in the relative frequency of cancer types and some changes in indications for radiotherapy. Actual rates of radiotherapy utilisation in most populations still fall well below this benchmark. PMID:25455408

Delaney, G P; Barton, M B

2015-02-01

387

Pregnancy planning guide. Evidence-based information for prospective parents.  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Pregnancy planning is inadequately supported by existing information and materials. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To design and pilot-test a new way to help women plan their pregnancies and incorporate important evidence-based information directly into their planning. To evaluate the content of the new Pregnancy Planning Guide and women's satisfaction with it. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The Pregnancy Planning Guide combines a rotating gestational wheel surrounded by information about time-specific events in pregnancy with evidence-based information about common concerns during pregnancy. The guide is designed to be used as a quick reference for women and their partners; it highlights issues to be discussed at greater length with maternity caregivers. The guide was first evaluated for content validity by 27 experienced maternity caregivers and then revised. The revised version was given to 108 women of childbearing age along with a survey to assess their satisfaction with the guide and the extent to which they thought it was useful. CONCLUSION: The Pregnancy Planning Guide is useful for women planning pregnancy. It should promote increased use of folic acid in the periconception period and a greater understanding of when birth is likely to occur. PMID:12166010

Maier, Krista M.; Kirkham, Colleen M.; Lim, Elizabeth; Cheung, Ka Wai; Grzybowski, Stefan

2002-01-01

388

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

389

A series of weak ferromagnets based on a chromium-acetylide-TTF type complex: correlation of the structures and magnetic properties and origin of the weak ferromagnetism.  

PubMed

The crystal structures and magnetic properties of a series of new weak ferromagnets containing a chromium-acetylide-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) type complex, [CrCyclam(C?C-5-methyl-4'5'-ethylenedithio-TTF)2](2+) ([1](2+)), were investigated. The six new isostructural weak ferromagnets [1][BF4]2(PhF)2(MeCN), [1][ClO4]2(PhF)2(MeCN), [1][ReO4]2(PhCl)2(MeCN), [1][ClO4]2(PhBr)3, [1][ReO4]2(PhBr)3, and [1][ClO4]2(PhI)3 contain ferrimagnetic chain structures of [1](2+)? with different interchain distances that are dependent on the sizes of the anions and solvent molecules. Magnetic measurements of the salts revealed that the weak ferromagnetic transition temperature gradually increases from 14.5 to 26.0 K as the interchain distance decreases from 3.997(2) to 3.803(2) Å, while the remanent magnetization at 2 K decreases from 0.0215 to 0.0079 ?B. The observed magnetic properties and crystal structures suggest that the weak ferromagnetism originates from the single-ion anisotropy of [1](2+), where a stronger interchain antiferromagnetic interaction not only causes a higher transition temperature but also suppresses the noncollinear canted spin alignment. PMID:24161267

Nishijo, Junichi; Enomoto, Masaya

2013-11-18

390

Implementation of evidence in practice settings: some methodological issues arising from the South Thames Evidence Based Practice Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is acknowledged that the NHS fails to benefit from its research investment. Effective methods for implementing evidence into practice are contested within medicine and, as yet, are poorly understood in nursing and professions allied to medicine. This paper discusses the methodological development of the model used in the South Thames Evidence Based Practice project in the context of contemporary

S. M. G. McLaren; F. Ross

2000-01-01

391

Scientifically Based Research and Evidence-Based Education: A Federal Policy Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a look at the federal policy context for the scientifically based research (SBR) and evidence-based education (EBE) initiatives by sharing U.S. Department of Education presentations and related publications about SBR and EBE. It discusses the impact of these policy initiatives on special education research activities.…

Smith, Anne

2003-01-01

392

Scratching beneath 'The Scratching Case': systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the back door for evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

Endometrial scratching or injury was first suggested a decade ago as a simple intervention to improve endometrial receptivity in patients undergoing ART. More than a decade later, based on weak evidence some doctors have adopted this strategy, although there is not yet agreement about its real benefit. In this opinion paper, we analyze the methodological and plausibility problem beneath 'the Scratching Case'. This is also applicable to several other examples of spurious associations reported in the literature. In particular, we emphasize what should be done so as not to dilute evidence-based medicine by a vicious circle created by the over-exploitation of inadequate or insufficient data to compute incorrect or incomplete conclusions. PMID:24903203

Simón, Carlos; Bellver, José

2014-08-01

393

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychiatric Care: Defining Levels of Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and application of the current research evidence to a clinical problem is a goal reflected in professional codes and institutional mission statements. The use of expert opinions and traditions is no longer clinically or legally defensible in an era of using emerging evidence. Application of current research evidence is the emerging standard of care for all health care personnel,

Michael J. Rice

2008-01-01

394

The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.  

PubMed

There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

Williams, Peter G

2014-09-01

395

MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine  

E-print Network

MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine Göran Falkman Department of Computer]. The increased interest in evidence-based medicine is a direct response to these demands. The MedView project of evidence-based medicine by providing a formalisation of clinical examination data and clinical procedures

Torgersson, Olof

396

Validation of the Fresno test of competence in evidence based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the development and validation of a test of knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Family practice residency programme in California; a list server for those who teach evidence based medicine; and an evidence based medicine seminar series. Participants Family practice residents and faculty members (n=43); volunteers self identified as experts in

Kathleen D Ramos; Sean Schafer; Susan M Tracz; South Cedar; California State

2003-01-01

397

Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper considers the validity of evidence-based practice in social work. It critically examines various underlying presuppositions and assumptions entailed in evidence- based practice and draws out their implications for social work. The paper is divided into three main parts. Following a consideration of the background to the develop- ment of evidence-based practice and a discussion of its key

Stephen A. Webb

2001-01-01

398

Danger and Opportunity: Challenges in Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Work Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice has received increased emphasis within the social work field in the past decade and social work educational programs are including more evidence-based practice content in their curricula. This article examines some issues social work educators may wish to consider as they teach evidence-based practice to social work…

Scheyett, Anna

2006-01-01

399

Classifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy , Carl Sable2  

E-print Network

strategies. In the medical domain, physicians are urged to practice Evidence Based Medicine when facedClassifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy Hong Yu1 , Carl Sable2 , Hai Ran Zhu3 1 classify medical questions based on a hierarchical evidence taxonomy created by physicians. We show

Yu, Hong

400

Evidence-Based Practice Empowers Early Childhood Professionals and Families. FPG Snapshot #33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice emerged as a result of the gap often seen between research and practice and gained momentum with the standards and accountability movement. Yet it originates in medicine. Healthcare professionals using evidence-based medicine determine a patient's treatment based on an assessment of evidence from the literature and current…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2006

2006-01-01

401

Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions  

PubMed Central

The numbers of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been growing exponentially, both therapeutic and prevention programs. Yet, EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically re-examine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by re-examining the biomedical model for validating EBIs and the compartmentalization of EBIs as disease-specific, institutionally-based, counseling programs. The model of Disruptive Innovations suggests that we re-engineer EBIs based on their most robust features in order to reach more people in less time and at lower cost. Four new research agendas will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F.

2013-01-01

402

Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the evidence base for different treatment strategies in intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in adults and children. Method: A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Database from 1980 to 2008, updated in 2012, resulted in the identification of 10 Class I or Class II trials of cysticidal drugs administered with or without corticosteroids in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Results: The available data demonstrate that albendazole therapy, administered with or without corticosteroids, is probably effective in decreasing both long-term seizure frequency and the number of cysts demonstrable radiologically in adults and children with neurocysticercosis, and is well-tolerated. There is insufficient information to assess the efficacy of praziquantel. Recommendations: Albendazole plus either dexamethasone or prednisolone should be considered for adults and children with neurocysticercosis, both to decrease the number of active lesions on brain imaging studies (Level B) and to reduce long-term seizure frequency (Level B). The evidence is insufficient to support or refute the use of steroid treatment alone in patients with intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (Level U). PMID:23568997

Baird, Ruth Ann; Wiebe, Sam; Zunt, Joseph R.; Halperin, John J.; Gronseth, Gary; Roos, Karen L.

2013-01-01

403

Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

2013-04-01

404

Preparing quality improvement, research, and evidence-based practice manuscripts.  

PubMed

Understanding how to organize a manuscript reporting quality improvement (QI), research, and evidence-based practice (EBP) initiatives is important to provide essential information for readers to evaluate the findings for possible use in their own settings and replicate studies. Using guidelines for reporting QI, research studies, and EBP initiatives will help ensure authors submitting manuscripts to peer-reviewed publications report essential information and communicate it clearly to readers. This framework also guides the design and implementation of a project to ensure the information needed for a manuscript is collected and recorded for use in dissemination when the project is completed. Providing this specific information may also affect the likelihood of the manuscript being accepted for publication. PMID:24834629

Oermann, Marilyn H; Turner, Kathleen; Carman, Margaret

2014-01-01

405

Evidence-based medicine and the practicing clinician  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes of practicing general internists toward evidence-based medicine (EBM—defined as the process of systematically\\u000a finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions) and their perceived\\u000a barriers to its use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered mail questionnaire conducted between June and October 1997.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Canada.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were sent to all 521 physician members

Finlay A. McAlister; Ian Graham; Gerald W. Karr; Andreas Laupacis

1999-01-01

406

Probiotics and health: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota is an ecosystem formed by a variety of ecological niches, made of several bacterial species and a very large amount of strains. The microbiota is in close contact with the intestinal mucosa or epithelial interface which is, after the respiratory area, the largest surface of the body, occupying approximately 250-400 m(2). The physiological activities of the microbiota are manifold and are just being unraveled. Based on the observations of the multiple roles played by the microbiota in health and disease, the notion of modifying it with appropriate formulations, i.e. probiotics, is being tested in several settings. This review summarizes the current knowledge on probiotics and discusses both limitations and acquired evidence to support their use in preventive and therapeutic medicine. PMID:21349334

Aureli, Paolo; Capurso, Lucio; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Clerici, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Morelli, Lorenzo; Poli, Andrea; Pregliasco, Fabrizio; Salvini, Filippo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2011-05-01

407

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally. PMID:23302501

2013-01-01

408

Effectiveness of national evidence-based medicine competition in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Competition and education are intimately related and can be combined in many ways. The role of competition in medical education of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has not been investigated. In order to enhance the dissemination and implementation of EBM in Taiwan, EBM competitions have been established among healthcare professionals. This study was to evaluate the impact of competition in EBM learning. Methods The EBM competition used PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) queries to examine participants’ skills in framing an answerable question, literature search, critical appraisal and clinical application among interdisciplinary teams. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate EBM among participants in the years of 2009 and 2011. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire survey at three months prior to the competition and finished the same questionnaire right after the competition. Results Valid questionnaires were collected from 358 participants, included 162 physicians, 71 nurses, 101 pharmacists, and 24 other allied healthcare professionals. There were significant increases in participants’ knowledge of and skills in EBM (p?evidence-based retrieval databases, including the Cochrane Library (p?

2013-01-01

409

Efficient literature searching: a core skill for the practice of evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEfficient literature searching and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature are the two key skills defining the practice of evidence-based medicine. Although clinicians embrace the concepts of evidence-based medicine, most identify limited personal time as the major barrier towards its implementation into daily practice. Busy clinicians who practice evidence-based medicine identify systematic reviews and

GordonStuart Doig; Fiona Simpson

2003-01-01

410

Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

2007-01-01

411

New evidence for chunk-based models in word segmentation.  

PubMed

There is large evidence that infants are able to exploit statistical cues to discover the words of their language. However, how they proceed to do so is the object of enduring debates. The prevalent position is that words are extracted from the prior computation of statistics, in particular the transitional probabilities between syllables. As an alternative, chunk-based models posit that the sensitivity to statistics results from other processes, whereby many potential chunks are considered as candidate words, then selected as a function of their relevance. These two classes of models have proven to be difficult to dissociate. We propose here a procedure, which leads to contrasted predictions regarding the influence of a first language, L1, on the segmentation of a second language, L2. Simulations run with PARSER (Perruchet & Vinter, 1998), a chunk-based model, predict that when the words of L1 become word-external transitions of L2, learning of L2 should be depleted until reaching below chance level, at least before extensive exposure to L2 reverses the effect. In the same condition, a transitional-probability based model predicts above-chance performance whatever the duration of exposure to L2. PARSER's predictions were confirmed by experimental data: Performance on a two-alternative forced choice test between words and part-words from L2 was significantly below chance even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities than words. PMID:24632521

Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

2014-06-01

412

Managing acute cough in children: evidence-based guidelines.  

PubMed

This article examines the evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acute cough in children. Cough is a common symptom in children and a frequent reason for consultation in primary care. Generally, an acute cough is a self-limiting condition resulting from expected childhood viral illnesses. However, a child should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out a serious underlying condition or disease responsible for the cough. Parents are often concerned and anxious about their child's cough. The use of over-the-counter cough and cold medications is widespread and parents commonly request primary care providers to provide prescriptions to alleviate cough symptoms. The American College of Chest Physicians has recommended clinical practice guidelines based on the conclusion of systematic reviews. These reviews indicate that cough medications offer no symptomatic relief for acute cough in children, and the use of cough and cold medications is inappropriate in young children and also places young children at risk for potential side effects and adverse reactions. The management of acute cough in children is based on a "wait, watch, review" approach. Clinicians should educate parents on expected illness duration, the risks of using over-the-counter medications, and discuss safe, supportive care measures to alleviate the child's discomfort. PMID:18196716

Kelley, Laura K; Allen, Patricia Jackson

2007-01-01

413

Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

2007-01-01

414

Implementing evidence-based practices in routine mental health service settings.  

PubMed

The authors describe the rationale for implementing evidence-based practices in routine mental health service settings. Evidence-based practices are interventions for which there is scientific evidence consistently showing that they improve client outcomes. Despite extensive evidence and agreement on effective mental health practices for persons with severe mental illness, research shows that routine mental health programs do not provide evidence-based practices to the great majority of their clients with these illnesses. The authors define the differences between evidence-based practices and related concepts, such as guidelines and algorithms. They discuss common concerns about the use of evidence-based practices, such as whether ethical values have a role in shaping such practices and how to deal with clinical situations for which no scientific evidence exists. PMID:11157115

Drake, R E; Goldman, H H; Leff, H S; Lehman, A F; Dixon, L; Mueser, K T; Torrey, W C

2001-02-01

415

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

PubMed Central

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff retention in a children’s services system. The study took place in the context of a statewide regionally randomized effectiveness trial of an evidence-based intervention designed to reduce child neglect. Twenty-one teams consisting of 153 home-based service providers were followed over a 29 month period. Survival analyses revealed greater staff retention in the condition where the evidence-based practice was implemented along with ongoing fidelity monitoring presented to staff as supportive consultation. These results should help to allay concerns about staff retention when implementing evidence-based practices where there is good values-innovation fit and when fidelity monitoring is designed as an aid and support to service providers in providing a high standard of care for children and families. PMID:19309186

Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Hecht, Debra B.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark J.

2009-01-01

416

75 FR 51075 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open Submission Period for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). Two previous...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP):...

2010-08-18

417

78 FR 33853 - Announcement for the National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a...

2013-06-05

418

Evidence-based Radiology: A New Approach to the Practice of Radiology1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Top ABSTRACT In this review, the principles of evidence-based health care and their application to radiology are discussed. Evidence-based health care involves the more formal integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and explicit acknowledgment of patient values in clinical decision making, as compared with conventional practice. Recently, many health care disciplines have adopted the principles and practice

Harald O. Stolberg

419

Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An International Consensus Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As evidence-based practices become increasingly advocated for and used in the human services field it is important to integrate issues raised by three perspectives on evidence: empirical-analytical, phenomenological-existential, and post-structural. This article presents and discusses an evidence-based conceptual model and measurement framework…

Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gomez, Laura E.

2011-01-01

420

Assessing competency in Evidence Based Practice: strengths and limitations of current tools in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence Based Practice (EBP) involves making clinical decisions informed by the most relevant and valid evidence available. Competence can broadly be defined as a concept that incorporates a variety of domains including knowledge, skills and attitudes. Adopting an evidence-based approach to practice requires differing competencies across various domains including literature searching, critical appraisal and communication. This paper examines the

Dragan Ilic

2009-01-01

421

Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 350361 Evidence-based policy recommendations on cancer  

E-print Network

Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 350­361 Review Evidence-based policy recommendations Ideally, practice guidelines for cancer prevention should reflect the available empirical evidence of evidence-based medicine has underscored the need for consortia of researchers specialized in reviewing

Barthelat, Francois

422

A numerical study based on a weakly compressible formulation for thermosolutal convection in vertical cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar thermosolutal convection in cavities with uniform, constant temperature and mass fraction profiles at the vertical side is studied numerically. The study is conducted in the case where an inert carrier gas (species “1”) present in the cavity is not soluble in species “2”, and do not diffuse into the walls. A mass flux of species “2” into the cavity occurs at the hot vertical wall and a mass flux out of the cavity occurs at the opposite cold wall. The weakly compressible model proposed in this work was used to investigate the flow fields, and heat and mass transfer in cavities filled with binary mixtures of ideal gases. The dimensionless form of the seven governing equations for constant thermophysical properties, except density, show that the problem formulation involves ten dimensionless parameters. The results were validated against numerical results published in the literature for purely thermal convection, and thermodynamic predictions for transient thermosolutal flows. A parametric study has been performed to investigate the effects of the initial conditions, molecular weight ratio, Lewis number, and aspect ratio of the cavity for aiding or opposing buoyancy forces. For the range of parameters considered, the results show that variations in the density field have larger effects on mass transfer than on heat transfer. For opposing buoyancy forces, the numerical simulations predict complex flow structures and possible chaotic behavior for rectangular vertical cavities according to the value of the molecular weight ratio.

Sun, Hua; Lauriat, Guy

2010-05-01

423

Limitations of Observational Evidence: Implications for Evidence-Based Dietary Recommendations12  

PubMed Central

Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence primarily from observational data, particularly those from prospective cohort studies. Although such evidence is of critical importance, limitations are often underappreciated by nutrition scientists and policymakers. This editorial review is intended to 1) highlight some of these limitations of observational evidence for diet-disease relations, including imprecise exposure quantification, collinearity among dietary exposures, displacement/substitution effects, healthy/unhealthy consumer bias, residual confounding, and effect modification; and 2) advocate for greater caution in the communication of dietary recommendations for which RCT evidence of clinical event reduction after dietary intervention is not available. PMID:24425715

Maki, Kevin C.; Slavin, Joanne L.; Rains, Tia M.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

2014-01-01

424

Community-Based Prevention Using Simple, Low-Cost, Evidence-Based Kernels and Behavior Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paradox exists in community prevention of violence and drugs. Good research now exists on evidence-based programs, yet extensive expenditures on prevention have not produced community-level results. Various multiproblems are quite prevalent in the United States, such as violence, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), conduct problems,…

Embry, Dennis D.

2004-01-01

425

An Interactive Web-based Curriculum on Evidence based Medicine: Design and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Medical education experts have called for improved training in evidence- based medicine (EBM) and the increased use of e-learning technologies in medical education. In re- sponse, we developed an interactive, Web-based curriculum on key aspects of EBM in family medicine. Methods: Students participating in a 6-week family medicine clerkship (n=238) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=134) or

Katherine Schilling; John Wiecha; Deepika Polineni; Souad Khalil

2006-01-01

426

A Study of an Online Tool to Support Evidence-Based Practices with Infants and Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the effectiveness of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language promoting…

Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.

2011-01-01

427

Evidence-based medicine—from best research evidence to a better surgical practice and health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The use of the terms evidence-based medicine (EBM) and healthcare (EBHC) has become commonplace in the medical as well as\\u000a in the surgical literature. Using the best available evidence, however, is not yet a working routine among surgeons because\\u000a of the large amount and complexity of published research and the lack of user-friendly tools and necessary skills for the\\u000a use

G. Antes; S. Sauerland; C. M. Seiler

2006-01-01

428

How evidence can be used to inform policy: A case study of early childhood evidence-based policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Albeit science is clear in its support for early childhood, the developmental outcomes for young children, globally, are poor.\\u000a It is hypothesized that evidence-based policies may be a potential mediator of the application of science to improve the lives\\u000a and well-being of young children. However, the question arises — at what stage of policy formulation can evidence be infused\\u000a into

Pia Rebello Britto; Adrian Cerezo; C. Brandon Ogbunugafor

2008-01-01

429

Evidence based practice beliefs and implementation among nurses: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Having a positive attitude towards evidence-based practice and being able to see the value of evidence-based practice for patients have been reported as important for the implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses. The aim of this study was to map self-reported beliefs towards EBP and EBP implementation among nurses, and to investigate whether there was a positive correlation between EBP beliefs and EBP implementation. Method We carried out a cross-sectional study among 356 nurses at a specialist hospital for the treatment of cancer in Norway. The Norwegian translations of the Evidence-based Practice Belief Scale and the Evidence-based Practice Implementation Scale were used. Results In total, 185 nurses participated in the study (response rate 52%). The results showed that nurses were positive towards evidence-based practice, but only practised it to a small extent. There was a positive correlation (r) between beliefs towards evidence-based practice and implementation of evidence-based practice (r?=?0.59, p?=?0.001). There was a statistical significant positive, but moderate correlation between all the four subscales of the EBP Beliefs Scale (beliefs related to: 1) knowledge, 2) resources, 3) the value of EBP and 4) difficulty and time) and the EBP Implementation Scale, with the highest correlation observed for beliefs related to knowledge (r?=?0.38, p?evidence-based practice had significantly higher scores on the Evidence-based Practice Belief Scale than participants who were unfamiliar with evidence-based practice. Those involved in evidence-based practice working groups also reported significantly higher scores on the Evidence-based Practice Belief Scale than participants not involved in these groups. Conclusion This study shows that nurses have a positive attitude towards evidence-based practice, but practise it to a lesser extent. There was a positive correlation between beliefs about evidence-based practice and implementation of evidence-based practice. Beliefs related to knowledge appear to have the greatest effect on implementation of evidence-based practice. Having knowledge and taking part in evidence-based practice working groups seem important. PMID:24661602

2014-01-01

430

Qualitative study of evidence based leaflets in maternity care  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of evidence based leaflets on informed choice in maternity services. Design Non-participant observation of 886 antenatal consultations. 383 in depth interviews with women using maternity services and health professionals providing antenatal care. Setting Women's homes; antenatal and ultrasound clinics in 13 maternity units in Wales. Participants Childbearing women and health professionals who provide antenatal care. Intervention Provision of 10 pairs of Informed Choice leaflets for service users and staff and a training session in their use. Main outcome measures Participants' views and commonly observed responses during consultations and interviews. Results Health professionals were positive about the leaflets and their potential to assist women in making informed choices, but competing demands within the clinical environment undermined their effective use. Time pressures limited discussion, and choice was often not available in practice. A widespread belief that technological intervention would be viewed positively in the event of litigation reinforced notions of “right” and “wrong” choices rather than “informed” choices. Hierarchical power structures resulted in obstetricians defining the norms of clinical practice and hence which choices were possible. Women's trust in health professionals ensured their compliance with professionally defined choices, and only rarely were they observed asking questions or making alternative requests. Midwives rarely discussed the contents of the leaflets or distinguished them from other literature related to pregnancy. The visibility and potential of the leaflets as evidence based decision aids was thus greatly reduced. Conclusions The way in which the leaflets were disseminated affected promotion of informed choice in maternity care. The culture into which the leaflets were introduced supported existing normative patterns of care and this ensured informed compliance rather than informed choice. What is already known on this topicInformed Choice leaflets are widely used in maternity care but little is known about their ability to influence informed choice and decision makingHigh quality information is essential for promoting informed choice but is insufficient by itselfWhat this study addsTime constraints and other pressures on health professionals resulted in a lack of discussion of the content of the leafletsFear of litigation, power hierarchies, and the technological imperative in maternity care limited the choices availableHealth professionals promoted normative practices rather than choice, and as women valued their opinions this led to the promotion of informed compliance rather than informed choice PMID:11895821

Stapleton, Helen; Kirkham, Mavis; Thomas, Gwenan

2002-01-01

431

Evidence-Based Pathology: Systematic Literature Reviews as the Basis for Guidelines and Best Practices.  

PubMed

Context .- Evidence-based medicine has been proposed as a new paradigm for the identification and evaluation of medical information. Best available evidence or data are identified and used as the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of individual patients. Evidence-based pathology has adapted basic evidence-based medicine concepts to the specific needs of pathology and laboratory medicine. Objectives .- To briefly review the history and basic concepts of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based pathology, describe how to perform and interpret systematic reviews, and discuss how to integrate best evidence into guidelines. Data Sources .- PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC) and Web of Science (Thompson Reuters, New York, New York) were used. Conclusions .- Evidence-based pathology provides methodology to evaluate the quality of information published in pathology journals and apply it to the diagnosis of tissue samples and other tests from individual patients. Information is gathered through the use of systematic reviews, using a method that is less biased and more comprehensive than ad hoc literature searches. Published data are classified into evidence levels to provide readers with a quick impression about the quality and probable clinical validity of available information. Best available evidence is combined with personal experience for the formulation of evidence-based, rather than opinion-based, guidelines that address specific practice needs. PMID:25356986

Marchevsky, Alberto M; Wick, Mark R

2014-10-30

432

Impact of an evidence-based medicine curriculum based on adult learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To develop and implement an evidence-based medicine (EBM) curriculum and determine its effectiveness in improving residents’\\u000a EBM behaviors and skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Description of the curriculum and a multifaceted evaluation, including a pretest-posttest controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  University-based primary care internal medicine residency program.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Second-and third-year internal medicine residents (N=34).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  A 7-week EBM curriculum in which residents work through the steps of evidence-based decisions

Michael L. Green; Peter J. Ellis

1997-01-01

433

Evidence for Endothermy in Pterosaurs Based on Flight Capability Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous attempts to constrain flight capability in pterosaurs have relied heavily on the fossil record, using bone articulation and apparent muscle allocation to evaluate flight potential (Frey et al., 1997; Padian, 1983; Bramwell, 1974). However, broad definitions of the physical parameters necessary for flight in pterosaurs remain loosely defined and few systematic approaches to constraining flight capability have been synthesized (Templin, 2000; Padian, 1983). Here we present a new method to assess flight capability in pterosaurs as a function of humerus length and flight velocity. By creating an energy-balance model to evaluate the power required for flight against the power available to the animal, we derive a `U'-shaped power curve and infer optimal flight speeds and maximal wingspan lengths for pterosaurs Quetzalcoatlus northropi and Pteranodon ingens. Our model corroborates empirically derived power curves for the modern black-billed magpie ( Pica Pica) and accurately reproduces the mechanical power curve for modern cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus) (Tobalske et al., 2003). When we adjust our model to include an endothermic metabolic rate for pterosaurs, we find a maximal wingspan length of 18 meters for Q. northropi. Model runs using an exothermic metabolism derive maximal wingspans of 6-8 meters. As estimates based on fossil evidence show total wingspan lengths reaching up to 15 meters for Q. northropi, we conclude that large pterosaurs may have been endothermic and therefore more metabolically similar to birds than to reptiles.

Jenkins, H. S.; Pratson, L. F.

2005-12-01

434

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

2008-01-01

435

Validation of the Colorado Psychiatry Evidence-Based Medicine Test  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become an important part of residency education, yet many EBM curricula lack a valid and standardized tool to identify learners' prior knowledge and assess progress. Objective We developed an EBM examination in psychiatry to measure our effectiveness in teaching comprehensive EBM to residents. Methods We developed a psychiatry EBM test using the validated EBM Fresno Test of Competence for family medicine. The test consists of case scenarios with open-ended questions. We also developed a scoring rubric and obtained reliability with multiple raters. Fifty-seven residents provided test data after completing 3, 6, 25, or 31 EBM sessions. The number of sessions for each resident was based on their length of training in our program. Results The examination had strong interrater reliability, internal reliability, and item discrimination. Many residents showed significant improvement on their examination scores when data were compared from tests taken before and after a sequence of teaching sessions. Also, a threshold for the level of expert on the examination was established using test data from 5 EBM teacher-experts. Conclusions We successfully developed a valid and reliable EBM examination for use with psychiatry residents to measure essential EBM skills as part of a larger project to encourage EBM practice for residents in routine patient care. The test provides information on residents' knowledge in EBM from entry level concepts through expert performance. It can be used to place incoming residents in appropriate levels of an EBM curriculum and to monitor the effectiveness of EBM instruction. PMID:24404304

Rothberg, Brian; Feinstein, Robert E.; Guiton, Gretchen

2013-01-01

436

Palliative care research: trading ethics for an evidence base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good medical practice requires evidence of effectiveness to address deficits in care, strive for further improvements, and justly apportion finite resources. Nevertheless, the potential of palliative care is still held back by a paucity of good evidence. These circumstances are largely attributable to perceived ethical challenges that allegedly distinguish dying patients as a special client class. In addition, practical limitations

A M Jubb

2002-01-01

437

Evidence-Based Medicine and the Practicing Clinician  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the attitudes of practicing general internists toward evidence-based medicine (EBM—defined as the process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions) and their perceived barriers to its use. DESIGN Cross-sectional, self-administered mail questionnaire conducted between June and October 1997. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Questionnaires were sent to all 521 physician members of the Canadian Society of Internal Medicine with Canadian mailing addresses; 296 (60%) of 495 eligible physicians responded. Exclusion of two incomplete surveys resulted in a final sample size of 294. MAIN RESULTS Mean age of respondents was 46 years, 80% were male, and 52% worked in large urban medical centers. Participants reported using EBM in their clinical practice always (33, 11%), often (173, 59%), sometimes (80, 27%), or rarely/never (8, 3%). There were no significant differences in demographics, training, or practice types or locales on univariate or multivariate analyses between those who reported using EBM often or always and those who did not. Both groups reported high usage of traditional (non-EBM) information sources: clinical experience (93%), review articles (73%), the opinion of colleagues (61%), and textbooks (45%). Only a minority used EBM-related information sources such as primary research studies (45%), clinical practice guidelines (27%), or Cochrane Collaboration Reviews (5%) on a regular basis. Barriers to the use of EBM cited by respondents included lack of relevant evidence (26%), newness of the concept (25%), impracticality for use in day-to-day practice (14%), and negative impact on traditional medical skills and “the art of medicine” (11%). Less than half of respondents were confident in basic skills of EBM such as conducting a literature search (46%) or evaluating the methodology of published studies (34%). However, respondents demonstrated a high level of interest in further education about these tasks. CONCLUSIONS The likelihood that physicians will incorporate EBM into their practice cannot be predicted by any demographic or practice-related factors. Even those physicians who are most enthusiastic about EBM rely more on traditional information sources than EBM-related sources. The most important barriers to increased use of EBM by practicing clinicians appear to be lack of knowledge and familiarity with the basic skills, rather than skepticism about the concept. PMID:10203636

McAlister, Finlay A; Graham, Ian; Karr, Gerald W; Laupacis, Andreas

1999-01-01

438

A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED KINETIC MODEL OF RAT AND MOUSE GESTATION: DISPOSITION OF A WEAK ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

A physiologically based toxicokinetic model of gestation in the rat mouse has been developed. The model is superimposed on the normal growth curve for nonpregnant females. It describes the entire gestation period including organogenesis. The model consists of uterus, mammary tiss...

439

Pinnacle Health / Zynx Health / Siemens Medical Solutions A Study of Integration of Evidence Based Nursing Content  

PubMed Central

In 2005, Pinnacle Health System, Zynx Health, and Siemens Medical Solutions developed a partnership to conduct a study to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with the integration of evidence-based knowledge within the EHR with the goal of creating repeatable methodologies for integrating nursing knowledge within the EHR. The two-phase study involved access to referential evidence-based content, as well as integration of customized evidence-based plans of care within the documentation applications of the EHR.

Matter, Sheri; Brown, Cindy; Button, Patricia S.; Kennedy, Rosemary

2006-01-01

440

Reinventing Mpowerment for Black Men: Long-Term Community Implementation of an Evidence-Based Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research on the dissemination of evidence-based programs to community providers has rapidly grown, research describing\\u000a implementation of evidence-based efforts remains a central need. Insight on implementation may aid in developing approaches\\u000a to assisting organizations to use a variety of evidence-based practices effectively and to improve the design of programs\\u000a that can and will be used faithfully. This mixed-method case

Robin Lin Miller; Jason C. Forney; Peter Hubbard; Lizeth M. Camacho

441

Moving an Evidence-Based Intervention Into Routine Mental Health Care: A Multifaceted Case Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many evidence-based interventions fail to translate into routine care for individuals experiencing significant mental health disorders. Moving the evidence-based intervention from the controlled research settings to the broader mental health systems is an ongoing challenge for administrators and practitioners in the mental health delivery network. In the United States, the movement to bring evidence-based mental health interventions into the public

Mary C. Ruffolo; Jeff Capobianco

2012-01-01

442

Grades of recommendation for antithrombotic agents: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).  

PubMed

This chapter describes the system used by the American College of Chest Physicians to grade recommendations for antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy as part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Clinicians need to know if a recommendation is strong or weak, and the methodologic quality of the evidence underlying that recommendation. We determine the strength of a recommendation by considering the balance between the desirable effects of an intervention and the undesirable effects (incremental harms, burdens, and for select recommendations, costs). If the desirable effects outweigh the undesirable effects, we recommend that clinicians offer an intervention to typical patients. The uncertainty associated with the balance between the desirable and undesirable effects will determine the strength of recommendations. If we are confident that benefits do or do not outweigh harms, burden, and costs, we make a strong recommendation in our formulation, Grade 1. If we are less certain of the magnitude of the benefits and risks, burden, and costs, and thus their relative impact, we make a weaker Grade 2 recommendation. For grading methodologic quality, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) begin as high-quality evidence (designated by "A"), but quality can decrease to moderate ("B"), or low ("C") as a result of poor design and conduct of RCTs, imprecision, inconsistency of results, indirectness, or a high likelihood for reporting bias. Observational studies begin as low quality of evidence (C) but can increase in quality on the basis of very large treatment effects. Strong (Grade 1) recommendations can be applied uniformly to most patients. Weak (Grade 2) suggestions require more judicious application, particularly considering patient values and preferences and, when resource limitations play an important role, issues of cost. PMID:18574262

Guyatt, Gordon H; Cook, Deborah J; Jaeschke, Roman; Pauker, Stephen G; Schünemann, Holger J

2008-06-01

443

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW CASE STUDIES A TEST OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH  

E-print Network

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW CASE STUDIES A TEST OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH Gavin B. Stewart, Christopher F. Coles & Andrew S. Pullin Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School of Biosciences used in medicine and public health to ensure that health service policy and practice is based

Miall, Chris

444

Implications of Evidence-Based Practices for Personnel Preparation Development in Early Childhood Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article includes a practical definition of evidence-based practices, examples of different types of practice-based research syntheses, 3 models for conceptualizing evidence-based early childhood intervention, and a description of the implications of the definition, syntheses, and models of early childhood intervention for personnel…

Dunst, Carl J.

2009-01-01

445

Promoting Evidence-Based Practice: Models and Mechanisms from Cross-Sector Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on both a cross-sector literature review of mechanisms to promote evidence-based practice and a specific review of ways of improving research use in social care. At the heart of the article is a discussion of three models of evidence-based practice: the research-based practitioner model, the embedded research model, and the…

Nutley, Sandra; Walter, Isabel; Davies, Huw T. O.

2009-01-01

446

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: Should We Be Teaching Information Management Instead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To encourage high-quality patient care guided by the best evidence, many medical schools and residencies are teaching techniques for critically evaluating the medical literature. While a large step forward, these skills of evidence-based medicine are necessary but not sufficient for the practice of contemporary medicine. Incorporating the best evidence into the real world of busy clinical practice requires the applied

David C. Slawson; Allen F. Shaughnessy

2005-01-01

447

A categorization and analysis of the criticisms of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The major criticisms and limitations of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) appearing in the literature over the past decade can be summarized and catego- rized into five recurring themes. The themes include: reliance on empiricism, narrow definition of evidence, lack of evidence of efficacy, limited usefulness for individual patients, and threats to the autonomy of the doctor\\/patient relationship. Analysis of EBM

Aaron Michael Cohen; P. Zoë Stavri; William R. Hersh

2004-01-01

448

The status of evidence-based medicine education in urology residency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of the current best evidence in deci- sion-making for the care of patients. Teaching best evidence prac - tice in residency should include both formal or freestanding con - tent, as well as integration into clinical scenarios and patient care. We sought to assess the attitudes, experience and knowledge

Kirk Roth; D. Robert Siemens

2010-01-01

449

Understanding Evidence-Based Information for the Early Childhood Field: Tips from RAND's Promising Practices Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…

Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca

2012-01-01

450

Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H?O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H?O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions. PMID:24038552

Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

2013-12-01

451

Impact of an Evidence-Based Practice Course on Occupational Therapist's Confidence Levels and Goals.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Confidence levels of 136 Irish occupational therapists were measured before and after an evidence based practice training course. Ranked scores on the evidence based practice confidence scale showed statistically significant improvement in all areas between pre and post course. Goals set by therapists to integrate EBP into their practice following the course were analysed and grouped into categories which included: 1) getting ready to use evidence based practice, 2) examining current and best practices, and 3) promoting a culture of evidence based practice in the workplace. Course feedback using Likert scales identified satisfaction with course content and delivery method. PMID:25337671

Brangan, Joan; Quinn, Sarah; Spirtos, Michelle

2015-01-01

452

Stroboscopy for benign laryngeal pathology in evidence based health care  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Voice disorders are common. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of stroboscopy for voice disorders related with benign pathology and apply results in evidence based health care. Methods: Prospective study. Tertiary care hospital. Voice Clinic. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of benign laryngeal disease or dysphonia of no clarified cause (normal laryngoscopy) were examined stroboscopically and studied prospectively until a final diagnosis was reached. Sixty-six men, eighty women and four children met the selection criteria for the study and had adequate follow-up. The initial laryngoscopic diagnosis was compared to the stroboscopic diagnosis. The diagnostic value of stroboscopy was rated at a scale of 0 to 3. A score 3 describes the diagnostic value of stroboscopy in the cases where the stroboscopic examination resulted to a change of the therapeutic modality offered to the patient. Results: For one third of the study's population the diagnostic value of stroboscopy was very significant, since it established the laryngeal pathology responsible for the voice disorder (28.8%) and for a small number of patients it changed the choice of treatment (4.7%). For about one third of the cases (32.2%) stroboscopy offered additional information regarding the cause of dysphonia. The diagnostic value of stroboscopy correlated with the type of laryngeal pathology. Conclusions: Patients expected to benefit from stroboscopic examination are patients with small lesions of the vocal fold edge, dysphonic patients with unremarkable indirect laryngoscopy, and professional voice users. PMID:23935311

Printza, A; Triaridis, S; Themelis, C; Constantinidis, J

2012-01-01

453

Incorporating patient and family preferences into evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are encouraged to practice evidence-based medicine (EBM) as well as patient-centered medicine. At times, these paradigms seem to be mutually exclusive and difficult to reconcile. It can become even more challenging when trying to include the preferences of the patient’s family members. This paper discusses the basis for this quandary, providing examples of the real-world impact it has on diagnosis-seeking and treatment decision-making behaviors and how it might inform implementation of EBM practices. Analysis To further explore the role of friends and family in health-care decision making and to understand how patients and families introduce other considerations that may or may not be congruent with a strictly EBM approach, data from two research studies that examined healthcare–seeking behaviors are presented. Both studies explore how family and friends not only can influence health-care decisions but also may be a source of conflict for the patient and/or clinician. Conclusions Illness is a biological and social process. Clinicians who engage in EBM need to acknowledge the social and cultural factors that affect the health-care encounter, understand the important role of those factors in health-care decision making, and expand the paradigm of EBM to incorporate sociocultural influences more explicitly. Moreover, recognition of the influences family members and other caregivers have within the clinical encounter—by offering opinions and participating in treatment-related decision making—is needed and could lead to more efficient and effective health care. PMID:24565268

2013-01-01

454

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

New strategies for the care of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are developing and several novel treatments have been globally produced. New methods of care should be customized geographically because each country has a specific medical system, life style, eating habit, gut microbiota, genes and so on. Several clinical guidelines for IBS have been proposed and the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) subsequently developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for IBS. Sixty-two clinical questions (CQs) comprising 1 definition, 6 epidemiology, 6 pathophysiology, 10 diagnosis, 30 treatment, 4 prognosis, and 5 complications were proposed and statements were made to answer to CQs. A diagnosis algorithm and a three-step treatment was provided for patients with chronic abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort and/or abnormal bowel movement. If more than one alarm symptom/sign, risk factor and/or routine examination is positive, colonoscopy is indicated. If all of them, or the subsequent colonoscopy, are/is negative, Rome III or compatible criteria is applied. After IBS diagnosis, step 1 therapy consisting of diet therapy, behavioral modification and gut-targeted pharmacotherapy is indicated for four weeks. Non-responders to step 1 therapy proceed to the second step that includes psychopharmacological agents and simple psychotherapy for four weeks. In the third step, for patients non-responsive to step 2 therapy, a combination of gut-targeted pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments and/or specific psychotherapy is/are indicated. Clinical guidelines and consensus for IBS treatment in Japan are well suited for Japanese IBS patients; as such, they may provide useful insight for IBS treatment in other countries around the world. PMID:25500976

Fukudo, Shin; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Akiho, Hirotada; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Yuka; Okumura, Toshikatsu; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kamiya, Takeshi; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Toshimi; Furuta, Kenji; Yamato, Shigeru; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Azuma, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mine, Tetsuya; Miura, Soichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2015-01-01

455

Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism  

PubMed Central

Early intervention for children with autism is currently a politically and scientifically complex topic. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated positive effects in both short-term and longer term studies. The evidence suggests that early intervention programs are indeed beneficial for children with autism, often improving developmental functioning and decreasing maladaptive behaviors and symptom severity at the level of group analysis. Whether such changes lead to significant improvements in terms of greater independence and vocational and social functioning in adulthood is also unknown. Given the few randomized controlled treatment trials that have been carried out, the few models that have been tested, and the large differences in interventions that are being published, it is clear that the field is still very early in the process of determining (a) what kinds of interventions are most efficacious in early autism, (b) what variables moderate and mediate treatment gains and improved outcomes following intervention, and (c) the degree of both short-term and long-term improvements that can reasonably be expected. To examine these current research needs, the empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed. Lovaas's treatment meet Chambless and colleague's (Chambless et al., 1998; Chambless et al., 1996) criteria for “well-established” and no treatment meets the “probably efficacious” criteria, though three treatments meet criteria for “possibly efficacious” (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). Most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria. Implications of these findings are also discussed in relation to practice guidelines as well as critical areas of research that have yet to be answered PMID:18444052

Rogers, Sally J.; Vismara, Laurie A.

2010-01-01

456

Highly efficient SO? absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.  

PubMed

A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process. PMID:23323771

Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

2013-02-01

457

Rising to the challenges of evidence-based medicine: a way forward for acupuncture.  

PubMed

Abstract Evidence-based medicine offers important opportunities and poses critical challenges to the acupuncture profession. Having a clear understanding of what evidence-based medicine is and what it is not is necessary to understanding how the acupuncture field might benefit by adopting evidence-based medicine as its paradigm. This article discusses the need for the acupuncture field to retool its professional, academic, and clinical apparatuses to produce, critically appraise, and use high-quality scientific evidence in order to develop acupuncture as an evidence-based procedure. Development of evidence-based acupuncture procedures, practice guidelines, and research directives may help acupuncture become a standard therapeutic procedure rather than a complement or alternative to conventional medicine. PMID:25238645

Godwin, Jacob

2014-11-01

458

Evidence-based medicine in hand surgery: clinical applications and future direction.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine empowers physicians to systematically analyze published data so as to quickly formulate treatment plans that deliver safe, robust, and cost-effective patient care. In this article, we sample some areas in hand and upper extremity surgery where the evidence base is strong enough that it has or should have unified treatment strategies; we identify some problems where good evidence has failed to unify treatment, and discuss problems for which evidence is still lacking but needed because treatment remains controversial. We also discuss circumstances in which level 4 evidence is more likely than randomized trials to guide treatment. PMID:25066846

Zafonte, Brian; Szabo, Robert M

2014-08-01

459

In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive  

E-print Network

). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Technology-- within traditional Evidence Based Medicine systems to derive all-encompassing clinical evidence with additional technology-mediated clinical evidence. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is best

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

460

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.

Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.

1989-01-01

461

Inhibition of weak-base amine-induced lysis of lysosomes by cytosol.  

PubMed

Certain amines known to be concentrated in lysosomes, termed "lysosomotropic amines," cause the formation of lysosomal vacuoles. A cell-free system was established to examine the effects of basic substances and acidic ionophores. In this system, the drugs not only increased the internal pH, but also caused a disruption of lysosomes. The osmotic swelling of lysosomes induced by protonated bases or cations for particular ionophores, which had accumulated within lysosomes driven by the proton pump, caused the osmotic lysis of lysosomes. The lysosomal disruption was inhibited upon the addition of the cytosol fraction. This phenomenon provides an in vitro system for studying the osmo-regulation and intercellular dynamics of the lysosomal system, including membrane fusion. The lysosomal stabilization factor was purified from the cytosol fraction and identified as ATP-stimulated glucocorticoid receptor translocation promoter (ASTP). PMID:12359066

Arai, Kunizo; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Isohashi, Fumihide; Okamoto, Kazuki; Ohkuma, Shoji

2002-10-01

462

Weak-lensing detection of intracluster filaments with ground-based data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the current standard model of cosmology, matter in the Universe arranges itself along a network of filamentary structure. These filaments connect the main nodes of this so-called "cosmic web", which are clusters of galaxies. Although its large-scale distribution is clearly characterized by numerical simulations, constraining the dark-matter content of the cosmic web in reality turns out to be difficult. The natural method of choice is gravitational lensing. However, the direct detection and mapping of the elusive filament signal is challenging and in this work we present two methods that are specifically tailored to achieve this task. A linear matched filter aims at detecting the smooth mass-component of filaments and is optimized to perform a shear decomposition that follows the anisotropic component of the lensing signal. Filaments clearly inherit this property due to their morphology. At the same time, the contamination arising from the central massive cluster is controlled in a natural way. The filament 1? detection is of about ? ~ 0.01 - 0.005 according to the filter's template width and length, enabling the detection of structures beyond reach with other approaches. The second, complementary method seeks to detect the clumpy component of filaments. The detection is determined by the number density of subclump identifications in an area enclosing the potential filament, as was found within the observed field with the filter approach. We tested both methods against mocked observations based on realistic N-body simulations of filamentary structure and proved the feasibility of detecting filaments with ground-based data.

Maturi, Matteo; Merten, Julian

2013-11-01

463

How Evidence Can Be Used to Inform Policy: A Case Study of Early Childhood Evidence-Based Policy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albeit science is clear in its support for early childhood, the developmental outcomes for young children, globally, are poor. It is hypothesized that evidence-based policies may be a potential mediator of the application of science to improve the lives and well-being of young children. However, the question arises--at what stage of policy…

Britto, Pia Rebello; Cerezo, Adrian; Ogbunugafor, C. Brandon

2008-01-01

464

Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Recommendations of Recent Evidence-Based Interdisciplinary Guidelines with Special Emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

PubMed Central

Objective. Current evidence indicates that there is no single ideal treatment for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). First choice treatment options remain debatable, especially concerning the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Methods. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines on FMS in Canada, Germany, and Israel were compared for their first choice and CAM-recommendations. Results. All three guidelines emphasized a patient-tailored approach according to the key symptoms. Aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and multicomponent therapy were first choice treatments. The guidelines differed in the grade of recommendation for drug treatment. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, milnacipran) were strongly recommended by the Canadian and the Israeli guidelines. These drugs received only a weak recommendation by the German guideline. In consideration of CAM-treatments, acupuncture, hypnosis/guided imagery, and Tai Chi were recommended by the German and Israeli guidelines. The Canadian guidelines did not recommend any CAM therapy. Discussion. Recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines concur on the importance of treatment tailored to the individual patient and further emphasize the need of self-management strategies (exercise, and psychological techniques). PMID:24348701

Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Buskila, Dan; Shir, Yoram; Sommer, Claudia

2013-01-01

465

Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: recommendations of recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines with special emphasis on complementary and alternative therapies.  

PubMed

Objective. Current evidence indicates that there is no single ideal treatment for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). First choice treatment options remain debatable, especially concerning the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Methods. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines on FMS in Canada, Germany, and Israel were compared for their first choice and CAM-recommendations. Results. All three guidelines emphasized a patient-tailored approach according to the key symptoms. Aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and multicomponent therapy were first choice treatments. The guidelines differed in the grade of recommendation for drug treatment. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, milnacipran) were strongly recommended by the Canadian and the Israeli guidelines. These drugs received only a weak recommendation by the German guideline. In consideration of CAM-treatments, acupuncture, hypnosis/guided imagery, and Tai Chi were recommended by the German and Israeli guidelines. The Canadian guidelines did not recommend any CAM therapy. Discussion. Recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines concur on the importance of treatment tailored to the individual patient and further emphasize the need of self-management strategies (exercise, and psychological techniques). PMID:24348701

Ablin, Jacob; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Buskila, Dan; Shir, Yoram; Sommer, Claudia; Häuser, Winfried

2013-01-01

466

Preparing Facilitators From Community-Based Organizations for Evidence-Based Intervention Training in Second Life  

PubMed Central

Background A major barrier to the use and scale-up of evidence-based interventions are challenges related to training and capacity building. A cost-effective and highly interactive multi-user virtual environment, Second Life (SL) is a promising alternative for comprehensive face-to-face facilitator training. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using SL to train facilitators from community-based organizations to use ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself), one of the few evidence-based interventions developed and tested with Latino youth to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Methods We recruited 35 participants from community-based organizations throughout the United States to participate in the SL ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. Preparation to use SL consisted of four phases: (1) recruitment and computer capacity screening, (2) enrollment, (3) orientation to the SL program, and (4) technical support throughout the synchronous training sessions. Technical difficulties, the associated cause, and the mitigation strategy implemented were recorded during each session. Participants completed evaluations including perceptions of self-efficacy and confidence to complete the necessary skills to participate in SL training. Results Overall, participants reported high levels of self-efficacy for all skills necessary to participate in SL training. Based on an 11-point scale (0-10), self-efficacy to download and access the software was rated the highest: mean 8.29 (SD 2.19). Interacting with items in SL had the lowest mean score: mean 7.49 (SD 2.89). The majority of technical difficulties experienced by participants were related to inadequate Internet connections or computer malfunctions. Conclusions Our findings support the feasibility of using SL for the ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. The process used in this study to prepare participants to use SL can be used as a basis for other evidence-based intervention training in SL. This study is an important contribution to developing cost-effective and accessible training options for evidence-based interventions. PMID:25270991

Valladares, Angel Felix; Tschannen, Dana; Villarruel, Antonia Maria

2014-01-01

467

Miniaturized transfer models to predict the precipitation of poorly soluble weak bases upon entry into the small intestine.  

PubMed

For poorly soluble weak bases, the possibility of drug precipitation upon entry into the small intestine may affect the amount of drug available for uptake through the intestinal mucosa. A few years ago, a transfer model was introduced which has been developed to simulate the transfer of a dissolved drug out of the stomach into the small intestine. However, this setup requires the use of clinically relevant doses of the drug, which are typically not available in the early stages of formulation development. The present series of tests was performed to check whether it is possible to create a miniaturized but physiologically relevant transfer model that can be applied in the early formulation development. Experiments were performed with two miniaturized setups: a 96-well plate model and a mini-paddle transfer system. Itraconazole and tamoxifen were used as model drugs. An appropriate amount of each drug formulation was dissolved in simulated gastric fluid and then transferred into an acceptor phase consisting of fasted/fed state simulated small intestinal fluid. The amount of drug dissolved in the acceptor phase was monitored over a period of 4 h. Results from both setups were very similar. The tamoxifen preformulation did not precipitate, whereas the itraconazole formulation precipitated to the same extent in both setups. Due to the possibility of generating physiologically relevant results but using smaller sample sizes and smaller volumes of media, both miniaturized transfer systems offer various advantages in terms of substance and analytical and material cost savings when evaluating the precipitation potential of poorly soluble weakly basic drug candidates. PMID:22968547

Klein, Sandra; Buchanan, Norma L; Buchanan, Charles M

2012-12-01

468

Evidence-based practice for mere mortals: the role of informatics and health services research.  

PubMed

The poor translation of evidence into practice is a well-known problem. Hopes are high that information technology can help make evidence-based practice feasible for mere mortal physicians. In this paper, we draw upon the methods and perspectives of clinical practice, medical informatics, and health services research to analyze the gap between evidence and action, and to argue that computing systems for bridging this gap should incorporate both informatics and health services research expertise. We discuss 2 illustrative systems--trial banks and a web-based system to develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines (alchemist)--and conclude with a research and training agenda. PMID:11972727

Sim, Ida; Sanders, Gillian D; McDonald, Kathryn M

2002-04-01

469

An evidence-based approach to the prevention of oral diseases.  

PubMed

The evidence-based approach has become the mantra of health care and service delivery. But just what it means, whether it is feasible, how to build it and the outcome of its use are not well understood. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of an evidence-based approach to the prevention of oral disease, to examine the assessment of clinical trial evidence, to examine emerging approaches to assessing population-wide interventions and oral health promotion, and to illustrate some principles and issues through examples from preventive dentistry. The evidence-based approach to prevention is presented using an evidence loop, which emphasizes that the evidence-base should begin with an understanding to the burden of oral disease and its determinants, rather than a consideration of the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions in clinical dental research. A systematic review of evidence from clinical dental research is compiled and assessed, after which the intervention is decided upon and implemented. The evidence loop is completed by the monitoring of outcomes and reassessment of the intervention process. Attention is also given to steps in assessing non-randomized population-wide interventions and evidence on oral health promotion based on expert opinion. The requirement for evidence creates a substantial challenge which can only be met by increased research activity, improved quality of information and the appropriate application of the outcomes of research to policy making for the prevention of oral disease. PMID:12707496

Spencer, A J

2003-01-01

470

Evidence-Based Management of Common Gallstone-Related Emergencies.  

PubMed

Gallstone-related disease is among the most common clinical problems encountered worldwide. The manifestations of cholelithiasis vary greatly, ranging from mild biliary colic to life-threatening gallstone pancreatitis and cholangitis. The vast majority of gallstone-related diseases encountered in an acute setting can be categorized as biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and pancreatitis, although these diagnoses can overlap. The management of these diseases is uniquely multidisciplinary, involving many specialties and treatment options. Thus, care may be compromised due to redundant tests, treatment delays, or inconsistent management. This review outlines the evidence for initial evaluation, diagnostic workup, and treatment for the most common gallstone-related emergencies. Key principles include initial risk stratification of patients to aid in triage and timing of interventions, early initiation of appropriate antibiotics for patients with evidence of cholecystitis or cholangitis, patient selection for endoscopic biliary decompression, and growing evidence in favor of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for clinically stable patients. PMID:25320159

Demehri, Farokh R; Alam, Hasan B

2014-10-15

471

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions to prevent, manage, and treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to have a considerable effect on the physical and psychological well-being of patients with cancer, despite significant advances in antiemetic drugs since the 1990s. This article reviews and summarizes past and current empirical evidence related to interventions for CINV. A resource that summarizes evidence-based interventions for CINV is critical for effective management of this distressing symptom. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions are appraised. Finally, gaps in the literature and opportunities for research, education, and practice changes are discussed. PMID:17441398

Tipton, Janelle M; McDaniel, Roxanne W; Barbour, Laurel; Johnston, Mary Pat; Kayne, Marilyn; LeRoy, Patricia; Ripple, Marita L

2007-02-01

472

Clinical Decision Support Systems for the Practice of Evidence-based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe use of clinical decision support systems to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine promises to substantially improve health care quality.ObjectiveTo describe, on the basis of the proceedings of the Evidence and Decision Support track at the 2000 AMIA Spring Symposium, the research and policy challenges for capturing research and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable repositories, and to present recommendations for

Ida Sim; Paul Gorman; Robert A Greenes; R Brian Haynes; Bonnie Kaplan; Harold Lehmann; Paul C Tang

2001-01-01

473

Evidence-Based Public Health: A Fundamental Concept for Public Health Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the many accomplishments of public health, a greater atten- tion to evidence-based approaches is warranted. This article reviews the concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH), on which formal discourse originated about a decade ago. Key components of EBPH include making decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence, using data and information systems systematically, apply- ing program-planning

Ross C. Brownson; Jonathan E. Fielding; Christopher M. Maylahn

2009-01-01

474

Development of the Evaluative Method for Evaluating and Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research in autism has grown more sophisticated, the gap between research knowledge and applicability of research\\u000a in real world settings has grown. There have been a number of different reviews of evidence-based practices of treatments\\u000a for young children with autism. Reviews which have critically evaluated the empirical evidence have not found any treatments\\u000a that can be considered evidence-based. Reasons

Brian Reichow; Fred R. Volkmar; Domenic V. Cicchetti

2008-01-01

475

Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Community Behavioral Health: Agency Director Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing supply of evidence-based mental health treatments, we have little evidence about how to implement them in\\u000a real-world care. This qualitative pilot study captured the perspectives of agency directors on the challenge of implementing\\u000a evidence-based practices in community mental health agencies. Directors identified challenges as limited access to research,\\u000a provider resistance, and training costs. Director leadership, support to

Enola K. Proctor; Kraig J. Knudsen; Nicole Fedoravicius; Peter Hovmand; Aaron Rosen; Brian Perron

2007-01-01

476

An evidence-based evaluation of endometriosis-associated infertility.  

PubMed

Although endometriosis is associated with infertility, a clear causal relationship has yet to be established, unless adhesive disease is found. Despite this indirect association, multiple theories have been promulgated and studies are currently underway to investigate theoretic pathogenetic mechanisms. The data regarding the treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility are limited and conflicting; however, some general preliminary conclusions can be drawn. It seems that, with early-stage disease, surgical treatment increases pregnancy rates. Using the US Preventive Services Task Force classification scheme, the evidence in support of this finding is of the highest quality, or level I. Surgical treatment for moderate and severe disease also confers benefit, although the evidence in support of this treatment is of lesser quality, level II-3 by the scheme. Medical treatment, particularly if it induces an anovulatory state, has no benefit and may delay fertility. This evidence is again of the highest quality, with a classification of level I. Although assisted reproductive technologies are of benefit regarding fertility for women with endometriosis, the IVF evidence is inconclusive, with both treatments being evaluated by at least one randomized, controlled trial conferring a level I classification to the evidence. It is unclear at this time whether endometriomas have an impact on IVF outcome. The evidence consists of only a few lower-quality studies, with a classification level of II-2. Despite the haziness of current insight into the treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility, well-designed clinical trials and basic mechanistic investigations are underway in many reproductive medicine centers. As the data from these scientific inquiries emerge, clinicians will have a clearer view of effective treatment regimens for endometriosis. PMID:14560892

Pritts, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Robert N

2003-09-01

477

Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

478

Evidence-Based Practices Are Not Reformulated Best Practices: A Response to Martindale's "Children with Significant Hearing Loss: Learning to Listen, Talk, and Read--Evidence-Based Best Practices"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Communication Disorders Quarterly's" special series on evidence-based practices and, specifically, Martindale's article on evidence-based practices in learning to listen, talk, and read among children with significant hearing loss appear to confuse best practices with evidence-based practices and, perhaps more serious, offer little evidence for…

Schirmer, Barbara R.; Williams, Cheri

2008-01-01

479

Scaffolding Preservice Science Teachers' Evidence-Based Arguments during an Investigation of Natural Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a qualitative study in which preservice science teachers (PSTs) enrolled in an advanced methods course participated in a complex, data-rich investigation based on an adapted version of the "Struggle for Survival" curriculum. Uses the Galapagos Finches software and emphasizes giving priority to evidence and constructing evidence-based

Zembal-Saul, Carla; Munford, Danusa; Crawford, Barbara; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Land, Susan

2002-01-01

480

Tacit knowledge as the unifying factor in evidence based medicine and clinical judgement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the role that tacit knowledge plays in what might seem to be an area of knowledge that can be made fully explicit or codified and which forms a central element of Evidence Based Medicine. Appeal to the role the role of tacit knowledge in science provides a way to unify the tripartite definition of Evidence Based Medicine

Tim Thornton

2006-01-01