Sample records for weak evidence base

  1. Evidence-Based Practice and Speech-Language Pathology: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Dodd

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based practice poses. This paper reviews the literature to provide an

  2. Weakly compact generating and shrinking Markusevic bases

    E-print Network

    Montesinos Santalucía, Vicente

    Weakly compact generating and shrinking Markusevic bases M. Fabian , P. H´ajek , V. Montesinos A1019205 (Czech Republic). Key Words: Weakly compactly generated spaces, shrinking Markusevic bases; x } which is shrinking, that is, sp{x ; } is norm dense in X . Note that not every Markusevic

  3. [Evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

    1996-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool. PMID:8762653

  4. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D W

    1995-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important product of the National Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). Recent guidelines have been published on the guiding principles for clinical practice guidelines. The ninth principle states: "Clinical practice guidelines should: (a) cite the specific evidence bearing upon the conclusion, (b) indicate the strength of the evidence [and] (c) specify the date of the most recent evidence considered." The following is CATMAT's statement on evidence-based medicine and the scales used to grade its recommendations. PMID:7820803

  5. History of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Roger L.; Dahm, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and applying medical research at the bedside, evidence-based medicine will continue to have a strong influence on everyday clinical practice. PMID:22279315

  6. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists choose to wait for collective professional standards to reveal acceptable practice or follow a strategy of punctuated equilibrium, only switching out established practice habits when very conspicuous advantages are identified. Integration in medicine appears to follow the statistically sophisticated practice of updating estimates of clinical parameters (probabilities) for diagnoses, treatments, prognoses, and side-effects. This approach is likely beyond the skill or interest of clinical dentists and it fails to incorporate values in the integration. The use of decision trees to integrate both research and experiential parameters and values is illustrated and it is shown that such a technique identifies why there are very few cases in dentistry where evidence needs to be consulted and indicates what such cases are. PMID:21485345

  7. Evidence-Based Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy is a descriptive basic medical science that is no longer considered a research-led discipline. Many publications in clinical anatomy are prevalence studies treating clinically relevant anatomical variations and reporting their frequencies and/or associations with variables such as age, sex, side, laterality, and ancestry. This article discusses the need to make sense of the available literature. A new concept, evidence-based anatomy (EBA), is proposed to find, appraise, and synthetize the results reported in such publications. It consists in applying evidence-based principles to the field of epidemiological anatomy research through evidence synthesis using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to generate weighted pooled results. Pooled frequencies and associations based on large pooled sample size are likely to be more accurate and to reflect true population statistics and associations more closely. A checklist of a typical systematic review in anatomy is suggested and the implications of EBA for practice and future research, along with its scope, are discussed. The EBA approach would have positive implications for the future preservation of anatomy as a keystone basic science, for sound knowledge of anatomical variants, and for the safety of medical practice. Clin. Anat. 27:847–852, 2014. PMID:24797314

  8. Weak measurement based on thermal noise effect

    E-print Network

    Gang Li; Tao Wang; Shuang Xu; He-Shan Song

    2015-07-03

    Weak measurement with thermal state pointer can give rise to an amplification effect, and we give the generalization of the mechanism behind the amplification with pure Gaussion state pointer. We find that the maximal value of this effect can reach thermal fluctuations, and propose two schemes to implement room temperature weak measurement with thermal state pointer in optomechanical system.

  9. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  10. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  11. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    PubMed

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  12. Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd P. Silverstein

    2000-01-01

    An important topic in any introductory chemistry course is that of acids and bases. Students generally have no trouble learning the Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Problems often arise, however, when chemistry teachers attempt to explain the difference between weak and strong acids, and between weak and strong bases.

  13. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  14. Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman. PMID:25364558

  15. Quantum Trajectories based on the Weak Value

    E-print Network

    Takuya Mori; Izumi Tsutsui

    2015-03-05

    The notion of trajectory of an individual particle is strictly inhibited in quantum mechanics because of the uncertainty principle. Nonetheless, the weak value, which has been proposed as a novel and measurable quantity definable to any quantum observable, can offer a possible description of trajectory on account of its statistical nature of the value. In this paper, we explore the physical significance provided by this weak trajectory by considering various situations where interference takes place simultaneously with the observation of particles, that is, in prototypical quantum situations for which no classical treatment is available. These include the double slit experiment and Lloyd's mirror, where in the former case it is argued that the real part of the weak trajectory describes an average over the possible classical trajectories involved in the process, and that the imaginary part is related to the variation of interference. It is shown that this average interpretation of the weak trajectory holds universally under the complex probability defined from the given transition process. These features remain essentially unaltered in the case of Lloyd's mirror where interference occurs with a single slit.

  16. Evidence-based diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    1997-08-16

    The radiological community has a long track record of self-examination, starting well before evidence-based medicine came of age. It had to produce such evidence to prove the need for and win funds for its expensive gadgets. The assessment of new tests is easier than proving the value of well-established ones, and in scrutinising the evidence base for an imaging technique a balance must be struck between apparent (eg, diagnostic) benefit and real benefit to the patient. And even when there is a wealth of good evidence healthy debate continues. So radiology may be ahead of some other disciplines in considering the evidence for its daily practice. For example, where is the evidence for the routine clinical examination-and might the radiologist with a chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound do better? PMID:9274596

  17. Biometric Face Authentication using Pixel-based Weak Classifiers

    E-print Network

    authentication systems has steadily improved over the last few years. State-of-the-art methods use the proBiometric Face Authentication using Pixel-based Weak Classifiers S´ebastien Marcel and Yann detection. In this paper, we investigate the use of AdaBoost for face authentication to boost weak

  18. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  19. Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification KEY FACTS Module Code: RCM005 Department: Evidence Based Practice Summary Description Evidence based practice is an approach to clinical problem solving and health care provision based on "good evidence". The purpose of evidence based practice

  20. Risk Assessment: Evidence Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

  1. Power-recycled weak-value-based metrology.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kevin; Dressel, Justin; Jordan, Andrew N; Howell, John C; Kwiat, Paul G

    2015-05-01

    We improve the precision of the interferometric weak-value-based beam deflection measurement by introducing a power recycling mirror, creating a resonant cavity. This results in all the light exiting to the detector with a large deflection, thus eliminating the inefficiency of the rare postselection. The signal-to-noise ratio of the deflection is itself magnified by the weak value. We discuss ways to realize this proposal, using a transverse beam filter and different cavity designs. PMID:25978218

  2. Power-recycled weak-value-based metrology

    E-print Network

    Kevin Lyons; Justin Dressel; Andrew N. Jordan; John C. Howell; Paul G. Kwiat

    2015-04-30

    We improve the precision of the interferometric weak-value-based beam deflection measurement by introducing a power recycling mirror, creating a resonant cavity. This results in \\emph{all} the light exiting to the detector with a large deflection, thus eliminating the inefficiency of the rare postselection. The signal-to-noise ratio of the deflection is itself magnified by the weak value. We discuss ways to realize this proposal, using a transverse beam filter and different cavity designs.

  3. Power-recycled weak-value-based metrology

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Kevin; Jordan, Andrew N; Howell, John C; Kwiat, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    We improve the precision of the interferometric weak-value-based beam deflection measurement by introducing a power recycling mirror, creating a resonant cavity. This results in \\emph{all} the light exiting to the detector with a large deflection, thus eliminating the inefficiency of the rare postselection. The signal-to-noise ratio of the deflection is itself magnified by the weak value. We discuss ways to realize this proposal, using a transverse beam filter and different cavity designs.

  4. Power-Recycled Weak-Value-Based Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin; Dressel, Justin; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2015-05-01

    We improve the precision of the interferometric weak-value-based beam deflection measurement by introducing a power recycling mirror, creating a resonant cavity. This results in all the light exiting to the detector with a large deflection, thus eliminating the inefficiency of the rare postselection. The signal-to-noise ratio of the deflection is itself magnified by the weak value. We discuss ways to realize this proposal, using a transverse beam filter and different cavity designs.

  5. Queering evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien W. Riggs

    2011-01-01

    That which is currently understood as evidence-based practice within the discipline of psychology primarily relies upon a positivist interpretation of the world around us. Although such an interpretation may be argued by some to be useful, others argue that it fails to recognise the impact of social contexts and the role they play in producing particular negative mental health outcomes

  6. (Three core Evidence-Based

    E-print Network

    MSc Masters One system (Three core ideas) {01} Evidence-Based Management {02} Entrepreneurship & Innovation {03} Engaged Social Value Depth of knowledge Open mind Future answers and opportunities MASTER OF SCIENCE IN FINANCE AND BANKING Teaching staff trained in the best and most respected universities

  7. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

  8. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  9. GRAPH-BASED WEAKLY-SUPERVISED METHODS FOR INFORMATION EXTRACTION

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    GRAPH-BASED WEAKLY-SUPERVISED METHODS FOR INFORMATION EXTRACTION & INTEGRATION Partha Pratim. Pereira's enthusiasm, both in and out of science, has been an inspiration for me. His deep insights learned a lot in the process. And it is with heartfelt gratitude that I thank Prof. Joshi and Prof

  10. Evidence-based guideline recommendations.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Mary C; Wade, John; Lesperance, Virginia

    2013-10-01

    Cancer survivorship is expected to increase in coming years. Survivors include recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, signaling the necessity for evidence-based guidelines that focus on long-term follow-up needs. Studies have shown that evidence-based care can improve cancer survivors' quality of life and long-term outcomes. The implication is that early identification and intervention in chronic health problems such as graft-versus-host disease result in improved outcomes and a higher quality of survivorship. These discoveries signal a need to provide specific care management with appropriate and timely screening and preventive services. Recommendations for long-term follow-up post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are an important guide to direct clinical practice with this patient population and optimize their outcomes. PMID:24080061

  11. Desired Attributes of Evidence Assessments for Evidence-based Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Stephen Leff; Jeremy A. Conley

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe three approaches to assessing evidence for stakeholders interested in evidence-based practices: narrative reviews, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), and registries. We then compare the approaches in terms of the degree to which they posses desired attributes of evidence assessments. Our review suggests that hybrid approaches that combined the best features of all three should be pursued

  12. Human Givens Therapy: The Evidence Base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Corp; Anna Tsaroucha; Paul Kingston

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current evidence base for human givens therapy in the context of mental health. A systematic literature search was conducted from which it is concluded that the evidence base for human givens therapy is currently limited: most evidence proffered is expert opinion supported with brief case studies or anecdotal evidence, with the exception of two descriptive studies

  13. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    PubMed

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. PMID:21527324

  14. Historical perspectives on evidence-based nursing.

    PubMed

    Beyea, Suzanne C; Slattery, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The authors of this article offer a review and historical perspective on research utilization and evidence-based practice in nursing. They present the evolution of research utilization to the more contemporary framework of evidence-based nursing practice. The authors address the role of qualitative research in the context of evidence-based practice. Finally, some approaches and resources for learning more about the fundamentals of evidence-based healthcare are provided. PMID:23575492

  15. Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public Engagement in Transportation Kathryn Quick Assistant Questions for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we move beyond

  16. The need for evidence-based conservation

    E-print Network

    Kark, Salit

    to which medical practice was based on research evidence of effectiveness and led to the conclusionThe need for evidence-based conservation William J. Sutherland1 , Andrew S. Pullin2 , Paul M Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. NR4 7TJ 2 Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School

  17. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of

    E-print Network

    Connor, Ed

    (Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium

  18. Translating Research and Building the Evidence Base

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    promoting evidence-based, rigorously-tested programs and practices throughout all program areas, including Discovery Practice-based Evidence DIFFUSION #12;What's New About Translational Research? Hasn't CCE beenTranslating Research and Building the Evidence Base John Eckenrode Professor of Human Development

  19. The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2011-01-01

    There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

  20. Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

  1. Evidence-based practice in rehabilitation nursing.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Linda L

    2007-01-01

    How to use research is a learned skill. With this skill rehabilitation nurses can help ensure that their practice is based on the best evidence available. Evidence-based practice is a balance of using external research-based clinical evidence and clinical expertise. The purpose of this article is to show rehabilitation nurses how to build the skills for using evidence, rather than just doing research. This involves asking questions, finding and appraising relevant data, and putting that information into everyday practice. When evidence-based practice is merged into a clinician's daily routine, the result is a more analytical and, ultimately, effective clinical practice. PMID:17899991

  2. Evidence-Based Review of Subjective Pediatric Sleep Measures

    PubMed Central

    Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective?This manuscript provides an evidence-based psychometric review of parent and child-report pediatric sleep measures using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 Evidence-Based Assessment (EBA) Task Force.?Methods?Twenty-one measures were reviewed: four measures of daytime sleepiness, four measures of sleep habits/hygiene, two measures assessing sleep-related attitudes/cognitions, five measures of sleep initiation/maintenance, and six multidimensional sleep measures.?Results?Six of the 21 measures met “well-established” evidence-based assessment criteria. An additional eight measures were rated as “approaching well-established” and seven were rated as “promising.”?Conclusions?Overall, the multidimensional sleep measures received the highest ratings. Strengths and weaknesses of the measures are described. Recommendations for future pediatric sleep assessment are presented including further validation of measures, use of multiple informants, and stability of sleep measures over time. PMID:21227912

  3. DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION OF XO-2b: EVIDENCE FOR A WEAK TEMPERATURE INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Machalek, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Burke, Christopher J.; Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Johns-Krull, Christopher M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-108, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)], E-mail: pavel@jhu.edu

    2009-08-10

    We estimate flux ratios of the extrasolar planet XO-2b to its host star XO-2 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m with Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope to be 0.00081 {+-} 0.00017, 0.00098 {+-} 0.00020, 0.00167 {+-} 0.00036, and 0.00133 {+-} 0.00049, respectively. The fluxes provide tentative evidence for a weak temperature inversion in the upper atmosphere, the precise nature of which would need to be confirmed by longer wavelength observations. XO-2b substellar flux of 0.76 x 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} lies in the predicted transition region between atmospheres with and without upper atmospheric temperature inversion.

  4. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force’s report describes psychology’s fundamental commitment to sophisticated EBPP and takes into account the

  5. What's New about Evidence-Based Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A clear consensus has emerged around the world concerning the desirability and even the urgency of basing health care delivery systems on evidence. Among behavioral health care providers such as psychologists, evidence-based practice (EBP) has been focused largely on interventions. Psychologists have long emphasized a scientifically based

  6. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  7. Evidence-Based mini-manual

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    . Scott Health Sciences Library University of Alberta Bruce Fisher Department of Medicine Duncan Saunders School of Public Health Sciences July, 2009 #12;2 #12;3 What is Evidence-Based Medicine? Evidence. Ask a focused clinical question 3. Access the clinical research literature (i.e., the evidence) 4

  8. Practice-based evidence – overcoming insecure attachments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Fox

    2011-01-01

    This article examines educational psychologists’ (EPs’) engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use psychological theories that have little or no evidence to support their use. The article then

  9. Voltage Stability and Frequency Synchronization of Weak Power Distribution Networks with Inverter-Based

    E-print Network

    Lemmon, Michael

    Voltage Stability and Frequency Synchronization of Weak Power Distribution Networks with Inverter not apply to truly weak networks. Key words: Weak networks, inverter-based distributed generator, voltage and frequency stability. 1 INTRODUCTION Inverter-based distributed generation (DG) sources are usually a part

  10. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

  11. Multicultural Issues in Evidence-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Colette L.; Oka, Evelyn R.

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists involved in the delivery of psychological and educational interventions face the challenge of identifying interventions that will work within their schools. The evidence-based intervention (EBI) approach has received attention as a promising way to identify effective interventions. The national Task Force on Evidence Based

  12. Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology journals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris L. Bentsianov; Marina Boruk; Richard M. Rosenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Objective: We set out to assess, within the context of evidence-based medicine, the levels of supporting evidence for therapeutic recommendations made in leading otolaryngology journals. Design: We used a cross-sectional survey of clinical research articles published in 1999 in 4 high-circulation otolaryngology journals. Outcome Measures: We used study design methodology and level of evidence for clinical research articles with therapeutic

  13. Lysosomal sequestration of hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics triggers lysosomal biogenesis and lysosome-dependent cancer multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhitomirsky, Benny; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary hindrance to curative cancer chemotherapy. In this respect, lysosomes were suggested to play a role in intrinsic MDR by sequestering protonated hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics away from their intracellular target sites. Here we show that intrinsic resistance to sunitinib, a hydrophobic weak base tyrosine kinase inhibitor known to accumulate in lysosomes, tightly correlates with the number of lysosomes accumulating high levels of sunitinib in multiple human carcinoma cells. Furthermore, exposure of cancer cells to hydrophobic weak base drugs leads to a marked increase in the number of lysosomes per cell. Non-cytotoxic, nanomolar concentrations, of the hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and mitoxantrone triggered rapid lysosomal biogenesis that was associated with nuclear translocation of TFEB, the dominant transcription factor regulating lysosomal biogenesis. This resulted in increased lysosomal gene expression and lysosomal enzyme activity. Thus, treatment of cancer cells with hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics and their consequent sequestration in lysosomes triggers lysosomal biogenesis, thereby further enhancing lysosomal drug entrapment and MDR. The current study provides the first evidence that drug-induced TFEB-associated lysosomal biogenesis is an emerging determinant of MDR and suggests that circumvention of lysosomal drug sequestration is a novel strategy to overcome this chemoresistance. PMID:25544758

  14. The Prescription Project promotes evidence-based

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Prescription Project promotes evidence-based prescribing and works to eliminate conflicts of interest in medicine due to pharmaceutical marketing to physicians. It is promoting policy change practicing physicians in the wider community. Where pharmaceutical industry marketing conflicts

  15. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  16. The Art of Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Pollio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of a self-identified evidence-based practitioner. Discussion of EBP includes choosing an initial intervention and evaluation procedures, the iterative process of rechoosing and refining an intervention over the treatment life span, and the importance of evi- dence within the specific clinical situation. Two illustrative case studies are

  17. Establishing CASA as an evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Jennifer; Berrick, Jill Duerr

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors examine the evidentiary status of the Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) program through a review of current research findings and a critical analysis of the study methodologies used to produce those findings. Due to the equivocal research findings and widespread methodological weaknesses (most notably selection bias) in the literature base, it is determined that there is not currently enough evidence to establish CASA as an evidence-based practice. In spite of the challenges to the feasibility of such research, a future research agenda is suggested that calls for the execution of large randomized controlled trials in order to produce findings that will inform a deeper understanding of CASA effectiveness in improving child outcomes. PMID:23879356

  18. Towards an evidence based health care management.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, R

    1998-01-01

    Inspired by the development of Evidence Based Medicine, this article introduces a new approach for health care management called Evidence Based Management. This approach promises to improve the practice of health care management, at the same time as it may stimulate research on the organization and management of health care. Evidence Based Management means that health care managers should learn to search for and critically appraise evidence from management research as a basis for their practice. This will require some new managerial skills that should be included in the education and training of health care managers. It will also require a new orientation for research on health care management. There will be a demand for more applied research, and also for research with a more positivist orientation. PMID:10346052

  19. Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    LeFebvre, Ron; Peterson, David; Haas, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based practice has had a growing impact on chiropractic education and the delivery of chiropractic care. For evidence-based practice to penetrate and transform a profession, the penetration must occur at 2 levels. One level is the degree to which individual practitioners possess the willingness and basic skills to search and assess the literature. Chiropractic education received a significant boost in this realm in 2005 when the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded 4 chiropractic institutions R25 education grants to strengthen their research/evidence-based practice curricula. The second level relates to whether the therapeutic interventions commonly employed by a particular health care discipline are supported by clinical research. A growing body of randomized controlled trials provides evidence of the effectiveness and safety of manual therapies. PMID:23875117

  20. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2015-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1) Bone-patellar tendon-bone reconstruction (BPTB-R) or hamstrimg reconstruction (H-R); 2) Double bundle or single bundle; 3) Allograft or authograft; 4) Early or late reconstruction; 5) Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6) Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE) search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II) of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years. PMID:25692162

  1. Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews,

    E-print Network

    Meng, Weiyi

    available, most appropriate evidence in the care of each patient, a practice known as Evidence-based Storage and Retrieval, Text-Mining, Evidence-Based Medicine. 1. Introduction The practice of Evidence-Based of these reviews including the Cochrane Collaboration (e.g., Adams, et al., 2008) and the Evidence-based Practice

  2. Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava B.; Davies, William

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based. PMID:25395740

  3. eEvidence: Information Seeking Support for Evidence-based Practice: An Implementation Case Study

    E-print Network

    Kan, Min-Yen

    eEvidence: Information Seeking Support for Evidence-based Practice: An Implementation Case Study an evidence-based practice resource collection with up-to-date coverage, and then apply automated Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise

  4. Psychiatric Mental Health Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Rice

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element

  5. Evidence-Based Practices and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

  6. Need for Evidence-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groccia, James E.; Buskist, William

    2011-01-01

    Educators believe that rather than being a mere possibility to improve as teachers, it is always "necessary" to improve. One way of improving teaching is to adopt teaching methods that are based on or supported by evidence of success in enhancing student learning. Most teachers base their instructional practices on tradition, the opinion of…

  7. Evidence-based practice: pediatric tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Karin P Q; Modi, Vikash K; Stewart, Michael G

    2012-10-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children in the United States. Indications and recommendations for perioperative management are multiple and may vary among clinicians. Although tonsillectomy is a safe procedure, it can be associated with morbidity. Several techniques have been developed to reduce perioperative complications, but evidence of this reduction is lacking. This article provides clinicians with evidence-based guidance on perioperative clinical decision making and surgical technique for tonsillectomy. PMID:22980686

  8. Evidence-Based Special Education in the Context of Scarce Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TEACHING Exceptional Children, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are supported as generally effective for populations of learners by bodies of high-quality and experimental research and, when aligned with stakeholder values and practical needs, should be prioritized for implementation. However, evidence-based practices are not currently available for all learner types in all…

  9. Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

  10. Crime prevention: more evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Garrido Genovés, Vicente; Farrington, David P; Welsh, Brandon C

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces a new section of Psicothema dedicated to the evidence-based approach to crime prevention. Along with an original sexual-offender-treatment programme implemented in Spain, this section presents four systematic reviews of important subjects in the criminological arena, such as sexual offender treatment, the well-known programme, the effectiveness of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions in reoffending and the fight against terrorism. We also highlight some of the focal points that scientists, practitioners and governments should take into account in order to support this evidence-based viewpoint of crime prevention. PMID:18206058

  11. Free Software Development. 3. Numerical Description of Weak Acid with Weak Base Titration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Horea Iustin

    2002-01-01

    The analytical methods of qualitative and quantitative determination of ions in solutions are very flexible to automation. The present work is focus on modeling the process of titration and presents a numerical simulation of acid-base titration. A PHP program to compute all iterations in titration process that solves a 3 th rank equation to find value of pH for was

  12. Evidence-based policy: rhetoric and reality.

    PubMed

    Raine, R

    1998-10-01

    Evidence-based policy has been hailed as the current zeitgeist in health care. Its intuitive appeal is clear but its implementation is problematic. This case study demonstrates the practical difficulties of using this approach for purchasing health care. New technologies suffer from limited knowledge about both their long-term benefits and their adverse effects. This undermines attempts to assess effectiveness and efficiency in local populations. Furthermore, the use of evidence should not be assumed to eliminate the need to apply value judgements, which has repercussions for the attainment of equity of access to health care. It is therefore unrealistic to view this approach as a panacea. Rather, evidence-based medicine should contribute to the decision-making process, in conjunction with other considerations such as equity and patient preference. PMID:10187206

  13. Evidence-based medicine for occupational health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Dijk van F. J. H; A. Malmivaara; C. T. J. Hulshof; K. Rasanen; E. Kankaanpaa; K. Mukala

    2002-01-01

    inusing medical subject headings, and unreliable search strategies. With the use of the abstracts only, most clinical questions could be answered satisfactorily, but concrete risk estimates were often lacking. The lack of availability of full text journals decreased the reliability of the critical appraisal and risk estimation. Conclusions Evidence-based medicine is a feasible and useful method for occupational medicine. Instruction

  14. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #798

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Evidence Based Education (EBE) #555 was in response to the request "Is there any new compelling research for turning around low-performing schools?" The articles included in that document are on target, but include articles through 2009. This EBE Request seeks to provide an updated review of recent research (2009-present) regarding school…

  15. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

  16. Statewide Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixsen, Dean; Blase, Karen; Metz, Allison; van Dyke, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based programs will be useful to the extent they produce benefits to individuals on a socially significant scale. It appears the combination of effective programs and effective implementation methods is required to assure consistent uses of programs and reliable benefits to children and families. To date, focus has been placed primarily…

  17. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  18. Evidence Based Research: Implications for Counselor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Amy E.; Biles, Kathy E.; Low, Lori L.; Nakazawa-Hewitt, M.; Windish, Bonnie L.

    For the past decade, the practice of evidence based research (EBR) in treatment decisions has been a standard in the medical field, and is quickly becoming a standard of practice in other human service fields. Counselor educators are faced with the necessity to begin to implement EBR into their teaching and scholarship, but have limited knowledge…

  19. Training Psychologists for Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hunsley

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-base practice (EBP) is now commonplace in many health care services and, in recent years, there has been a healthy debate about the role of EBP in psychology. In this article, I provide information on the nature of EBP and how it is consistent with professional training models and standards in psychology. In discussing some of the concerns that have

  20. Evidence-based practice: friend or foe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Breen

    1997-01-01

    Chiropractic is an increasingly-recognised health profession and systematic reviews of the effectiveness of manipulation for back pain are responsible for much of that recognition. Establishement on this basis, however demands that the profession learns to operate in the new clinical culture of evidence based practice if it is to progress. This calls for changes in emphases in education for self-monitoring

  1. Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. RappRichard; Richard J. Goscha; Linda S. Carlson

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 8 years, Kansas has been successful in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This paper describes\\u000a the strategies used at multiple levels of the mental health system including: state policy, provider agency management, fidelity\\u000a and outcome monitoring, supervisor training and support, and practitioner training. The challenges going forth are described.

  2. Updated Diagnoses and Evidence-based Treatments

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    . It is a brain disease over which the individual has no control. It is causedUpdated Diagnoses and Evidence-based Treatments for Addiction Carlton Erickson, Ph by brain dysregulaon iniated by drug use. #12;The main symptom of chemical

  3. Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzing, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain knowledge…

  4. Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

    2004-01-01

    The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

  5. Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

  6. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #510

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…

  7. Evidence-based practice in action.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Maura

    2002-08-01

    As Associate Editor for Journal of Pediatric Nursing (JPN), I will be assisting with evidence-based practice (EBP) submissions or other clinically based articles. I welcome questions, works-in-progress for constructive criticism, and finished submissions for review. This article comprises an overview of the EBP process, an EBP submission format for JPN, and 4 examples of EBP in a variety of pediatric clinical settings. PMID:12219333

  8. Hemispheric Differences in Strong versus Weak Semantic Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.

    2007-01-01

    Goals: Research with lateralized word presentation has suggested that strong ("close") and weak ("remote") semantic associates are processed differently in the left and right cerebral hemispheres [e.g., Beeman, M. j., & Chiarello, C. (1998). Complementary right- and left-hemisphere language comprehension. "Current Directions in Psychological…

  9. The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

  10. What Is Evidence-Based Behavior Analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysts often say they engage in evidence-based practice, they express differing views on what constitutes “evidence” and “practice.” This article describes a practice as a service offered by a provider to help solve a problem presented by a consumer. Solving most problems (e.g., increasing or decreasing a behavior and maintaining this change) requires multiple intervention procedures (i.e., a package). Single-subject studies are invaluable in investigating individual procedures, but researchers still need to integrate the procedures into a package. The package must be standardized enough for independent providers to replicate yet flexible enough to allow individualization; intervention manuals are the primary technology for achieving this balance. To test whether the package is effective in solving consumers' problems, researchers must evaluate outcomes of the package as a whole, usually in group studies such as randomized controlled trials. From this perspective, establishing an evidence-based practice involves more than analyzing the effects of discrete intervention procedures on behavior; it requires synthesizing information so as to offer thorough solutions to problems. Recognizing the need for synthesis offers behavior analysts many promising opportunities to build on their existing research to increase the quality and quantity of evidence-based practices. PMID:25729130

  11. The Weak-Map Order and Polytopal Decompositions of Matroid Base Polytopes

    E-print Network

    Kashiwabara, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    The weak-map order on the matroid base polytopes is the partial order defined by inclusion. Lucas proved that the base polytope of no binary matroid includes the base polytope of a connected matroid. A matroid base polytope is said to be decomposable when it has a polytopal decomposition which consists of at least two matroid base polytopes. We shed light on the relation between the decomposability and the weak-map order of matroid base polytopes. We classify matroids into five types with respect to the weak-map order and decomposability. We give an example of a matroid in each class. Moreover, we give a counterexample to a conjecture proposed by Lucas, which says that, when one matroid base polytope covers another matroid base polytope with respect to inclusion, the latter matroid base polytope should be a facet of the former matroid base polytope.

  12. From evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence: the idea of situated generalisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Simons; Saville Kushner; Keith Jones; David James

    2003-01-01

    Governments across the world are seeking improvements in school performance. One avenue to improvement that has been widely promulgated is the reform of teaching through the development of evidence-based practice. This paper reports evaluation data from a national programme in England that sought to put teachers at the heart of the search for evidence on which improvements in practice could

  13. Challenges to evidence-based medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Zarin; Julia L. Young; Joyce C. West

    2005-01-01

    Background The practice of evidence-based medicine depends on the availability of clinically relevant research, yet questions have been raised about the generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify differences between RCT patients and treatments and those in day-to-day clinical practice. Research Design Data from published reports of two key RCTs

  14. Modernism, Postmodernism and (Evidence-Based) Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Ramey; Sarah Grubb

    2009-01-01

    One dominant discourse in the mental health arena revolves around evidence-based practice (EBP). Although there is ongoing\\u000a debate about the implementation of EBP in the mental health field, most of these discussions have been limited to modernist\\u000a ideas. While discussions about EBP have occurred from alternate perspectives, particularly postmodernism, a lack of open dialogue\\u000a has resulted in these two groups

  15. Evidence-based practice: A challenge for European developmental psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Spiel

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the evidence-based practice movement has been seeing great gains in impact. Standards for research leading to evidence-based practice have been defined. So far, however, in the area of education standards of evidence are not extensively implemented and in most federal European policies an evidence-based reform has not been attained. The present paper advocates investing effort in evidence-based

  16. Evidence Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jhanjee, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic). Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs. PMID:24860208

  17. Evidence-based psychiatric nursing practice: Rhetoric or reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail W. Stuart

    2001-01-01

    The most desirable basis to substantiate clinical practice is the evidence of well-established research findings. Developing evidence-based care involves defining the clinical question, finding the evidence, analyzing the evidence, using the evidence, and evaluating the outcome. Practice guidelines and clinical algorithms are useful tools for applying research findings in a practical way. Other mental health professionals are actively incorporating an

  18. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  19. Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based-

    E-print Network

    Kan, Min-Yen

    Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based- Nursing Unit) Dr Emily Ang Deputy Quanzhen, RN Lin Qianqian (Front row) eEvidence: Evidence based care supported by Technology Paula M is determined by the nurses in clinical and community practice · Evidence available immediately at the point

  20. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  1. Psychiatric mental health evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Rice, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element focuses on the therapeutic relationship and clinical judgment associated with providing care. This column will address a clinical problem, define PICO questions, report knowledge base searches, and present existing evidence. Recommendations will be offered for potential interventions and suggestions for evaluating clinical outcomes. Nurses can no longer view clinical studies as academic exercises discarded on graduation and not applied to the clinical setting. Conscientiously applying what is known about treatments and interventions of ethical, if not legal, value is consistent with the professional definition of care. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(2), 107-111. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308315798. PMID:21665759

  2. Recovery of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M

    2013-02-01

    Consumer recovery is now enshrined in the national mental health policy of many countries. If this construct, which stems from the consumer/user/survivor movement, is truly to be the official and formal goal of mental health services, then it must be the yardstick against which evidence-based practice (EBP) is judged. From a consumer-recovery perspective, this paper re-examines aspects of services chosen for study, methodologies, outcomes measures, and standards of evidence associated with EBP, those previously having been identified as deficient and in need of expansion. One of the significant differences between previous investigations and the present study is that the work, writing, perspectives, and advocacy of the consumer movement has developed to such a degree that we now have a much more extensive body of material upon which to critique EBP and inform and support the expansion of EBP. Our examination reinforces previous findings and the ongoing need for expansion. The consumer recovery-focused direction, resources, frameworks, and approaches identified through the present paper should be used to expand the aspects of services chosen for study, methodologies, outcomes measures, and standards of evidence. This expansion will ultimately enable services to practice in a manner consistent with the key characteristics of supporting personal recovery. PMID:22830603

  3. Cost evaluation of evidence-based treatments.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jody L; Ball, Samuel A

    2010-12-01

    Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program's resources. PMID:22002453

  4. Hawaii's statewide evidence-based practice program.

    PubMed

    Mark, Debra D; Latimer, Rene'e W; White, Joan P; Bransford, Deborah; Johnson, Katherine G; Song, Valerie L

    2014-09-01

    Hawaii's innovative statewide evidence-based practice program facilitates practice change across multiple health care systems. The innovation eliminated duplicative efforts and provided resources, was compatible with the values of health care organizations, and had experience with a pilot program. Interpersonal and mass media communication promoted and embedded the practice change. Users included nurse champions with multidisciplinary team members. The rate of adoption varied across projects and, although resources seemed to be a major determinant of successful institutionalization, there does not seem to be a predictable pattern of successful project implementation. PMID:25155528

  5. Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE THOMPSON

    Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educa- tional interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tenta- tively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as re- gards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common

  6. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  7. Evidence for weak genetic recombination at the PTP2 locus of Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Bartolomé, Carolina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Maside, Xulio

    2015-04-01

    The microsporidian Nosema ceranae is an emergent pathogen that threatens the health of honeybees and other pollinators all over the world. Its recent rapid spread across a wide variety of host species and environments demonstrated an enhanced ability of adaptation, which seems to contradict the lack of evidence for genetic recombination and the absence of a sexual stage in its life cycle. Here we retrieved fresh data of the patterns of genetic variation at the PTP2 locus in naturally infected Apis mellifera colonies, by means of single genome amplification. This technique, designed to prevent the formation of chimeric haplotypes during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), provides more reliable estimates of the diversity levels and haplotype structure than standard PCR-cloning methods. Our results are consistent with low but significant rates of recombination in the history of the haplotypes detected: estimates of the population recombination rate are of the order of 30 and support recent evidence for unexpectedly high levels of variation of the parasites within honeybee colonies. These observations suggest the existence of a diploid stage at some point in the life cycle of this parasite and are relevant for our understanding of the dynamics of its expanding population. PMID:25052231

  8. Evidence-Based Resources for Public Health Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hatheway Simpson; Elaine Russo Martin; Sharon Telleen; Roger S. Luckmann

    2003-01-01

    Introduction\\u000aEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) for clinical medicine involves using the best evidence to care for individual patients. Evidence-based public health (EBPH) involves using the best evidence to develop public health policies and intervention programs. There are various EBM resources available to help clinicians sort through the vast amount of medical literature to find the best evidence for their practice needs,

  9. Evaluating Baccalaureate Occupational Therapy Education in Evidence-based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynette Isted; Jeannine Millsteed

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether graduates had implemented the evidence-based practice skills learnt in their baccalaureate course in their workplace. It clarifies our understanding of factors that influence delivering evidence-based practice in the workplace and the efficacy of evidence based practice courses introduced in higher education. It indicates whether education by itself solves the implementation riddle or if workplace factors

  10. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srihari, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  11. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  12. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies #12;#12;Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based

  13. The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

  14. Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    E-print Network

    Aliod, Diego Mollá

    practitioners to improve their effective practice of EBM. 2 Clustering for Evidence Based Medicine The ultimate and evidence- based summaries obtained from the "Clinical Inquiries" section of the Journal of Family PracticeClustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Sara Faisal Shash

  15. Weakly Supervised Learning of Part-Based Spatial Models for Visual Object Recognition

    E-print Network

    Field, David

    Weakly Supervised Learning of Part-Based Spatial Models for Visual Object Recognition David J,dph}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract. In this paper we investigate a new method of learning part- based models for visual object or configuration). This method learns both a model of local part ap- pearance and a model of the spatial relations

  16. An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy C. MacDermid

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

  17. Evidence for Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields over the Hellas, Chryse, and Acidalia Planitiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. O.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.; Cloutier, P. A.; Acuna, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    The Electron Reflectometer (ER) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected a plasma boundary between the ionosphere and the solar wind as the latter is diverted around and past the planet [Mitchell et al., GRL, 27, 1871, 2000; Mitchell et al., JGR, 106, 23419, 2001]. Above this boundary the 10-1000 eV electron population is dominated by solar wind electrons, while below the boundary it is dominated by ionospheric photoelectrons. This "photoelectron boundary", or PEB, is sensitive to pressure variations and moves vertically in response to changes in the ionospheric pressure from below and the solar wind pressure from above. The PEB is also sensitive to crustal magnetic fields, which locally increase the total ionospheric pressure and positively bias the PEB altitude. We have empirically modeled and removed systematic variations in the PEB altitude associated with the solar wind interaction, thus isolating perturbations caused by crustal magnetic fields. A map of the PEB altitude perturbations closely resembles maps of the horizontal component of the crustal magnetic field measured at 400 km by the MGS Magnetometer (MAG). We find a PEB altitude bias over the Hellas basin that is consistent with a horizontal magnetic field with an intensity of several nanotesla at 400 km altitude. This is compatible with upper limits to the horizontal crustal field strength set by MGS MAG measurements. Since there is no evidence for significant crustal magnetic sources within the basin from MAG data obtained during aerobraking [Acuna et al. Science, 284, 790, 1999] or from electron reflection data obtained in the mapping orbit [Lillis et al., this conference], the most likely explanation is that the observed horizontal field originates from sources around the Hellas perimeter. No detectable PEB or magnetic signature is observed over the younger Argyre and Isidis Basins. There is also evidence for a significant enhancement (several nanoteslas) in the crustal field strength over Chryse Planitia and much of Acidalia Planitia, which are thought to contain hundreds of meters of material from the main outflow channels on Mars [Carr, Lunar Planetary Sci., 18, 155, 1987]. These fields appear to extend northward from a group of crustal magnetic sources along the dichotomy boundary that were mapped by the MGS Magnetometer.

  18. Overview of Evidence-based Medicine: Challenges for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. McQueen

    2001-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been driven by the need to cope with information overload, by cost-control, and by a public impatient for the best in diagnostics and treatment. Clinical guidelines, care maps, and outcome measures are quality improvement tools for the appro- priateness, efficiency, and effectiveness of health ser- vices. Although they are imperfect, their value increases with the quality

  19. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  20. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja K. Schoenwald

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in evaluating its viability and validity, and implications for future research are described. Findings from

  1. Case-Based Reasoning in CARE-PARTNER: Gathering Evidence for Evidence-Based Medical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bichindaritz; Emin Kansu; Keith M. Sullivan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the CARE-PARTNER system. Functionally, it offers via the WWW knowledge-support assistance to clinicians responsible for the long-term follow-up of stem-cell post-transplant patient care. CARE- PARTNER aims at implementing the concept of evidence-based medical practice, which recommends the practice of medicine based on proven and validated knowledge. From an artificial intelligence viewpoint, it proposes a multimodal reasoning framework

  2. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  3. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  4. An Informatics Infrastructure Is Essential for Evidence-based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Bakken

    2001-01-01

    The contention of the author is that an informatics infrastructure is essential for evidenced-based practice. Five building blocks of an informatics infrastructure for evidence-based practice are proposed: 1) standardized terminologies and structures, 2) digital sources of evidence, 3) standards that facilitate health care data exchange among heterogeneous systems, 4) informatics processes that support the acquisition and application of evidence to

  5. Addressing Key Challenges in Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hunsley

    2007-01-01

    With its promise of enhancing the effectiveness of services, evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) appears to offer much to psychologists, patients, and policymakers. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the key challenges facing psychologists who wish to provide evidence-based treatment services, including how research evidence is used in EBPP, whether the results of the treatment research

  6. Evidence based practices are critical care nurses ready for it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Bucknall; Beverley Copnell; Kathleen Shannon; Dianne McKinley

    2001-01-01

    In the emergence of the evidence based practice movement, critical care nurses have struggled to identify scientific evidence on which to base their clinical practice. While the lack of critical care nursing research is a major concern, other important issues have significantly stalled the implementation of evidence even when it is available. A descriptive study of 274 critical care nurses

  7. Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

    2010-01-01

    This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

  8. Using Evidence-Based Principles in Clinical Practice

    E-print Network

    Storkel, Holly Lynn

    2004-01-01

    To help students better understand how to use evidence-based principles in clinical practice, Prof. Storkel is revising her SPLH 880 course so that students can access evidence from clinical research and apply it to specific patients....

  9. Variation, Certainty, Evidence, and Change in Dental Education: Employing Evidence-based Dentistry in Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinho, Valeria Coelho Catao; Richards, Derek; Niederman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Using a case-based dental scenario, presents systematic evidence-based methods for accessing dental health care information, evaluating this information for validity and importance, and using this information to make informed curricular and clinical decisions. Also discusses barriers inhibiting these systematic approaches to evidence-based

  10. Quantum random number generator based on the photon number decision of weak laser pulses

    E-print Network

    Wei Wei; J. W. Zhang; Tian Liu; Hong Guo

    2008-11-07

    We propose an approach to realize a quantum random number generator (QRNG) based on the photon number decision of weak laser pulses. This type of QRNG can generate true random numbers at a high speed and can be adjusted to zero bias conveniently, thus is suitable for the applications in quantum cryptography.

  11. Quantum random number generator based on the photon number decision of weak laser pulses

    E-print Network

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Tian; Guo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a quantum random number generator (QRNG) based on the photon number decision of weak laser pulses. This new type of QRNG can generate true random numbers at a high speed and can be set to zero bias conveniently, thus is suitable for the applications in quantum cryptography.

  12. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  13. Dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of terahertz vibration, and evidence for weak hydrogen bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2013-03-01

    A weak hydrogen bond (WHB) such as CH-O is very important for the structure, function, and dynamics in a chemical and biological system WHB stretching vibration is in a terahertz (THz) frequency region Very recently, the reasonable performance of dispersion-corrected first-principles to WHB has been proven. In this lecture, we report dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of the vibrational absorption of some organic crystals, and low-temperature THz spectral measurement, in order to clarify WHB stretching vibration. The THz frequency calculation of a WHB crystal has extremely improved by dispersion correction. Moreover, the discrepancy in frequency between an experiment and calculation and is 10 1/cm or less. Dispersion correction is especially effective for intermolecular mode. The very sharp peak appearing at 4 K is assigned to the intermolecular translational mode that corresponds to WHB stretching vibration. It is difficult to detect and control the WHB formation in a crystal because the binding energy is very small. With the help of the latest intense development of experimental and theoretical technique and its careful use, we reveal solid-state WHB stretching vibration as evidence for the WHB formation that differs in respective WHB networks A weak hydrogen bond (WHB) such as CH-O is very important for the structure, function, and dynamics in a chemical and biological system WHB stretching vibration is in a terahertz (THz) frequency region Very recently, the reasonable performance of dispersion-corrected first-principles to WHB has been proven. In this lecture, we report dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of the vibrational absorption of some organic crystals, and low-temperature THz spectral measurement, in order to clarify WHB stretching vibration. The THz frequency calculation of a WHB crystal has extremely improved by dispersion correction. Moreover, the discrepancy in frequency between an experiment and calculation and is 10 1/cm or less. Dispersion correction is especially effective for intermolecular mode. The very sharp peak appearing at 4 K is assigned to the intermolecular translational mode that corresponds to WHB stretching vibration. It is difficult to detect and control the WHB formation in a crystal because the binding energy is very small. With the help of the latest intense development of experimental and theoretical technique and its careful use, we reveal solid-state WHB stretching vibration as evidence for the WHB formation that differs in respective WHB networks The research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (Grant No. 22550003).

  14. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads to systematic, but in general small, corrections to earlier theoretical predictions describing the behavior of weak polyelectrolyte layers. However, polyelectrolyte uncharging results in a decrease in the concentration of counterions and inclusion of the Born Energy can result in a substantial decrease of the counterion concentration. The effect of considering the Born energy contribution is explored for end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers by calculating experimental observables which are known to depend on the presence of charges within the polyelectrolyte layer: inclusion of the Born energy contribution leads to a decrease in the capacitance of polyelectrolyte-modified electrodes, a decrease of conductivity of polyelectrolyte-modified nanopores and an increase in the repulsion exerted by a planar polyelectrolyte layer confined by an opposing wall.

  15. Study of weak vibrating signal detection based on chaotic oscillator in MEMS resonant beam sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huichao; Fan, Shangchun; Xing, Weiwei; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the application of weak signal detection based on chaotic oscillator is studied in a MEMS resonant beam sensor. Chaotic oscillator can detect weak signal which is submerged in the background of large noise. According to the frequency and phase characteristic of the output vibrating signal, reference current signal with fixed frequency difference and same phase to the output signal is set. Frequency and phase of the signal are fixed by detection resistor which works as a multiplier. By calculating the maximum Lyapunov exponent, detection threshold is obtained, and motion change of detection system is monitored. The results of numerical simulation and experiment show that this method can effectively detect the weak resonant signal and find the resonant frequency accurately by setting the threshold of the chaotic oscillator, and it is immune to the noise.

  16. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N2) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm.

  17. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N(2)) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm. PMID:25725879

  18. Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Simard, Stéphanie; Leclerc, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE) and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT. PMID:25431447

  19. Fundamental shortcomings of evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Govert; Achterhuis, Hans; Nijhof, André

    2003-01-01

    The development of any scientific theory has a certain logic. Bruno Latour formulated a theory, describing the development of science and technology. Outcomes of science are not guided by nature or "the truth", but by a complex negotiation. It starts with ideas, which follow paths of publications and assessment. Then they are either rejected or accepted. Analysing the development of evidence-based medicine with Latour's theory, we find two fundamental problems. First, EBM tends to standardise moral considerations. Second, EBM standardises the patient, since test populations are usually composed homogeneously. Presumptions concerning methods and morals are slid into the EBM-methodology during its development. With Latour we should say, that the conceptions of the standard patient and standard morals have been delegated to this methodology. They are carried out strictly, and this causes the discomfort with practitioners and scientists within EBM. A solution should be sought for in redesigning trials, in a less morally charged fashion, and concerning less standardised patients. PMID:14730800

  20. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. PMID:25579747

  1. APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin R. Mahrer; Frederick L. Newman; John C. Norcross; Doris K. Silverman; Brian D. Smedley; Bruce E. Wampold; Drew I. Westen; Brian T. Yates; Nolan W. Zane; Geoffrey M. Reed; Lynn F. Bufka; Paul D. Nelson; Cynthia D. Belar; Merry Bullock

    The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an in- tegration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes psychology's fundamental commitment to sophis- ticated EBPP and takes into

  2. Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

  3. Opening Pandora's Box: Evidence-based practice for educational psychologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Fox

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years evidence-based practice has become of central concern to health and social services in this country. The fundamental tenant is that there must be a clear link between professional practice and its research base. This paper outlines the concept of evidence-based practice and how it rests on the concept of good quality research -- defined as

  4. Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-based practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement ratings for evidence-based and nonevidence-based behavior management practices for children…

  5. Evidence-Based Elections Philip B. Stark

    E-print Network

    Stark, Philip B.

    Independence = VVPR + Compliance Audit Evidence = Strong Software Independence + Risk-Limiting Audit since? Risk-limiting Audit To pass, need convincing evidence that full hand count would find the same, no matter why. Risk is biggest chance of not correcting a wrong outcome. #12;Risk-Limiting Audits Required

  6. Need for evidence-based practice in prosthodontics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Statement Of Problem. Patients, their insurers, the courts, and the scientific community are demanding more evidence to support the effectiveness of health care strategies. Purpose. This article describes evidence-based practice, its origins, and value as a way of addressing the demand for evidence of treatment effectiveness in maxillofacial prosthetics. Material And Methods. A limited review of maxillofacial prosthetics literature was

  7. Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

  8. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hiroto; Kusano, Motoyasu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Joh, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Nakada, Koji; Nagahara, Akihito; Futagami, Seiji; Manabe, Noriaki; Inui, Akio; Haruma, Ken; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Yakabi, Koji; Hongo, Michio; Uemura, Naomi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-02-01

    General interest in functional gastrointestinal disorders is increasing among Japanese doctors as well as patients. This increase can be attributed to a number of factors, including recent increased interest in quality of life and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disease. Japan recently became the world's first country to list "functional dyspepsia" as a disease name for national insurance billing purposes. However, recognition and understanding of functional dyspepsia (FD) remain poor, and no standard treatment strategy has yet been established. Accordingly, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) developed an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for FD, consisting of five sections: concept, definition, and epidemiology; pathophysiology; diagnosis; treatment; and prognosis and complications. This article summarizes the Japanese guideline, with particular focus on the treatment section. Once a patient is diagnosed with FD, the doctor should carefully explain the pathophysiology and benign nature of this condition, establish a good doctor-patient relationship, and then provide advice for daily living (diet and lifestyle modifications, explanations, and reassurance). The proposed pharmacological treatment is divided into two steps: initial treatment including an acid inhibitory drug (H2RA or PPI) or prokinetics, (strong recommendation); second-line treatment including anxiolytics, antidepressants, and Japanese traditional medicine (weak recommendation). H. pylori eradication, strongly recommended with a high evidence level, is positioned separately from other treatment flows. Conditions that do not respond to these treatment regimens are regarded as refractory FD. Patients will be further examined for other organic disorders or will be referred to specialists using other approaches such as psychosomatic treatment. PMID:25586651

  9. Evidence-based medicine and the governance of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Kamradt-Scott, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The conventional response of governments to protect their populations against the threat of influenza has been to ensure adequate vaccine production and/or access to supplies of vaccines and antiviral medications. This focus has, in turn, shaped the global governance structures around pandemic influenza, with collective efforts centred on facilitating virus sharing, maintaining and increasing vaccine production, and ensuring access to pharmaceuticals - responses that remain unattainable for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the short to medium term. This paper argues that this emphasis on pharmacological responses reflects a particular view of biomedicine that pays inadequate attention to the weak capacity of many health systems. In more recent years, this dynamic has been further exacerbated by the influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) that preferences certain types of biomedical knowledge and practice. This paper explores the role that EBM has played in shaping the global governance of pandemic influenza, and how it has served to reinforce and reify the authority of particular groups of actors, including policy-makers, elected officials and the medical community. The paper concludes that only by unpacking these structures and revealing the political authority in play can alternative policy responses more appropriate to LMICs be considered. PMID:23030841

  10. The basis for evidence-based practice: evaluating the research evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurel Anne Clyde

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This article is based on a paper presented at the 2005 IFLA World Library and Information Congress. It brings together the findings to date of the author's research project on research quality, to address issues related to research quality as a basis for the use of research evidence in evidence-based practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methods used include a

  11. Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J Feise; Jaroslaw P Grod; Anne Taylor-Vaisey

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing

  12. The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Mimura; P Griffiths

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than

  13. Evidence-based practice in splinting the injured hand.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chu, Mary M L

    2002-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been practised in the early 1990s in the Western countries and its model has aroused interests in the Asian countries including Hong Kong in the late 1990s. The need for evidence-based practice was called upon by Sackett and his colleagues 14-16 mainly because of the exponential growth of new evidence of treatment effectiveness. There is a great demand for clinicians to search for the best evidence and to incorporate into the daily practice so as to ensure the best quality and standard of treatment. This paper is to review the development and process of evidence-based practice in the area of hand splinting for our local clinicians. Some major problems were identified in the delivery of clinical evidence-based practice, and suggestions have been made to overcome these problems with a view in supporting its model in the local clinical field. PMID:12596283

  14. The recovery of weak impulsive signals based on stochastic resonance and moving least squares fitting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kuosheng; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Tao, Tangfei; Gu, Fengshou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

  15. Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

    2006-01-01

    Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

  16. Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice. PMID:23056715

  17. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  18. A supercapacitor-based energy storage substation for voltage compensation in weak transportation networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Rufer; David Hotellier; Philippe Barrade

    2004-01-01

    A supercapacitive-storage-based substation for the compensation of resistive voltage drops in transportation networks is proposed. It allows to feed as a current source in any voltage conditions of the line. The system has been designed as a compensation substation to be placed at weak points like end-of-line stations, instead of additional feeding substations. A dedicated power-electronic converter with an associated

  19. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  20. A Product Integration Approach Based on New Orthogonal Polynomials for Nonlinear Weakly Singular Integral Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rasty; M. Hadizadeh

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides with a generalization of the work by Chelyshkov (Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 25(7): 17–26, 2006), who has introduced sequences of orthogonal polynomials over [0,1] which can be expressed in terms of Jacobi polynomials.\\u000a We develop a new approach of product integration algorithm based on these orthogonal polynomials including the numerical quadratures\\u000a for solving the nonlinear weakly singular

  1. Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

  2. Evidence-based Nursing Practice: To Infinity and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Tess M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an historical background for evidence-based practice and methods for assimilating research into practice. Information searching, systematic reviews, and other decision-making models are discussed using specific questions for establishing policy guidelines. Stresses the need for evidence-based practice implementing the best-known practices…

  3. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  4. Counting what counts: performance measurement and evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Booth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual and practical links between performance measurement and evidence-based library and information practice (EBLIP) and to identify lessons to be learned from evidence-based healthcare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a selective review of key writings in EBLIP for reference to performance measurement. Findings – The paper finds that performance measurement

  5. Developing the skills required for evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley French

    1998-01-01

    The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research

  6. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  7. Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rise in the use of the term "evidence-based practice" and a simultaneous increase in the variations in its definition and evaluation. Subsequently, this rise in interest for evidence-based practices has become a double-edged sword for practitioners--that is, while there are a number of interpretations on the…

  8. Joanna Briggs Institute: an evidence-based practice database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Malloy, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice Database offers systematic reviews, practice recommendations, and consumer information designed to support evidence-based practice. A sample search was conducted within the Ovid platform to demonstrate functionality and available tools. PMID:24180651

  9. Combination approach of highly conflicting evidence based on weighted distance of evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhicheng; He, Jiazhou; Qiao, Hui

    2013-10-01

    In order to fuse highly conflicting evidence effectively, a novel combination method based on weighted distance of evidence is proposed by taking the ideas of Murphy's averaging method and Deng's weighted averaging method. Firstly, the essentiality of each element in the frame of discernment is given by Murphy's idea. Secondly, the weighted averaging distance between any two bodies of evidence(BOEs) is calculated under the modified City Block distance norm, further the support degree of each evidence supported by other evidences can be obtained. Thirdly, the normalized total support degree of each evidence is considered as the weights of BOEs, and a new weighted averaging BOE will be gained. Finally, the information fusion process can be realized by using the Dempster's rule of combination. Simulation results show that the proposed method can deal with the highly conflicting evidence with better performance of convergence, and it also can recognize the target more effectively and fleetly.

  10. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

  11. Overcoming Challenges to Using Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy M. Schaeffer; Eric Bruns; Mark Weist; Sharon Hoover Stephan; Julie Goldstein; Yolanda Simpson

    2005-01-01

    The Center for School Mental Health Assistance at the University of Maryland recently completed a review of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs that can be used by school mental health clinicians. Based on the review, a school-based program operating in 22 Baltimore City schools has purchased and trained clinicians in a number of protocols for evidence-based interventions. We present findings

  12. Finding the Common Core: Evidence-Based Practices, Clinically Relevant Evidence, and Core Mechanisms of Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. SextonSusan; Susan Douglas Kelley

    2010-01-01

    Improving the quality of children’s mental health care can benefit from the adoption of evidence based and evidence informed\\u000a treatments. However, the promise of moving science into practice is hampered by three core elements that need to be addressed\\u000a in the current conversation among key stakeholders: (1) expanding our understanding of the clinical relevance of different\\u000a types of evidence, (2)

  13. From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

  14. Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Abeed Sarker Diego Molla

    E-print Network

    Aliod, Diego Mollá

    evidence-based summaries relevant to clinical questions. We approach this task as one of query-focused, ex that are most relevant to the expected evidence- based answer to a clinical query. We frame this task as oneExtractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Statistics Abeed Sarker

  15. Evidence-Based Elections Philip B. Stark

    E-print Network

    Stark, Philip B.

    audit to ensure the integrity of those records. Risk-limiting audit of the records to verify generated, and curated adequately since? Risk-limiting Audit To pass, need convincing evidence that full Certification vs Risk-Limiting Audits Question 1 In the lab, can the vote-tabulation system--as delivered from

  16. Archie Cochrane and his vision for evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hriday M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Archibald (Archie) Cochrane's most influential mark on healthcare was his 1971 publication, “Effectiveness and Efficiency.” This book strongly criticized the lack of reliable evidence behind many of the commonly accepted healthcare interventions at the time. His criticisms spurred rigorous evaluations of healthcare interventions and highlighted the need for evidence in medicine. His call for a collection of systematic reviews led to the creation of The Cochrane Collaboration. Archie Cochrane was a visionary person who helped lay down much of the foundation for evidence-based medicine. This paper will introduce evidence-based medicine to Plastic Surgery by tracing its history to the seminal efforts by Archie Cochrane. PMID:19730323

  17. NCLEX-RN success: evidence-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie H; Baker, Susan Scott

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based nursing requires that students think reflectively and use clinical inquiry to develop clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Likewise, nursing students need a strategy to be successful in passing the NCLEX-RN. The authors identify strategies based on nursing research to facilitate student success. While learning the evidence-based nursing process, the student must begin to think like a nurse while answering clinical practice questions. Using the skills taught for evidence-based nursing can be a powerful tool to approach the NCLEX-RN and succeed. PMID:22024676

  18. Evidence based practice: the practicalities of keeping abreast of clinical evidence while in training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Phillips; P Glasziou

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a practical account of why and how to learn to practise evidence based medicine while still in clinical training. It highlights practical benefits to learning the skills (such as passing exams, coping with information overload and helping patients), and explains how to manage each of the four essential steps (asking questions, acquiring information, appraising evidence, and applying

  19. Extending the evidence hierarchy to enhance evidence-based practice for substance use disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalie A. Tucker; David L. Roth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in the context of the developmental status of theory, research and practice on substance use disorders. Scope Hierarchical views that favor randomized con- trolled trials (RCTs) over other forms of evidence are reviewed, and the benefits and limitations of RCTs are considered as they intersect with contemporary issues in the field.

  20. Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Can We Have Better Evidence And More

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E. Fielding; Peter A. Briss

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches (those explicitly linked to the best available scien- tific evidence and reflecting community preferences and feasibility) are increasingly used to inform health policy decision making on the burden of a disease attributable to particular causes, interventions and policies that might work to confront those causes, and issues of community fit and feasibility. This paper introduces several tools for

  1. Evidence based dental care: integrating clinical expertise with systematic research.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

    2014-02-01

    Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the "gold standard" in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21(st) century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24701551

  2. Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Tuchman; Monique Lalane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education Assignment designed to promote a deeper, more comprehensive and critical understanding of the

  3. Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care

    PubMed Central

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries. PMID:22355229

  4. On evidence and evidence-based medicine: Lessons from the philosophy of science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya J. Goldenberg

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term “evidence-based medicine” has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that

  5. Applying Evidence-Based Medicine Principles to Hip Fracture Management

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L.; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury – sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) – but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion – all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients – to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

  6. Applying evidence-based medicine principles to hip fracture management.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury - sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) - but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion - all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients - to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

  7. Education and training in evidence-based urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Scales Jr

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  Urologists believe evidence-based clinical practice improves patient care. Competence in critical appraisal skills is necessary\\u000a to successfully implement evidence-based practice. However, practicing urologists, urology program training directors, and\\u000a residents have identified the need for urology-specific resources to promote competence in evidence-based practice. The objective\\u000a of this review is to identify urology-specific educational resources for critical appraisal skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The PubMed® database

  8. Developing the Skills Required for Evidence-Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Beverley

    1998-01-01

    Evidence-based practice, the ability to find and apply research evidence in health care practice, requires the ability to define the question, access information, make comparative analyses, and aggregate knowledge. Systematic research review should be part of nursing education. (SK)

  9. Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

  10. Can Evidence-Based Dental Health Care Assure Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Christopher A. G.

    1994-01-01

    It is suggested that evidence-based health care is appropriate in dental care delivery, and dental educators can play an important role in overcoming barriers to teaching and practice of this approach. Obstacles include misinterpretations, insufficient evidence, undeveloped critical appraisal skills, skepticism, inadequate time, and poor access to…

  11. Practice-Based Evidence--Overcoming Insecure Attachments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article examines educational psychologists' (EPs') engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use…

  12. Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

  13. What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

  14. Evidence-Based Practice in the Early Childhood Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Wesley, Patricia W., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is a decision-making process that integrates the best available scientific research evidence with family and professional wisdom and values. The editors argue that it has the potential to transform the services provided to children and families because it incorporates the "different ways of knowing" that characterize early…

  15. Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

  16. What Works? Evidence-Based Practice in Education Is Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempenstall, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There is a nascent movement towards evidence-based practice in education in Australia, evident in Federal and State education documents, if not in classrooms. Such a classroom-level outcome would require a number of conditions to be met. One of the critical requirements is that teachers be provided with knowledge and training in practices that…

  17. Evidence-Based Practice: A Potential Approach for Effective Coaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne R. Stober; David Drake

    As coaching develops as an emerging profession, it is vital for coaches to begin integrating evidence from both coaching-specific research and related disciplines, their own expertise, and an understanding of the uniqueness of each client. Evidence-based practice (EBP) encompasses these three endeavors in designing interventions aimed at positive growth and change for their recipients. While coaching does not have an

  18. Growth inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum by carboxylic acids: A mechanism based on uncoupling by weak acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro A. Herrero; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Brad Snedecor; Cynthia J. Tolman; Mary F. Roberts

    1985-01-01

    The inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum strains by acetate and other organic acids (propionate, butyrate) can be explained by a model based on the chemiosmotic theory and uncoupler action. It is proposed that the charged permeant species in the process of anion exclusion is the dimer HA-2. Evidence for this mechanisms is provided by 31P-NMR studies of whole cells and cell

  19. Experimental evidence of ageing and slow restoration of the weak-contact configuration in tilted 3D granular packings

    E-print Network

    Sébastien Kiesgen De Richter; Vladimir Zaitsev; Patrick Richard; Renaud Delannay; Gérard Le Caër; Vincent Tournat

    2010-11-08

    Granular packings slowly driven towards their instability threshold are studied using a digital imaging technique as well as a nonlinear acoustic method. The former method allows us to study grain rearrangements on the surface during the tilting and the latter enables to selectively probe the modifications of the weak-contact fraction in the material bulk. Gradual ageing of both the surface activity and the weak-contact reconfigurations is observed as a result of repeated tilt cycles up to a given angle smaller than the angle of avalanche. For an aged configuration reached after several consecutive tilt cycles, abrupt resumption of the on-surface activity and of the weak-contact rearrangements occurs when the packing is subsequently inclined beyond the previous maximal tilting angle. This behavior is compared with literature results from numerical simulations of inclined 2D packings. It is also found that the aged weak-contact configurations exhibit spontaneous restoration towards the initial state if the packing remains at rest for tens of minutes. When the packing is titled forth and back between zero and near-critical angles, instead of ageing, the weak-contact configuration exhibits "internal weak-contact avalanches" in the vicinity of both the near-critical and zero angles. By contrast, the stronger-contact skeleton remains stable.

  20. Coherent Random Fiber Laser Based on Nanoparticles Scattering in the Extremely Weakly Scattering Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Qun; Miao, Bo; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Gang; Chen, Yang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Qijin

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate the realization of a coherent random fiber laser (RFL) in the extremely weakly scattering regime, which contains a dispersive solution of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye pyrromethene 597 in carbon disulfide that was injected into a hollow optical fiber. Multiple scattering of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes NPs greatly enhanced by the waveguide confinement effect was experimentally verified to account for coherent lasing observed in our RFL system. This Letter extends the NPs-based RFLs from the incoherent regime to the coherent regime.

  1. Coherent random fiber laser based on nanoparticles scattering in the extremely weakly scattering regime.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Qun; Miao, Bo; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Gang; Chen, Yang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Qijin

    2012-12-21

    We demonstrate the realization of a coherent random fiber laser (RFL) in the extremely weakly scattering regime, which contains a dispersive solution of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye pyrromethene 597 in carbon disulfide that was injected into a hollow optical fiber. Multiple scattering of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes NPs greatly enhanced by the waveguide confinement effect was experimentally verified to account for coherent lasing observed in our RFL system. This Letter extends the NPs-based RFLs from the incoherent regime to the coherent regime. PMID:23368465

  2. Evidence-Based African First Aid Guidelines and Training Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stijn Van de Velde; Emmy De Buck; Philippe Vandekerckhove; Jimmy Volmink

    2011-01-01

    Stijn Van de Velde and colleagues describe the African First Aid Materials project, which developed evidence-based guidelines on administering first aid in the African context as well as training materials to support the implementation of the guidelines.

  3. Development and evaluation of online evidence based guideline bank system.

    PubMed

    Park, Myonghwa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the online evidence-based nursing practice guideline bank system to support the best evidence-based decision in the clinical and community practice settings. The main homepage consisted of seven modules for introduction of site, EBN, guideline bank, guideline development, guideline review, related sites, and community. The major contents in the guidelines were purpose, developer, intended audience, method of development, target population, testing, knowledge components, and evaluation. Electronic versions of the guidelines were displayed by XML, PDF, and PDA versions. The system usability were evaluated by general users, guideline developers, and guideline reviewers on the web and the results showed high scores of satisfaction. This online evidence-based guideline bank system could support nurses' best and cost-effective clinical decision using the sharable standardized guidelines with education module of evidence based nursing. PMID:17102227

  4. Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice in the Software Industrial Setting

    E-print Network

    Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice folklore; organizational culture; team practices; evidence-based and empirical software engineering. I]. The area calls for effective approaches to the dissemi- nation of empirical evidence into practice

  5. Evidence-based clinical practice: dispelling the myths.

    PubMed

    Hise, Mary E; Kattelmann, Kendra; Parkhurst, Melissa

    2005-06-01

    Evidence-based practice merges the best and most relevant clinical research data with clinician experience, pathophysiology of disease state, and the specifics of individual patient care. Currently, there is a significant gap between the best research evidence in healthcare and application of this evidence to clinician practices. Consistent with this finding, nutrition support is not always applied effectively or consistently, despite available scientific evidence that could be used to enhance a given treatment protocol. Cited obstacles that prevent the incorporation of research evidence into daily practice include lack of time, inadequate research skills, and information overload. Identification and application of the most valid primary research and evidence summaries (clinical guides to practice and meta-analyses) should, however, be an integral part of appropriate nutrition care. Consequently, it is important that clinicians develop and improve upon the basic skills required to allow efficient and accurate searches and evaluations of the literature. This review describes the basic and practical components of evidence-based medicine and provides tools to determine whether current nutrition practices are based upon an analysis of valid clinical evidence or anecdotal nutrition traditions and myths. PMID:16207666

  6. Breast abscess: evidence based management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Elaine; Chan, Tiffany; Wiseman, Sam M

    2014-07-01

    Literature review was carried out and studies reporting on treatment of breast abscesses were critically appraised for quality and their level of evidence using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy guidelines, and key recommendations were summarized. Needle aspiration either with or without ultrasound guidance should be employed as first line treatment of breast abscesses. This approach has the potential benefits of: superior cosmesis, shorter healing time, and avoidance of general anaesthesia. Multiple aspiration sessions may be required for cure. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter placement may be considered as an alternative approach for treatment of larger abscesses (>3 cm). Surgical incision and drainage should be considered for first line therapy in large (>5 cm), multiloculated, or long standing abscesses, or if percutaneous drainage is unsuccessful. All patients should be treated concurrently with antibiotics. Patients with recurrent subareolar abscesses and fistulas should be referred for consideration of surgical treatment. PMID:24791941

  7. Evidence-based medicine for diagnostic questions.

    PubMed

    Evers, Johannes L H; Land, Jolande A; Mol, Ben W

    2003-02-01

    When searching the medical care literature for evidence on a diagnostic test, three questions should be addressed each time a study is found: (1) Is this evidence about a diagnostic test valid? (2) Does the test accurately discriminate between patients who do and patients who do not have a specific disorder? (3) Can the test be applied to this patient who is right now sitting in front of me? We will discuss hysterosalpingography (HSG) as an example of a valid and accurate diagnostic test to be applied in a general population of subfertile couples to assess tubal patency (specificity 0.83). HSG is an unreliable test for diagnosing tubal occlusion however (sensitivity 0.65). If HSG were normal, other investigations could be pursued and diagnostic laparoscopy (LS) only performed if conception had not occurred by a later date. If HSG were abnormal, LS would be needed to confirm or exclude tubal occlusion. Patients with risk factors for pelvic or tubal disease, including an abnormal Chlamydia antibody test (CAT) and those showing abnormalities at pelvic examination, should proceed directly to LS because they are significantly more likely to have pelvic pathology. A completely different issue would be HSG as a prognostic test for the occurrence of pregnancy. In theory, the occurrence of pregnancy may be considered a gold standard; however, in reproductive medicine, with so many causes of subfertility other than tubal pathology, a diagnostic test for one single disorder, if normal, will never be able to accurately predict the eventual occurrence of pregnancy. PMID:12806555

  8. Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen P McEvoy; Marie T Williams; Timothy S Olds

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals\\/trainees in an Australian university. METHODS: The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects

  9. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge and Utilization among Social Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie D. Pope; Latrice Rollins; Josphine Chaumba; Ed Risler

    2011-01-01

    In this study the researchers examined the knowledge, skills, and use of Evidence-Based Practice in a sample of social workers from different practice settings. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a group of social work practitioners (N = 200). Participants in their 30s and 40s demonstrated the most knowledge and use of Evidence-Based Practice. In addition, a high

  10. Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries

    E-print Network

    Russell, Keith

    2008-01-01

    to information, and to data-driven decision making, anticipated the current movement toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. He suggests that libraries embrace the premises, philosophy, values, and practices of organizational development (OD... control over an ever-growing body of intellectual content and bibliographic information. Lancaster is one Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries Keith Russell LIBRARY TRENDS, Vol. 56, No. 4, Spring 2008 (“The Evaluation...

  11. Embracing change: evidence-based management in action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Greenwood; Marigold Cleeve

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – In recent years public libraries have increasingly been required to collect data for the assessment of their performance and to inform service developments. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative to promote an evidence-based approach to library management in a UK county library service. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper gives a definition of evidence-based librarianship and

  12. History and Development of Evidence-based Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Claridge; Timothy C. Fabian

    2005-01-01

    This article illustrates the timeline of the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The term “evidence-based medicine” is relatively new. In fact, as far as we can tell, investigators from McMaster’s University began using the term during the 1990s. EBM was defined as “a systemic approach to analyze published research as the basis of clinical decision making.” Then in 1996, the

  13. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith D. Cicerone; Cynthia Dahlberg; Kathleen Kalmar; Donna M. Langenbahn; James F. Malec; Thomas F. Bergquist; Thomas Felicetti; Joseph T. Giacino; J. Preston Harley; Douglas E. Harrington; Jean Herzog; Sally Kneipp; Linda Laatsch; Philip A. Morse

    2000-01-01

    Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Kalmar K, Langenbahn DM, Malec JF, Bergquist TF, Felicetti T, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Harrington DE, Herzog J, Kneipp S, Laatsch L, Morse PA. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for clinical practice. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1596-615. Objective: To establish evidence-based recommendations for the clinical practice of cognitive rehabilitation, derived from a methodical review of the scientific

  14. Evidence-Based Practice: Beyond Empirically Supported Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley B. Messer

    2004-01-01

    Must the clinician choose between a practice that is strictly objective and data based and one that is purely subjective and experience based? Optimally, practitioners need to follow a model of evidence-based psychotherapy practice, such as the disciplined inquiry or local clinical scientist model, that encompasses a theoretical formulation, empirically supported treatments (ESTs), empirically supported therapy relationships, clinicians' accumulated practical

  15. Reflection and Evidence-Based Practice in Action: A Case Based Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald De Vera Barredo

    Reflective practice and evidence-based practice are essential to clinical practice. The former provides a retrospective look at current practice and questions the reason for doing so. The latter provides the means by which best evidence can be used to make foundationally sound and clinically relevant decisions. This article demonstrates the utility of and the dynamics between reflective practice and evidence-based

  16. Developing Evidence-Based Practice: The Role of Case-Based Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. A. Edwards; Frank M. Dattilio; Dennis B. Bromley

    2004-01-01

    How can practitioners engage in evidence-based practice when the evidence for effectiveness of psychological treatments comes from randomized controlled trials using patient populations different from those encountered in everyday settings and treatment manuals that seem oversimplified and inflexible? The authors argue that important evidence about best practice comes from case-based research, which builds knowledge in a clinically useful manner and

  17. Towards Trustable Digital Evidence with PKIDEV: PKI Based Digital Evidence Verification Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunay, Yusuf; Incebacak, Davut; Bicakci, Kemal

    How to Capture and Preserve Digital Evidence Securely? For the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities that involve computers, digital evidence collected in the crime scene has a vital importance. On one side, it is a very challenging task for forensics professionals to collect them without any loss or damage. On the other, there is the second problem of providing the integrity and authenticity in order to achieve legal acceptance in a court of law. By conceiving digital evidence simply as one instance of digital data, it is evident that modern cryptography offers elegant solutions for this second problem. However, to our knowledge, there is not any previous work proposing a systematic model having a holistic view to address all the related security problems in this particular case of digital evidence verification. In this paper, we present PKIDEV (Public Key Infrastructure based Digital Evidence Verification model) as an integrated solution to provide security for the process of capturing and preserving digital evidence. PKIDEV employs, inter alia, cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and secure time-stamping as well as latest technologies such as GPS and EDGE. In our study, we also identify the problems public-key cryptography brings when it is applied to the verification of digital evidence.

  18. RFM-Based Block Adjustment for Spaceborne Images with Weak Convergent Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Huang, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    Block adjustment is one of the most important processing steps in topographic mapping. In order to achieve precise 3D photogrammetry points, the ratio of base-to-height(RBH) or the forward intersection angle(FIA) of stereo images should meet the requirement of specifications for topographic maps when the block images are used. In some fields, overlaps and ratios of base-toheight are often ignored, no gaps among the images are the basic requirements for block images. In this study we give a method to detect the forward intersection angle for homonymous points with RPCs, and create a indicator angler to reflect the level of weak convergence. In order to achieve stable and precise solver for block adjustment under the condition of weak convergence, this paper take the elevation value interpolated from DEM as observed values with errors, combine the height value and measured image coordinates to build adjustment model. The model can be steady solved in ill-pose situation and have little effects from the DEM errors. the model and the methods are validated by simulation and real data including optical ZY1-02C and TerraSAR images.

  19. Patch-based label fusion using local confidence-measures and weak segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastmeyer, André; Fortmeier, Dirk; Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Simon, Martin; Handels, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    A system for the fully automatic segmentation of the liver and spleen is presented. In a multi-atlas based segmentation framework, several existing segmentations are deformed in parallel to image intensity based registrations targeting the unseen patient. A new locally adaptive label fusion method is presented as the core of this paper. In a patch comparison approach, the transformed segmentations are compared to a weak segmentation of the target organ in the unseen patient. The weak segmentation roughly estimates the hidden truth. Traditional fusion approaches just rely on the deformed expert segmentations only. The result of patch comparison is a confidence weight for a neighboring voxel-label in the atlas label images to contribute to the voxel under study. Fusion is finally carried out in a weighted averaging scheme. The new contribution is the incorporation of locally determined confidence features of the unseen patient into the fusion process. For a small experimental set-up consisting of 12 patients, the proposed method performs favorable to standard classifier label fusion methods. In leave-one-out experiments, we obtain a mean Dice ratio of 0.92 for the liver and 0.82 for the spleen.

  20. Evidence-based medicine and epistemological imperialism: narrowing the divide between evidence and illness.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Helen; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been rapidly and widely adopted because it claims to provide a method for determining the safety and efficacy of medical therapies and public health interventions more generally. However, as others have noted, EBM may be riven through with cultural bias, both in the generation of evidence and in its translation. We suggest that technological and scientific advances in medicine accentuate and entrench these cultural biases, to the extent that they may invalidate the evidence we have about disease and its treatment. This creates a significant ethical, epistemological and ontological challenge for medicine. PMID:21815969

  1. Attacks on Science: The Risks to Evidence-Based Policy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Linda; Lee, Lore Jackson

    2002-01-01

    As government agencies, academic centers, and researchers affiliated with them provide an increasing share of the science base for policy decisions, they are also subject to efforts to politicize or silence objective scientific research. Such actions increasingly use sophisticated and complex strategies that put evidence-based policy making at risk. To assure the appropriate use of scientific evidence and the protection of the scientists who provide it, institutions and individuals must grow more vigilant against these tactics. Maintaining the capacity for evidence-based policy requires differentiating between honest scientific challenge and evident vested interest and responding accordingly, building and diversifying partnerships, assuring the transparency of funding sources, agreeing on rules for publication, and distinguishing the point where science ends and policy begins. PMID:11772749

  2. Information Technology and Evidence-based Practices: A Commentary on “Evidence-Based Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Gary R. Bond

    2008-01-01

    Congratulations to Rapp and his colleagues (2008) for a helpful explication of important factors in the implementation of evidence-based practices in Kansas. This article is the latest to appear from the National Evidence-based Practices Project (http:\\/\\/www.mentalhealthpractices.com). The steady flow of articles from that project will significantly expand the field’s empirical knowledge regarding the implementation of effective psychosocial interventions in mental

  3. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #791

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Would anyone in your network be aware of any states that might provide differentiated funding for virtual programs based on the model used--for example, curriculum-in-a-box vs. one with high student-teacher interaction? Are you aware of any research that examines what factors to consider when developing this type of differentiated funding? This…

  4. Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide

    E-print Network

    for the treatment of Alzheimer's? Clinical Pharmacology Online Micromedex Epocrates Online evidenceFinding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions ­ Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical

  5. 77 FR 40634 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Pretrial Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...organizational change principles (evidence-based practices) in achieving measurable...of a system informed by evidence-based practice. It defines a vision of...the capacity to implement evidence-based practices; Establish...

  6. 76 FR 57742 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices AGENCY: Substance...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a...

  7. Developing the evidence base for hygiene and emollient practices.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining skin integrity is an essential part of ensuring health and wellbeing in older people, and personal hygiene and emollient practices are central in achieving this aim. As nurses we are expected to deliver evidence-based care. However, there is a significant lack of evidence about how best we should provide day-to-day care that promotes skin health for older people. This article briefly examines the concept of evidence-based practice, reveals the gap in knowledge on skin hygiene and emollient practices for older people and justifies the need for a systematic review in this area. Finally it introduces a Cochrane protocol for a review that will collate and review existing knowledge and identify areas for future research. The application to practice of the new evidence generated either by the Cochrane review or by subsequent research is examined. PMID:25924756

  8. Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine: Supporting Decision-Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Price

    2000-01-01

    There is an implicit acceptance that an evidence-based culture underpins the practice of laboratory medicine, in part because it is perceived as the scientific foundation of medicine. However, several reviews of specific test procedures or technologies have shown that the evi- dence base is limited and in many cases flawed. One of the key deficiencies in the scientific literature on

  9. Implementation of Evidence-Based Mental Health Practice in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Beinecke

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) in mental health is generating much interest throughout the world. England is the world leader in EBPs. Key issues in implementing EBPs are summarized. Based on extensive interviews, EBPs and sources of information in the United Kingdom are reviewed, development of EBPs in the United States and the United Kingdom are compared, and the challenges of translating

  10. Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…

  11. Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Gambrill

    2006-01-01

    Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

  12. Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Is There a Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Loewy, Erich H.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, and traps to which evidence-based medicine (EBM) may lead and suggests that, to be ethically valid, EBM must be aimed at the patient's best interests and not at the financial interests of others. While financial considerations are by no means trivial, it is hypocritical – if not dangerous – to hide them behind words like “evidence” or “quality.” PMID:18092036

  13. Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest

    2011-01-01

    Background  With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they

  14. Evidence-based practice across the health professions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy Hoffman; Sally Bennett; Chris Del Mar

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice continues to be a growing influence in health education. It’s a powerful tool which can lead to more effective practice, promote communication and interdisciplinary healthcare, and improve the clinician’s knowledge and clinical reasoning skills. It’s the integration of clinical expertise and practice, with the best available research and evidence for the improvement of patient outcomes. The volume, diversity

  15. Promoting Evidence-Based Practice in Child Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Macdonald

    1998-01-01

    This article argues for the adoption of an evidence-based approach to decision-making in child protection. Such a change hinges upon the availability of good quality, up-to-date evidence that is readily accessible to practitioners and policy-makers. Following a resume' of the arguments for recognizing controlled trials as methodologically superior to other forms of methodology in evaluating professional interventions, the article presents

  16. Evidence-based emergency medicine at the 'coal face'.

    PubMed

    Than, Martin; Bidwell, Susan; Davison, Carol; Phibbs, Rebecca; Walker, Marg

    2005-08-01

    While evidence-based medicine may be trumpeted by zealots, managers and politicians, incorporating it into clinical practice is easier said than done. The present article aims to show that it can be achieved and gives some clinical examples to illustrate this. An appendix contains a summary of useful databases and websites for accessing good medical information and evidence, quickly and reliably near the bedside. PMID:16091095

  17. Implementing evidence-based treatment of manic and mixed episodes.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    Manic and mixed episodes can be challenging to treat despite published guidelines and algorithms. An alternative iterative approach that offers evidence-based treatment options at critical decision points may help to individualize care. Implementing such an approach begins with making a diagnosis and recognizing individual patient factors, weighing treatment options, and developing a menu of reasonable treatment choices based on the best available evidence. A critical review of the evidence is needed to ensure that interventions with the highest quality evidence are offered preferentially and that relevant individual factors are considered. Educating patients, negotiating treatment options, and selecting a pathway of care with the patient are important steps before initiating an intervention. After initiating an intervention, follow-up proceeds by measuring efficacy and adverse events with the aim of determining whether or not the patient is benefiting from treatment. Based on this knowledge, new individual factors are known and new evidence can be reviewed, so the cycle begins again. Using this iterative approach to treat patients with bipolar disorder in manic and mixed episodes promotes personalized care and relies on understanding the quality of evidence for the treatments commonly used to treat these phases of bipolar disorder. PMID:17029491

  18. Evidence-based history taking under “time constraint”

    PubMed Central

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Soltani, Akbar; Moosapour, Hamideh; Raza, Mohsin

    2011-01-01

    Physicians all through the world visit patients under time limitations. The most important troubled clinical skill under “time constraint” is the diagnostic approach. In this situation, clinicians need some diagnostic approaches to reduce both diagnostic time and errors. It seems that highly experienced physicians utilize some special tactics in this regard. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a relatively new paradigm for clinical practice stresses on using research evidences in diagnostic evaluations. The authors aimed to evaluate experts’ strategies and assess what EBM can add to these tactics. They reviewed diagnostic strategies of some veteran internists in their busy outpatient clinics and proposed an evidence-based diagnostic model engaging clinical experience and research evidence. It appears that every clinician utilizes a set of “key pointer” questions for decision-making. In addition to use of evidence-based resources for making differential diagnosis and estimating utility of various diseases, clinicians should use “key pointers” with significant likelihood ratios and from independent systems to reduce time and errors of history taking. Clinical trainees can improve their practice by constructing their own set of pointers from valid research evidences. Using this diagnostic model, EBM can help physicians to struggle against their “time constraint”. PMID:22091274

  19. Epidemiological evidence relating snus to health – an updated review based on recent publications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An earlier review summarized evidence relating use of snus (Swedish-type moist snuff) to health and to initiation and cessation of smoking. This update considers the effect recent publications on snus use and health have on the overall evidence. The additional evidence extends the list of neoplastic conditions unassociated with snus use (oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, lung) to include colorectal cancer and acoustic neuroma, and further undermines the weakly-based argument that snus use increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, although there is a report of poorer cancer survival in users. It remains undemonstrated that “snuff-dipper’s lesion” increases risk of oral cancer, and recent publications add to the evidence that snus use has no effect on periodontitis or dental caries. Although onset of acute myocardial infarction is not adversely associated with snus use, there is some evidence of an association with reduced survival. Whether this is a direct effect of snus use or a result of confounding by socioeconomic status or other factors requires further investigation, as does a report of an increased risk of heart failure in snus users. Even if some adverse health effects of snus use do exist, it remains clear that they are far less than those of smoking. PMID:24314326

  20. A design of multi-frequency and multi-channel weak signal data acquisition system based on DSP and FPGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhi Zeng; Kaibo Zhou; Tao Chen

    2010-01-01

    In order to extract the multi-frequency weak logging signal at ? V level from the strong background noise, a multi-frequency and multi-channel weak signal data acquisition system based on digital signal processor(DSP) and field programmable gate array(FPGA) is presented. The system took Analog Device's Digital Signal Processor ADSP21992 as a core and Actel's FPGA as a interface chip and realized

  1. Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Chen, G.; Clutter, Justace Randall; Sekaric, Jadranka; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.

    2012-08-14

    Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron T. Aaltonen,12,* V.M. Abazov,48,† B. Abbott,112,† B. S. Acharya,31,† M. Adams,78,† T. Adams,74...; published 14 August 2012) We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab...

  2. Effects of lysosomotropic weak bases on infection of BHK-21 cells by Sindbis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, S; Edwards, J; Brown, D T

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the lysosomotropic weak bases chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and amantadine as well as dansylcadaverine (an inhibitor of receptor mediated endocytosis) on the replication of Sindbis virus in tissue-cultured cells was examined. Chloroquine had no effect on the expression of virus-induced homologous interference. None of these drugs significantly affected the ability of a complex of a cell and single virion to form an infectious center. Chloroquine and ammonium chloride were found to inhibit the synthesis of virus RNA in established infections when added early in infection. These drugs also inhibited the production of progeny virions when added any time after infection. These results suggest that the antiviral activity of these agents may not be due to an ability to prevent transport of the virus genome into the cell cytoplasm. PMID:6492263

  3. [Evidence based of chemoradiotherapy in cervix carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Joly-Lobbedez, F

    2009-10-01

    Since 10 years, the combination of chemoradiotherapy has become a standard of treatment of the advanced localized cervical cancer. Two systematic reviews of the literature (including the results of the different clinical trials) have already been published. The aim of this article is to present the results of the recent meta-analysis based on individual patient data and to discuss the perspectives. This meta-analysis was rigorously designed: trials selected had the same control arm with the same radiotherapy without concomitant chemotherapy, the definition of the primary outcome (overall survival) was homogeneous and analysis was made in intent to treat. The results confirm the advantage in overall survival in favor of the chemoradiotherapy with an absolute 5-year overall survival benefit of 6% (60-66%) and 8% of 5-year disease-free survival (50-58%). Interestingly, even if cisplatin seems to be the most active drug, a significant advantage is also observed with no platinum chemotherapy. A polychemotherapy is not more active than a monochemotherapy and there was a suggestion of a difference in the size of the survival benefit with tumor stage. Larger benefits were seen for the few trials in which additional chemotherapy was administered after chemoradiotherapy, but results have to be confirmed by other clinical trials. Late toxicity was not well evaluated and a long-term follow-up of the patients is important to assess the real incidence of long-term side effects of the chemoradiotherapy and the impact on quality of life. New strategies combining new chemotherapy protocols or targeted therapy with radiation are promising but have to be evaluated in comparative clinical trials before use in routine. PMID:19695934

  4. Effectiveness of a short-course in improving knowledge and skills on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To assess the effectiveness (change in knowledge and skills measured by the Fresno test) of a short course in Evidence Based Practice (EBP) carried out in a group of family medicine residents Methods Before-after study. Participants' were 152 Family Medicine residents in their second year of the training programme. Settings were Primary Care Teaching Units in Catalonia. Intervention was comprised of a four half-day training course designed to develop the knowledge and skills required to practice evidence-based care. The main outcome measure was change in EBP knowledge and skills, measured using the Spanish version of the Fresno test (score range, 0-212) Results The mean difference between pre-test and post-test was 47.7, a statistically significant result with 95% CI of 42.8-52.5 (p < 0.0001). An important improvement was observed in the questions related to calculations such as sensitivity, specificity, the absolute risk reduction or the number needed to treat. A more modest increase was found in the residents' knowledge and skills in finding the best clinical evidence, and appraising the validity and applicability of an article. Finally, a weak and non-statistically significant improvement was found in formulating a clinical question. Conclusions The study provides evidence for responsiveness to changes in knowledge and skills in EBP after an educational intervention. PMID:21718496

  5. Evidence-based pain guidelines in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Newshan, Gayle; Staats, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in HIV treatment, pain continues to be a prevalent symptom experienced by persons living with HIV (PLWH) and is associated with sleep disturbance and lower quality of life. Ongoing assessments guide effective pain management. Substance abuse issues and concerns about diversion complicate pain treatment. We reviewed the evidence of current research related to pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion; studies of HIV neuropathy and pediatric populations were excluded. We limited the search to English language and human studies. While pharmacology-based interventions are widespread, their efficacy over the long term is questionable. Nonpharmacological therapies are promising and require further study. Aberrant behaviors related to opiates are common in PLWH; expert guidelines to address them are presented. A case study is included to illustrate an application of evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:23290371

  6. Fluoxetine: a review on evidence based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Andrea; Barraco, Alessandra; Donda, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Background Fluoxetine was the first molecule of a new generation of antidepressants, the Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). It is recurrently the paradigm for the development of any new therapy in the treatment of depression. Many controlled studies and meta-analyses were performed on Fluoxetine, to improve the understanding of its real impact in the psychiatric area. The main objective of this review is to assess the quality and the results reported in the meta-analyses published on Fluoxetine. Methods Published articles on Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases reporting meta-analyses were used as data sources for this review. Articles found in the searches were reviewed by 2 independent authors, to assess if these were original meta-analyses. Only data belonging to the most recent and comprehensive meta-analytic studies were included in this review. Results Data, based on a group of 9087 patients, who were included in 87 different randomized clinical trials, confirms that fluoxetine is safe and effective in the treatment of depression from the first week of therapy. Fluoxetine's main advantage over previously available antidepressants (TCAs) was its favorable safety profile, that reduced the incidence of early drop-outs and improved patient's compliance, associated with a comparable efficacy on depressive symptoms. In these patients, Fluoxetine has proven to be more effective than placebo from the first week of therapy. Fluoxetine has shown to be safe and effective in the elderly population, as well as during pregnancy. Furthermore, it was not associated with an increased risk of suicide in the overall evaluation of controlled clinical trials. The meta-analysis available on the use of Fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia nervosa shows that the drug is as effective as other agents with fewer patients dropping out of treatment. Fluoxetine has demonstrated to be as effective as chlomipramine in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder (OCD). Conclusion Fluoxetine can be considered a drug successfully used in several diseases for its favorable safety/efficacy ratio. As the response rate of mentally ill patients is strictly related to each patient's personal characteristics, any new drug in this area, will have to be developed under these considerations. PMID:14962351

  7. The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities available…

  8. EVIDENCE, EMOTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: THE LIMITS TO EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARIE FREIBERG

    While 'evidence-based' or 'rationalist' approaches to criminal policy may appeal to technocrats or bureaucrats, they often fail to compete successfully with the affective approaches to law and order policies which resonate with the public and which appear to meet deep-seated psychological needs. They also fail to recognise that 'policy' and 'politics' are related concepts and that debates about criminal justice

  9. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  10. Untangling the Evidence: Introducing an Empirical Model for Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research is the first to investigate the experiences of teacher-librarians as evidence-based practice. An empirically derived model is presented in this paper. Method: This qualitative study utilised the expanded critical incident approach, and investigated the real-life experiences of fifteen Australian teacher-librarians,…

  11. Evidence and Rigor: Scrutinizing the Rhetorical Embrace of Evidence-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce; Welner, Kevin G.

    2012-01-01

    The nation's lawmakers have frequently voiced the basic principle that important policy decisions should be evidence based. In this commentary, the authors describe the approach the U.S. Department of Education has taken in its Increasing Educational Productivity project. The authors argue that the department's actual practice in this instance has…

  12. Premenstrual syndrome. Evidence-based treatment in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Sue

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength of evidence for treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to derive a set of practical guidelines for managing PMS in family practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An advanced MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1990 to December 2001. The Cochrane Library and personal contacts were also used. Quality of evidence in studies ranged from level I to level III, depending on the intervention. MAIN MESSAGE: Good scientific evidence shows that calcium carbonate (1200 mg/d) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for PMS. The most commonly used therapies (including vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, and oral contraceptives) are based on inconclusive evidence. Other treatments for which there is inconclusive evidence include aerobic exercise, stress reduction, cognitive therapy, spironolactone, magnesium, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various hormonal regimens, and a complex carbohydrate-rich diet. Although evidence for them is inconclusive, it is reasonable to recommend healthy lifestyle changes given their overall health benefits. Progesterone and bromocriptine, which are still widely used, are ineffective. CONCLUSION: Calcium carbonate should be recommended as first-line therapy for women with mild-to-moderate PMS. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be considered as first-line therapy for women with severe affective symptoms and for women with milder symptoms who have failed to respond to other therapies. Other therapies may be tried if these measures fail to provide adequate relief. PMID:12489244

  13. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. PMID:25949261

  14. A Prototype System to Support Evidence-based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Seckman, Charlotte; Fisher, Cheryl; Hauser, Susan E.; Clayton, Jennifer; Thoma, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Translating evidence into clinical practice is a complex process that depends on the availability of evidence, the environment into which the research evidence is translated, and the system that facilitates the translation. This paper presents InfoBot, a system designed for automatic delivery of patient-specific information from evidence-based resources. A prototype system has been implemented to support development of individualized patient care plans. The prototype explores possibilities to automatically extract patients’ problems from the interdisciplinary team notes and query evidence-based resources using the extracted terms. Using 4,335 de-identified interdisciplinary team notes for 525 patients, the system automatically extracted biomedical terminology from 4,219 notes and linked resources to 260 patient records. Sixty of those records (15 each for Pediatrics, Oncology & Hematology, Medical & Surgical, and Behavioral Health units) have been selected for an ongoing evaluation of the quality of automatically proactively delivered evidence and its usefulness in development of care plans. PMID:18998835

  15. The professional clothing bank as evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, SueZanne Monique

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given. PMID:25661895

  16. Application of meta-analysis in evidence-based oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Lin; Qingsheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit and independent organization, dedicated to providing up-to-date\\u000a evidence-based information about the effects of healthcare in the form of systematic reviews. Meta-analysis is a statistical\\u000a tool to prepare the systematic reviews. This paper briefly introduces the above terms and how to apply evidence-based oncology.\\u000a Recent findings by using meta-analysis for cancers of the breast,

  17. Evidence-based interventions for neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacMullen, Nancy J; Dulski, Laura A; Blobaum, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to determine best nursing practice by systematically and critically reviewing the appropriate literature and expert guidelines. Using keyword and literature databases, over 480 journal titles were reviewed. Twenty-four articles and three expert guidelines were chosen. The majority of articles selected as evidence were Level IV--opinions of respected authorities based clinical experiences, descriptive studies, case reports, or reports of experts. Two articles were Level I-II--experimental studies. Results of the review showed that traditional supportive interventions also have a body of evidence for their use. Although there is much research regarding neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the majority of future research needs to be at a higher level of evidence. Nursing applications include obtaining evidence for best practice through diligent searches of the literature and expert guidelines. PMID:25269356

  18. The Four Cornerstones of Evidence-Based Practice in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilgun, Jane F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to place evidence-based practice within its wider scholarly contexts and draw lessons from the experiences of other professions that are engaged in implementing it. The analysis is based primarily on evidence-based medicine, the parent discipline of evidence-based practice, but the author also draws on evidence-based

  19. Advancing the evidence base in cancer: psychosocial multicenter trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is associated with significant distress and psychosocial morbidity. Although psychosocial interventions have been developed in an attempt to improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, there is continued debate about whether there is adequate high-level evidence to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. The evidence base is limited as a result of numerous challenges faced by those attempting to conduct psychosocial intervention trials within the health system. Barriers include insufficient participant recruitment, difficulty generalizing from single-trial studies, difficulty in building and managing research teams with multidisciplinary expertise, lack of research design expertise and a lack of incentives for researchers conducting intervention research. To strengthen the evidence base, more intervention studies employing methodologically rigorous research designs are necessary. Methods In order to advance the evidence base of interventions designed to improve psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients and survivors, we propose the formation of a collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of such interventions. Results Establishment of such a group would improve the quality of the evidence base in psychosocial research in cancer patients, by increasing support for conducting intervention research and providing intervention research training opportunities. A multidisciplinary collaborative group conducting multicenter trials would have the capacity to overcome many of the barriers that currently exist. Conclusions A stronger evidence base is necessary to identify effective psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. The proposed formation of a psycho-oncology collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions would assist in achieving this outcome. PMID:22992443

  20. Evidence-based practice principles: using the highest level when evidence is limited.

    PubMed

    Rice, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians providing psychiatric care are often faced with selecting interventions in areas of care for which there is limited scientific support, such as the information on traumatic stress responses and integrated care interventions. If they adhere to the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP), the lack of scientific support should not hamper clinicians from implementing the best EBP intervention. EBP interventions can be drawn from the literature provided clinicians accurately appraise the level of existing scientific knowledge. Regardless of the level of evidence, clinicians must discuss the recommended intervention, risks, benefits, and alternatives to achieve the best EBP outcome. PMID:22142980

  1. A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

  2. EditorialEvidence based library and information practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Maria J

    2011-06-01

    Whilst many of us engage in supporting clinicians in identifying, appraising and using evidence, how many of us adopt the same approach to our own work? A recent survey by the UK LIS Research Coalition indicated that 60% of respondents use research reports as a source of information whilst a similar proportion of health library respondents use professional events such as conferences as a source of information. This summer sees the 6(th) International Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP6) being held at the University of Salford, UK between 27(th) -30(th) June which will go some way to satisfying this latter information need whilst the Health Information and Libraries Journal can help satisfy the need for research reports. Whatever you're doing this summer, let's make it evidence based. PMID:21564491

  3. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. 314.610...610 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. ...provide substantial evidence of the effectiveness of these products only when:...

  4. 21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. 601.91...91 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. ...provide substantial evidence of the effectiveness of these products only when:...

  5. An Iterative Framework for EEG-based Image Search: Robust Retrieval with Weak Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Uš?umli?, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José del R.

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

  6. Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary column with weak cation exchange functionalities for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Aydo?an, Cemil; Tuncel, Ali; Denizli, Adil

    2012-04-01

    Polymethacrylate-based monolith with weak cation exchange functionalities was prepared in capillary column (i.d. 100 ?m, o.d. 375 ?m) by in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate and N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid in presence of porogens. The porogen mixture included N,N-dimethyl formamide and phosphate buffer. The preparation procedure of stationary phase contained the synthesis of monomer, silanization of capillary inner wall and in situ polymerization. The use of amino acid based monomer for the monolith synthesis is one of the originalities of this novel approach. N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid has two carboxyl functionalities. The separation of the solutes were performed at different acetonitrile/phosphate buffer and acetonitrile/sodium hydroxide contents. The applied voltage for the alkyl benzenes was changed between +5 and +30 kV. CEC separations of alkyl benzenes, acidic, basic, phenolic and some polycylic aromatic compounds were succesfully performed under capillary-electrochromatography mode with cathodic electroosmotic flow. PMID:22589162

  7. The role of evidence based medicine in neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, S; Ho, K M

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of evidence based medicine de-emphasised clinical experience and so-called "background information" and stressed the importance of evidence gained from clinical research when making clinical decisions. For many years randomised controlled trials have been seen to be the only way to advance clinical practice, however, applying this methodology in the context of severe trauma can be problematic. In addition, it is increasingly recognised that considerable clinical experience is required in order to critically evaluate the quality of the evidence and the validity of the conclusions as presented. A contemporary example is seen when considering the role of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurotrauma. Although there is a considerable amount of evidence available attesting to the efficacy of the procedure, considerable clinical expertise is required in order to properly interpret the results of these studies and the implications for clinical practice. Given these limitations the time may have come for a redesign of the traditional pyramid of evidence, to a model that re-emphasises the importance of "background information" such as pathophysiology and acknowledges the role of clinical experience such that the evidence can be critically evaluated in its appropriate context and the subsequent implications for clinical practice be clearly and objectively defined. PMID:25595956

  8. Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E.; Walker, Rheeda L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2005-01-01

    From diverse perspectives, there is little doubt that depressive symptoms cohere to form a valid and distinct syndrome. Research indicates that an evidence-based assessment of depression would include (a) measures with adequate psychometric properties; (b) adequate coverage of symptoms; (c) adequate coverage of depressed mood, anhedonia, and…

  9. Fostering Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambur, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice is impeded by low numbers of baccalaureate nurses, lack of critical perspectives toward research, the volume of information, and conflicting worldviews. Teaching strategies to address the challenge include fostering the ability to question and initiating teacher/student dialog. (SK)

  10. Orchidopexy for undescended testis in England: is it evidence based?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. McCabe; Simon E. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent evidence-based recommendations are that orchidopexy for undescended testis should be performed before 18 months of age. We examined hospital episode statistics data for all orchidopexies performed in England over a 9-year period to see how well this guideline was implemented in current practice and examine trends.

  11. Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimer, Christina

    2012-01-01

    In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

  12. Evidence-Based Therapies for Oppositional Behavior in Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. McMahon; Julie S. Kotler

    The primary purpose of this chapter is to present and critically evaluate current evidence-based interventions for oppositional behavior (OB) in young children. Children with OB are typically described by parents and teachers as argumentative, disobedient, disruptive, demanding, and defiant. We have operationalized “young children” as including children between the ages of 3 and 8, thus encompassing the preschool and early

  13. Evidence-Based Diagnosis: Incorporating Diagnostic Instruments into Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Amanda Jensen

    2005-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a practical guide for practitioners interested in incorporating evidence-based diagnosis (EBD) instruments into their clinical practices to refine the diagnostic process. Three measures are used to illustrate this process, the DISC-IV (Shaffer et al., 2000), the Schedule for Affective Disorders and…

  14. Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…

  15. Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

    2010-08-01

    Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

  16. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia Sarah-Lan Mathez a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean

  17. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  18. Evidence-Based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Dennis D.; Biglan, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior-influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of…

  19. Evidence-Based Practice Empowers Practitioners: A Response to Epstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Epstein makes a strong argument for the value of clinical data mining (CDM), although he minimizes some of the potential limitations in that methodology, such as attrition. Epstein's portrayal of evidence-based practice (EBP) as practitioner-bashing and treasuring intervention manuals overlooks the emphasis in the EBP process on the need for…

  20. Interteaching: An Evidence-Based Approach to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas Wade; Killingsworth, Kenneth; Alavosius, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes "interteaching" as an evidence-based method of instruction. Instructors often rely on more traditional approaches, such as lectures, as means to deliver instruction. Despite high usage, these methods are ineffective at achieving desirable academic outcomes. We discuss an innovative approach to delivering instruction…

  1. The Complexity of Evidence-Based Practice: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly M. Simmons

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses areas of complexity within evidence-based social work practice that she has encountered in her work with clients. The author offers an in-depth case study from her practice that involves the assessment and treatment of a client with a complicated diagnostic presentation. Clinical choices are discussed using a biopsychosocial framework that highlights the importance of

  2. Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Practice in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stewart E.

    2005-01-01

    This lead off article to the special volume on evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) in college and university counseling and mental health centers presents an overview of the topic and outlines the structure of this publication. A focus on EBP research and practice generally, and in institutions of higher education specifically, is provided for…

  3. Evaluating Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    The tactics adopted by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology have advantages in terms of literature coverage and providing data on multiple dimensions. Two suggestions to improve Task Force efforts are offered in terms of the specification of key outcomes and the use of effect sizes to gauge the impact and value of…

  4. Incorporating Evidence-Based Practice into the Macro Practice Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon M. Salcido

    2008-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed in preparing social work students to understand the paradigm of evidence-based practice (EBP). The infusion of EBP through training, course instruction, and assignments has the potential to enhance EBP knowledge acquisition in the macro practice curriculum. This article examines an approach to integrating EBP into the curriculum through a training model that is linked with

  5. Effect Size in Psychiatric Evidence-Based Practice Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Rice

    2009-01-01

    Developing evidence-based practice skills requires a familiarity with the language and terminology of clinical research. Few articles discuss concepts, such as effect size, that must be understood to determine if the findings of studies are clinically meaningful. Clinically meaningful results of studies are determined by the effect size of an intervention. The effect size of an intervention, such as cognitive—behavioral

  6. Evidence-Based Teaching: Now and in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William; Groccia, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of assembling this "New Directions in Teaching and Learning" volume was to introduce college and university teachers to a broad range of approaches that reflect evidence-based teaching (EBT). As each of the preceding chapters has shown, EBT not only can increase student learning across a variety of measures, it also can increase…

  7. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  8. Evidence-Based Practice for Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Jaquelyn Liss

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the status of evidence-based practice (EBP) for the treatment of students with eating disorders in university and college counseling centers. Several issues affecting the application of the research findings to service delivery for eating disordered students will be addressed. These include discussion of…

  9. Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Sara Cothren

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional techniques that meet prescribed criteria related to the research design, quality, quantity, and effect size of supporting research, which have the potential to help bridge the research-to-practice gap and improve student outcomes. In this article, the authors (a) discuss the importance of clear…

  10. Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

  11. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

    2013-01-01

    As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

  12. Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littek, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

  13. Is there an evidence-based practice for burns?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charmaine Childs

    1998-01-01

    Doublts and questions about clinical decision making need to be answered. Evidence-based medicine aims to provide answers by systematically finding information from the vast assortmment of research papers in the literature and bringing it together to use in everyday practice and in the best interests of the patient. Although clinical (and experimental) studies have a variety of methodologics, ranging from

  14. Developing Research Competence to Support Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lora E. Burke; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Susan M. Sereika; Susan M. Cohen; Mary Beth Happ; Janice S. Dorman

    2005-01-01

    This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy pro- grams, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the

  15. INTEGRATING EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND SOCIAL WORK FIELD EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya Edmond; Deborah Megivern; Cynthia Williams; Estelle Rochman; Matthew Howard

    2006-01-01

    The social work academic community is currently considering and critiquing the idea of evidence-based practice (EBP). Given the vital part that practicum education plays in the social work profession, understanding the views of field instructors on this subject is essential. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University surveyed 283 field instructors within 180 agencies and found

  16. Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

  17. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  18. How Evidence-Based Practices Contribute to Community Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Charles A. Rapp; Anthony M. Zipple

    2004-01-01

    Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In

  19. Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Given

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

  20. Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

  1. Evaluating Sensor Reliability in Classification Problems Based on Evidence Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huawei Guo; Wenkang Shi; Yong Deng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for sensor reliability evaluation in classification problems based on evidence theory (or the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions). The evaluation is treated as a two-stage training process. First, the authors assess the static reliability from a training set by comparing the sensor classification readings with the actual values of data, which are both represented

  2. Basing Cryptographic Protocols on TamperEvident Seals #

    E-print Network

    is a primitive based on very intuitive physical models: the sealed envelope and the locked box. These are often areas coated by an opaque layer (e.g., the possible prizes to be won are covered). The text under the opaque coating cannot be read without scratching o# the coating, but it is immediately evident

  3. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: A Regional Dissemination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)

  4. Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

  5. Implementing Evidence-Based Programs: Lessons Learned from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jane; Maley, Mary; Purington, Amanda; Schantz, Karen; Dotterweich, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based programs (EBPs) are used in many health promotion efforts to ensure that the intended positive behavioral and health outcomes will be achieved. However, because EBPs are developed and tested in research settings, the contextual elements of real world implementation play an important role in their successful delivery in communities.…

  6. Specific dermatoses of pregnancy: An evidence-based systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Kroumpouzos; Lisa M. Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We conducted an evidence-based systematic analysis of the literature on specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Study Design: The bibliographic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were screened for studies and reports in all languages about herpes gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy, and prurigo of pregnancy from January 1962 to January 2002. As main index terms,

  7. Green Cities | Cheap Change Evidence-Based | Math Sleuth

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    ResearchUC june 2011 Green Cities | Cheap Change Evidence-Based | Math Sleuth #12;CV UCResea, Kim Burdett, Katy Cosse, Dawn Fuller, Amanda Harper, Keith Herrell, Angela Koenig, Katie Pence, M on the system, not the patient 6 Metal Smith Quicker reactions from cheaper metals 10 Growing Green Cities

  8. Evidence-Based Rehabilitation Counseling Practice: A Pedagogical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how rehabilitation educators can aid students and practitioners in learning about and engaging in evidence-based rehabilitation counseling practice (EBRCP). Information describing (a) the definition and rationale for EBRCP, (b) controversies surrounding EBRCP, (c) facilitating rehabilitation counselor enthusiasm for EBRCP,…

  9. Teaching Evidence-based Medicine: Caveats and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, H. Gilbert; Lurie, Jon D.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses three caveats to the evidence-based paradigm in medical education: (1) detection of abnormalities that may not ever be overtly expressed inflates apparent diagnostic test performance; (2) probability revision is valuable primarily as an exercise to gain qualitative insights; and (3) patients are likely to be interested in more than just…

  10. Arbitrary Metrics: Implications for Identifying Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Research designed to establish the empirical underpinnings of psychotherapy relies heavily on arbitrary metrics, and researchers often do not know if clients receiving an evidence-based treatment have improved in everyday life or changed in a way that makes a difference, apart from the changes the arbitrary metrics may have shown. In other words,…

  11. Evidence-based review of interventions for medically at-risk older drivers.

    PubMed

    Classen, Sherrilene; Monahan, Miriam; Auten, Beth; Yarney, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To conduct an evidence-based review of intervention studies of older drivers with medical conditions. METHOD. We used the American Occupational Therapy Association's classification criteria (Levels I-V, I = highest level of evidence) to identify driving interventions. We classified studies using letters to represent the strength of recommendations: A = strongly recommend the intervention; B = recommend intervention is provided routinely; C = weak evidence that the intervention can improve outcomes; D = recommend not to provide the intervention; I = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the intervention. RESULTS. For clients with stroke, we recommend a graded simulator intervention (A) and multimodal training in traffic theory knowledge and on-road interventions (B); we make no recommendation for or against Dynavision, Useful Field of View, or visual-perceptual interventions (I). For clients with visual deficits, we recommend educational intervention (A) and bioptic training (B); we make no recommendation for or against prism lenses (I). For clients with dementia, we recommend driving restriction interventions (C) and make no recommendation for or against use of compensatory driving strategies (I). CONCLUSION. Level I studies are needed to identify effective interventions for medically at-risk older drivers. PMID:25005514

  12. Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Hovmand; David F. Gillespie

    2010-01-01

    Administrators of mental health services may expect evidence-based practice (EBP) to offer strategic benefits. Existing theory\\u000a suggests that the benefits of implementing EBP vary by organizational characteristics. This paper presents a conceptual framework\\u000a for considering how implementation impacts organizational performance. The framework is developed as a system dynamics simulation\\u000a model based on existing literature, organizational theory, and key informant interviews

  13. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. BoydStephen; Stephen G. McDonough; James W. Bodfish

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased\\u000a research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus,\\u000a the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based\\u000a practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in

  14. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DDoESSA)0.5 from electron spin resonance measurements.

    PubMed

    Santana, V T; Nascimento, O R; Djurado, D; Travers, J P; Pron, A; Walmsley, L

    2013-03-20

    X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a conducting free-standing film of polyaniline plasticized and protonated with di-n-dodecyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid (DDoESSA). The magnetic field was applied parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film. At around 75 K a transition is observed from Pauli susceptibility to a localized state in which the spin 1/2 polarons behave as spin 1/2 dimers. A rough estimation of the intradimer and interdimer exchange constants is obtained. Below 5 K, ESR data reveal a weak ferromagnetism with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector mainly oriented in the plane of the film. The existence of a relatively well-defined n-fold axis along the chain direction in the crystalline regions confers a symmetry compatible with such analysis. PMID:23423800

  15. Understanding the Evolution of NSAID: A Knowledge Domain Visualization Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chaomei

    in the practice of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). In this article, we describe a knowledge domain visualization-basedUnderstanding the Evolution of NSAID: A Knowledge Domain Visualization Approach to Evidence-Based in the medical literature? What is the big picture of all the available evidence? Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM

  16. Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

  17. Evidence-based practice in primary health care.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Anouk; Buyl, Ronald; Nyssen, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to describe primary care professionals' self-reported attitudes towards evidence-based practice (EBP), attention to information sources, perceptions of the barriers to EBP and strategies to improve insight in EBP and patient care. An e-mail invitation with link to an Internet-based survey was sent to Belgian medical doctors (MDs), nurses and paramedics. Under paramedics, we've included emergency medical technicians, firemen and medical volunteers (Red Cross). In general, respondents were supportive towards EBP and agreed that this concept improves patient care, but still, physicians claim that only 50% of their practice is evidence-based and nurses and paramedics spend respectively 59% and 54% of their time to EBP. Doctors depend mostly on clinical guidelines, the Internet and textbooks, while nurses prefer conferences and protocols and paramedics rely on courses and their own judgement. All respondents strongly rely on experimental knowledge gained through interaction with colleagues, although the majority reported that colleagues are often not supportive towards EBP. Lack of time, the overwhelming mass of literature, difficulties with implementation of evidence in to practice are the most common barriers. Nurses show lack of critical appraisal of research results and paramedics have difficulties understanding research and have limited access to computer facilities and their working environment. Communication in group and workshops are very highly valued. Nurses and paramedics are less reluctant towards the opinion of senior colleagues, audits on clinical practice and individual feedback than doctors. EBP generally enjoys a positive attitude at every level of the health care system, but still many obstacles have to be overcome to conquer 'experience-based practice'. The most appropriate method for actual implementation of evidence-based practice at all levels of health care is to provide summaries of evidence, easily understandable protocols and web-based databases accessible from the working environment. Students should not only learn the skills related to EBP, but should be able to integrate knowledge effectively in the clinical setting and routine care. Above all, their supervisors themselves need to evolve from 'experience-based' to evidence-based practice'. PMID:17108590

  18. Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

  19. Developing an evidence-based practice protocol: implications for midwifery practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Camacho Carr

    2000-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is defined and its importance to midwifery practice is presented. Guidelines are provided for the development of an evidence-based practice protocol. These include: identifying the clinical question, obtaining the evidence, evaluating the validity and importance of the evidence, synthesizing the evidence and applying it to the development of a protocol or clinical algorithm, and, finally, developing an evaluation

  20. Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care

    PubMed Central

    Feise, Ronald J; Grod, Jaroslaw P; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing education setting. Methods We developed and evaluated a continuing education workshop on evidence-based principles and methods for chiropractic practitioners. Forty-seven chiropractors participated in the training and testing. The course consisted of 12.5 hours of training in which practitioners learned to develop focused questions, search electronic data bases, critically review articles and apply information from the literature to specific clinical questions. Following the workshop, we assessed the program performance through the use of knowledge testing and anonymous presentation quality surveys. Results Eighty-five percent of the participants completed all of the test, survey and data collection items. Pretest knowledge scores (15-item test) were low (47%). Post intervention scores (15-item test) improved with an effect size of 2.0. A 59-item knowledge posttest yielded very good results (mean score 88%). The quality of presentation was rated very good, and most participants (90%) would "definitely recommend" or "recommend" the workshop to a colleague. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the continuing education course was effective in enhancing knowledge in the evidence-based approach and that the presentation was well accepted. PMID:16930482

  1. Basis of antimalarial action: non-weak base effects of chloroquine on acid vesicle pH

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, D.J.; Schlesinger, P.H.

    1987-03-01

    Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. This increase in pH results from two mechanisms, one of which is markedly reduced in chloroquine-resistant parasites. Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the delta pH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. The non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine on parasite vesicle pH are also responsible for its safety because these chloroquine concentrations do not affect mammalian cells.

  2. Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Aarons

    2004-01-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward organizational change have not been well studied. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into real-world settings represent organizational change that may be limited or facilitated by provider attitudes toward adoption of new treatments, interventions, and practices. A brief measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBPs was developed and attitudes were examined

  3. Evidence-based health information and risk competence

    PubMed Central

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Albrecht, Martina; Steckelberg, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Consumers and patients want to be included in decisions regarding their own health and have an ethically justified claim on informed decisions. Therefore, sound information is required, but health information is often misleading and based on different interests. The risks of disease and the benefits of medical interventions tend to be overestimated, whereas harm is often underestimated. Evidence-based health information has to fulfil certain criteria, for instance, it should be evidence-based, independent, complete, true as well as understandable. The aim of a medical intervention has to be explained. The different therapeutic options including the option not to intervene have to be delineated. The probabilities for success, lack of success and unwanted side effects have to be communicated in a numerical and understandable manner. Patients have the right to reject medical interventions without any sanctions. PMID:26195924

  4. Evidence-based behavioral interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Bodfish, James W

    2012-06-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat "lower order" RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for "higher order" behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

  5. The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Hecht, Debra B.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff…

  6. The Notion of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice by the Nursing Philosophy Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romyn, Donna M.; Allen, Marion N.; Boschma, Geertje; Duncan, Susan M.; Edgecombe, Nancy; Jensen, Louise A.; Ross-Kerr, Janet C.; Marck, Patricia; Salsali, Mahvash; Tourangeau, Ann E.; Warnock, Fay

    2003-01-01

    Addresses these questions: To what end is evidence sought? What is the nature of evidence? What kinds of evidence are valued by the nursing profession? and What kinds of evidence should underlie clinical decision making? (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  7. Secure Optical Networks Based on Quantum Key Distribution and Weakly Trusted Repeaters

    E-print Network

    David Elkouss; Jesus Martinez-Mateo; Alex Ciurana; Vicente Martin

    2013-04-15

    In this paper we explore how recent technologies can improve the security of optical networks. In particular, we study how to use quantum key distribution (QKD) in common optical network infrastructures and propose a method to overcome its distance limitations. QKD is the first technology offering information theoretic secret-key distribution that relies only on the fundamental principles of quantum physics. Point-to-point QKD devices have reached a mature industrial state; however, these devices are severely limited in distance, since signals at the quantum level (e.g. single photons) are highly affected by the losses in the communication channel and intermediate devices. To overcome this limitation, intermediate nodes (i.e. repeaters) are used. Both, quantum-regime and trusted, classical, repeaters have been proposed in the QKD literature, but only the latter can be implemented in practice. As a novelty, we propose here a new QKD network model based on the use of not fully trusted intermediate nodes, referred as weakly trusted repeaters. This approach forces the attacker to simultaneously break several paths to get access to the exchanged key, thus improving significantly the security of the network. We formalize the model using network codes and provide real scenarios that allow users to exchange secure keys over metropolitan optical networks using only passive components. Moreover, the theoretical framework allows to extend these scenarios not only to accommodate more complex trust constraints, but also to consider robustness and resiliency constraints on the network.

  8. Strong and weak lensing analysis of cluster Abell 2219 based on optical and near infrared data

    E-print Network

    J. Bezecourt; H. Hoekstra; M. E. Gray; H. M. AbdelSalam; K. Kuijken; R. S. Ellis

    2000-01-29

    We present a gravitational lensing study of the massive galaxy cluster A2219 (redshift 0.22). This investigation is based on multicolour images from U through H, which allows photometric redshifts to be estimated for the background sources. The redshifts provide useful extra information for the lensing models: we show how they can be used to identify a new multiple-image system (and rule out an old one), how this information can be used to anchor the mass model for the cluster, and how the redshifts can be used to construct optimal samples of background galaxies for a weak lensing analysis. Combining all results, we obtain the mass distribution in this cluster from the inner, strong lensing region, out to a radius of 1.5 Mpc. The mass profile is consistent with a singular isothermal model over this radius range. Parametric and non-parametric reconstructions of the mass distribution in the cluster are compared. The main features (elongation, sub-clumps, radial mass profile) are in good agreement.

  9. Strong and weak lensing analysis of cluster Abell 2219 based on optical and near infrared data

    E-print Network

    Bézecourt, J; Gray, M E; Abdel-Salam, H M; Kuijken, K; Ellis, Richard S

    2000-01-01

    We present a gravitational lensing study of the massive galaxy cluster A2219 (redshift 0.22). This investigation is based on multicolour images from U through H, which allows photometric redshifts to be estimated for the background sources. The redshifts provide useful extra information for the lensing models: we show how they can be used to identify a new multiple-image system (and rule out an old one), how this information can be used to anchor the mass model for the cluster, and how the redshifts can be used to construct optimal samples of background galaxies for a weak lensing analysis. Combining all results, we obtain the mass distribution in this cluster from the inner, strong lensing region, out to a radius of 1.5 Mpc. The mass profile is consistent with a singular isothermal model over this radius range. Parametric and non-parametric reconstructions of the mass distribution in the cluster are compared. The main features (elongation, sub-clumps, radial mass profile) are in good agreement.

  10. Quantitative use of weak bases for estimation of cellular pH gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Montrose, M.H.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    An improvement in the usual procedure for estimating cellular H+ gradients by distribution of weak bases is described, which involves evaluation of and correction for the permeability of the ionic form of the sensor. In the case of methylamine, unidirectional uptake (influx) of the methylammonium ion is calculated by comparing the total influx of (14C)methylamine with the influx of the highly permeant ion (14C)tetraphenyl-phosphonium ((14C)TPP+) for two experimental situations in which the membrane potential differs. Comparison of the potential-dependent changes in unidirectional influx of methylamine and TPP+ allows calculation of the magnitude of influx for the methylammonium ion. This value can then be used to determine the error in the H+ gradient as estimated from the steady-state distribution of methylamine across the plasma membrane. By using ATP-depleted isolated small intestine cells from the chick as the test system, and imposed H+ gradients of defined magnitude, it can be shown that the observed error matches the calculated error.

  11. Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan G. Cook; Melody Tankersley; Sanna Harjusola-Webb

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of special educators will be necessary for evidence-based practices to be implemented effectively and result

  12. Calibration Technique for Superfluid 4He Weak-Link Cells Based on the Fountain Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, E.; Packard, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-09-07

    Studies of superfluid 4He weak-links require calibration constants which permit the determination of the pressure and temperature differences which drive Josephson oscillations. We describe a technique for calibrating 4He weak-link cells in which a heater is used to induce fountain pressures detected by the deflection of a diaphragm. The technique determines the diaphragm spring constant, the inner cell volume, and the thermal conductance of the inner cells walls. This information is used to convert the measured deflection of the diaphragm into the total chemical potential difference across the weak link.

  13. Calibration Technique for Superfluid 4He Weak-Link Cells Based on the Fountain Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, E.; Packard, R. E.

    2006-09-01

    Studies of superfluid 4He weak-links require calibration constants which permit the determination of the pressure and temperature differences which drive Josephson oscillations. We describe a technique for calibrating 4He weak-link cells in which a heater is used to induce fountain pressures detected by the deflection of a diaphragm. The technique determines the diaphragm spring constant, the inner cell volume, and the thermal conductance of the inner cells walls. This information is used to convert the measured deflection of the diaphragm into the total chemical potential difference across the weak link.

  14. Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

  15. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  16. Evidence-based guideline update: Plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, I.; Chaudhry, V.; So, Y.T.; Cantor, F.; Cornblath, D.R.; Rae-Grant, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reassess the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of neurologic disorders. Methods: We evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review for relevant articles from 1995 through September 2009. In addition, due to revision of the definitions of classification of evidence since the publication of the previous American Academy of Neurology assessment in 1996, the evidence cited in that manuscript was reviewed and reclassified. Results and Recommendations: Plasmapheresis is established as effective and should be offered in severe acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)/Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and in the short-term management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is established as ineffective and should not be offered for chronic or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is probably effective and should be considered for mild AIDP/GBS, as second-line treatment of steroid-resistant exacerbations in relapsing forms of MS, and for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin A or immunoglobulin G gammopathy, based on at least one Class I or 2 Class II studies (Level B). Plasmapheresis is probably not effective and should not be considered for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin M gammopathy, based on one Class I study (Level B). Plasmapheresis is possibly effective and may be considered for acute fulminant demyelinating CNS disease (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of plasmapheresis for myasthenia gravis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infection, and Sydenham chorea (Class III evidence, Level U). PMID:21242498

  17. Therapeutic management of anal eczema: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Havlickova, B; Weyandt, G H

    2014-01-01

    Aim To conduct a systematic review of treatments for anal eczema (AE). Methods We conducted a Medline search for clinical trial data for the treatment of perianal diseases including AE, including papers not published in the English language. We assessed the study reports using the system recommended by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. No meta-analysis was attempted. Results The evidence base for topical treatments used to treat AE is very poor: there are very few studies and many of those that exist are of poor quality. The best evidence was found for medications that are yet to be licensed for AE. Among products with existing licences for the treatment of eczema, our assessment found some evidence to support the continued use of mild-to-moderate corticosteroids first line in most patients. Discussion Features of the perianal region, and the fact that it is almost always occluded, mean that not all medications recommended in the general treatment guidelines for eczema are appropriate for AE. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for these patients. This may in part be because of the lack of high-quality evidence-based medicine in this therapy area. Many frequently prescribed medications were developed and licensed many years ago, in an era when clinical trial design was not expected to be as rigorous as it is today. Conclusion This review highlights the need to conduct more high-quality clinical trials in patients with AE in order that specific guidelines for the management of this difficult proctological condition can be prepared. PMID:24898365

  18. History and development of evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Jeffrey A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2005-05-01

    This article illustrates the timeline of the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The term "evidence-based medicine" is relatively new. In fact, as far as we can tell, investigators from McMaster's University began using the term during the 1990s. EBM was defined as "a systemic approach to analyze published research as the basis of clinical decision making." Then in 1996, the term was more formally defined by Sacket et al., who stated that EBM was "the conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence from clinical care research in the management of individual patients." Ancient era EBM consists of ancient historical or anecdotal accounts of what may be loosely termed EBM. This was followed by the development of the renaissance era of EBM, which began roughly during the seventeenth century. During this era personal journals were kept and textbooks began to become more prominent. This was followed by the 1900s, during an era we term the transitional era of EBM (1900-1970s). Knowledge during this era could be shared more easily in textbooks and eventually peer-reviewed journals. Finally, during the 1970s we enter the modern era of EBM. Technology has had a large role in the advancement of EBM. Computers and database software have allowed compilation of large amounts of data. The Index Medicus has become a medical dinosaur of the past that students of today likely do not recognize. The Internet has also allowed incredible access to masses of data and information. However, we must be careful with an overabundance of "unfiltered" data. As history, as clearly shown us, evidence and data do not immediately translate into evidence based practice. PMID:15827845

  19. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:25745301

  20. Evidence-based practice, step by step: asking the clinical question: a key step in evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Susan B; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Williamson, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    This is the third article in a series from the Arizona State University College of Nursing and Health Innovation's Center for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and patient preferences and values. When delivered in a context of caring and in a supportive organizational culture, the highest quality of care and best patient outcomes can be achieved.The purpose of this series is to give nurses the knowledge and skills they need to implement EBP consistently, one step at a time. Articles will appear every two months to allow you time to incorporate information as you work toward implementing EBP at your institution. Also, we've scheduled "Ask the Authors" call-ins every few months to provide a direct line to the experts to help you resolve questions. Details about how to participate in the next call will be published with May's Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step. PMID:20179464

  1. Factors that influence effective evidence-based medicine instruction.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior. PMID:24180650

  2. Evidence-based practice: a model for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Rice, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews provide clear, unbiased evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Yet translating the interventions into the practice setting requires additional clinical skills and judgments extending beyond the scientific assessment of the EBP literature. Effective use of EBP interventions requires clinicians effectively answering an additional set of questions specific to the case and clinical context. These questions focus on correctly identifying the problem and increased level of specificity for any given situation. Using a clinical application of the PICO model, the clinician and the patient should be able to achieve a higher level of clinical outcomes. PMID:23950547

  3. Multicultural competence and evidence-based practice in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eric C; Kakkad, Dhruvi; Balzano, Julie

    2008-11-01

    The multicultural competence (MC) and evidence-based practice (EBP) initiatives have each generated healthy debates in the mental health field, with ample implications for clinical training and practice. Using two case illustrations, we highlight practical challenges and prospects in the intersection of MC and EBP. To facilitate complementary practice of MC and EBP, we offer strategies for the group therapist as a "local clinical scientist" to deliver culturally responsive treatments. We stress the importance of cultural adaptation of EBP models, namely, modifying evidence-based interventions that involve changes in service delivery, in the nature of the therapeutic relationship, or in components of the treatment itself to accommodate the cultural beliefs and behaviors of racial-cultural minority clients. Cultural adaptation of EBP in group therapy needs to be grounded in developmental contextualism and social justice. We discuss the two cases with an eye toward advancing multicultural competence in group therapy. PMID:18802951

  4. An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

  5. Evidence-Based Ethics for Neurology and Psychiatry Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: American bioethics, historically arising out of theology and philosophy, has been dominated by the method of normative analysis. Ethics as policy, however, requires in addition a solid evidence base. This paper discusses the background conditions that make neurotherapeutics research particularly challenging. Three key ethical issues are discussed within an evidence-based ethics framework: the ethical challenges arising from changes in the financial incentive structures for academic researchers and their institutions, the challenges of risk-benefit analysis for neurotherapeutics protocols testing innovative interventions, and the evolving issues surrounding impaired decision-making capacity and surrogate consent for research. For each of these issues, selected empirical data are reviewed, areas for further inquiry are noted, and the need for development of novel methods for bioethics policy research is discussed. PMID:15717040

  6. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AND POSITIVE EVIDENCE IN TASK-BASED INTERACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Iwashita

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the ac- quisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Austra- lian tertiary institution. Five different types of

  7. [Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health: evidence-based and pondering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Keji; Liu, Yue

    2014-06-01

    The correlation between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health is always one of the hotspots. Many scholars have performed so many clinical researches all over the world, providing evidence-based medicine (EBM) reference for clarifying their correlation. In this paper, we raise ideas and expectation on the basis of a Meta-analysis about vegetarian diets and blood pressure (published on JAMA Internal Medicine in Feb 2014) in combination of main clinical research literature in this field in recent 20 years. PMID:25046943

  8. Practitioner Attitudes Toward Evidence-based Practice: Themes and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy D. Nelson; Ric G. Steele; Jennifer A. Mize

    2006-01-01

     Abstract  The widespread successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into community mental health settings will require\\u000a a thorough understanding of practitioner attitudes toward these approaches. This study reports on the results of two community\\u000a mental health practitioner focus groups investigating attitudes toward EBPs, perceived challenges to implementing EBPs, and\\u000a recommendations for researchers interested in facilitating EBP use in community settings. The

  9. Evidence-based Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rosen; Matthew V. Decaro; Mark G. Graham

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a knowledge explosion in the field of cardiovascular diseases, in general, and in the understanding\\u000a of chronic heart failure (HF) as a complex neurohumoral syndrome in particular. A new staging system for chronic HF has been\\u000a developed within the last decade to facilitate the evidence-based prescription of medications and medical devices for each\\u000a of

  10. Patients and the Internet: guidance for evidence-based choices.

    PubMed

    Gregory-Head, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the uses of the Internet by the public to gather healthcare information. It reviews the types of information available and the pitfalls of random searches. It provides guidance for directed searches and advice for patients and practitioners seeking evidence-based sources. It discusses future directions and the growing responsibilities of professions to stay educated with regard to Internet technology. PMID:10506807

  11. Basic Elements for Conducting Evidence-Based Occupational Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Söderback

    \\u000a This chapter reports on methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions discussed in this handbook. The\\u000a content and the four steps that compose evidence-based interventions are described as well as the various methods for conducting\\u000a quality assurance. Assessment instruments represent the prerequisites for conducting evaluations of intervention effectiveness.\\u000a Therefore, their possible aims, psychometric functions, and the process of collecting

  12. Legacy of Avicenna and evidence-based medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammadali M. Shoja; Mohammad Reza Rashidi; R. Shane Tubbs; Jalal Etemadi; Feridoon Abbasnejad; Paul S. Agutter

    2011-01-01

    Although the term ‘evidence-based medicine’ (EBM) is of recent origin, its roots are generally agreed to lie in earlier times. Several writers have suggested that the 11th century CE physician and philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) formulated an approach to EBM that broadly resembles modern-day principles and practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the origins and influence of

  13. The Development of a Research Template to Assist Music Therapy Clinicians in Evidence-Based Practice

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Robin

    2009-04-23

    One of the most prevalent trends in healthcare today is the movement toward evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice requires that health care providers base their treatment decisions not only on their own professional experiences...

  14. Social construction and the evidence-based drug policy endeavour.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari

    2014-09-01

    'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug policy processes, how problems are constructed and represented, and the ways in which different voices and knowledge(s) come to bear on that process, we may begin to see avenues for reform which may not at present seem obvious. PMID:24491356

  15. Evidence-Based Care of Acute Wounds: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, Dirk T.; Brölmann, Fleur E.; Go, Peter M. N. Y. H.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Large variation and many controversies exist regarding the treatment of, and care for, acute wounds, especially regarding wound cleansing, pain relief, dressing choice, patient instructions, and organizational aspects. Recent Advances: A multidisciplinary team developed evidence-based guidelines for the Netherlands using the AGREE-II and GRADE instruments. A working group, consisting of 17 representatives from all professional societies involved in wound care, tackled five controversial issues in acute-wound care, as provided by any caregiver throughout the whole chain of care. Critical Issues: The guidelines contain 38 recommendations, based on best available evidence, additional expert considerations, and patient experiences. In summary, primarily closed wounds need no cleansing; acute open wounds are best cleansed with lukewarm (drinkable) water; apply the WHO pain ladder to choose analgesics against continuous wound pain; use lidocaine or prilocaine infiltration anesthesia for wound manipulations or closure; primarily closed wounds may not require coverage with a dressing; use simple dressings for open wounds; and give your patient clear instructions about how to handle the wound. Future Directions: These evidence-based guidelines on acute wound care may help achieve a more uniform policy to treat acute wounds in all settings and an improved effectiveness and quality of wound care. PMID:26005594

  16. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures

    PubMed Central

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joän

    2008-01-01

    Objective?To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology.?Method?Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.”?Results?Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above.?Conclusions?Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures. PMID:17905801

  17. Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

  18. Perspectives--A Problem in Our Field: Making Distinctions between Evidence-Based Treatment and Evidence-Based Practice as a Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kristie; Diel, James; Feder, Joshua; Lillas, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that the term "evidence-based treatment" (EBT) is often used synonymously with the term "evidence-based practice" (EBP) without making an important distinction. If a practitioner is applying an EBT, it should not be assumed that one is "practicing" the evidence. Within the infant-family and early childhood field, this confusion…

  19. Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

  20. Evidence-based development in nurse-led interprofessional teams.

    PubMed

    Pilon, Bonita; Ketel, Christian; Davidson, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Team-based care is often described as the best way to provide health care. However the effective use of teams in primary care is not yet prevalent in the US and nurse-led interprofessional collaborative teams are rare. Over the past three years the US Department of Health and Human Services has put great emphasis on the development of nurse-led interprofessional teams and this article describes the development of one such team in a primary care setting and the evidence base behind it. PMID:26014794

  1. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  2. Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Care to Ethnic Minority Communities: Has Its Practice Fallen Short of Its Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has contributed substantially to the advancement of knowledge in the treatment and prevention of adult mental health disorders. A fundamental assumption, based on documented evidence of effectiveness with certain populations, is that EBP is equally effective and applicable to all populations. However, small sample…

  3. Integration of Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saile, Lyn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; Kerstman, Eric; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A probabilistic decision support model such as the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes an immense amount of input data that necessitates a systematic, integrated approach for data collection, and management. As a result of this approach, IMM is able to forecasts medical events, resource utilization and crew health during space flight. METHODS: Inflight data is the most desirable input for the Integrated Medical Model. Non-attributable inflight data is collected from the Lifetime Surveillance for Astronaut Health study as well as the engineers, flight surgeons, and astronauts themselves. When inflight data is unavailable cohort studies, other models and Bayesian analyses are used, in addition to subject matters experts input on occasion. To determine the quality of evidence of a medical condition, the data source is categorized and assigned a level of evidence from 1-5; the highest level is one. The collected data reside and are managed in a relational SQL database with a web-based interface for data entry and review. The database is also capable of interfacing with outside applications which expands capabilities within the database itself. Via the public interface, customers can access a formatted Clinical Findings Form (CLiFF) that outlines the model input and evidence base for each medical condition. Changes to the database are tracked using a documented Configuration Management process. DISSCUSSION: This strategic approach provides a comprehensive data management plan for IMM. The IMM Database s structure and architecture has proven to support additional usages. As seen by the resources utilization across medical conditions analysis. In addition, the IMM Database s web-based interface provides a user-friendly format for customers to browse and download the clinical information for medical conditions. It is this type of functionality that will provide Exploratory Medicine Capabilities the evidence base for their medical condition list. CONCLUSION: The IMM Database in junction with the IMM is helping NASA aerospace program improve the health care and reduce risk for the astronauts crew. Both the database and model will continue to expand to meet customer needs through its multi-disciplinary evidence based approach to managing data. Future expansion could serve as a platform for a Space Medicine Wiki of medical conditions.

  4. Cochrane Lecture 1997. What evidence do we need for evidence based medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T

    1997-01-01

    As presently understood, evidence based medicine aims to advance practice from its traditional unverifiable mix of art and science to rational use of measurable inputs and outputs. In practice, however, its advocates accept uncritically a desocialised definition of science, assume that major clinical decisions are taken at the level of secondary specialist rather than primary generalist care, and ignore the multiple nature of most clinical problems, as well as the complexity of social problems within which clinical problems arise and have to be solved. These reductionist assumptions derive from the use of evidence based medicine as a tool for managed care in a transactional model for consultations. If these assumptions persist, they will strengthen reification of disease and promote the episodic output of process regardless of health outcome. We need to work within a different paradigm based on development of patients as co-producers rather than consumers, promoting continuing output of health gain through shared decisions using all relevant evidence, within a broader, socialised definition of science. Adoption of this model would require a major social and cultural shift for health professionals. This shift has already begun, promoted by changes in public attitudes to professional authority, changes in the relation of professionals to managers, and pressures for improved effectiveness and efficiency which, contrary to received wisdom, seem more likely to endorse cooperative than transactional clinical production. Progress on these lines is resisted by rapidly growing and extremely powerful economic and political interests. Health professionals and strategists have yet to recognise and admit the existence of this choice. PMID:9519124

  5. Expanding the domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice: the evidence based practice attitude scale-50.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Cafri, Guy; Lugo, Lindsay; Sawitzky, Angelina

    2012-09-01

    Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61-74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership. However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current study expands and further identifies additional domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice. A qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach was used to: (1) generate items from multiples sources (researcher, mental health program manager, clinician/therapist), (2) identify potential content domains, and (3) examine the preliminary domains and factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Participants for item generation included the investigative team, a group of mental health program managers (n = 6), and a group of clinicians/therapists (n = 8). For quantitative analyses a sample of 422 mental health service providers from 65 outpatient programs in San Diego County completed a survey that included the new items. Eight new EBPAS factors comprised of 35 items were identified. Factor loadings were moderate to large and internal consistency reliabilities were fair to excellent. We found that the convergence of these factors with the four previously identified evidence-based practice attitude factors (15 items) was small to moderate suggesting that the newly identified factors represent distinct dimensions of mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. Combining the original 15 items with the 35 new items comprises the EBPAS 50-item version (EBPAS-50) that adds to our understanding of provider attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20607597

  6. Evidence-based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some kernels may produce longer lasting behavioral shifts. The analysis of kernels could contribute to an empirically based theory of behavioral influence, augment existing prevention or treatment efforts, facilitate the dissemination of effective prevention and treatment practices, clarify the active ingredients in existing interventions, and contribute to efficiently developing interventions that are more effective. Kernels involve one or more of the following mechanisms of behavior influence: reinforcement, altering antecedents, changing verbal relational responding, or changing physiological states directly. The paper describes 52 of these kernels, and details practical, theoretical, and research implications, including calling for a national database of kernels that influence human behavior. PMID:18712600

  7. The Care and Feeding of Evidence Based Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wide interest in evidence based medicine (EBM) and its value in patient care, insurance payment decisions, and public health planning has triggered intense medical journal and media coverage that merits review, explanation, and comment. Published EBM data vary in quality for reasons that have been the subject of many perceptive literature reviews. Study design can be faulted, and conflicts of interest, personal and economic, can potentially bias study results and their publication. Practical guides for data evaluation are presented here, with discussion of technical and sociological issues that affect information quality and its clinical application. Clinical practice often appears to resist good evidence in making clinical choices. Personal views of some practicing physicians about EBM are presented that underlie the occasional difficulties in applying valid research information in patient care. Improvements in study design and publication standards may enhance the clinical application of evidence-based information. EBM guided practice holds promise to improve outcomes and expense, to standardize and streamline process in ways that make for much safer patient care. PMID:22532934

  8. Telemedicine framework using case-based reasoning with evidences.

    PubMed

    Sene, A; Kamsu-Foguem, B; Rumeau, P

    2015-08-01

    Telemedicine is the medical practice of information exchanged from one location to another through electronic communications to improve the delivery of health care services. This research article describes a telemedicine framework with knowledge engineering using taxonomic reasoning of ontology modeling and semantic similarity. In addition to being a precious support in the procedure of medical decision-making, this framework can be used to strengthen significant collaborations and traceability that are important for the development of official deployment of telemedicine applications. Adequate mechanisms for information management with traceability of the reasoning process are also essential in the fields of epidemiology and public health. In this paper we enrich the case-based reasoning process by taking into account former evidence-based knowledge. We use the regular four steps approach and implement an additional (iii) step: (i) establish diagnosis, (ii) retrieve treatment, (iii) apply evidence, (iv) adaptation, (v) retain. Each step is performed using tools from knowledge engineering and information processing (natural language processing, ontology, indexation, algorithm, etc.). The case representation is done by the taxonomy component of a medical ontology model. The proposed approach is illustrated with an example from the oncology domain. Medical ontology allows a good and efficient modeling of the patient and his treatment. We are pointing up the role of evidences and specialist's opinions in effectiveness and safety of care. PMID:26001421

  9. Detection of weak transient signals based on wavelet packet transform and manifold learning for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Jiang, Kuosheng

    2015-03-01

    The kurtogram-based methods have been proved powerful and practical to detect and characterize transient components in a signal. The basic idea of the kurtogram-based methods is to use the kurtosis as a measure to discover the presence of transient impulse components and to indicate the frequency band where these occur. However, the performance of the kurtogram-based methods is poor due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. As the weak transient signal with a wide spread frequency band can be easily masked by noise. Besides, selecting signal just in one frequency band will leave out some transient features. Aiming at these shortcomings, different frequency bands signal fusion is adopted in this paper. Considering that manifold learning aims at discovering the nonlinear intrinsic structure which embedded in high dimensional data, this paper proposes a waveform feature manifold (WFM) method to extract the weak signature from waveform feature space which obtained by binary wavelet packet transform. Minimum permutation entropy is used to select the optimal parameter in a manifold learning algorithm. A simulated bearing fault signal and two real bearing fault signals are used to validate the improved performance of the proposed method through the comparison with the kurtogram-based methods. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the kurtogram-based methods and is effective in weak signature extraction.

  10. The Question of Knowledge in Evidence-Based Design for Healthcare Facilities: Limitations and Suggestions

    E-print Network

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2013-07-01

    -mentioned distinctions. Rather, any emerging domain that wishes to use research-based evidence to inform practice must face these criticisms because the gap between research and practice in most fields 3 remains great. EBM itself continues to face these criticisms... evidence-based goals and objectives; 2) find sources for relevant evidence; 3) critically interpret relevant evidence; 4) create and innovate evidence-based design concepts; 5) develop a hypothesis; 6) collect baseline performance measures; 7) monitor...

  11. A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture WenQian Liu

    E-print Network

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture Research WenQian Liu , Charles L. Chen, Vidya studies. The first step is to collect evidence about practice in industry before design- ing relevant issues on evidence-based SE particularly on combining and using evidence, describe triangulation

  12. Building an Evidence Base for Speech-Language Services in the Schools: Challenges and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Kathleen A.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Mele-McCarthy, Joan A.; Staskowski, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists are faced with demands for evidence to support practice. Federal legislation requires high-quality evidence for decisions regarding school-based services as part of evidence-based practice. The purpose of this article is to discuss the limited scientific evidence for making appropriate decisions about speech-language…

  13. Weaknesses and improvements of an efficient password based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chi Ku; Shuai-Min Chen

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Chien et al. proposed an efficient remote authentication scheme using smart cards. However, we find that their scheme is vulnerable to a reflection attack and an insider attack. In addition, their scheme lacks reparability. Herein, we first show the weaknesses of Chien et al.'s scheme, and then propose an improved scheme with better security strength.

  14. A robust neural network based pulse radar detection for weak signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya V. Padaki; Koshy George

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a neural network capable of detecting targets with weak echoes in a pulse radar. This is possible as the network is designed as a pattern classifier (in contrast to earlier work) together with a suitable but simple pre-processing of the returns. We demonstrate through simulations that such a network exhibits better range resolution and noise

  15. Weak signal detection based on stochastic resonance combining with PSO algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhefei Hou; Jie Yang; Kecheng Wang; Yunpeng Wang

    2009-01-01

    In order to detect a weak signal under the condition of intensive noise, the signal and additive white noise were used as input of a bistable stochastic resonance (SR) system. The noise intensity and the system parameters were adjusted adaptively with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm by examining the SR effect on output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An improved numerical solution

  16. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome – an interdisciplinary evidence-based guideline

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flügge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Köllner, Volker; Kühn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbächer, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) of 1–2% in the general population associated with high disease-related costs and the conflicting data on treatment effectiveness had led to the development of evidence-based guidelines designed to provide patients and physicians guidance in selecting among the alternatives. Until now no evidence-based interdisciplinary (including patients) guideline for the management of FMS was available in Europe. Therefore a guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was developed by 13 German medical and psychological associations and two patient self-help organisations. The task was coordinated by two German scientific umbrella organisations, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany AWMF and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Pain Therapy DIVS. A systematic search of the literature including all controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of FMS was performed in the Cochrane Library (1993–12/2006), Medline (1980–12/2006), PsychInfo (1966–12/2006) and Scopus (1980–12/ 2006). Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford-Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Grading of the strengths of recommendations was done according to the German program for disease management guidelines. Standardized procedures were used to reach a consensus on recommendations. The guideline was reviewed and finally approved by the boards of the societies involved and published online by the AWMF on april 25, 2008: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004.htm. A short version of the guideline for patients is available as well: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004p.htm. The following procedures in the management of FMS were strongly recommended: information on diagnosis and therapeutic options and patient-centered communication, aerobic exercise, cognitive and operant behavioural therapy, multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homoeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients’ preferences. PMID:19675740

  17. Re-evaluation of heat flow data near Parkfield, CA: Evidence for a weak San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, P.M.; Saffer, D.M.; Harris, R.N.; Bekins, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Improved interpretations of the strength of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA based on thermal data require quantification of processes causing significant scatter and uncertainty in existing heat flow data. These effects include topographic refraction, heat advection by topographically-driven groundwater flow, and uncertainty in thermal conductivity. Here, we re-evaluate the heat flow data in this area by correcting for full 3-D terrain effects. We then investigate the potential role of groundwater flow in redistributing fault-generated heat, using numerical models of coupled heat and fluid flow for a wide range of hydrologic scenarios. We find that a large degree of the scatter in the data can be accounted for by 3-D terrain effects, and that for plausible groundwater flow scenarios frictional heat generated along a strong fault is unlikely to be redistributed by topographically-driven groundwater flow in a manner consistent with the 3-D corrected data. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: Novel Performance Based Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Samantha; Yiend, Jenny; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tchanturia, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is limited by a reliance upon self-report measures. This study used novel performance based measures to investigate whether there is behavioural evidence for elevated perfectionism in AN. 153 participants took part in the study – 81 with a diagnosis of AN and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants completed two performance based tasks assessing perfectionism – a text replication task and a bead sorting task – along with self-report measures of perfectionism. Significant group differences were observed on both tasks. In the text replication task the AN group took significantly longer compared with healthy controls (p?=?0.03, d?=?0.36) and produced significantly higher quality copies (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). In the bead sorting task, there was a trend towards more participants in the AN group choosing to check their work compared with the HC group (p?=?0.07, d?=?0.30) and the AN group took significantly longer checking than those in the HC group (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). Only copy quality uniquely predicted scores on self report measures of perfectionism. This study provides empirically tested evidence of elevated performance based perfectionism in AN compared with a healthy control group. PMID:25360690

  19. Hip fracture surgery: improving the quality of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M A; Griffin, X L; Costa, M L

    2015-07-01

    Hip fracture is a common injury associated with high mortality, long-term disability and huge socio-economic burden. Yet there has been relatively little research into best treatment, and evidence that has been generated has often been criticised for its poor quality. Here, we discuss the advances made towards overcoming these criticisms and the future directions for hip fracture research: how co-ordinating existing national infrastructures and use of now established clinical research networks will likely go some way towards overcoming the practical and financial challenges of conducting large trials. We highlight the importance of large collaborative pragmatic trials to inform decision/policy makers and the progress made towards reaching a consensus on a core outcome set to facilitate data pooling for evidence synthesis and meta-analysis. These advances and future directions are a priority in order to establish the high-quality evidence base required for this important group of patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:875-9. PMID:26130339

  20. Implications of evidence-based practice for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jacklin E; Happell, Brenda

    2009-06-01

    The introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) and the hierarchical approach to evidence it engenders within research and evaluation has aroused controversy in the mental health professions. The aim of this paper is to present a critique of EBP with a specific relationship to mental health nursing. It will be argued that in its current form, EBP presents a potential impediment to the facilitation of consumer participation in mental health services and to the recovery model. The need for the consumer voice and the importance of the lived experience of mental illness are not readily reconciled with a strong scientific paradigm that promotes detachment and objectivity. The importance of evidence in contemporary mental health care will also be acknowledged and discussed in light of the current climate of increased consumer knowledge, fiscal constraint, and extensive social criticism of mental health-care services. The current approach to EBP requires reconstruction to support the consumer-focused nature of mental health nursing, and to facilitate the implementation of a recovery model for mental health care. PMID:19490228

  1. Evidence based abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed

    2013-07-01

    A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies. PMID:24660339

  2. Factors influencing evidence-based practice for community nurses.

    PubMed

    Baird, Lisa M Garland; Miller, Tess

    2015-05-01

    Factors influencing the development of evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) were examined in Prince Edward Island, Canada. An adapted electronic questionnaire was distributed to practicing registered nurses and nurse practitioners (n=68). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between nurses' clinical practice setting and the EBNP scale. Significant differences were also found between age and education level when compared with the EBNP subscales where novice nurses were less likely to rely on experience and intuition, and expert nurses with a higher level of education reported being more skilful at synthesising and applying information from research findings into their nursing practice. PMID:25993372

  3. Short Interpregnancy Intervals: An Evidence-Based Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine A; Bryant, Allison S

    2015-07-01

    The interpregnancy interval (IPI) is the period of time between one birth outcome (live birth, miscarriage, stillbirth, or abortion) and conception of a subsequent pregnancy. Short IPI has been associated with obstetric, fetal, and maternal morbidity. While the literature has largely supported an ideal IPI of 18 to 23 months after live birth to minimize morbidity in a subsequent pregnancy, there are few references that can guide clinicians counseling patients about IPI after other pregnancy outcomes. In this article, we attempt to review, synthesize, and provide evidence-based IPI recommendations using the available literature. PMID:26185917

  4. Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing

    PubMed Central

    Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C.; Allen, Margaret (Peg)

    2014-01-01

    The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles. PMID:24860267

  5. Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-05-01

    The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Evidence-based practice: best imaging practice in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Shuaib, Waqas; Evans, Dian Dowling; Swain, Freddie Rodriguez; Alweis, Richard; Mehta, Ajeet Singh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    As musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause of emergency department visits in the United States, it is vital for nurses and nurse practitioners to understand the decision rules for ordering imaging tests when triaging patients with musculoskeletal complaints. Proper knowledge and command of selecting the most appropriate imaging for these frequent emergency department presentations will help reduce costs, decrease ionizing radiation exposure, and increase patient throughput. This article reviews the current evidence-based literature for musculoskeletal imaging in the emergency department and discusses the epidemiology, etiology, management, and prevention of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25023840

  7. Staff nurses creating safe passage with evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Dora; Dixon, John F

    2009-03-01

    Patient safety is one of the most critical issues for health care today. The escalating need to decrease preventable complications serves as a significant catalyst to identify and use evidence-based practice (EBP) at the bedside. Decreasing preventable complications requires a synergistic relationship between the nurses at the bedside and nursing leadership. This article presents an overview of the concepts and the specific structures and processes used at Baylor Health Care System to increase the use of EBP and improve patient safety. PMID:19167550

  8. NLM Evidence-based Information at Your Fingertips - NBNA

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, R.

    2010-08-06

    The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.

  9. The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Aarons; David H. Sommerfeld; Debra B. Hecht; Jane F. Silovsky; Mark J. Chaffin

    2009-01-01

    Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff retention in a children's services system. The study took place in the context

  10. The Move to Evidence-Based Practice: How Well Does it Fit Child Welfare Services?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Barth

    2008-01-01

    Child welfare services are engaged in examining and applying concepts from evidence-based practice. This article provides background on evidence-based practice in child welfare and suggests the areas of least and greatest fit between the methods of evidence-based practice and child welfare services. Implications for the emergence of more evidence-based approaches to child welfare services are forwarded. Suggestions for social work

  11. Detection of weak forces based on noise-activated switching in bistable optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, Samuel; Bruder, Christoph; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    We propose to use cavity optomechanical systems in the regime of optical bistability for the detection of weak harmonic forces. Due to the optomechanical coupling an external force on the mechanical oscillator modulates the resonance frequency of the cavity and consequently the switching rates between the two bistable branches. A large difference in the cavity output fields then leads to a strongly amplified homodyne signal. We determine the switching rates as a function of the cavity detuning from extensive numerical simulations of the stochastic master equation as appropriate for continuous homodyne detection. We develop a two-state rate equation model that quantitatively describes the slow switching dynamics. This model is solved analytically in the presence of a weak harmonic force to obtain approximate expressions for the power gain and signal-to-noise ratio that we then compare to force detection with an optomechanical system in the linear regime.

  12. Weakly-Supervised Violence Detection in Movies with Audio and Video Based Co-training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Lin; Weiqiang Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method to detect violent shots in movies. The detection process is split into two views—the\\u000a audio and video views. From the audio-view, a weakly-supervised method is exploited to improve the classification performance.\\u000a And from the video-view, we use a classifier to detect violent shots. Finally, the auditory and visual classifiers are combined\\u000a in

  13. A weakly nonlinear theory based explanation for wave interactions in rotating channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1992-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear wave-interaction theory is used to explain the decay of linearly unstable oblique waves in rotating channel flow at low Reynolds number. At the low Reynolds number studied, the waves tend to stabilize each other and therefore when no waves are preferentially excited, the linearly most unstable mode reaches a nonlinear amplitude first and causes the stabilization of all competing modes.

  14. Online tools for teaching evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians. PMID:23975071

  15. Implementation of evidence in practice settings: some methodological issues arising from the South Thames Evidence Based Practice Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. G. McLaren; F. Ross

    2000-01-01

    It is acknowledged that the NHS fails to benefit from its research investment. Effective methods for implementing evidence into practice are contested within medicine and, as yet, are poorly understood in nursing and professions allied to medicine. This paper discusses the methodological development of the model used in the South Thames Evidence Based Practice project in the context of contemporary

  16. A Bridge Too Far? Stepping Stones for Evidence Based Practice in an Academic Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Booth

    2009-01-01

    Entering its second decade, evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP), the now-preferred term for evidence based librarianship, can count some notable successes. In particular, the initiation and growth of an international open access journal, the ongoing development of an International Conference series, and a proliferation of articles on the stages of the evidence based process attest to its ongoing

  17. Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Undergraduate Teaching Clinics: A Systematic Review and Recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara B. Werb; David W. Matear

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to identify an effective methodology of approaching and implementing evidence- based principles in undergraduate teaching clinics to promote evidence-based dentistry in future clinical practice. A systematic review was undertaken to examine evidence-based clinical teaching and faculty continuing education. Research published from 1996 to 2002 was retrieved by searching several databases and the Internet, along

  18. MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine

    E-print Network

    Torgersson, Olof

    practice [2]. Information visualisation is an important component in any system for evidence-based medicineMedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine Göran Falkman Department of Computer Abstract. MedView is a project that meets the challenges of evidence-based oral medicine by providing

  19. Danger and Opportunity: Challenges in Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based practice has received increased emphasis within the social work field in the past decade and social work educational programs are including more evidence-based practice content in their curricula. This article examines some issues social work educators may wish to consider as they teach evidence-based practice to social work…

  20. Council for Exceptional Children: Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TEACHING Exceptional Children, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the "Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)" presents Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. The statement presents an approach for categorizing the evidence base of practices in special education. The quality indicators and the criteria for categorizing the evidence base of special education…

  1. Classifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy , Carl Sable2

    E-print Network

    Yu, Hong

    strategies. In the medical domain, physicians are urged to practice Evidence Based Medicine when facedClassifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy Hong Yu1 , Carl Sable2 , Hai Ran Zhu3 1 classify medical questions based on a hierarchical evidence taxonomy created by physicians. We show

  2. Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Webb

    2001-01-01

    Summary This paper considers the validity of evidence-based practice in social work. It critically examines various underlying presuppositions and assumptions entailed in evidence- based practice and draws out their implications for social work. The paper is divided into three main parts. Following a consideration of the background to the develop- ment of evidence-based practice and a discussion of its key

  3. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age. PMID:12592918

  4. Three collaborative models for scaling up evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Roberts, Rosemarie; Jones, Helen; Marsenich, Lynne; Sosna, Todd; Price, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    The current paper describes three models of research-practice collaboration to scale-up evidence-based practices (EBP): (1) the Rolling Cohort model in England, (2) the Cascading Dissemination model in San Diego County, and (3) the Community Development Team model in 53 California and Ohio counties. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and KEEP are the focal evidence-based practices that are designed to improve outcomes for children and families in the child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health systems. The three scale-up models each originated from collaboration between community partners and researchers with the shared goal of wide-spread implementation and sustainability of MTFC/KEEP. The three models were implemented in a variety of contexts; Rolling Cohort was implemented nationally, Cascading Dissemination was implemented within one county, and Community Development Team was targeted at the state level. The current paper presents an overview of the development of each model, the policy frameworks in which they are embedded, system challenges encountered during scale-up, and lessons learned. Common elements of successful scale-up efforts, barriers to success, factors relating to enduring practice relationships, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21484449

  5. Evidence-based prognostication in a case of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Emary, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present an evidence-based case report on the prognosis of a patient with sciatica. Case: A 43-year-old man presented with right-sided buttock and lower extremity pain and numbness of 10 weeks’ duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lumbosacral disc herniation. Straight leg raise testing provoked the patient’s right sciatic pain, and neurologic examination revealed a diminished right Achilles tendon reflex and mild hypoesthesia along the patient’s outer right foot. Outcome: PubMed was searched and two cohort studies relevant to sciatic prognosis were found. These articles were critically appraised for their validity, importance, and applicability in making a prognostic estimate for this particular patient. Based on the appraised research evidence, and the confidence intervals calculated therein, the overall prognosis for sciatic pain recovery with conservative care was estimated as favourable for this patient, though sensory recovery (even with surgical care) was not. Summary: This case report illustrates how to use research literature in estimating the clinical prognosis for an individual patient, and how this can be useful towards clinical decision-making concerning treatment. PMID:25729082

  6. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  7. Implementation of evidence-based practice and organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Hovmand, Peter S; Gillespie, David F

    2010-01-01

    Administrators of mental health services may expect evidence-based practice (EBP) to offer strategic benefits. Existing theory suggests that the benefits of implementing EBP vary by organizational characteristics. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering how implementation impacts organizational performance. The framework is developed as a system dynamics simulation model based on existing literature, organizational theory, and key informant interviews with mental health services administrators and clinical directors. Results from the simulations show how gains in performance depended on organizations' initial inertia and initial efficiency and that only the most efficient organizations may see benefits in organizational performance from implementing EBP. Implications for administrators, policy makers, and services researchers are discussed. PMID:19085109

  8. Aligning Measurement-based Quality Improvement with Implementation of Evidence-based Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Hermann; Jeffrey A. Chan; James L. Zazzali; Debra Lerner

    2006-01-01

    Two models for improving quality of care have been adopted by segments of the US mental healthcare system. Measurement-based quality improvement (MBQI) is routinely conducted by many provider organizations (including practices, hospitals and health plans), either at their own initiative or at the behest of payers and oversight organizations. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is being undertaken by several

  9. Case-based learning: One route to evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia McCabe; Alison Purcell; Elise Baker; Catherine Madill; David Trembath

    2009-01-01

    Discussion about the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) by speech pathologists is widespread yet little is known on how to teach EBP to student speech pathologists. This paper illustrates how a case-based approach to learning and teaching (CBL) has been used to facilitate undergraduate and master's level students’ understanding and conduct of EBP across the speech pathology curriculum at the

  10. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  11. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  12. Practice-Based Evidence of Evidence-Based Practice: Professional Practice Portfolios for the Assessment of Work-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes that professional education programmes can help promote the development of professional judgment by the use of a well-designed professional practice portfolio as an assessment tool. An explanation of the portfolio process is followed by evidence from a four-year action research study, demonstrating how compiling a…

  13. Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /INFN, Padua

    2012-07-01

    We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s=1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb{sup -1}. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c{sup 2}. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c{sup 2}. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

  14. Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Álvarez González, B.; Alverson, G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Bu, X. B.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cihangir, S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Croc, A.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Das, A.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; d'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia, J. E.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hagopian, S.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, M.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hewamanage, S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.

    2012-08-01

    We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7fb-1. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150GeV/c2. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135GeV/c2. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

  15. Exploring Weak Ligand–Protein Interactions by Long-Lived NMR States: Improved Contrast in Fragment-Based Drug Screening**

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Chiarparin, Elisabetta; Williams, Glyn; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Ligands that have an affinity for protein targets can be screened very effectively by exploiting favorable properties of long-lived states (LLS) in NMR spectroscopy. In this work, we describe the use of LLS for competitive binding experiments to measure accurate dissociation constants of fragments that bind weakly to the ATP binding site of the N-terminal ATPase domain of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The LLS approach allows one to characterize ligands with an exceptionally wide range of affinities, since it can be used for ligand concentrations [L] that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the dissociation constants KD. This property makes the LLS method particularly attractive for the initial steps of fragment-based drug screening, where small molecular fragments that bind weakly to a target protein must be identified, which is a difficult task for many other biophysical methods. PMID:25196717

  16. Are the health messages in schoolbooks based on scientific evidence? A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most textbooks contains messages relating to health. This profuse information requires analysis with regards to the quality of such information. The objective was to identify the scientific evidence on which the health messages in textbooks are based. Methods The degree of evidence on which such messages are based was identified and the messages were subsequently classified into three categories: Messages with high, medium or low levels of evidence; Messages with an unknown level of evidence; and Messages with no known evidence. Results 844 messages were studied. Of this total, 61% were classified as messages with an unknown level of evidence. Less than 15% fell into the category where the level of evidence was known and less than 6% were classified as possessing high levels of evidence. More than 70% of the messages relating to "Balanced Diets and Malnutrition", "Food Hygiene", "Tobacco", "Sexual behaviour and AIDS" and "Rest and ergonomics" are based on an unknown level of evidence. "Oral health" registered the highest percentage of messages based on a high level of evidence (37.5%), followed by "Pregnancy and newly born infants" (35%). Of the total, 24.6% are not based on any known evidence. Two of the messages appeared to contravene known evidence. Conclusion Many of the messages included in school textbooks are not based on scientific evidence. Standards must be established to facilitate the production of texts that include messages that are based on the best available evidence and which can improve children's health more effectively. PMID:21269446

  17. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychiatric Care: Defining Levels of Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Rice

    2008-01-01

    Identification and application of the current research evidence to a clinical problem is a goal reflected in professional codes and institutional mission statements. The use of expert opinions and traditions is no longer clinically or legally defensible in an era of using emerging evidence. Application of current research evidence is the emerging standard of care for all health care personnel,

  18. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally. PMID:23302501

  19. Sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor.

    PubMed

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Joanne S; Iwata, Naomi G; Perlis, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Increasing research indicates that sleep disturbances may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. Despite increased investigation, a number of methodological problems present important limitations to the validity and generalizability of findings in this area, which warrant additional focus. To evaluate and delineate sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor, a systematic review of the extant literature was conducted with methodological considerations as a central focus. The following methodologic criteria were required for inclusion: the report (1) evaluated an index of sleep disturbance; (2) examined an outcome measure for suicidal behavior; (3) adjusted for presence of a depression diagnosis or depression severity, as a covariate; and (4) represented an original investigation as opposed to a chart review. Reports meeting inclusion criteria were further classified and reviewed according to: study design and timeframe; sample type and size; sleep disturbance, suicide risk, and depression covariate assessment measure(s); and presence of positive versus negative findings. Based on keyword search, the following search engines were used: PubMed and PsycINFO. Search criteria generated N?=?82 articles representing original investigations focused on sleep disturbances and suicide outcomes. Of these, N?=?18 met inclusion criteria for review based on systematic analysis. Of the reports identified, N?=?18 evaluated insomnia or poor sleep quality symptoms, whereas N?=?8 assessed nightmares in association with suicide risk. Despite considerable differences in study designs, samples, and assessment techniques, the comparison of such reports indicates preliminary, converging evidence for sleep disturbances as an empirical risk factor for suicidal behaviors, while highlighting important, future directions for increased investigation. PMID:25698339

  20. Evidence for cortical automaticity in rule-based categorization.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2010-10-20

    There is evidence that rule-based category learning is supported by a broad neural network that includes the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the head of the caudate nucleus, and medial temporal lobe structures. Although thousands of studies have examined rule-based category learning, only a few have studied the development of automaticity in rule-based tasks. Categorizing by a newly learned rule makes heavy demands on declarative memory, but after thousands of repetitions rule-based categorizations are made with no apparent effort. Thus, it seems likely that the neural systems that mediate automatic rule-based categorization are substantially different from the systems that mediate initial learning. This research aims at identifying the neural systems responsible for early and late rule-based categorization performances. Toward this end, this article reports the results of an experiment in which human participants each practiced a rule-based categorization task for >10,000 trials distributed over 20 separate sessions. Sessions 1, 4, 10, and 20 were performed inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The main findings are as follows: (1) cortical activation remained approximately constant throughout training, (2) subcortical activation increased with practice (i.e., there were more activated voxels in the striatum), and (3) only cortical activation was correlated with accuracy after extensive training. The results suggest an initial subcortical neural system centered around the head of the caudate that is gradually replaced by a cortical system centered around the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. With extensive practice, the cortical system progressively becomes more caudal and dorsal, and is eventually centered around the premotor cortex. PMID:20962243

  1. Effects of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on quality of care: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lugtenberg; J. S. Burgers; G. P. Westert

    2009-01-01

    Background:Evidence-based clinical guidelines aim to improve the quality of care. In The Netherlands, considerable time and effort have been invested in the development and implementation of evidence-based guidelines since the 1990s. Thus far, no reviews are available on their effectiveness. The primary aim of this article was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of Dutch evidence-based clinical guidelines in

  2. Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

    2007-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

  3. Efficient literature searching: a core skill for the practice of evidence-based medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GordonStuart Doig; Fiona Simpson

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundEfficient literature searching and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature are the two key skills defining the practice of evidence-based medicine. Although clinicians embrace the concepts of evidence-based medicine, most identify limited personal time as the major barrier towards its implementation into daily practice. Busy clinicians who practice evidence-based medicine identify systematic reviews and

  4. Pharmacological management of tetanus: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is becoming rarer in both industrialized and developing nations due to an effective vaccination program. In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated there was a 93% reduction in newborns dying from tetanus worldwide, compared to the situation in the late 1980s. Due to its rarity, many diagnostic delays occur as physicians may not consider the diagnosis until the manifestations become overt. Without timely diagnosis and proper treatment, severe tetanus is fatal (mortality is also influenced by the comorbidities of the patient). The principles of treating tetanus are: reducing muscle spasms, rigidity and autonomic instability (with ventilatory support when necessary); neutralization of tetanus toxin with human antitetanus immunoglobulin or equine antitetanus sera; wound debridement; and administration of antibiotics to eradicate locally proliferating bacteria at the wound site. It is difficult to conduct trials on different treatment modalities in tetanus due to both logistical and ethical reasons. However, it is imperative that physicians are aware of the best evidence-based treatment strategies currently available to improve the outcome of patients. This review concentrates on analyzing the current evidence on the pharmacological management of tetanus. PMID:25029486

  5. From tradition to evidence: decolonization of the evidence-based practice system.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Culture counts in the prevention and treatment of behavioral ailments. The Native American Health Center (NAHC) has successfully developed a model that incorporates cultural adaptations into EBPs, yet also believes community-defined and practice-based evidence are relevant in the validation of traditional practices. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) traditional practices are more than complementary forms of healing. They are stand-alone methods, developed and used by tribal people long before the concept of EBPs existed. There is a need for funders to respect these practices as autonomous mental health strategies. The reasons for promoting change are explained through an understanding of key dimensions of AI/AN behavioral health issues. These key dimensions were identified in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report and an extensive literature review of Indigenous research methodologies. Recommendations are made based upon their ability to promote AI/AN empowerment, to support movement toward self-determination using the Indigenous Research Agenda model. This model honors fluid movement of Indigenous people through states of survival, recovery, development and self-determination through four categories for action: decolonization, mobilization, transformation, and healing. The end results are options for holistic approaches to influence policy changes in the EBP system. PMID:22400463

  6. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

  7. 75 FR 51075 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open Submission Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). Two previous...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP):...

  8. 75 FR 21349 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...justice decisions, evidence-based knowledge about effective justice practices, and practical local...techniques. A copy of the Evidence-Based Decisionmaking Framework...implementation of evidence-based practices in the criminal...

  9. 78 FR 33853 - Announcement for the National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open...National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a...

  10. How do components of evidence-based psychological treatment cluster in practice?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth V. Gifford; Sara Tavakoli; Kenneth R. Weingardt; John W. Finney; Heather M. Pierson; Craig S. Rosen; Hildi J. Hagedorn; Joan M. Cook; Geoff M. Curran

    Evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) are clusters of interventions, but it is unclear how providers actually implement these clusters in practice. A disaggregated measure of EBPTs was developed to characterize clinicians' component-level evidence-based practices and to examine relationships among these practices. Survey items captured components of evidence-based treatments based on treatment integrity measures. The Web-based survey was conducted with 75 U.S.

  11. Medicine-based evidence: reverse translational ear research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Brookler, Kenneth H

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a first-person account of the evolution of the practice of surgical neurootology to that of medical neurootology shaped mainly by results of treatment directed at underlying otosclerosis-like lesions of the otic capsule and metabolic factors. With new technologies and rapidly evolving concepts, the changing treatment algorithms did not remain constant to provide the usual evidence-based outcome analyses. However, the majority of the patients presenting with neurootological symptoms had undergone previous medical or surgical treatment before undergoing the medical management herein described. The underlying ongoing basic science findings over this period were linked to the clinical observations. On the basis of the more effective results of treating neurootological disorders, recommendations are made for future areas of investigation-mostly basic science-into developing an investigative foundation for future effective management of patients with a variety of neurootological disorders. PMID:20420338

  12. Nutrition in the ICU: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Desai, Svetang V; McClave, Stephen A; Rice, Todd W

    2014-05-01

    Providing artificial nutrition is an important part of caring for critically ill patients. However, because of a paucity of robust data, the practice has been highly variable and often based more on dogma than evidence. A number of studies have been published investigating many different aspects of critical care nutrition. Although the influx of data has better informed the practice, the results have often been conflicting or counter to prevailing thought, resulting in discordant opinions and different interpretations by experts in the field. In this article, we review and summarize the data from a number of the published studies, including studies investigating enteral vs parenteral nutrition, supplementing enteral with parenteral nutrition, and use of immunonutrition. In addition, published studies informing the practice of how best to provide enteral nutrition will be reviewed, including the use of trophic feedings, gastric residual volumes, and gastric vs postpyloric tube placement. PMID:24798840

  13. Common processes in evidence-based adolescent HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Barbara L; Flannery, Diane; Elkavich, Amy; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-05-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify common processes described in the procedural manuals, and then compared the programs. Nineteen common processes were categorized as structural features, group management strategies, competence building, and addressing developmental challenges of adolescence. All programs shared the same structural features (goal-setting and session agendas), used an active engagement style of group management, and built cognitive competence. Programs varied in attention to developmental challenges, emphasis on behavioral and emotional competence, and group management methods. This qualitative analysis demonstrated that successful HIV programs contain processes not articulated in their developers' theoretical models. By moving from the concrete specifics of branded interventions to identification of core, common processes, we are consistent with the progress of "common factors" research in psychotherapy. PMID:18330687

  14. Vitamin E and wound healing: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    Vitamin E has been demonstrated to modulate cellular signalling, gene expression and affect wounds infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), thus influencing wound healing. This evidence-based review aimed to identify and evaluate current research assessing the properties of vitamin E in relation to wound healing, through its role as an antioxidant and its influence on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), MRSA and gene transcription. Literature dated from 1996 to 2012, published in English, involving either animals or adult humans with an acute or chronic wound were included. The databases that contained relevant articles were narrowed down to four, and a total of 33 identified studies were included. The literature review revealed that there is a significant dearth of robust studies establishing the effects of vitamin E on wound healing, and further research is clearly warranted. PMID:25124164

  15. Inherent weaknesses of cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Sources of astrophysical evidence necessary to verify a cosmological model are reviewed. Cosmological history of the universe is divided into four epochs, each unique in its physical conditions related to observability at present. The current epoch, started after recombination of hydrogen in the universe, offers the most in observability. In earlier epochs, verifiable astrophysical evidence gradually disappeared. It seems that no astrophysical evidence has been left behind from the singularity epoch of the Universe. The gradual disappearance of astrophysical evidence ascertainable at present is the result of physical conditions structured within the cosmological models, hence indicating certain inherent weaknesses of cosmology as a verifiable physical theory.

  16. Utilization of evidence-based computerized order sets in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Chisolm, Deena; Veneris, Sofia; Rich, David; Kelleher, Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about utilization of different evidence-based order sets within computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems. We designed a retrospective study of resident and attending physician order set utilization to evaluate the use of three evidence-based computerized order sets (asthma, post-appendectomy care, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)), and examine patient and admission characteristics associated with order set utilization in pediatrics. We studied all 529 asthma patients, 277 appendectomy patients, and 210 CAP patients admitted between 1 November 2001 and 30 November 2003 during implementation of standardized order sets at a large, independent, not-for-profit pediatric institution. We analyzed order set utilization for the three order sets and tested the relationship between order set use and potential factors associated with utilization. Order set utilization varied by condition (X(2)=339.2, p<0.001), with the asthma order set use rate highest (88.1%), followed by appendectomy order set utilization (79.4%), and substantially lower CAP order set use (21.1%). We found that trends in order set utilization also varied by condition. Only the asthma order set showed a trend of increasing use after implementation (z= -3.02, p=0.002). In addition, factors associated with order set utilization varied. Uses of the asthma and post-appendectomy order sets were associated with factors such as admission unit and case complexity. CAP order set utilization was associated with case complexity but not admission source. We conclude that health services organizations looking to implement computerized order sets to reduce unnecessary practice variation while promoting best practices must consider the different factors that may influence the use of each order set rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all implementation strategy. Further, issues such as the level of physician involvement in order set development and consensus around order set content may be particularly important factors influencing order set utilization. PMID:16169772

  17. Calcium phosphate-based remineralization systems: scientific evidence?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, E C

    2008-09-01

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides. The focus in caries research has recently shifted to the development of methodologies for the detection of the early stages of caries lesions and the non-invasive treatment of these lesions. Topical fluoride ions, in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions, promote the formation of fluorapatite in tooth enamel by a process referred to as remineralization. The non-invasive treatment of early caries lesions by remineralization has the potential to be a major advance in the clinical management of the disease. However, for net remineralization to occur adequate levels of calcium and phosphate ions must be available and this process is normally calcium phosphate limited. In recent times three calcium phosphate-based remineralization systems have been developed and are now commercially available: a casein phosphopeptide stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (Recaldent (CPP-ACP), CASRN691364-49-5), an unstabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP or Enamelon) and a bioactive glass containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin). The purpose of this review was to determine the scientific evidence to support a role for these remineralization systems in the non-invasive treatment of early caries lesions. The review has revealed that there is evidence for an anticariogenic efficacy of the Enamelon technology for root caries and for the Recaldent technology in significantly slowing the progression of coronal caries and promoting the regression of lesions in randomized, controlled clinical trials. Hence the calcium phosphate-based remineralization technologies show promise as adjunctive treatments to fluoride therapy in the non-invasive management of early caries lesions. PMID:18782374

  18. The limits of evidence: evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-03-01

    This paper will critically examine the use of evidence in creating policy in the area of reproductive technologies. The use of evidence in health care and policy is not a new phenomenon. However, codified strategies for evidence appraisal in health care technology assessments and attempts to create evidence based policy initiatives suggest that the way evidence is used in practice and policy has changed. This paper will examine this trend by considering what is counted as 'good' evidence, difficulties in translating evidence into policy and practice and how evidence interacts with principles. To illustrate these points the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK in 2005 and the debates that preceded this change in the law will be examined. It will be argued that evidence will only ever take us so far and attention should also be paid to the underlying principles that guide policy. The paper will conclude with suggestions for how underlying principles can be more rigorously used in policy formation. PMID:25743050

  19. Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Research: A Critical Realist Critique of Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that a critical realist perspective can contribute to a critique of evidence-based practice, while at the same time not abandoning the idea of evidence altogether. The paper is structured around a number of related themes: the sociopolitics of "evidence-based"; epistemological roots and a critical realist critique; the debate in…

  20. Assessing competency in Evidence Based Practice: strengths and limitations of current tools in practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragan Ilic

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence Based Practice (EBP) involves making clinical decisions informed by the most relevant and valid evidence available. Competence can broadly be defined as a concept that incorporates a variety of domains including knowledge, skills and attitudes. Adopting an evidence-based approach to practice requires differing competencies across various domains including literature searching, critical appraisal and communication. This paper examines the

  1. Evidence-Based Practice, Person-in-Environment, and Clinical Social Work: Issues of Practical Concern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly M. Simmons

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a movement that has gained recent momentum in social work following the tradition of evidence-based medicine (EBM). Use of EBP as a guiding philosophy of clinical social work practice has been debated among academics, researchers, and clinicians for more than a decade. An area of complexity within EBP involves selecting the best available evidence while accounting

  2. Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An International Consensus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gomez, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    As evidence-based practices become increasingly advocated for and used in the human services field it is important to integrate issues raised by three perspectives on evidence: empirical-analytical, phenomenological-existential, and post-structural. This article presents and discusses an evidence-based conceptual model and measurement framework…

  3. EVIDENCE-BASED DECISION-MAKING IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mowat

    The deliberative use of evidence to inform decision is relatively well-developed in clinical medicine, but is only in its early development in the field of public health. Evidence can inform, but not make, public health decisions. Good decision making requires evidence which is both as valid and as relevant as possible, information on the values espoused by citizens, and many

  4. Evidence-based practice in health education and promotion: a review and introduction to resources.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth K; Alpi, Kristine M; Auerbach, Marilyn

    2010-05-01

    This review examines evidence-based practice (EBP) in health education and promotion with a focus on how academically trained health educators develop EBP skills and how health education and promotion practitioners access the literature to inform their activities. Competencies and credentialing in health education related to evidence-based practice are outlined and sources for evidence-based practice literature in health education and promotion are described. An exploratory questionnaire to consider teaching and resources in evidence-based practice was distributed to faculty and librarians from the top 10 ranked health education doctoral programs. Findings highlighted the integral value of EBP instruction to the curriculum. Growth opportunities in evidence-based health education and health promotion for instructors, practitioners, and librarians include promotion and expansion of online evidence-based public health resources to close the evidence-practice gap. PMID:19141692

  5. Evidence-Based Practice among Dutch Occupational Therapists: Barriers, Perceptions, and Use of Resources

    E-print Network

    Dö pp, Carola Maria Elizabeth

    2009-04-02

    This study explored how evidence-based practice (EBP) is perceived by Dutch occupational therapists (OTs), what sources of evidence they use to make clinical decisions, and what barriers they experience when implementing EBP. Two-hundred members...

  6. Community?based parenting training: do adapted evidence?based programmes improve parent–infant interactions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Bohr; Brooke Halpert; Jessica Chan; Vicky Lishak; Linda Brightling

    2010-01-01

    Evidence?based parenting programmes frequently undergo modifications when delivered in community mental health centres. Adaptations are made to the original curriculum due to clientele demographics, practitioner judgement and resource restrictions. It is thus important to evaluate whether adapted interventions successfully meet their expected goals once they are implemented in the community. The current pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment?focused

  7. Community-Based Prevention Using Simple, Low-Cost, Evidence-Based Kernels and Behavior Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    A paradox exists in community prevention of violence and drugs. Good research now exists on evidence-based programs, yet extensive expenditures on prevention have not produced community-level results. Various multiproblems are quite prevalent in the United States, such as violence, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), conduct problems,…

  8. Evidence-Based Practices Addressed in Community-Based Children's Mental Health Clinical Supervision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin C. Accurso; Robin M. Taylor; Ann F. Garland

    2011-01-01

    Clinical supervision is the principal method of training for psychotherapeutic practice, however there is virtually no research on supervision practice in community settings. Of particular interest is the role supervision might play in facilitating implementation of evidence-based (EB) care in routine care settings. This study examines the format and functions of clinical supervision sessions in routine care, as well as

  9. Lifelong premature ejaculation: from authority-based to evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D

    2004-01-01

    Historically, four periods can be distinguished in the approach to and treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation. Although drug treatment has been an option for many decades, psychotherapy prevailed as the first choice of treatment. However, the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine shows that there is little evidence to support the psychological approach and behavioural treatment. In contrast, controlled trials with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, clomipramine and anaesthetic ointments have repeatedly shown the efficacy of both daily and 'as-needed' drug treatment to delay ejaculation. Currently, an evidence-based approach is gradually replacing the authority-based psychological attitude that characterized the view of premature ejaculation. Based on psychopharmacological studies there is evidence that premature ejaculation is related to a diminished serotonergic neurotransmission, and 5-HT2C or 5-HT1A receptor disturbances. Moreover, animal studies show the presence of a distinct ejaculation-related neural circuit in the central nervous system; its role in premature ejaculation remains to be elucidated. PMID:14690484

  10. From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob WilffertJesse; Jesse Swen; Hans Mulder; Daan Touw; Anke-Hilse Maitland-Van der Zee; Vera Deneer

    Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of\\u000a the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available\\u000a pharmacogenetic information and its implementation in daily clinical practice. Method Literature review. Results A mechanism based approach may be helpful to personalize medicine for

  11. From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob WilffertJesse; Jesse Swen; Hans Mulder; Daan Touw; Anke-Hilse Maitland-Van der Zee; Vera Deneer

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of\\u000a the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available\\u000a pharmacogenetic information and its implementation in daily clinical practice. Method Literature review. Results A mechanism based approach may be helpful to personalize medicine for

  12. An Interactive Web-based Curriculum on Evidence based Medicine: Design and Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Schilling; John Wiecha; Deepika Polineni; Souad Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Medical education experts have called for improved training in evidence- based medicine (EBM) and the increased use of e-learning technologies in medical education. In re- sponse, we developed an interactive, Web-based curriculum on key aspects of EBM in family medicine. Methods: Students participating in a 6-week family medicine clerkship (n=238) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=134) or

  13. Limitations of Observational Evidence: Implications for Evidence-Based Dietary Recommendations12

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Kevin C.; Slavin, Joanne L.; Rains, Tia M.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence primarily from observational data, particularly those from prospective cohort studies. Although such evidence is of critical importance, limitations are often underappreciated by nutrition scientists and policymakers. This editorial review is intended to 1) highlight some of these limitations of observational evidence for diet-disease relations, including imprecise exposure quantification, collinearity among dietary exposures, displacement/substitution effects, healthy/unhealthy consumer bias, residual confounding, and effect modification; and 2) advocate for greater caution in the communication of dietary recommendations for which RCT evidence of clinical event reduction after dietary intervention is not available. PMID:24425715

  14. The Role and Nature of Evidence: A Systematic Review of Social Workers' Evidence-Based Practice Orientation, Attitudes, and Implementation.

    PubMed

    Scurlock-Evans, Laura; Upton, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been raised over the appropriateness of adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) as a framework for practice within social work. In this systematic review the authors aim to synthesise research findings exploring social workers' EBP orientation, attitudes, adoption, knowledge, skills, and perceived EBP barriers and facilitators. Numerous challenges to EBP implementation were identified, including: time management, research accessibility, and misperceptions of the role of evidence in decision making. Colleagues, supervisors, perceived experts, organizational culture, and tailored training were important for social workers' dissemination and utilization of evidence. Social workers may prefer more conversational, face-to-face methods of research dissemination. Implications of the review findings are discussed. PMID:25747891

  15. A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2014-01-10

    Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. PMID:24211703

  16. Novel Evidence-Based Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index

    PubMed Central

    Furie, Richard A.; Petri, Michelle A.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Stohl, William; Chatham, W. Winn; Strand, Vibeke; Weinstein, Arthur; Chevrier, Marc R.; Zhong, John; Freimuth, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe a new systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Responder Index (SRI) based on the belimumab phase II SLE trial and demonstrate its potential utility in SLE clinical trials. Methods Data from a 449-patient randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3 doses of belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo plus standard of care therapy (SOC) over a 56-week period were analyzed. SELENA-SLEDAI and BILAG SLE disease activity instruments, SF-36 Health Survey, and biomarker analyses were used to create a novel SRI. Response to treatment in a subset of SLE patients (n=321) who were serologically active (ANA ?1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA antibody ?30 IU) at baseline was retrospectively evaluated using the SRI. Results SRI response is defined as: 1) ?4-point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score; 2) no new BILAG A or no more than 1 new BILAG B domain score; and 3) no deterioration from baseline in the Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) by ?0.3 points. In serologically active patients, addition of belimumab to SOC resulted in a response in 46% of patients at week 52 compared with 29% for the placebo patients (P=0.006). SRI responses were independent of baseline autoantibody subtype. Conclusion Evidence-based evaluation of a large randomized, placebo-controlled trial in SLE resulted in the ability to define a robust responder index based on improvement in disease activity without worsening of the overall condition or the development of significant disease activity in new organ systems. PMID:19714615

  17. Evidence-based health practice: knowing and using what works for older adults.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, Mary; Bryant, Lucinda; Schneider, Ellen; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Community-based health care agencies are facing demands for improved outcomes, cost-effective programming, and higher customer satisfaction. Implementing evidence-based health interventions and programs can help to address these challenges. This article provides an overview of evidence-based health practice, including the definition and advantages of this approach, other key terms and concepts inherent to evidence-based practice, and the tasks and steps necessary to its implementation. The article concludes with a list of resources to help health care providers learn about, plan, and implement evidence-based health interventions and programs. PMID:16803735

  18. The Ozone Trends Panel - CFCs and evidence-based policymaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    My involvement with the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion started with my Ph.D studies, which predated the seminal paper of Rowland and Molina in 1974, and focussed on understanding how chlorine and bromine atoms and free radicals interacted with atmospheric constituents (e.g., ozone, oxygen atoms, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxide, methane, etc). My post-doctoral studies and work at the Jet Propulsion laboratory continued my gas-phase kinetic studies into reactions of both stratospheric and tropospheric importance, including understanding the rates of reactions between the hydroxyl radical and HCFCs. This work, along with the results of other laboratory studies, provided a major input to the theoretical modelling work which was projecting significant ozone losses from continued use of chlorofluorocarbons and halons. In 1980 I became the program manager for stratospheric ozone depletion at NASA and provided funding for some ground-breaking laboratory studies, field measurements and theoretical modelling, some in collaboration with NOAA, the fluorocarbon industry and international partners. Highlights included the Antarctic and Arctic aircraft campaigns, which demonstrated beyond doubt that chlorinated and brominated species were the cause of the significant losses of ozone in the polar spring, initiated through novel heterogeneous chemical reactions in the lower stratosphere - the most dramatic observation being the so-called Antarctic Ozone hole. These findings played a critical role in strengthening the Montreal Protocol. In 1980, after joining NASA, I initiated the first International Stratospheric Ozone Assessment, which provided much of the scientific evidence used to develop the 1985 Convention to protect stratospheric ozone. Subsequent international assessments provided the scientific basis for the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the following adjustments and amendments. Key among these assessments was the International Ozone Trends Panel where Sherry Rowland played a pivotal role by chairing the chapter which demonstrated, using ground-based Dobson measurements and satellite observations, significant ozone losses in mid- and high latitudes in both hemispheres, especially in winter. These findings that basically validated the models focussed the attention of Governments that it was not only polar ozone that was being depleted, but ozone over heavily inhabited areas. This provided a stimulus for even stronger regulations to protect the ozone layer. Another facet of my career was to be the technical advisor to the US Government as the Ozone Convention and Montreal Protocol were negotiated. It was a pleasure to see that Governments recognized the importance of world-class research and the international assessments, in developing the Montreal Protocol and the subsequent amendments and adjustments. It is possibly the best example to date of evidence-based policymaking at the global scale.

  19. Qualitative study of evidence based leaflets in maternity care

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Helen; Kirkham, Mavis; Thomas, Gwenan

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of evidence based leaflets on informed choice in maternity services. Design Non-participant observation of 886 antenatal consultations. 383 in depth interviews with women using maternity services and health professionals providing antenatal care. Setting Women's homes; antenatal and ultrasound clinics in 13 maternity units in Wales. Participants Childbearing women and health professionals who provide antenatal care. Intervention Provision of 10 pairs of Informed Choice leaflets for service users and staff and a training session in their use. Main outcome measures Participants' views and commonly observed responses during consultations and interviews. Results Health professionals were positive about the leaflets and their potential to assist women in making informed choices, but competing demands within the clinical environment undermined their effective use. Time pressures limited discussion, and choice was often not available in practice. A widespread belief that technological intervention would be viewed positively in the event of litigation reinforced notions of “right” and “wrong” choices rather than “informed” choices. Hierarchical power structures resulted in obstetricians defining the norms of clinical practice and hence which choices were possible. Women's trust in health professionals ensured their compliance with professionally defined choices, and only rarely were they observed asking questions or making alternative requests. Midwives rarely discussed the contents of the leaflets or distinguished them from other literature related to pregnancy. The visibility and potential of the leaflets as evidence based decision aids was thus greatly reduced. Conclusions The way in which the leaflets were disseminated affected promotion of informed choice in maternity care. The culture into which the leaflets were introduced supported existing normative patterns of care and this ensured informed compliance rather than informed choice. What is already known on this topicInformed Choice leaflets are widely used in maternity care but little is known about their ability to influence informed choice and decision makingHigh quality information is essential for promoting informed choice but is insufficient by itselfWhat this study addsTime constraints and other pressures on health professionals resulted in a lack of discussion of the content of the leafletsFear of litigation, power hierarchies, and the technological imperative in maternity care limited the choices availableHealth professionals promoted normative practices rather than choice, and as women valued their opinions this led to the promotion of informed compliance rather than informed choice PMID:11895821

  20. The National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices: A Decision-Support Tool to Advance the Use of Evidence-Based Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin D. Hennessy; Richard Finkbiner; Gary Hill

    2006-01-01

    Since its creation in 1996, the National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP) has provided information to the public about the scientific evidence to support a wide array of substance abuse prevention interventions. In the process of expanding NREPP to the domains of substance abuse treatment and to the prevention and treatment of mental illnesses, the Substance Abuse and

  1. Evidence-Based Current Surgical Practice: Calculous Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Casey B.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder disease is common and, if managed incorrectly, can lead to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and extraneous costs. The most common complications of gallstones include biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, common bile duct stones, and gallstone pancreatitis. Ultrasound is the initial imaging modality of choice. Additional diagnostic and therapeutic studies including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are not routinely required but may play a role in specific situations. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are best treated with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients with common bile duct stones should be managed with cholecystectomy, either after or concurrent with endoscopic or surgical relief of obstruction and clearance of stones from the bile duct. Mild gallstone pancreatitis should be treated with cholecystectomy during the initial hospitalization to prevent recurrence. Emerging techniques for cholecystectomy include single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Early results in highly selected patients demonstrate the safety of these techniques. The management of complications of the gallbladder should be timely and evidence-based, and choice of procedures, particularly for common bile duct stones, is largely influenced by facility and surgeon factors. PMID:22986769

  2. Introducing evidence-based dentistry to dental students using histology.

    PubMed

    Lallier, Thomas E

    2014-03-01

    The expansion of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is essential to the continued growth and development of the dental profession. Expanding EBD requires increased emphasis on critical thinking skills during dental education, as noted in the American Dental Education Association's Competencies for the New General Dentist. In order to achieve this goal, educational exercises must be introduced to increase the use of critical thinking skills early in the dental curriculum, with continued reinforcement as students progress through subsequent years. Described in this article is one approach to increasing student exposure to critical thinking during the early basic science curriculum-specifically, within the confines of a traditional histology course. A method of utilizing the medical and dental research literature to reinforce and enliven the concepts taught in histology is described, along with an approach for using peer-to-peer presentations to demonstrate the tools needed to critically evaluate research studies and their presentation in published articles. This approach, which could be applied to any basic science course, will result in a stronger foundation on which students can build their EBD and critical thinking skills. PMID:24609340

  3. [The use of evidence-based medicine data].

    PubMed

    Vecchio, C

    2001-07-01

    Although the basic concepts behind evidence-based medicine (EBM) have been largely accepted, some aspects regarding its theoretical background and its methodological characteristics and practical applications (mainly concerning the therapeutic choices) in daily clinical practice are still subject of debate. This is a real problem, and we have not yet found a fully satisfactory solution. With regard to the theoretical point of view, the most radical antagonists of EBM contest that it is an "abstract building" which has lost contact with the day-to-day clinical reality. In spite of these criticisms, at present the medical community largely considers EBM as a real improvement in the methodology of clinical research and as a helpful support for medical practice. However, in applying the principles of EBM, a dangerous mistake has to be avoided: the meaning and benefit of EBM consist of the fact that it suggests but does not impose rational medical options. The practice of EBM must respect the liberty of the doctors and try to increase their professional and ethical responsibilities. These principles require wisdom and caution in drafting the guidelines generated by EBM and compel us to take into account some psychological side-effects of its diffusion among the physicians and common people. PMID:11508298

  4. Navigating the Application of Evidence-Based Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science communications professionals not only come from varied backgrounds, but also have different goals and institutional contexts — as do the scientists with which they work. An approach that succeeds at information dissemination may be ineffective or even counterproductive for improving institutional reputation, achieving behavior change, or fostering use-inspired research. Thus, the application of communications research cannot be one-size fits most. One role for the science communications professional is as a "navigator," matching evidence-based communications practice with the goals and contexts of scientists. The Nature Conservancy's Science Impact Project establishes a continuing partnership between the organization's science communication leadership and a select group of Conservancy scientists with strong interest in effective communication. Working closely together over a 30-month program, scientists gain grounding in communications research and practice, while communications professionals gain a thorough understanding of the scientists' specific communication goals, opportunities, and research-appropriate questions. Program scientists are performing experiments at the intersection of conservation science and communications. Topics include: municipal decision making on green infrastructure, uptake of conservation innovations, and the effect of injecting new voices into frozen debates. Additional opportunities for active collaboration with communications researchers are emerging from the program's first 3 years.

  5. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

  6. Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597

  7. Evidence-Based Management: Origins, Challenges, and Implications for Social Service Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold E. Briggs; Bowen McBeath

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based management is emerging in the helping professions in response to heightened demands for public accountability and organizational performance. This paper defines evidence-based management and reviews its origins in the health care and business sectors and its recent incorporation into the social work profession. A case study describes the efforts of one social service agency to use evidence-based management to

  8. Reinventing Mpowerment for Black Men: Long-Term Community Implementation of an Evidence-Based Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Lin Miller; Jason C. Forney; Peter Hubbard; Lizeth M. Camacho

    Although research on the dissemination of evidence-based programs to community providers has rapidly grown, research describing\\u000a implementation of evidence-based efforts remains a central need. Insight on implementation may aid in developing approaches\\u000a to assisting organizations to use a variety of evidence-based practices effectively and to improve the design of programs\\u000a that can and will be used faithfully. This mixed-method case

  9. Teaching Evidence-Based Practice To Undergraduate Nursing Students: Overcoming Obstacles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon D. Martin

    Evidence-based practice is highly valued in health care literature at this time. But research suggests that U.S. RNs face many obstacles when implementing evidence-based practice including a lack of value for research in practice (Pravikoff et al, 2005). Additional obstacles may exist for traditional U.S. BSN nursing students who may not value the importance of learning about evidence-based practice principles

  10. The Experts Rate: Supervisory Behaviors That Impact the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda CarlsonCharles; Charles A. Rapp; Monika S. Eichler

    The purpose of this study was to identify the critical behaviors of supervisors for the successful implementation of evidence-based\\u000a practice in adult mental health. Experts who work with supervisors to support implementation in three evidence-based practices\\u000a were surveyed. The three evidence-based practices included Assertive Community Treatment, Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment,\\u000a and Supported Employment. There was substantial agreement among experts as

  11. Promoting Evidence-Based Practice: Models and Mechanisms from Cross-Sector Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutley, Sandra; Walter, Isabel; Davies, Huw T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on both a cross-sector literature review of mechanisms to promote evidence-based practice and a specific review of ways of improving research use in social care. At the heart of the article is a discussion of three models of evidence-based practice: the research-based practitioner model, the embedded research model, and the…

  12. Implications of Evidence-Based Practices for Personnel Preparation Development in Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    The article includes a practical definition of evidence-based practices, examples of different types of practice-based research syntheses, 3 models for conceptualizing evidence-based early childhood intervention, and a description of the implications of the definition, syntheses, and models of early childhood intervention for personnel…

  13. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW CASE STUDIES A TEST OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW CASE STUDIES A TEST OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH Gavin B. Stewart, Christopher F. Coles & Andrew S. Pullin Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School of Biosciences used in medicine and public health to ensure that health service policy and practice is based

  14. Evidence based practice in postgraduate healthcare education: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Argimon, Josep M

    2007-01-01

    Background Training in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely implemented throughout medical school and residency curricula. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies that assessed the effectiveness of EBP teaching to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior of postgraduate healthcare workers, and to describe instruments available to evaluate EBP teaching. Methods The design is a systematic review of randomized, non-randomized, and before-after studies. The data sources were MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL and ERIC between 1966 and 2006. Main outcomes were knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior towards EBP. Standardized effect sizes (E-S) were calculated. The E-S was categorized as small (E-S < 0.2), small to moderate (E-S between 0.2 and 0.5), moderate to large (E-S between 0.51 and 0.79), large (E-S > 0.79). Reliability and validity of instruments for evaluating education were assessed. Studies excluded were those that were not original, performed in medical students, focused on prescribing practices, specific health problems, theoretical reviews of different components of EBP, continuing medical education, and testing the effectiveness of implementing guidelines. Results Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. There were 15 outcomes within the 10 studies for which E-S could be calculated. The E-S ranged from 0.27 (95%CI: -0.05 to 0.59) to 1.32 (95%CI: 1.11 to 1.53). Studies assessing skills, behavior and/or attitudes had a "small to moderate" E-S. Only 1 of the 2 studies assessing knowledge had E-S of 0.57 (95 CI: 0.32 to 0.82) and 2 of the 4 studies that assessed total test score outcomes had "large" E-S. There were 22 instruments used, but only 10 had 2 or more types of validity or reliability evidence. Conclusion Small improvements in knowledge, skills, attitudes or behavior are noted when measured alone. A large improvement in skills and knowledge in EBP is noted when measured together in a total test score. Very few studies used validated measures tests. PMID:17655743

  15. Understanding Evidence-Based Information for the Early Childhood Field: Tips from RAND's Promising Practices Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…

  16. Clinical and Research Perspectives on Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatments and Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muttiah, Nimisha; Georges, Katie; Brackenbury, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the incorporation of research evidence, clinical expertise, and client values in clinical decision making. One case in which these factors conflict is the use of nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) for children with developmental speech sound disorders. Critical reviews of the research evidence

  17. Weak magnetic fields in Ap/Bp stars. Evidence for a dipole field lower limit and a tentative interpretation of the magnetic dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Silvester, J.; Lignières, F.; Bagnulo, S.; Bale, K.; Dintrans, B.; Donati, J. F.; Folsom, C. P.; Gruberbauer, M.; Hui Bon Hoa, A.; Jeffers, S.; Johnson, N.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lèbre, A.; Lueftinger, T.; Marsden, S.; Mouillet, D.; Naseri, S.; Paletou, F.; Petit, P.; Power, J.; Rincon, F.; Strasser, S.; Toqué, N.

    2007-12-01

    Aims:We investigated a sample of 28 well-known spectroscopically-identified magnetic Ap/Bp stars, with weak, poorly-determined or previously undetected magnetic fields. The aim of this study is to explore the weak part of the magnetic field distribution of Ap/Bp stars. Methods: Using the MuSiCoS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters at Télescope Bernard Lyot (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France) and the cross-correlation technique Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD), we obtained 282 LSD Stokes V signatures of our 28 sample stars, in order to detect the magnetic field and to infer its longitudinal component with high precision (median ?=40 G). Results: For the 28 studied stars, we obtained 27 detections of Stokes V Zeeman signatures from the MuSiCoS observations. Detection of the Stokes V signature of the 28th star (HD 32650) was obtained during science demonstration time of the new NARVAL spectropolarimeter at Pic du Midi. This result clearly shows that when observed with sufficient precision, all firmly classified Ap/Bp stars show detectable surface magnetic fields. Furthermore, all detected magnetic fields correspond to longitudinal fields which are significantly greater than some tens of G. To better characterise the surface magnetic field intensities and geometries of the sample, we phased the longitudinal field measurements of each star using new and previously-published rotational periods, and modeled them to infer the dipolar field intensity (B_d, measured at the magnetic pole) and the magnetic obliquity (?). The distribution of derived dipole strengths for these stars exhibits a plateau at about 1 kG, falling off to larger and smaller field strengths. Remarkably, in this sample of stars selected for their presumably weak magnetic fields, we find only 2 stars for which the derived dipole strength is weaker than 300 G. We interpret this “magnetic threshold” as a critical value necessary for the stability of large-scale magnetic fields, and develop a simple quantitative model that is able to approximately reproduce the observed threshold characteristics. This scenario leads to a natural explanation of the small fraction of intermediate-mass magnetic stars. It may also explain the near-absence of magnetic fields in more massive B and O-type stars. Based on data obtained using the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Observatoire du Pic du Midi, CNRS and Université Paul Sabatier, France. Figures 7 to 32 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/475/1053

  18. Substance use treatment counselors' attitudes toward evidence-based practice: the importance of organizational context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brenda D

    2013-04-01

    This study addresses individual and organizational correlates of substance user treatment counselors' attitudes toward evidence-based practice. Counselors (n = 293) from a probability sample of outpatient treatment organizations in a northeastern US state were surveyed in 2008. Multilevel [hierarchical linear model (HLM)] models address the nested sample. Attitudes toward evidence-based practice were measured with the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (Aarons). Study limitations and implications for the implementation of evidence-based practices in routine substance user treatment organizations are addressed. PMID:23421387

  19. Impact of an evidence-based practice course on occupational therapist's confidence levels and goals.

    PubMed

    Brangan, Joan; Quinn, Sarah; Spirtos, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Confidence levels of 136 Irish occupational therapists were measured before and after an evidence based practice training course. Ranked scores on the evidence based practice confidence scale showed statistically significant improvement in all areas between pre and post course. Goals set by therapists to integrate EBP into their practice following the course were analysed and grouped into categories which included: 1) getting ready to use evidence based practice, 2) examining current and best practices, and 3) promoting a culture of evidence based practice in the workplace. Course feedback using Likert scales identified satisfaction with course content and delivery method. PMID:25337671

  20. Librarian involvement in a nutrition undergraduate research course: preparing nutrition students for evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan C; Penumetcha, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Given the foundational importance of literature searching skills to later stages of research and, ultimately, evidence-based practice, the authors wanted to assess a unique strategy for teaching such skills. This pilot study describes the results of an undergraduate nutrition research course in which a librarian lead several class sessions. The goal of this study was to assess students' perceptions, attitudes and use of research literature and resources before and after a course partially taught by a librarian. Twenty-seven students enrolled in an undergraduate Introduction to Research course at Georgia State University were given pre- and post-test questionnaires at the beginning and end of a course that included three librarian-led class sessions. Most of the results indicate that the repeated involvement of a librarian enriched this particular undergraduate research course. By the end of the course, students were more comfortable in libraries and with using library resources; they used the campus library more frequently; they were more confident in their ability to find high-quality information on nutrition-related topics and identify strengths and weaknesses of different information sources; and they felt they gained skills that will help them achieve their educational and career goals. PMID:20539924

  1. Impact of an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum Based on Adult Learning Theory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael L; Ellis, Peter J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and implement an evidence-based medicine (EBM) curriculum and determine its effectiveness in improving residents' EBM behaviors and skills. DESIGN Description of the curriculum and a multifaceted evaluation, including a pretest-posttest controlled trial. SETTING University-based primary care internal medicine residency program. PARTICIPANTS Second- and third-year internal medicine residents (N =34). INTERVENTIONS A 7-week EBM curriculum in which residents work through the steps of evidence-based decisions for their own patients. Based on adult learning theory, the educational strategy included a resident-directed tutorial format, use of real clinical encounters, and specific EBM facilitating techniques for faculty. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Behaviors and self-assessed competencies in EBM were measured with questionnaires. Evidence-based medicine skills were assessed with a 17-point test, which required free text responses to questions based on a clinical vignette and a test article. After the intervention, residents participating in the curriculum (case subjects) increased their use of original studies to answer clinical questions, their examination of methods and results sections of articles, and their self-assessed EBM competence in three of five domains of EBM, while the control subjects did not. The case subjects significantly improved their scores on the EBM skills test (8.5 to 11.0, p =.001), while the control subjects did not (8.5 to 7.1, p =.09). The difference in the posttest scores of the two groups was 3.9 points (p =.001, 95% confidence interval 1.9, 5.9). CONCLUSIONS An EBM curriculum based on adult learning theory improves residents' EBM skills and certain EBM behaviors. The description and multifaceted evaluation can guide medical educators involved in EBM training. PMID:9436893

  2. The integration of evidence based medicine and personal care in family practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. MacAuley

    1996-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is seductive in its simplicity and few would argue with the philosophical concept. The reality of\\u000a its application in primary care is rather different. It is difficult to find evidence supporting many clinical management\\u000a decisions, it may be difficult to interpret evidence when it is available, and it may be difficult to apply this evidence\\u000a in the

  3. Classifying personality disorders: an evolution-based alternative to an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Millon, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    The study of personality disorders, no less psychology as a wole, remains divorced from broader spheres of scientific knowledge. Development of a conceptual schema for classifying personality disorders should include the examination of research limitations and inductive inconsistences that undermine the likely achievements of the evidential approach. An alternative course of action is outlined here, one that looks to evolutionary theory rather than evidence-based methods for classification guidance. PMID:21699392

  4. Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Vismara, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention for children with autism is currently a politically and scientifically complex topic. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated positive effects in both short-term and longer term studies. The evidence suggests that early intervention programs are indeed beneficial for children with autism, often improving developmental functioning and decreasing maladaptive behaviors and symptom severity at the level of group analysis. Whether such changes lead to significant improvements in terms of greater independence and vocational and social functioning in adulthood is also unknown. Given the few randomized controlled treatment trials that have been carried out, the few models that have been tested, and the large differences in interventions that are being published, it is clear that the field is still very early in the process of determining (a) what kinds of interventions are most efficacious in early autism, (b) what variables moderate and mediate treatment gains and improved outcomes following intervention, and (c) the degree of both short-term and long-term improvements that can reasonably be expected. To examine these current research needs, the empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed. Lovaas's treatment meet Chambless and colleague's (Chambless et al., 1998; Chambless et al., 1996) criteria for “well-established” and no treatment meets the “probably efficacious” criteria, though three treatments meet criteria for “possibly efficacious” (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). Most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria. Implications of these findings are also discussed in relation to practice guidelines as well as critical areas of research that have yet to be answered PMID:18444052

  5. Practical Guidance for Evidence-Based ICU Family Conferences*

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, J. Randall; White, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    Because most critically ill patients lack decision-making capacity, physicians often ask family members to act as surrogates for the patient in discussions about the goals of care. Therefore, clinician-family communication is a central component of medical decision making in the ICU, and the quality of this communication has direct bearing on decisions made regarding care for critically ill patients. In addition, studies suggest that clinician-family communication can also have profound effects on the experiences and long-term mental health of family members. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a context and rationale for improving the quality of communication with family members and to provide practical, evidence-based guidance on how to conduct this communication in the ICU setting. We emphasize the importance of discussing prognosis effectively, the key role of the integrated interdisciplinary team in this communication, and the importance of assessing spiritual needs and addressing barriers that can be raised by cross-cultural communication. We also discuss the potential value of protocols to encourage communication and the potential role of quality improvement for enhancing communication with family members. Last, we review issues regarding physician reimbursement for communication with family members within the context of the US health-care system. Communication with family members in the ICU setting is complex, and high-quality communication requires training and collaboration of a well-functioning interdisciplinary team. This communication also requires a balance between adhering to processes of care that are associated with improved outcomes and individualizing communication to the unique needs of the family. PMID:18842916

  6. Evidence-based youth psychotherapy in the mental health ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Weisz, John R; Ugueto, Ana M; Cheron, Daniel M; Herren, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why this might be the case. We examined relevant research literature and drew examples from our own research in practice settings. One reason for the falloff in EBP effects may be that so little youth treatment research has been done in the context of everyday practice. Researchers may have missed opportunities to learn how to make EBPs work well in the actual youth mental health ecosystem, in which so many real-world factors are at play that cannot be controlled experimentally. We sketch components and characteristics of that ecosystem, including clinically referred youths, their caregivers and families, the practitioners who provide their care, the organizations within which care is provided, the network of youth service systems (e.g., child welfare, education), and the policy context (e.g., reimbursement regulations and incentives). We suggest six strategies for future research on EBPs within the youth mental health ecosystem, including reliance on the deployment-focused model of development and testing, testing the mettle of current EBPs in everyday practice contexts, using the heuristic potential of usual care, testing restructured and integrative adaptations of EBPs, studying the use of treatment response feedback to guide clinical care, and testing models of the relation between policy change and EBP implementation. PMID:23402704

  7. How Evidence Can Be Used to Inform Policy: A Case Study of Early Childhood Evidence-Based Policy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Cerezo, Adrian; Ogbunugafor, C. Brandon

    2008-01-01

    Albeit science is clear in its support for early childhood, the developmental outcomes for young children, globally, are poor. It is hypothesized that evidence-based policies may be a potential mediator of the application of science to improve the lives and well-being of young children. However, the question arises--at what stage of policy…

  8. Strong and weak lensing analysis of cluster Abell 2219 based on optical and near infrared data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bezecourt; H. Hoekstra; M. E. Gray; H. M. AbdelSalam; K. Kuijken; R. S. Ellis

    2000-01-01

    We present a gravitational lensing study of the massive galaxy cluster A2219 (redshift 0.22). This investigation is based on multicolour images from U through H, which allows photometric redshifts to be estimated for the background sources. The redshifts provide useful extra information for the lensing models: we show how they can be used to identify a new multiple-image system (and

  9. Imaging of Weak-Source Distributions in LSO-Based Small-Animal PET Scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Goertzen; Joon Young Suk; Christopher J. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)- or lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosili- cate (LYSO)-based PET scanners have intrinsic radioactivity in the scintillator crystals due to the presence of 176Lu, which decays by b-emission followed by one or more prompt g-ray emissions. This leads to intrinsic true counts that can influence the image when scanning low levels of activity. An evaluation of the effects of this intrinsic

  10. Evidence-Based Practices Are Not Reformulated Best Practices: A Response to Martindale's "Children with Significant Hearing Loss: Learning to Listen, Talk, and Read--Evidence-Based Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.; Williams, Cheri

    2008-01-01

    "Communication Disorders Quarterly's" special series on evidence-based practices and, specifically, Martindale's article on evidence-based practices in learning to listen, talk, and read among children with significant hearing loss appear to confuse best practices with evidence-based practices and, perhaps more serious, offer little evidence for…

  11. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.

  12. Development of the Evaluative Method for Evaluating and Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Reichow; Fred R. Volkmar; Domenic V. Cicchetti

    2008-01-01

    Although research in autism has grown more sophisticated, the gap between research knowledge and applicability of research\\u000a in real world settings has grown. There have been a number of different reviews of evidence-based practices of treatments\\u000a for young children with autism. Reviews which have critically evaluated the empirical evidence have not found any treatments\\u000a that can be considered evidence-based. Reasons

  13. Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Community Behavioral Health: Agency Director Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enola K. Proctor; Kraig J. Knudsen; Nicole Fedoravicius; Peter Hovmand; Aaron Rosen; Brian Perron

    2007-01-01

    Despite a growing supply of evidence-based mental health treatments, we have little evidence about how to implement them in\\u000a real-world care. This qualitative pilot study captured the perspectives of agency directors on the challenge of implementing\\u000a evidence-based practices in community mental health agencies. Directors identified challenges as limited access to research,\\u000a provider resistance, and training costs. Director leadership, support to

  14. DETECTION OF WEAK CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS AROUND THE DAZ WHITE DWARF WD 1124-293: EVIDENCE FOR THE ACCRETION OF MULTIPLE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, J. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kilic, M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Faedi, F. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Shkolnik, E. L. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Weinberger, A. J.; Slesnick, C. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5249 Broad Branch RD, N.W., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-20

    Single metal-polluted white dwarfs with no dusty disks are believed to be actively accreting metals from a circumstellar disk of gas caused by the destruction of asteroids perturbed by planetary systems. We report, for the first time, the detection of circumstellar Ca II gas in absorption around the DAZ WD 1124-293, which lacks an infrared excess. We constrain the gas to >7 R{sub WD} and <32000 AU, and estimate it to be at {approx}54 R{sub WD}, well within WD 1124-293's tidal disruption radius. This detection is based on several epochs of spectroscopy around the Ca II H and K lines ({lambda} = 3968 A, 3933 A) with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We confirm the circumstellar nature of the gas by observing nearby sightlines and finding no evidence for gas from the local interstellar medium. Through archival data we have measured the equivalent width of the two photospheric Ca lines over a period of 11 years. We see <5%-7% epoch-to-epoch variation in equivalent widths over this time period, and no evidence for long term trends. The presence of a circumstellar gas implies a near edge-on inclination to the system, thus we place limits to short period transiting planetary companions with R > R{sub Circled-Plus} using the Wide Angle Search for Planets survey. The presence of gas in orbit around WD 1124-293 implies that most DAZs could harbor planetary systems. Since 25%-30% of white dwarfs show metal line absorption, the dynamical process for perturbing small bodies must be robust.

  15. Correlation between solubility and basicity constants of weak bases in aqueous ethanolic mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Sysoeva; I. S. Kislina; M. I. Vinnik

    1987-01-01

    1.The solubilities were measured and the activity coefficients (fB) were calculated for 4-nitroaniline in the H2O-EtOH system and for 2-nitroaniline in the H2O-EtOH-HCl system, and it was shown that fB decreases with increase in the EtOH concentration in the solution.2.The activity coefficient of the nonionized form of the base fB, for which water was chosen as the standard state, introduces

  16. Preparing Facilitators From Community-Based Organizations for Evidence-Based Intervention Training in Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Angel Felix; Tschannen, Dana; Villarruel, Antonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A major barrier to the use and scale-up of evidence-based interventions are challenges related to training and capacity building. A cost-effective and highly interactive multi-user virtual environment, Second Life (SL) is a promising alternative for comprehensive face-to-face facilitator training. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using SL to train facilitators from community-based organizations to use ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself), one of the few evidence-based interventions developed and tested with Latino youth to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Methods We recruited 35 participants from community-based organizations throughout the United States to participate in the SL ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. Preparation to use SL consisted of four phases: (1) recruitment and computer capacity screening, (2) enrollment, (3) orientation to the SL program, and (4) technical support throughout the synchronous training sessions. Technical difficulties, the associated cause, and the mitigation strategy implemented were recorded during each session. Participants completed evaluations including perceptions of self-efficacy and confidence to complete the necessary skills to participate in SL training. Results Overall, participants reported high levels of self-efficacy for all skills necessary to participate in SL training. Based on an 11-point scale (0-10), self-efficacy to download and access the software was rated the highest: mean 8.29 (SD 2.19). Interacting with items in SL had the lowest mean score: mean 7.49 (SD 2.89). The majority of technical difficulties experienced by participants were related to inadequate Internet connections or computer malfunctions. Conclusions Our findings support the feasibility of using SL for the ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. The process used in this study to prepare participants to use SL can be used as a basis for other evidence-based intervention training in SL. This study is an important contribution to developing cost-effective and accessible training options for evidence-based interventions. PMID:25270991

  17. Evidence-based fitness promotion in an afterschool setting: implementation fidelity and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Thaw, Jean M; Villa, Manuela; Reitman, David; DeLucia, Christian; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Hanson, K Lori

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how the adoption of evidence-based physical activity (PA) curricula by out-of-school time (OST) programs affects children's physical fitness, and there are no clear guidelines of what constitutes reasonable gains given the types of PA instruction currently offered in these programs. Using a three-wave, quasi-experimental, naturalistic observation design, this study evaluated the implementation of an evidence-based PA instruction curriculum (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids [SPARK]) and examined whether the potential health benefits of evidence-based PA instruction can be replicated in this context when compared to OST programs that do not use evidence-based PA curricula. Quality of PA instruction and SPARK implementation fidelity were also assessed. Results indicated that children in the non-evidence-based/standard PA instruction programs engaged in higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and showed greater improvements in fitness levels over time. The findings from this chapter suggest that while it is generally accepted that evidence-based approaches yield higher levels of PA when implemented by researchers under controlled conditions, findings are inconsistent when evidence-based PA instruction is implemented in the field, under presumably less controlled conditions. It appears that when it comes to PA instruction in afterschool, either less structured activities or well-implemented evidence-based practices could be the key to promoting higher PA levels and greater health and fitness for school-aged children. PMID:25530243

  18. Reported Prevalence of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The federal mandate for use of evidence-based practice in schools focuses attention on the frequently discussed research-to-practice gap in education. The current study examined the frequency with which evidence-based practices are engaged in the education of pupils with disabilities. In sum, 174 special education teachers and 333 school…

  19. Implementing Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in North Carolina Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hallfors, Denise D.

    2004-01-01

    The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) provides funding for prevention education to nearly every school district in the nation. Recent federal policy requires SDFSCA recipients to implement evidence-based prevention programs. This paper reports the extent to which North Carolina public school districts implement evidence-based

  20. The Application of Evidence-Based Practice to Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; Pannbacker, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to help speech-language pathologists (SLPs) apply the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) to nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) in order to make valid, evidence-based decisions about NSOMTs and thus determine if they are viable treatment approaches for the management of communication disorders.…