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Sample records for weak evidence base

  1. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  2. A Radio-Based Search finds no evidence for intrinsically weak TGFs in the Fermi GBM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Michael; Omar, Kareem

    2016-04-01

    We analyze gamma-ray data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) around the times of VLF radio sferics. The gamma-ray photons are time-aligned to the times of radio sferics, with correction for the light travel time to Fermi, and accumulated. Gamma-ray photons from TGFs already known from the standard GBM TGF offline search are excluded from the accumulation. We use sferic signals from both the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN). No excess signal is found in the accumulation of the gamma-ray data for sferics within 400 km of the Fermi nadir. However, an excess of gamma-rays is found in the co-aligned signal for sferics between 400 and 800 km of the Fermi nadir. Our interpretation of this distance-dependent non-detection / detection pattern is that the standard GBM offline search for TGFs is missing some TGFs that are weak at Fermi due to distance from Fermi and that there is no evidence for a population of TGFs that are intrinsically fainter than the threshold of the search.

  3. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device’s retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective.

  4. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device’s retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective. PMID:26324073

  5. Neutron-Diffraction Evidence for the Ferrimagnetic Ground State of a Molecule-Based Magnet with Weakly Coupled Sublattices

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Campo, Javier; Vos, Thomas E.; Miller, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    The diruthenium compound [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two weakly coupled, ferrimag- netically ordered sublattices occupying the same volume. The magnetic field Hc 800 Oe required to align the two sublattice moments is proportional to the antiferromagnetic dipolar interaction Kc B Hc 5 10 3 meV between sublattices. Powder neutron-diffraction measurements on a deuterated sample reveal that the sublattice moments are restricted by the anisotropy of the diruthenium paddle-wheel complexes to the cubic diagonals. Those measurements also suggest that the quantum corrections to the ground state are significant.

  6. Further Evidence for Weak Field Critical Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Peach, Sarah; Polak, Robert D.

    1997-03-01

    Following our unexpected discovery of weak short-range surface field effects on the critical mixing transition of a binary liquid,(N.S. Desai, S. Peach, and C. Franck, Phys. Rev. E52), 4129 (1995) we have directly addressed our concern that these results might have been affected by surface heterogeneity. We have used octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to cover borosilicate glass surfaces with partial monolayers. Reference substrates with identical treatment had OTS patches no larger than the bulk correlation length within 40 mK of the critical transition. The present reflectivity experiment employs uncovered reference surfaces for comparison in a single sample cell. We confirm our earlier discovery of a persistent (down to 3 mK above the critical point) deviation of the degree of critical adsorption from the maximum value expected. We have also improved our earlier analysis in order to examine the scaling behavior. Supported by the NSF under DMR-9320910, and through central facilities of the Materials Science Center at Cornell Univ.

  7. Evidence of Weak Habitat Specialisation in Microscopic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fontaneto, Diego; Westberg, Martin; Hortal, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Macroecology and biogeography of microscopic organisms (any living organism smaller than 2 mm) are quickly developing into fruitful research areas. Microscopic organisms also offer the potential for testing predictions and models derived from observations on larger organisms due to the feasibility of performing lab and mesocosm experiments. However, more empirical knowledge on the similarities and differences between micro- and macro-organisms is needed to ascertain how much of the results obtained from the former can be generalised to the latter. One potential misconception, based mostly on anedoctal evidence rather than explicit tests, is that microscopic organisms may have wider ecological tolerance and a lower degree of habitat specialisation than large organisms. Here we explicitly test this hypothesis within the framework of metacommunity theory, by studying host specificify in the assemblages of bdelloid rotifers (animals about 350 µm in body length) living in different species of lichens in Sweden. Using several regression-based and ANOVA analyses and controlling for both spatial structure and the kind of substrate the lichen grow over (bark vs rock), we found evidence of significant but weak species-specific associations between bdelloids and lichens, a wide overlap in species composition between lichens, and wide ecological tolerance for most bdelloid species. This confirms that microscopic organisms such as bdelloids have a lower degree of habitat specialisation than larger organisms, although this happens in a complex scenario of ecological processes, where source-sink dynamics and geographic distances seem to have no effect on species composition at the analysed scale. PMID:21887355

  8. When Good Evidence Goes Bad: The Weak Evidence Effect in Judgment and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Darlow, Adam; Sloman, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    An indispensable principle of rational thought is that positive evidence should increase belief. In this paper, we demonstrate that people routinely violate this principle when predicting an outcome from a weak cause. In Experiment 1 participants given weak positive evidence judged outcomes of public policy initiatives to be less likely than…

  9. Weakness

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... feel weak but have no real loss of strength. This is called subjective weakness. It may be ... flu. Or, you may have a loss of strength that can be noted on a physical exam. ...

  10. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  11. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  12. New Evidence about the Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Action of an Asymmetric Weak Heat Source.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Placido; Villari, Valentina; Scamporrino, Emilio; Micali, Norberto

    2015-09-17

    In the present study, we show how, in a stagnant water solution of uncharged aggregated achiral porphyrin-based molecules, a mirror-symmetry breaking (SB) can be induced and controlled by means of a weak asymmetric thermal gradient. In particular, it is shown that the optical activity of the aggregate porphyrin solution can be generated and reversed, in sign, only acting on the thermal ramp direction (heating or cooling). In order to avoid data misinterpretation, the aggregate structure modifications with the temperature change and the linear dichroism contribution to circular dichroism spectra were evaluated. A model simulation, using a finite element analysis approach describing the thermal flows, shows that small thermal gradients are able to give rise to asymmetric heat flow. The results reported here can be considered new evidence about the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon induced by very weak forces having an important role in the natural chiral selective processes. PMID:26315854

  13. Finding evidence for massive neutrinos using 3D weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Kitching, T. D.; Heavens, A. F.; Verde, L.; Serra, P.; Melchiorri, A.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we investigate the potential of 3D cosmic shear to constrain massive neutrino parameters. We find that if the total mass is substantial (near the upper limits from large scale structure, but setting aside the Ly alpha limit for now), then 3D cosmic shear+Planck is very sensitive to neutrino mass and one may expect that a next generation photometric redshift survey could constrain the number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} and the sum of their masses m{sub {nu}}=im{sub i} to an accuracy of {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.08 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.03 eV, respectively. If in fact the masses are close to zero, then the errors weaken to {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.10 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.07 eV. In either case there is a factor 4 improvement over Planck alone. We use a Bayesian evidence method to predict joint expected evidence for N{sub {nu}} and m{sub {nu}}. We find that 3D cosmic shear combined with a Planck prior could provide 'substantial' evidence for massive neutrinos and be able to distinguish 'decisively' between many competing massive neutrino models. This technique should 'decisively' distinguish between models in which there are no massive neutrinos and models in which there are massive neutrinos with |N{sub {nu}}-3| > or approx. 0.35 and m{sub {nu}} > or approx. 0.25 eV. We introduce the notion of marginalized and conditional evidence when considering evidence for individual parameter values within a multiparameter model.

  14. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  15. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    PubMed

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  16. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  17. Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrabback, T.; Hartlap, J.; Joachimi, B.; Kilbinger, M.; Simon, P.; Benabed, K.; Bradač, M.; Eifler, T.; Erben, T.; Fassnacht, C. D.; High, F. William; Hilbert, S.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kuijken, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Mellier, Y.; Morganson, E.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally varying ACS point-spread function, and improved modelling of charge-transfer inefficiency, we measured a lensing signal that is consistent with pure gravitational modes and no significant shape systematics. We carefully estimated the statistical uncertainty from simulated COSMOS-like fields obtained from ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, including the full non-Gaussian sampling variance. We tested our lensing pipeline on simulated space-based data, recalibrated non-linear power spectrum corrections using the ray-tracing analysis, employed photometric redshift information to reduce potential contamination by intrinsic galaxy alignments, and marginalized over systematic uncertainties. We find that the weak lensing signal scales with redshift as expected from general relativity for a concordance ΛCDM cosmology, including the full cross-correlations between different redshift bins. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we measure σ_8(Ω_m/0.3)0.51 = 0.75±0.08 from lensing, in perfect agreement with WMAP-5, yielding joint constraints Ω_m = 0.266+0.025-0.023, σ_8 = 0.802+0.028-0.029 (all 68.3% conf.). Dropping the assumption of flatness and using priors from the HST Key Project and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis only, we find a negative deceleration parameter q0 at 94.3% confidence from the tomographic lensing analysis, providing independent evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. For a flat wCDM cosmology and prior w ∈ [-2,0], we obtain w <-0.41 (90% conf.). Our dark energy

  18. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sackett, D L

    1997-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. By individual clinical expertise we mean the proficiency and judgment that we individual clinicians acquire through clinical experience and clinical practice. Increased expertise is reflected in many ways, but especially in more effective and efficient diagnosis and in the more thoughtful identification and compassionate use of individual patients' predicaments, rights, and preferences in making clinical decisions about their care. By best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research, often from the basic sciences of medicine, but especially from patient centered clinical research into the accuracy and precision of diagnostic tests (including the clinical examination), the power of prognostic markers, and the efficacy and safety of therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive regimens. External clinical evidence both invalidates previously accepted diagnostic tests and treatment and replaces them with new ones that are more powerful, more accurate, more efficacious, and safer. Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannized by external evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient. Without current best external evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of life-long, self-directed learning in which caring for our own patients creates the need for

  19. Evidence based vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Nalin, David R

    2002-02-22

    Evidence based vaccinology (EBV) is the identification and use of the best evidence in making and implementing decisions during all of the stages of the life of a vaccine, including pre-licensure vaccine development and post-licensure manufacture and research, and utilization of the vaccine for disease control. Vaccines, unlike most pharmaceuticals, are in a continuous process of development both before and after licensure. Changes in biologics manufacturing technology and changes that vaccines induce in population and disease biology lead to periodic review of regimens (and sometimes dosage) based on changing immunologic data or public perceptions relevant to vaccine safety and effectiveness. EBV includes the use of evidence based medicine (EBM) both in clinical trials and in national disease containment programs. The rationale for EBV is that the highest evidentiary standards are required to maintain a rigorous scientific basis of vaccine quality control in manufacture and to ensure valid determination of vaccine efficacy, field effectiveness and safety profiles (including post-licensure safety monitoring), cost-benefit analyses, and risk:benefit ratios. EBV is increasingly based on statistically validated, clearly defined laboratory, manufacturing, clinical and epidemiological research methods and procedures, codified as good laboratory practices (GLP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical research practices (GCRP) and in clinical and public health practice (good vaccination practices, GVP). Implementation demands many data-driven decisions made by a spectrum of specialists pre- and post-licensure, and is essential to maintaining public confidence in vaccines. PMID:11858871

  20. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  1. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  2. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  3. Hydrogen sensing array based on weak fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Wei; Yang, Minghong; Hu, Chenyuan; Dai, Jixiang; Li, Zhi; Yu, Haihu

    2015-09-01

    Optical fiber hydrogen sensing system based on weak fiber Bragg grating (WFBG) array deposited with palladium (Pd) film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. For multi-point measurement, three hydrogen WFBG sensors array are weld in a single optical fiber. A time-division multiplexing (TDM) interrogation system is employed to demodulate the sensing array. Sensing experiments to different hydrogen concentrations ranging from 0 to 3.6% are conducted, and the results show good agreement with standard FBG technology. Due to its strong multiplexing capability of weak FBG, the system is possible to integrate thousands of WFBG hydrogen sensors in a single optical fiber.

  4. Evidence-based management.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    It's OK to be lucky when you're lucky, but it's not OK when the issues are critical. Too often, we manage by anecdote, which is OK when you can afford to be wrong, but when finances are tight, or the market is overregulated, or a lot is at stake, making mistakes is not an option. Evidence-based management depends on attention to three components: analytics, decision making, and problem solving. These are skills that should be required of everyone who assumes a management position, no matter how high or low one is on the totem pole. Understanding basic analytical techniques, knowing how to apply these techniques to making good decisions, and learning how to become a skilled problem solver ensure that, when we manage our businesses, we minimize the risk of mistakes and maximize the potential for positive outcomes. PMID:22594062

  5. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γeff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  6. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  7. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT)

    PubMed Central

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M.; Robinson, Peter N.; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background It is the physicians’ task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. Methods We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise “SO” maximizing strengths and opportunities, “WT” minimizing weaknesses and threats, “WO” minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and “ST” maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. Results We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching “SW” with “OT”. As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. Conclusion I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies. PMID:27069939

  8. Seismic evidence for a weak radial differential rotation in intermediate-mass core helium burning stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.; Ballot, J.; Beck, P. G.; Mosser, B.; Østensen, R.; García, R. A.; Goupil, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The detection of mixed modes that are split by rotation in Kepler red giants has made it possible to probe the internal rotation profiles of these stars, which brings new constraints on the transport of angular momentum in stars. Rotation rates in the central regions of intermediate-mass core helium burning stars (secondary clump stars) have recently been measured. Aims: Our aim is to exploit the rotational splittings of mixed modes to estimate the amount of radial differential rotation in the interior of secondary clump stars using Kepler data in order to place constraints on angular momentum transport in intermediate-mass stars. Methods: We select a subsample of Kepler secondary clump stars with mixed modes that are clearly rotationally split. By applying a thorough statistical analysis, we show that the splittings of gravity-dominated modes (trapped in central regions) and of p-dominated modes (trapped in the envelope) can be measured. We then use these splittings to estimate the amount of differential rotation by using inversion techniques and by applying a simplified approach based on asymptotic theory. Results: We obtain evidence for a weak radial differential rotation for six of the seven targets that were selected, with the central regions rotating from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 1.0 times faster than the envelope. The last target is found to be consistent with a solid-body rotation. Conclusions: This demonstrates that an efficient redistribution of angular momentum occurs after the end of the main sequence in the interior of intermediate-mass stars, either during the short-lived subgiant phase or once He-burning has started in the core. In either case, this should bring constraints on the angular momentum transport mechanisms that are at work.

  9. An analytic function approach to weak mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olupitan, T.; Lei, C.; Vourdas, A.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum systems with variables in Z(d) are considered, and three different structures are studied. The first is weak mutually unbiased bases, for which the absolute value of the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases is 1 /√{ k } (where k | d) or 0. The second is maximal lines through the origin in the Z(d) × Z(d) phase space. The third is an analytic representation in the complex plane based on Theta functions, and their zeros. It is shown that there is a correspondence (triality) that links strongly these three apparently different structures. For simplicity, the case where d =p1 ×p2, where p1 ,p2 are odd prime numbers different from each other, is considered.

  10. Direct Evidence of the Transition from Weak to Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien; Kiyani, Khurom H

    2016-03-11

    One of the most important predictions in magnetohydrodynamics is that in the presence of a uniform magnetic field b_{0}e[over ^]_{∥} a transition from weak to strong wave turbulence should occur when going from large to small perpendicular scales. This transition is believed to be a universal property of several anisotropic turbulent systems. We present, for the first time, direct evidence of such a transition using a decaying three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of incompressible balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a grid resolution of 3072^{2}×256. From large to small scales, the change of regime is characterized by (i) a change of slope in the energy spectrum going from approximately -2 to -3/2, (ii) an increase of the ratio between the wave and nonlinear times, with a critical ratio of χ_{c}∼1/3, (iii) a modification of the isocontours of energy revealing a transition from a purely perpendicular cascade to a cascade compatible with the critical-balance-type phenomenology, and (iv) an absence followed by a dramatic increase of the communication between Alfvén modes. The changes happen at approximately the same transition scale and can be seen as manifest signatures of the transition from weak to strong wave turbulence. Furthermore, we observe a significant nonlocal three-wave coupling between strongly and weakly nonlinear modes resulting in an inverse transfer of energy from small to large scales. PMID:27015486

  11. Direct Evidence of the Transition from Weak to Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien; Kiyani, Khurom H.

    2016-03-01

    One of the most important predictions in magnetohydrodynamics is that in the presence of a uniform magnetic field b0e^∥ a transition from weak to strong wave turbulence should occur when going from large to small perpendicular scales. This transition is believed to be a universal property of several anisotropic turbulent systems. We present, for the first time, direct evidence of such a transition using a decaying three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of incompressible balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a grid resolution of 30722×256 . From large to small scales, the change of regime is characterized by (i) a change of slope in the energy spectrum going from approximately -2 to -3 /2 , (ii) an increase of the ratio between the wave and nonlinear times, with a critical ratio of χc˜1 /3 , (iii) a modification of the isocontours of energy revealing a transition from a purely perpendicular cascade to a cascade compatible with the critical-balance-type phenomenology, and (iv) an absence followed by a dramatic increase of the communication between Alfvén modes. The changes happen at approximately the same transition scale and can be seen as manifest signatures of the transition from weak to strong wave turbulence. Furthermore, we observe a significant nonlocal three-wave coupling between strongly and weakly nonlinear modes resulting in an inverse transfer of energy from small to large scales.

  12. Hidden link prediction based on node centrality and weak ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Hu, Zheng; Haddadi, Hamed; Tian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Link prediction has been widely used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. In this context, similarity-based algorithms have become the mainstream. However, most of them take into account the contributions of each common neighbor equally to the connection likelihood of two nodes. This paper proposes a model for link prediction, which is based on the node centrality of common neighbors. Three node centralities are discussed: degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. In our model, each common neighbor plays a different role to the node connection likelihood according to their centralities. Moreover, the weak-tie theory is considered for improving the prediction accuracy. Finally, extensive experiments on five real-world networks show that the proposed model can outperform the Common Neighbor (CN) algorithm and gives competitively good prediction of or even better than Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index.

  13. Evidence-Based Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

  14. Risk Assessment: Evidence Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

  15. Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied. PMID:22315259

  16. Geomagnetic field behaviour preceding a Superchron: new evidence for a weak Devonian geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L.; Anwar, T.; Scherbakova, V.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Shatsillo, A.; Holt, J.; Pavlov, V.

    2015-12-01

    The ~50 million year transition from the peak in reversal frequency in the Middle Jurassic (~170Ma), associated with a weak geomagnetic field, to the stable and apparently strong field during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (84-121Ma), represents a dramatic change in time-averaged geomagnetic field behaviour during the Mesozoic Era. New evidence from Siberian samples suggests there is a similar transition in geomagnetic field behaviour during the Palaeozoic, with a weak geomagnetic field in the Upper Devonian preceding the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron (262-318Ma). Both sites, the Viluy Traps and the Zharovsk complex of the Patom Margin, have seemingly reliable, published palaeomagnetic directions and new age constraints, 364.4 ± 1.7Ma (40Ar/39A) 371-377Ma (U-Pb) respectively. The samples were measured using the Thermal Thellier-Coe protocol with partial thermo-remanent magnetisation (pTRM) and tail checks and the Microwave Thellier-IZZI protocol with pTRM checks. Accepted Arai plots show positive pTRM checks, a clear relation between distinct primary directional and palaeointensity components and little to no zig-zagging. Three distinct magneto-mineralogical types were identified from SEM and rock magnetic techniques; low Ti- and intermediate Ti- titanomagnetite and possible maghemite, with mineral type affecting the success rate of samples but resulting in no significant variation in palaeointensity results. The Arai plots also commonly have a distinct two-slope concave-up shape, although non-heating, pseudo-Thellier experiments have supported this resulting from a strong overprint component rather than alteration or multi-domain effects. Results from these experiments give low site mean values between 2.3-29.9μT (Virtual Dipole Moments 4-50.6 ZAm2). The apparently periodic (~180 million years) transitions in geomagnetic field behaviour may indicate the influence of mantle convection changing heat flow across the Core Mantle Boundary.

  17. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  18. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

  19. Evidence-based chinese medicine for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

  20. Indirect evidences for existence of exotic mesons in hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, K.

    1998-05-29

    It is demonstrated that hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons are intimately related to hadron spectroscopy. Long standing puzzles in hadronic weak decays of charm mesons can be solved by taking account of dynamical contributions of various hadrons including non-qq-bar mesons.

  1. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  2. Evidence for weak magnetic fields in early-type emission stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Yudin, R. V.; Pogodin, M.; Schöller, M.; Peters, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    We report the results of our study of magnetic fields in a sample of 15 Be stars using spectropolarimetric data obtained at the European Southern Observatory with the multi-mode instrument FORS 1 installed at the 8 m Kueyen telescope. We detect weak photospheric magnetic fields in four stars, HD 56014, HD 148184, HD 155806, and HD 181615. We note that for HD 181615 the evolutionary status is not obvious due to the fact that it is a binary system currently observed in the initial rapid phase of mass exchange between the two components. Further, we notify the possible presence of distinct circular polarisation features in the circumstellar components of Ca II H&K in three stars, HD 58011, HD 117357, and HD 181615, hinting at a probable presence of magnetic fields in the circumstellar mass loss disks of these stars. We emphasize the need for future spectropolarimetric observations of Be stars with detected magnetic fields to study the temporal evolution of their magnetic fields and the correlation of magnetic field properties with dynamical phenomena taking place in the gaseous circumstellar disks of these stars. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes Nos. 075.D-0507 and 077.D-0406).

  3. Strong Public Health Recommendations from Weak Evidence? Lessons Learned in Developing Guidance on the Public Health Management of Meningococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanquet, Germaine; Stefanoff, Pawel; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Heuberger, Sigrid; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Stuart, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence underpinning public health policy is often of low quality, leading to inconsistencies in recommended interventions. One example is the divergence in national policies across Europe for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease. Aiming to develop consistent guidance at the European level, a group of experts reviewed the literature and formulated recommendations. The group defined eight priority research questions, searched the literature, and formulated recommendations using GRADE methodology. Five of the research questions are discussed in this paper. After taking into account quality of evidence, benefit, harm, value, preference, burden on patient of the intervention, and resource implications, we made four strong recommendations and five weak recommendations for intervention. Strong recommendations related not only to one question with very low quality of evidence as well as to two questions with moderate to high quality of evidence. The weak recommendations related to two questions with low and very low quality of evidence but also to one question with moderate quality of evidence. GRADE methodology ensures a transparent process and explicit recognition of additional factors that should be considered when making recommendations for policy. This approach can be usefully applied to many areas of public health policy where evidence quality is often low. PMID:26693485

  4. Strong Public Health Recommendations from Weak Evidence? Lessons Learned in Developing Guidance on the Public Health Management of Meningococcal Disease.

    PubMed

    Hanquet, Germaine; Stefanoff, Pawel; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Heuberger, Sigrid; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Stuart, James M

    2015-01-01

    The evidence underpinning public health policy is often of low quality, leading to inconsistencies in recommended interventions. One example is the divergence in national policies across Europe for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease. Aiming to develop consistent guidance at the European level, a group of experts reviewed the literature and formulated recommendations. The group defined eight priority research questions, searched the literature, and formulated recommendations using GRADE methodology. Five of the research questions are discussed in this paper. After taking into account quality of evidence, benefit, harm, value, preference, burden on patient of the intervention, and resource implications, we made four strong recommendations and five weak recommendations for intervention. Strong recommendations related not only to one question with very low quality of evidence as well as to two questions with moderate to high quality of evidence. The weak recommendations related to two questions with low and very low quality of evidence but also to one question with moderate quality of evidence. GRADE methodology ensures a transparent process and explicit recognition of additional factors that should be considered when making recommendations for policy. This approach can be usefully applied to many areas of public health policy where evidence quality is often low. PMID:26693485

  5. Algorithm of weak edge detection based on the Nilpotent minimum fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Genyun; Zhang, Aizhu; Han, Xujun

    2011-11-01

    To overcome the shortcoming in traditional edge detection, such as the losing of weak edges and the too rough detected edges, a new edge detection method is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is based on the Nilpotent minimum fusion. First of all, based on the space fuzzy relation of weak edges, the algorithm makes decision fusion to improve the structure of weak edges by using the Nilpotent minimum operator. Secondly, detect edges based on the fusion results. As a result, the weak edges are detected. Experiments on a variety of weak edge images show that the new algorithm can actually overcome the shortcoming in traditional edge detection, for the results are much better than traditional methods. On one hand, some of the weak edges of complex images, such as medical images, are detected. On the other hand, the edges detected by the new algorithm are thinner.

  6. Virtually-synchronous communication based on a weak failure suspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiper, Andre; Ricciardi, Aleta

    1993-01-01

    Failure detectors (or, more accurately Failure Suspectors (FS)) appear to be a fundamental service upon which to build fault-tolerant, distributed applications. This paper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e., that delivers failure and recovery information in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronous communication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failures and network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronous systems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failures by replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to implement virtually-synchronous communication: (1) at the lowest level, the FS component; (2) on top of it, a component (2a) that defines new views; and (3) a component (2b) that reliably multicasts messages within a view. The issues covered in this paper also lead to a better understanding of the various membership service semantics proposed in recent literature.

  7. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  8. Hemispheric Differences in Strong versus Weak Semantic Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.

    2007-01-01

    Goals: Research with lateralized word presentation has suggested that strong ("close") and weak ("remote") semantic associates are processed differently in the left and right cerebral hemispheres [e.g., Beeman, M. j., & Chiarello, C. (1998). Complementary right- and left-hemisphere language comprehension. "Current Directions in Psychological…

  9. Evidence for a weakly stratified Europan ocean sustained by seafloor heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Delaney, John R.

    2001-06-01

    We interpret chaos-type features on the surface of Europa as melt-through structures formed by rotationally confined, steady and/or episodic oceanic plumes that rise to the base of the ice shell from magmatically heated regions of the seafloor. Smaller lenticular features in the vicinity of chaos-type regions might be formed by baroclinically unstable vortices that spin off the main convective plume or by persistent heating from localized hydrothermal venting sites. The ocean is assumed to be weakly stratified because of turbulent convection generated by heating from below and cooling from above. Seafloor heating, maintained by tidal dissipation in the rocky interior, generates an estimated global heat flux of 8.7×1012W and limits the mean ice thickness to 2-5 km. For seafloor heat sources with radii r that are less than the ocean's deformation radius, rD=ND/|f| (N is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, D is the water depth, and f is the Coriolis parameter), the diameters of chaos-type regions are expected to diminish from O(100km) within equatorial regions to O(10km) at high latitudes (assuming spatially uniform water depth and density structure). Where r>rD, the scale of the source region determines the scale of the melt-through features. Provided there is sufficient time before refreezing, ice rafts in large melt-through regions are imbedded in episodes of preferentially anticyclonic circulation, corresponding to clockwise (counterclockwise) motions in the northern (southern) hemisphere. We calculate that 1021J were required to melt the ice in the ~100 km diameter Conamara Chaos region and that for a steady, localized heat flux F~1011W (~1% of the global heat flux) it took ~1000 years for the initial melt-through to occur. Assuming that ice raft displacements in Conamara Chaos occurred during a major melt-through event, maximum current speeds in the region were O(10cms-1), and refreezing occurred within ~20 hours. A lack of well-defined ice drift in other major

  10. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Literature-based Recommendations for Evaluating Strengths, Weaknesses, and Clinical Value.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; Bolton, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Good quality systematic reviews (SRs) summarizing best available evidence can help inform clinical decisions, improv- ing patient and wound outcomes. Weak SRs can misinform readers, undermining care decisions and evidence-based practice. To examine the strengths and weaknesses of SRs and meta-analyses and the role of SRs in contemporary evidence-based wound care practice, and using the search terms systematic review, meta-analysis, and evidence-based practice, the authors searched Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for important terminology and recommendations to help clinicians evaluate SRs with meta-analysis. Reputable websites, recent textbooks, and synthesized available literature also were reviewed to describe and summarize SR strengths and weaknesses. After developing a checklist for critically evaluating SR objectives, inclusion/exclusion criteria, study quality, data extraction and synthesis methods, meta-analysis homogeneity, accuracy of results, interpretation, and consistency between significant findings and abstract or conclusions, the checklist was applied to topical wound care SRs identified in Cochrane and MEDLINE searches. Best available evidence included in the SRs from 169 randomized controlled trials on 11,571 patients supporting topical intervention healing effects on burns, surgical sites, and diabetic, venous, or pressure ulcers was summarized and showed SRs and clinical trials can demonstrate different outcomes because the information/data are compiled differently. The results illustrate how evidence insufficient to support firm conclusions may still meet immediate needs to guide carefully considered clinical wound and patient care decisions while encouraging better future science. PMID:26544016

  11. ATLAS diboson excesses as an evidence for a heavy WW resonance with the weak isospin 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, Boris A.; Zaitsev, Ivan V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently reported diboson excesses at LHC are interpreted as indications for heavy resonance with weak isospin 2 due to would-be anomalous interaction of the weak bosons, which is defined by a constant λ. In the framework of an approach to the spontaneous generation of such interaction, we obtain estimates for the effect, which qualitatively agrees with ATLAS data. Effects are predicted in inclusive production of W+W+, W+(Z,γ), W+W-, (Z,γ)(Z,γ), W-(Z,γ), W-W- resonances in the vicinity of MR ≃ 2TeV, which could be reliably checked at the upgraded LHC with s = 13TeV.

  12. CCO Pulsars as Anti-Magnetars: Evidence of Neutron Stars Weakly Magnetized at Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2008-02-01

    Our new study of the two central compact object pulsars, PSR J1210-5226 (P = 424 ms) and PSR J1852+0040 (P = 105 ms), leads us to conclude that a weak natal magnetic field shaped their unique observational properties. In the dipole spin-down formalism, the 2-sigma upper limits on their period derivatives, <2×10-16 for both pulsars, implies surface magnetic field strengths of Bs<3×1011 G and spin periods at birth equal to their present periods to three significant digits. Their X-ray luminosities exceed their respective spin-down luminosities, implying that their thermal spectra are derived from residual cooling and perhaps partly from accretion of supernova debris. For sufficiently weak magnetic fields an accretion disk can penetrate the light cylinder and interact with the magnetosphere while resulting torques on the neutron star remain within the observed limits. We propose the following as the origin of radio-quiet CCOs: the magnetic field, derived from a turbulent dynamo, is weaker if the NS is formed spinning slowly, which enables it to accrete SN debris. Accretion excludes neutron stars born with both Bs<1011 G and P>0.1 s from radio pulsar surveys, where such weak fields are not encountered except among very old (>40 Myr) or recycled pulsars. We predict that these birth properties are common, and may be attributes of the youngest detected neutron star, the CCO in Cassiopeia A, as well as an undetected infant neutron star in the SN 1987A remnant. In view of the far-infrared light echo discovered around Cas A and attributed to an SGR-like outburst, it is especially important to determine via timing whether Cas A hosts a magnetar or not. If not a magnetar, the Cas A NS may instead have undergone a one-time phase transition (corequake) that powered the light echo.

  13. Evidence-based Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  14. The evidence-based paradox.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many occupational therapy practitioners consider evidence-based practice (EBP) to be the means by which occupational therapy can prove the validity of its services and thus support the legitimacy of our profession. The unquestioned acceptance of EBP as the way to establish credibility concerns me; unchallenged acceptance of any idea concerns me. Do practitioners accept EBP as the paradigm for guiding occupational therapy practice and research solely because it is presented as what we must do? I believe that practitioners must examine the implications for our profession of accepting EBP without question. In this article, I review EBP, present criticisms and concerns voiced by other professions and, finally, examine the implications of adopting an EBP perspective that replaces theory-directed practice. PMID:23433283

  15. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  16. Experimental Evidence of Weak Excluded Volume Effects for Nanochannel Confined DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Damini; Miller, Jeremy J.; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Mahshid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    In the classical de Gennes picture of weak polymer nanochannel confinement, the polymer contour is envisioned as divided into a series of isometric blobs. Strong excluded volume interactions are present both within a blob and between blobs. In contrast, for semiflexible polymers like DNA, excluded volume interactions are of borderline strength within a blob but appreciable between blobs, giving rise to a chain description consisting of a string of anisometric blobs. We present experimental validation of this subtle effect of excluded volume for DNA nanochannel confinement by performing measurements of variance in chain extension of T4 DNA molecules as a function of effective nanochannel size (305-453 nm). Additionally, we show an approach to systematically reduce the effect of molecular weight dispersity of DNA samples, a typical experimental artifact, by combining confinement spectroscopy with simulations.

  17. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  18. Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

    2013-01-01

    American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India. PMID:23716802

  19. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  20. Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G

    2015-12-11

    Using a pp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}}B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-})=(5.7±1.8_{-0.9}^{+0.8})×10^{-4},where f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}} and f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} are the b→Ξ_{b}^{-} and b→Λ_{b}^{0} fragmentation fractions, and B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) is the branching fraction. Assuming f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) would lie in the range from (0.57±0.21)% to (0.19±0.07)%. PMID:26705625

  1. Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξb-→Λb0π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Using a p p collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 , collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξb-→Λb0π-. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f/Ξb- fΛb0 B (Ξb-→Λb0π-)=(5.7 ±1. 8-0.9+0.8)×10-4, where fΞb- and fΛb0 are the b →Ξb- and b →Λb0 fragmentation fractions, and B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) is the branching fraction. Assuming fΞb-/fΛb0 is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) would lie in the range from (0.57 ±0.21 )% to (0.19 ±0.07 )%.

  2. Strength of iron at core pressures and evidence for a weak Earth’s inner core

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

    2013-05-12

    The strength of iron at extreme conditions is crucial information for interpreting geophysical observations of the Earth’s core and understanding how the solid inner core deforms. However, the strength of iron, on which deformation depends, is challenging to measure and accurately predict at high pressure. Here we present shear strength measurements of iron up to pressures experienced in the Earth’s core. Hydrostatic X-ray spectroscopy and non-hydrostatic radial X-ray diffraction measurements of the deviatoric strain in hexagonally close-packed iron uniquely determine its shear strength to pressures above 200 GPa at room temperature. Applying numerical modelling of the rheologic behaviour of iron under pressure, we extrapolate our experimental results to inner-core pressures and temperatures, and find that the bulk shear strength of hexagonally close-packed iron is only ~ 1 GPa at the conditions of the Earth’s centre, 364 GPa and 5,500 K. This suggests that the inner core is rheologically weak, which supports dislocation creep as the dominant creep mechanism influencing deformation.

  3. Evidence-based periodontal therapy: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma

    2008-01-01

    Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947

  4. Evidence for weak genetic recombination at the PTP2 locus of Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Bartolomé, Carolina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Maside, Xulio

    2015-04-01

    The microsporidian Nosema ceranae is an emergent pathogen that threatens the health of honeybees and other pollinators all over the world. Its recent rapid spread across a wide variety of host species and environments demonstrated an enhanced ability of adaptation, which seems to contradict the lack of evidence for genetic recombination and the absence of a sexual stage in its life cycle. Here we retrieved fresh data of the patterns of genetic variation at the PTP2 locus in naturally infected Apis mellifera colonies, by means of single genome amplification. This technique, designed to prevent the formation of chimeric haplotypes during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), provides more reliable estimates of the diversity levels and haplotype structure than standard PCR-cloning methods. Our results are consistent with low but significant rates of recombination in the history of the haplotypes detected: estimates of the population recombination rate are of the order of 30 and support recent evidence for unexpectedly high levels of variation of the parasites within honeybee colonies. These observations suggest the existence of a diploid stage at some point in the life cycle of this parasite and are relevant for our understanding of the dynamics of its expanding population. PMID:25052231

  5. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  6. Evidence-Based Research in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This educational newsletter highlights a lead article, "Evidence-Based Research in Education." The article explains that evidence-based research emerged in the field of medicine over 50 years ago, resulting in major advances in the treatment and prevention of disease. It adds that clinical guidelines and protocols are based on the results of…

  7. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  8. The Young, the Weak and the Sick: Evidence of Natural Selection by Predation

    PubMed Central

    Genovart, Meritxell; Negre, Nieves; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Bistuer, Ana; Parpal, Luís; Oro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals, but even though some studies partially support this idea, evidence with large sample sizes, exhaustive analysis of prey and robust analysis is lacking. We gathered data from a culling program of yellow-legged gulls killed by two methods: by the use of raptors or by shooting at random. We compared both data sets to assess whether birds of prey killed randomly or by relying on specific individual features of the prey. We carried out a meticulous post-mortem examination of individuals, and analysing multiple prey characteristics simultaneously we show that raptors did not hunt randomly, but rather preferentially predate on juveniles, sick gulls, and individuals with poor muscle condition. Strikingly, gulls with an unusually good muscle condition were also predated more than expected, supporting the mass-dependent predation risk theory. This article provides a reliable example of how natural selection may operate in the wild and proves that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals. PMID:20333305

  9. Evidence of hypoxic tolerance in weak upper airway muscle from young mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, David P; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterised by deficiency in the protein dystrophin. The respiratory system is weakened and patients suffer from sleep disordered breathing and hypoventilation culminating in periods of hypoxaemia. We examined the effects of an acute (6h) hypoxic stress on sternohyoid muscle function (representative pharyngeal dilator). 8 week old male, wild-type (WT; C57BL/10ScSnJ; n=18) and mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J; n=16) mice were exposed to sustained hypoxia (FIO2=0.10) or normoxia. Muscle functional properties were examined ex vivo. Additional WT (n=5) and mdx (n=5) sternohyoid muscle was exposed to an anoxic challenge. Sternohyoid dysfunction was observed in mdx mice with significant reductions in force and power. Following exposure to the acute in vivo hypoxic stress, WT sternohyoid muscle showed evidence of functional impairment (reduced force, work and power). Conversely, mdx sternohyoid showed an apparent tolerance to the acute hypoxic stress. This tolerance was not maintained for mdx following a severe hypoxic stress. A dysfunctional upper airway muscle phenotype is present at 8 weeks of age in the mdx mouse, which may have implications for the control of airway patency in DMD. Hypoxic tolerance in mdx respiratory muscle is suggestive of adaptation to chronic hypoxia, which could be present due to respiratory morbidity. We speculate a role for hypoxia in mdx respiratory muscle morbidity. PMID:26691169

  10. Huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minghong; Bai, Wei; Guo, Huiyong; Wen, Hongqiao; Yu, Haihu; Jiang, Desheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper reviews the work on huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings developed at the National Engineering Laboratory for Fiber Optic Sensing Technology (NEL-FOST), Wuhan University of Technology, China. A versatile drawing tower grating sensor network based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is firstly proposed and demonstrated. The sensing network is interrogated with time- and wavelength-division multiplexing method, which is very promising for the large-scale sensing network.

  11. Allelic association but only weak evidence for linkage to the apolipoprotein E locus in late-onset Swedish Alzheimer families

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Forsell, C.; Lilius, L.

    1996-05-31

    An association between the {epsilon}4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset AD families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE {epsilon}4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Martin; Summerskill, William; Glasziou, Paul; Cartabellotta, Antonino; Martin, Janet; Hopayian, Kevork; Porzsolt, Franz; Burls, Amanda; Osborne, James

    2005-01-01

    Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC"). Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'. PMID:15634359

  13. Evidence-based management of patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Guyatt, G H

    1998-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) offers an approach to solving clinical problems that places a high value on systematic clinical investigation. Evidence-based clinicians look to the highest rung on a hierarchy of evidence to guide their patient management. When considering therapeutic decisions, randomized control trials examining impact on outcomes that patients feel are important are at the top of the hierarchy of individual studies. Systematic reviews of such trials provide the best evidence for patient care decisions. Systematic reviews include explicit eligibility criteria for studies they include, a comprehensive search, an explicit rating of the methodological quality of the individual trials, and explicit strategies for pooling data. Inferences are weakened if study design is weak (trials are not blinded or we have only observational studies on which to rely), if results are inconsistent across studies, or if studies rely on substitute end points (bone density rather than long-bone fractures). Evidence-based clinicians consider not only the strength of evidence, but the patients' risk of adverse target outcomes and the magnitude of treatment effects in making their therapeutic decisions. EBM encourages quantitative approaches to trading off benefits and risks. For example, in deciding whether to recommend hormone replacement therapy to a 50-yr-old, an evidence-based clinician would consider that the woman has a 15% lifetime risk of fracturing her hip and the median age of the fracture is 79. Observational studies suggest that long-term estrogen therapy will reduce this risk by 25%, and we must therefore treat 25 women for 30 yr to prevent a single fracture. Evidence-based clinicians are also aware that evidence never provides an adequate guide for treatment decisions when considered on its own. Each therapeutic decision involves a trade-off between benefits and risks, and value judgments are invariably involved in making that trade-off. PMID:15304887

  14. Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

  15. What's New about Evidence-Based Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A clear consensus has emerged around the world concerning the desirability and even the urgency of basing health care delivery systems on evidence. Among behavioral health care providers such as psychologists, evidence-based practice (EBP) has been focused largely on interventions. Psychologists have long emphasized a scientifically based…

  16. Making Evidence-based Practice Educational.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John

    2001-01-01

    Examines David Hargreaves' ideas about the nature of evidence-based practice and the future direction for educational research. States that one major theme is that current discourse about evidence-based teaching is uninformed by an articulate educational theory, therefore excluding thoughtful consideration of implications of such a theory for…

  17. Evidence-based medicine and levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David K

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making medical decisions based on evidence gained from applying the scientific method. Published studies are evaluated using three key questions: "Are the results valid?"; "What are the results?"; and "Can the results be applied to my patients?" The hierarchy of study methods for obtaining evidence is, in order from least to most useful: laboratory research, editorials, case reports and series, case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials. Retrospective case series can suffer from problems such as selection of a biased sample, mixing of treatment effects, and lack of control group. Randomized clinical trials (and meta-analyses of multiple trials) provide the highest level of evidence because randomization limits confounding and prevents bias of treatment assignment. In addition, randomized trials have standardization of interventions, prospective data collection, and masked outcome measures. Although every question cannot be addressed by a randomized clinical trial, the best available evidence should be sought and used to guide treatments. PMID:21061876

  18. Highly photoluminescent polysilsesquioxane hybrids based on weakly fluorescent 1,8-naphthalic anhydride derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fei; Huang, Miao; Song, Jianhui; Wu, Meng; Xu, Min

    2016-07-01

    A series of highly fluorescent polysilsesquioxane materials based on 1,8-naphthalic anhydride derivatives(XNA) have been prepared. The XNAs were chemically bonded with the polysiloxane. Though the fluorescent intensities of the solution of XNAs with different substitutes make a great difference, some of them are even very weakly emissive, the fluorescent intensities of the corresponding solid polysilsesquioxane materials are strong. In this case, the electronic effect of the substitute became non-important. With restricted molecular motion and J-aggregation, some traditionally weakly fluorescent or non-fluorescent chromophoric organics due to the substituent effect may be used to prepare highly fluorescent materials.

  19. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-15

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N{sup 2}) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm.

  20. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  1. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers.

    PubMed

    Nap, R J; Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  2. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  3. Evidence for Non-neutral Evolution in a Sodium Channel Gene in African Weakly Electric Fish (Campylomormyrus, Mormyridae).

    PubMed

    Paul, Christiane; Kirschbaum, Frank; Mamonekene, Victor; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels, Nav1, play a crucial role in the generation and propagation of action potentials and substantially contribute to the shape of their rising phase. The electric organ discharge (EOD) of African weakly electric fish (Mormyroidea) is the sum of action potentials fired from all electrocytes of the electric organ at the same time and hence voltage-gated sodium channels are one factor-together with the electrocyte's morphology and innervation pattern-that determines the properties of these EODs. Due to the fish-specific genome duplication, teleost fish possess eight copies of sodium channel genes (SCN), which encode for Nav1 channels. In mormyroids, SCN4aa is solely expressed in the electrocytes of the adult electric organ. In this study, we compared entire SCN4aa sequences of six species of the genus Campylomormyrus and identified nonsynonymous substitutions among them. SCN4aa in Campylomormyrus exhibits a much higher evolutionary rate compared to its paralog SCN4ab, whose expression is not restricted to the electric organ. We also found evidence for strong positive selection on the SCN4aa gene within Mormyridae and along the lineage ancestral to the Mormyridae. We have identified sites at which all nonelectric teleosts are monomorphic in their amino acid, but mormyrids have different amino acids. Our findings confirm the crucial role of SCN4aa in EOD evolution among mormyrid weakly electric fish. The inferred positive selection within Mormyridae makes this gene a prime candidate for further investigation of the divergent evolution of pulse-type EODs among closely related species. PMID:27481396

  4. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve. PMID:19395827

  5. Evidence-Based Teaching: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This essay connects a number of recent books relating, in different ways, to the contentious issue of how teaching might be better guided by research evidence. In order to shed light on this problematic area, Terry Wrigley begins by pointing out that raising awkward questions about terms such as "evidence- based teaching" is not the same…

  6. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  7. Evidence-based librarianship: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors. PMID:11055296

  8. [Looking for evidence-based medical informatics].

    PubMed

    Coiera, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    e-Health is experiencing a difficult time. On the one side, the forecast is for a bright digital health future created by precision medicine and smart devices. On the other hand, most large scale e-health projects struggle to make a difference and are often controversial. Both futures fail because they are not evidence-based. Medical informatics should follow the example of evidence-based medicine, i.e. conduct rigorous research that gives us evidence to solve real world problems, synthesise that evidence and then apply it strictly. We already have the tools for creating a different universe. What we need is evidence, will, a culture of learning, and hard work. PMID:27030221

  9. Dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of terahertz vibration, and evidence for weak hydrogen bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2013-03-01

    A weak hydrogen bond (WHB) such as CH-O is very important for the structure, function, and dynamics in a chemical and biological system WHB stretching vibration is in a terahertz (THz) frequency region Very recently, the reasonable performance of dispersion-corrected first-principles to WHB has been proven. In this lecture, we report dispersion-corrected first-principles calculation of the vibrational absorption of some organic crystals, and low-temperature THz spectral measurement, in order to clarify WHB stretching vibration. The THz frequency calculation of a WHB crystal has extremely improved by dispersion correction. Moreover, the discrepancy in frequency between an experiment and calculation and is 10 1/cm or less. Dispersion correction is especially effective for intermolecular mode. The very sharp peak appearing at 4 K is assigned to the intermolecular translational mode that corresponds to WHB stretching vibration. It is difficult to detect and control the WHB formation in a crystal because the binding energy is very small. With the help of the latest intense development of experimental and theoretical technique and its careful use, we reveal solid-state WHB stretching vibration as evidence for the WHB formation that differs in respective WHB networks The research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (Grant No. 22550003).

  10. The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kuosheng.; Xu, Guanghua.; Liang, Lin.; Tao, Tangfei.; Gu, Fengshou.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

  11. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  12. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  13. New Y-function based MOSFET parameter extraction method from weak to strong inversion range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, J. B.; Rafhay, Q.; Cros, A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new Y-function based MOSFET parameter extraction method is proposed. This method relies on explicit expressions of inversion charge and drain current versus Yc(=Qi√Cgc)-function and Y(=Id/√gm)-function, respectively, applicable from weak to strong inversion range. It enables a robust MOSFET parameter extraction even for low gate voltage overdrive, whereas conventional extraction techniques relying on strong inversion approximation fail.

  14. Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    LeFebvre, Ron; Peterson, David; Haas, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based practice has had a growing impact on chiropractic education and the delivery of chiropractic care. For evidence-based practice to penetrate and transform a profession, the penetration must occur at 2 levels. One level is the degree to which individual practitioners possess the willingness and basic skills to search and assess the literature. Chiropractic education received a significant boost in this realm in 2005 when the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded 4 chiropractic institutions R25 education grants to strengthen their research/evidence-based practice curricula. The second level relates to whether the therapeutic interventions commonly employed by a particular health care discipline are supported by clinical research. A growing body of randomized controlled trials provides evidence of the effectiveness and safety of manual therapies. PMID:23875117

  15. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance. PMID:17616326

  16. Multi Dark Lens Simulations: weak lensing light-cones and data base presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Jullo, Eric; Metcalf, R. Benton; de la Torre, Sylvain; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco; Comparat, Johan; Göttlober, Stefan; Kyplin, Anatoly; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Petkova, Margarita; Shan, Huan Yuan; Tessore, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a large data base of weak lensing light cones constructed using different snapshots from the Big MultiDark simulation (BigMDPL). The ray-tracing through different multiple plane has been performed with the GLAMER code accounting both for single source redshifts and for sources distributed along the cosmic time. This first paper presents weak lensing forecasts and results according to the geometry of the VIPERS-W1 and VIPERS-W4 field of view. Additional fields will be available on our data base and new ones can be run upon request. Our data base also contains some tools for lensing analysis. In this paper we present results for convergence power spectra, one point and high order weak lensing statistics useful for forecasts and for cosmological studies. Covariance matrices have also been computed for the different realizations of the W1 and W4 fields. In addition we compute also galaxy-shear and projected density contrasts for different halo masses at two lens redshift according to the CFHTLS source redshift distribution both using stacking and cross-correlation techniques, finding very good agreement.

  17. Need for Evidence-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groccia, James E.; Buskist, William

    2011-01-01

    Educators believe that rather than being a mere possibility to improve as teachers, it is always "necessary" to improve. One way of improving teaching is to adopt teaching methods that are based on or supported by evidence of success in enhancing student learning. Most teachers base their instructional practices on tradition, the opinion of…

  18. Evidence-Based Practices and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

  19. Evidence-based Practice of Radiology.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Lisa P; Dunne, Ruth M; Carroll, Anne G; Malone, Dermot E

    2015-10-01

    Current health care reform in the United States is producing a shift in radiology practice from the traditional volume-based role of performing and interpreting a large number of examinations to providing a more affordable and higher-quality service centered on patient outcomes, which is described as a value-based approach to the provision of health care services. In the 1990 s, evidence-based medicine was defined as the integration of current best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. When these methods are applied outside internal medicine, the process is called evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP facilitates understanding, interpretation, and application of the best current evidence into radiology practice, which optimizes patient care. It has been incorporated into "Practice-based Learning and Improvement" and "Systems-based Practice," which are two of the six core resident competencies of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and two of the 12 American Board of Radiology milestones for diagnostic radiology. Noninterpretive skills, such as systems-based practice, are also formally assessed in the "Quality and Safety" section of the American Board of Radiology Core and Certifying examinations. This article describes (a) the EBP framework, with particular focus on its relevance to the American Board of Radiology certification and maintenance of certification curricula; (b) how EBP can be integrated into a residency program; and (c) the current value and likely place of EBP in the radiology information technology infrastructure. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26466187

  20. Queer challenges to evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec

    2014-06-01

    This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. PMID:23738815

  1. Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren . E-mail: Asa.Liljegren@bms.uu.se; Steffen, Ann-Charlott

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}. Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}:HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with {sup 211}At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after {sup 211}At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens.

  2. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  3. Retrieval-based face annotation by weak label regularized local coordinate coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Hoi, Steven C H; He, Ying; Zhu, Jianke; Mei, Tao; Luo, Jiebo

    2014-03-01

    Auto face annotation, which aims to detect human faces from a facial image and assign them proper human names, is a fundamental research problem and beneficial to many real-world applications. In this work, we address this problem by investigating a retrieval-based annotation scheme of mining massive web facial images that are freely available over the Internet. In particular, given a facial image, we first retrieve the top $(n)$ similar instances from a large-scale web facial image database using content-based image retrieval techniques, and then use their labels for auto annotation. Such a scheme has two major challenges: 1) how to retrieve the similar facial images that truly match the query, and 2) how to exploit the noisy labels of the top similar facial images, which may be incorrect or incomplete due to the nature of web images. In this paper, we propose an effective Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding (WLRLCC) technique, which exploits the principle of local coordinate coding by learning sparse features, and employs the idea of graph-based weak label regularization to enhance the weak labels of the similar facial images. An efficient optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the WLRLCC problem. Moreover, an effective sparse reconstruction scheme is developed to perform the face annotation task. We conduct extensive empirical studies on several web facial image databases to evaluate the proposed WLRLCC algorithm from different aspects. The experimental results validate its efficacy. We share the two constructed databases "WDB" (714,454 images of 6,025 people) and "ADB" (126,070 images of 1,200 people) with the public. To further improve the efficiency and scalability, we also propose an offline approximation scheme (AWLRLCC) which generally maintains comparable results but significantly reduces the annotation time. PMID:24457510

  4. General Analytical Procedure for Determination of Acidity Parameters of Weak Acids and Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Młodzianowski, Janusz; Balińska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pKa values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pKa values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pKa values and the reference literature data for compounds studied. PMID:25692072

  5. [Methods of brain stimulation based on weak electric current--future tool for the clinician?].

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Tuukka; Lehto, Soili M

    2016-01-01

    Methods of brain stimulation based on a weak electric current are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques. They include transcranial direct current, alternating current and random noise stimulation. These methods modify the membrane potential of neurons without triggering the action potential, and have been successfully utilized to influence cognition and regulation of emotions in healthy experimental subjects. In clinical studies, indications of the efficacy of these techniques have been obtained in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, memory disorders and pain as well as in stroke rehabilitation. It is hoped that these techniques will become established as part of the care and rehabilitation of psychiatric and neurologic patients in the future. PMID:27017784

  6. The nanosecond optical parametric amplifier of a weak signal based on BBO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasarov, V. Kh; Bel’kov, S. A.; Garanin, S. G.; Garnov, S. V.; Nikolaev, D. A.; Orlov, S. N.; Polivanov, Y. N.; Shcherbakov, I. A.; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2016-09-01

    Parameters of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA), based on two BBO crystals were studied. The OPA was made with the schematic of the extraordinary wave walk off compensation. Efficient amplification of the weak signal (λ  =  1053 nm) in the field of the strong pumping wave (λ  =  532 nm) was obtained. The measured value of the amplification was equal to ~106. The noise level of the parametric amplifier was less than 10‑3 from the signal level.

  7. Coherent Random Fiber Laser Based on Nanoparticles Scattering in the Extremely Weakly Scattering Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Qun; Miao, Bo; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Gang; Chen, Yang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Qijin

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate the realization of a coherent random fiber laser (RFL) in the extremely weakly scattering regime, which contains a dispersive solution of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye pyrromethene 597 in carbon disulfide that was injected into a hollow optical fiber. Multiple scattering of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes NPs greatly enhanced by the waveguide confinement effect was experimentally verified to account for coherent lasing observed in our RFL system. This Letter extends the NPs-based RFLs from the incoherent regime to the coherent regime.

  8. Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Steele Shernoff, Elisa

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current…

  9. Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Shernoff, Elisa Steele

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current…

  10. Evidence-Based Special Education in the Context of Scarce Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TEACHING Exceptional Children, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are supported as generally effective for populations of learners by bodies of high-quality and experimental research and, when aligned with stakeholder values and practical needs, should be prioritized for implementation. However, evidence-based practices are not currently available for all learner types in all…

  11. Oncology Nursing Is Evidence-Based Care.

    PubMed

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Brown, Carlton G

    2016-06-01

    This issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (CJON) will be the final time that you will see the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) feature column. Why? Because we have seen oncology nursing evolve in the past 20 years and EBP is everywhere! We use it in our clinics and hospital units, incorporate it into decisions about symptom management, and use evidence to develop survivorship guidelines. We discuss EBP in journal clubs and use applications on mobile devices to find the best interventions for our patients. We have oncology nurses sitting on committees to develop guidelines based on the best evidence and expert opinion. We have come a long way and it is our belief that EBP is included in almost every article in CJON and, therefore, a need no longer exists for an individual column about EBP. 
. PMID:27206287

  12. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #741

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request asks for information relating to funding for virtual schools. The EBE Request Desk was asked to provide a scan of states for information on how they fund virtual schools and what the current funding levels are (most current year for which such data is available). This paper provides answers to this…

  13. Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzing, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain knowledge…

  14. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  15. Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

  16. Implementing Evidence-Based Treatments in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolston, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    Several case studies in implementing evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in organizations are presented. Two erroneous presuppositions about treatments with proven efficacy (henceforth called EBTs) frequently lead to major problems (Hoagwood et al., 2001). The first is that the development of an EBT has taken into account the fit between the…

  17. The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.

  18. Time for evidence-based cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed. PMID:17210074

  19. Statewide Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixsen, Dean; Blase, Karen; Metz, Allison; van Dyke, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based programs will be useful to the extent they produce benefits to individuals on a socially significant scale. It appears the combination of effective programs and effective implementation methods is required to assure consistent uses of programs and reliable benefits to children and families. To date, focus has been placed primarily…

  20. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

  1. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  2. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

  3. Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing: the challenge of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This article reconsiders the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing in light of the challenge of narrow empirics in the form of evidence-based practice. Objections to the dominance of evidence-based practice are reviewed, and the reasons for it are examined. It is argued that it is partially the result of weaknesses in the alternative patterns of ethical, personal, and esthetic knowing, the ineffability of which compromises accountability. This ineffability can be countered only by introducing a wider form of empirics than countenanced by evidence-based practice into all patterns of knowing, to demonstrate their salience and to make their use in practice transparent. PMID:19996934

  4. RFM-Based Block Adjustment for Spaceborne Images with Weak Convergent Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Huang, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    Block adjustment is one of the most important processing steps in topographic mapping. In order to achieve precise 3D photogrammetry points, the ratio of base-to-height(RBH) or the forward intersection angle(FIA) of stereo images should meet the requirement of specifications for topographic maps when the block images are used. In some fields, overlaps and ratios of base-toheight are often ignored, no gaps among the images are the basic requirements for block images. In this study we give a method to detect the forward intersection angle for homonymous points with RPCs, and create a indicator angler to reflect the level of weak convergence. In order to achieve stable and precise solver for block adjustment under the condition of weak convergence, this paper take the elevation value interpolated from DEM as observed values with errors, combine the height value and measured image coordinates to build adjustment model. The model can be steady solved in ill-pose situation and have little effects from the DEM errors. the model and the methods are validated by simulation and real data including optical ZY1-02C and TerraSAR images.

  5. Patch-based label fusion using local confidence-measures and weak segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastmeyer, André; Fortmeier, Dirk; Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Simon, Martin; Handels, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    A system for the fully automatic segmentation of the liver and spleen is presented. In a multi-atlas based segmentation framework, several existing segmentations are deformed in parallel to image intensity based registrations targeting the unseen patient. A new locally adaptive label fusion method is presented as the core of this paper. In a patch comparison approach, the transformed segmentations are compared to a weak segmentation of the target organ in the unseen patient. The weak segmentation roughly estimates the hidden truth. Traditional fusion approaches just rely on the deformed expert segmentations only. The result of patch comparison is a confidence weight for a neighboring voxel-label in the atlas label images to contribute to the voxel under study. Fusion is finally carried out in a weighted averaging scheme. The new contribution is the incorporation of locally determined confidence features of the unseen patient into the fusion process. For a small experimental set-up consisting of 12 patients, the proposed method performs favorable to standard classifier label fusion methods. In leave-one-out experiments, we obtain a mean Dice ratio of 0.92 for the liver and 0.82 for the spleen.

  6. Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.

    PubMed

    Osborn, John

    2002-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

  7. [Evidence-based medicine: an epistemological approach].

    PubMed

    Henao, Daniel Eduardo; Jaimes, Fabián Alberto

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based medicine gathers physician's experience and the best scientific evidence to make medical decisions. This proposal has been widely promulgated by medical opinion leaders. Despite a large literature supporting this practice, a formal discussion has not been established regarding its epistemological consequences in daily medical work. The main proposal of evidence-based medicine consists of choosing the best medical decision according to the best available results from scientific studies. Herein, the goal was to highlight inappropriate application of the scientific method used by physics to clinical science. The inaccuracy resides in describing health and disease in strictly numeric equivalents that can be homogenized on a continuous scale. Finally, the authors consider each diseased human being as a complex system, unique and particular, and that this being is defined by an historical background as well as current actual context. Therefore, evidence-based medicine possesses certain limitations that must be recognized in order to to provide better health care to patients. PMID:19753837

  8. What is evidence-based behavior analysis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysts often say they engage in evidence-based practice, they express differing views on what constitutes "evidence" and "practice." This article describes a practice as a service offered by a provider to help solve a problem presented by a consumer. Solving most problems (e.g., increasing or decreasing a behavior and maintaining this change) requires multiple intervention procedures (i.e., a package). Single-subject studies are invaluable in investigating individual procedures, but researchers still need to integrate the procedures into a package. The package must be standardized enough for independent providers to replicate yet flexible enough to allow individualization; intervention manuals are the primary technology for achieving this balance. To test whether the package is effective in solving consumers' problems, researchers must evaluate outcomes of the package as a whole, usually in group studies such as randomized controlled trials. From this perspective, establishing an evidence-based practice involves more than analyzing the effects of discrete intervention procedures on behavior; it requires synthesizing information so as to offer thorough solutions to problems. Recognizing the need for synthesis offers behavior analysts many promising opportunities to build on their existing research to increase the quality and quantity of evidence-based practices. PMID:25729130

  9. Narrow Scale Flow and a Weak Field by the Top of Earth's Core: Evidence from Orsted, Magsat and Secular Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.

  10. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  11. Underdetermination in evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin H

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the philosophical implications of evidence-based medicine's (EBM's) epistemology in terms of the problem of underdetermination of theory by evidence as expounded by the Duhem-Quine thesis. EBM hierarchies of evidence privilege clinical research over basic science, exacerbating the problem of underdetermination. Because of severe underdetermination, EBM is unable to meaningfully test core medical beliefs that form the basis of our understanding of disease and therapeutics. As a result, EBM adopts an epistemic attitude that is sceptical of explanations from the basic biological sciences, and is relegated to a view of disease at a population level. EBM's epistemic attitude provides a limited research heuristic by preventing the development of a theoretical framework required for understanding disease mechanism and integrating knowledge to develop new therapies. Medical epistemology should remain pluralistic and include complementary approaches of basic science and clinical research, thus avoiding the limited epistemic attitude entailed by EBM hierarchies. PMID:25406418

  12. Some Results of Weak Anticipative Concept Applied in Simulation Based Decision Support in Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kljajić, Miroljub; Kofjač, Davorin; Kljajić Borštnar, Mirjana; Škraba, Andrej

    2010-11-01

    The simulation models are used as for decision support and learning in enterprises and in schools. Tree cases of successful applications demonstrate usefulness of weak anticipative information. Job shop scheduling production with makespan criterion presents a real case customized flexible furniture production optimization. The genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling optimization is presented. Simulation based inventory control for products with stochastic lead time and demand describes inventory optimization for products with stochastic lead time and demand. Dynamic programming and fuzzy control algorithms reduce the total cost without producing stock-outs in most cases. Values of decision making information based on simulation were discussed too. All two cases will be discussed from optimization, modeling and learning point of view.

  13. Interpolation of PSF based on compressive sampling and its application in weak lensing survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksmono, Andriyan B.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new point spread function (PSF) interpolation method based on compressive sampling (CS). Complex-Valued fractional Brownion motion (CV-fBm) field is used as a model of the PSF spatial distribution. The 1/f property of the fBm implies that it is a compressible field; therefore, CS will be able to fully reconstruct the field based on a small number of random samples. Performance evaluation shows the advantages of the proposed method over boxcar filtering, polynomial fitting, inverse distance weighting, and thin-plate methods. Potential applicability of the proposed method in weak gravitational lensing survey, particularly for interpolating fast varying PSF that represent distortion by turbulent field is also discussed.

  14. Photoinduced strong acid–weak base reactions in a polar aprotic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Min; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heesu; Gyum Kim, Taeg; Kwon, Oh-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    The excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) of the strong photoacid, N-methyl-7-hydroxyquinolinium, was studied in the presence of different weak bases such as methanol, ethanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide in an aprotic solvent of acetonitrile. Here, we present chemical kinetics analysis of the ESPT mechanism to explain biphasic fluorescence decay of the parent photoacid and the sign reversal of the rise and decay of the resulting conjugate-base fluorescence. The ESPT of the free photoacid showed a molecularity of 2 with reacting alcohol molecules. In the ground state, it was found that a fraction of the photoacid formed 1 : 2 hydrogen-bonded complexes with the residual water present in the aprotic solvent or 1 : 1 complexes with the additive alcohols. In the excited state, these adducts underwent proton transfer when complexed further with diffusing alcohol molecules.

  15. Weak edge enhancement based on contextual modulation of non-classical receptive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Edges and contours of an object contain a lot of information, so the detection and extraction of saliency edges and contours in the image become one of the most active issues in the research field of automatic target recognition. Weak edge enhancement plays an important role in contour detection. Based on psychophysical and physiological findings, a contour detection method which focuses on weak edge enhancement and inspired by the visual mechanism in the primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed in this paper. The method is divided in three steps. Firstly, the response of every single visual neuron in V1 is computed by local energy. Secondly, the local contrast which corresponds to the CRF is computed. If the local contrast in the image is below the low contrast threshold, expand NCRF to change the spatially modulatory range by increasing the NCRF radius. Thirdly, the facilitation and suppression (the contextual influence) on a neuron through horizontal interactions are obtained by using a spatially unified modulating function. We tested it on synthetic images and encouraging results were acquired.

  16. [The philosophical foundations of evidence-based nursing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Linton; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2013-10-01

    As a branch of evidence-based practice, evidence-based nursing emphasizes the integration of patient needs, the evidence for practical problem solving, and the application of nursing expertise. The criteria of evidence and the application of evidence in practice are the central theoretical foundations of evidence-based practice and evidence-based nursing. Therefore, the main philosophical considerations of evidence-based nursing shall focus on the criteria by which evidence supports propositions and how evidence should be applied in practice. In this paper, we explain the criteria of evidence from an epistemological perspective and explain the application of evidence in practice from the perspective of rational decision-making. Finally, we use these philosophical considerations to propose practical guidelines for evidence-based nursing and explain the philosophical significance of nursing practice. PMID:24096459

  17. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  18. Quantum discord with weak measurement operators of quasi-Werner states based on bipartite entangled coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.

    2013-11-01

    Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.

  19. Evidence For Weak Ferromagnetic Moment Within The Basal Plane Of Hematite Natural Crystals At Low-Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. M.; Hirt, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hematite is an iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) that represents the most oxidized state in the wüstite-magnetite-hematite system. Hematite is antiferromagnetic (AFM) at room temperature with a small canted moment lying within the crystal symmetry plane or basal plane (weak ferromagnetism, WFM). Al low temperatures hematite undergoes a magnetic phase transition from WFM to a pure antiferromagnetic configuration (AF), which is known as the Morin transition. Low-temperature magnetization of hematite within the basal has been studied in a collection of natural crystals by means of torque magnetometry. Comparison between the torque curves at room temperature and at 77 K allows identification of a weak ferromagnetic moment constrained within the basal plane at temperatures well below the Morin transition. Annealing the samples produces the expected reduction of the weak ferromagnetic moment, but there is also a relationship between the ferromagnetic moment before and after annealing. Low temperature measurements after the annealing experiment reveal the presence of a weak ferromagnetic moment that survives the annealing. This observation suggests the magnetic structure of natural hematite crystals below the Morin transition can still be a carrier of magnetization.

  20. What's Wrong with Evidence-Based Medicine?

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Medicine in the last decades of the twentieth century was ripe for a data sweep that would bring systematic analysis to treatment strategies that seemingly had stood the test of time but were actually unvalidated. Coalescing under the banner of evidence-based medicine, this process has helped to standardize care, minimize error, and promote patient safety. But with this advancement, something of the art of medicine has been lost. PMID:26786040

  1. Evidence-Based Practice for Outpatient Clinical Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This column focuses on evidence-based practice (EBP) within multidisciplinary outpatient settings, but first provides some definitions. Besides EBP (Burns and Hoagwood, 2005; Guyatt and Rennie, 2002), there are also evidence-based medicine (EBM; March et al., 2005), evidence-based service (EBS; Chorpita et al., 2002), and evidence-based treatment…

  2. Evidence-based medicine and tort law.

    PubMed

    Foucar, Elliott; Wick, Mark R

    2005-05-01

    Recent statutes and legal decisions have been aimed at bettering the quality of tort-law decisions by substantively improving "expert" testimony. However, in analogy to the experience of physicians attempting to upgrade medical practice using the principles of evidence-based medicine, lawyers and the courts have found it much easier to describe ideal science than to actualize it. This is particularly so in a system (the Law) that has traditionally not been very discerning about scientific rigor, and which has established procedural priorities that are often incompatible with strict scientific standards. This overview will examine the American tort system from an evidence-based perspective. We include a discussion of standards that could be used for "outcomes analysis" in the Law; recognition and classification of errors made by the courts themselves; the relationship between medical errors, "negligence," and standard of care; and the problem of reconciling the rights of plaintiffs with medical-scientific facts. We also consider selected impediments to developing a legal system that is capable of consistently reaching evidence-based decisions concerning complex scientific information, including pathologic interpretation of tissue specimens. PMID:16639995

  3. What Is Evidence-Based Behavior Analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysts often say they engage in evidence-based practice, they express differing views on what constitutes “evidence” and “practice.” This article describes a practice as a service offered by a provider to help solve a problem presented by a consumer. Solving most problems (e.g., increasing or decreasing a behavior and maintaining this change) requires multiple intervention procedures (i.e., a package). Single-subject studies are invaluable in investigating individual procedures, but researchers still need to integrate the procedures into a package. The package must be standardized enough for independent providers to replicate yet flexible enough to allow individualization; intervention manuals are the primary technology for achieving this balance. To test whether the package is effective in solving consumers' problems, researchers must evaluate outcomes of the package as a whole, usually in group studies such as randomized controlled trials. From this perspective, establishing an evidence-based practice involves more than analyzing the effects of discrete intervention procedures on behavior; it requires synthesizing information so as to offer thorough solutions to problems. Recognizing the need for synthesis offers behavior analysts many promising opportunities to build on their existing research to increase the quality and quantity of evidence-based practices. PMID:25729130

  4. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for

  5. Thermooptic-based differential measurements of weak solute absorptions with an interferometer.

    PubMed

    Cremers, D A; Keller, R A

    1982-05-01

    An interferometric method of measuring small differences between weak optical absorptions of solutions has been developed using the thermooptic effect. To record the small changes in optical path length ~lambda/200 due to heating, it was necessary to stabilize the fringe pattern with respect to slow thermal drift using a galvanometer-driven compensator plate controlled by a closed feedback loop. Fringe shifts from background absorptions were nulled out to better than 1 part in 400, permitting the measurement of differences in absorptions between two solutions that were l/100th of background. Using laser powers of 100 mW, absorptions approximately 5 x 10(-6) cm(-1) (base e) could be measured with CC1(4) solutions. PMID:20389912

  6. Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid Strong Base Titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Arthur M.

    2003-12-01

    A simple analogy can often provide an instructor with a means of helping students to understand an unfamiliar concept. An analogy involving money can be particularly helpful as most students have experience in dealing with a range of financial transactions in their everyday lives. In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.

  7. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined. Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH⋯B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

  8. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai

    2015-12-01

    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice. PMID:26645442

  9. A fast weak motif-finding algorithm based on community detection in graphs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of transcription factor binding sites (also called ‘motif discovery’) in DNA sequences is a basic step in understanding genetic regulation. Although many successful programs have been developed, the problem is far from being solved on account of diversity in gene expression/regulation and the low specificity of binding sites. State-of-the-art algorithms have their own constraints (e.g., high time or space complexity for finding long motifs, low precision in identification of weak motifs, or the OOPS constraint: one occurrence of the motif instance per sequence) which limit their scope of application. Results In this paper, we present a novel and fast algorithm we call TFBSGroup. It is based on community detection from a graph and is used to discover long and weak (l,d) motifs under the ZOMOPS constraint (zero, one or multiple occurrence(s) of the motif instance(s) per sequence), where l is the length of a motif and d is the maximum number of mutations between a motif instance and the motif itself. Firstly, TFBSGroup transforms the (l, d) motif search in sequences to focus on the discovery of dense subgraphs within a graph. It identifies these subgraphs using a fast community detection method for obtaining coarse-grained candidate motifs. Next, it greedily refines these candidate motifs towards the true motif within their own communities. Empirical studies on synthetic (l, d) samples have shown that TFBSGroup is very efficient (e.g., it can find true (18, 6), (24, 8) motifs within 30 seconds). More importantly, the algorithm has succeeded in rapidly identifying motifs in a large data set of prokaryotic promoters generated from the Escherichia coli database RegulonDB. The algorithm has also accurately identified motifs in ChIP-seq data sets for 12 mouse transcription factors involved in ES cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Conclusions Our novel heuristic algorithm, TFBSGroup, is able to quickly identify nearly exact matches for long

  10. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  11. Seeking best practices: a conceptual framework for planning and improving evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lorine M; Schooley, Michael W; Anderson, Lynda A; Kochtitzky, Chris S; DeGroff, Amy S; Devlin, Heather M; Mercer, Shawna L

    2013-01-01

    How can we encourage ongoing development, refinement, and evaluation of practices to identify and build an evidence base for best practices? On the basis of a review of the literature and expert input, we worked iteratively to create a framework with 2 interrelated components. The first - public health impact - consists of 5 elements: effectiveness, reach, feasibility, sustainability, and transferability. The second - quality of evidence - consists of 4 levels, ranging from weak to rigorous. At the intersection of public health impact and quality of evidence, a continuum of evidence-based practice emerges, representing the ongoing development of knowledge across 4 stages: emerging, promising, leading, and best. This conceptual framework brings together important aspects of impact and quality to provide a common lexicon and criteria for assessing and strengthening public health practice. We hope this work will invite and advance dialogue among public health practitioners and decision makers to build and strengthen a diverse evidence base for public health programs and strategies. PMID:24331280

  12. Who needs evidence-based health care?

    PubMed Central

    Tsafrir, J; Grinberg, M

    1998-01-01

    The vast amount of published material in clinical and biomedical sciences, and conflicting results on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures may introduce doubts in decision-making for patient care. Information retrieving skills and the critical appraisal of published literature, together with elaboration of practice guidelines based on epidemiological methodology, form the basis of the trend towards evidence-based health care, which aims to overcome these problems. A survey conducted by questionnaire at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center analyzed which types of information sources are considered most relevant and useful for patient care by a cross-section of physicians with varying degrees of experience. They considered review articles and meta-analyses extremely reliable for information purposes, while for practical patient-care purposes they tended to rely more on the opinions of peers and experts. As the requirements of evidence-based health care may influence the attitudes of clinicians to the published literature and its evaluation, they have implications for medical libraries and information centers. Specifically, information specialists will be called upon more and more to impart information-retrieval and critical appraisal skills to clinicians. The involvement of information specialists in information gathering and selection will provide added value to the expertise and knowledge of in-house experts for decision-making. PMID:9549011

  13. [Evidence based medicine for the gastroenterologist].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Montori, Víctor M; Curioso, Walter I

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates the best available external evidence in the care of individual patients with the individual clinical expertise and the patient preferences. This method has been designed for use in daily clinical practice. We describe the rationale for EBM and its principles and application in this article. EBM enables gastroenterologists to update the knowledge required to provide patients with high quality medical care. EBM requires four steps: a) formulating a clinical question arising from a doubt concerning a patient; b) conducting an efficient literature search to answer this question; c) critically appraising this evidence using explicit methods to selected articles to determine the validity of their design and the clinical relevance of their results; and d) applying these results to the patient (taking into account their values and preferences and personal and social circumstances). In this paper, we explain the principles and basic concepts of EBM and their application to gastroenterology and we provide an extensive compilation of internet databases of valid information relevant to gastroenterologists. We also provide a selection of useful tools for self-directed learning of critical appraisal skills. Link updates can be accessed at the following URL: http://www.enlacesmedicos.com/e.htm PMID:15098043

  14. Organometallic electrochemistry based on electrolytes containing weakly-coordinating fluoroarylborate anions.

    PubMed

    Geiger, William E; Barrière, Frédéric

    2010-07-20

    -deficient organometallic compounds are subject to nucleophilic attack by the traditional family of electrolyte anions. With a view to testing the scope of the much less nucleophililic WCAs in providing a benign electrolyte anion for the generation of organometallic cation radicals, we carried out a series of studies on transition metal sandwich and half-sandwich compounds. The model compounds were chosen both for their fundamental importance and because their radical cations had been neither isolated nor spectrally characterized, despite many previous electrochemical investigations with traditional anions. The oxidation of prototypical organometallic compounds, such as the sandwich-structured ruthenocene and the piano-stool structured Cr(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(CO)(3), Mn(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(3), Re(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(3), and Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2), gave the first definitive in situ characterization of their radical cations. In several cases, the kinetic stabilization of the anodic products allowed the identification of dimers or unique dimer radicals having weak metal-metal bonds and provided new preparative options for organometallic systems. In terms of thermodynamic effects, the lower ion-pairing abilities of WCAs and their good solubility in a broad range of solvents, including those of lower polarity, permitted a systematic study that yielded an integrated model of how to use solvent-electrolyte combinations to manipulate the E(1/2) differences of compounds undergoing multiple electron-transfer reactions. Although the efficacy of WCA-based electrolytes in organometallic anodic chemistry is now established, WCAs might further expand applications of organic redox chemistry. Other WCAs, including those derived from carboranes and fluorinated alkoxyaluminates, merit additional studies. PMID:20345126

  15. Comparative effectiveness research: decision-based evidence.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Charles Joseph; Mrdjenovich, Adam Joel

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical research context, comparative effectiveness research (CER) refers to the comparison of several health-care interventions administered under real-world conditions to individuals representative of the day-to-day clinical practice target population. We provide a brief history of CER and argue that CER can be used to deliver useful, but currently lacking information. Three study designs that can accomplish this are discussed, and incorporating CER into cost-benefit analyses is examined. The relationships between CER and evidence-based and personalized medicine are also considered, as is the challenge of implementing CER results into routine clinical practice. PMID:25544326

  16. Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources. PMID:22002453

  17. Normal childbirth and evidence based practice.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, Ulla

    2007-12-01

    This paper was presented at a Health Conference in March 2007, celebrating the 150th birthday of the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne. It discusses the definition of "normal childbirth", and the pros and cons of three medical technologies: caesarean section, epidural analgesia during labour and routine ultrasound screening during pregnancy, and whether clinical practices, in Australia and Sweden (author is Swedish), in relation to these methods are evidence based. It also discusses the impact of non-scientific reasons, such as anxiety, on clinical decision making. PMID:17913612

  18. Progress in evidence based reproductive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bosteels, J.; Weyers, S.; Siristatidis, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; D’Hooghe, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) was introduced in 1996 to improve the methodological quality of published reports of randomised controlled trials. By doing a systematic review of randomised controlled trials on reproductive surgery, our group can demonstrate that the overall quality of the published reports of randomised studies on reproductive surgical interventions has improved after CONSORT. Nevertheless, some problems still remain. By discussing the benefits and pitfalls of randomised trials in reproductive surgery, our opinion paper aims to stimulate the reader’s further interest in evidence-based practice in reproductive surgery. PMID:24753872

  19. Managing and reviewing evidence-based changes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Helen; Price, Lynda

    Nurses lead many projects to manage change aimed at improving patient safety and care. This two-part series offers practical guidance on how to bring about an evidence-based change in practice, and how to demonstrate the success, or otherwise, of that change. Part 2 is concerned with discovering why the practice is falling short, how to implement improvements and measure the effect of the changes. It also highlights ways in which nurses can use their work as part of the revalidation process. PMID:27089753

  20. Colposcopy: an evidence-based update.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lee T

    2005-01-01

    Colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure, most commonly used in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and lower genital tract carcinoma. In this article, evidence-based management strategies are updated with discussion of the 2001 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Consensus Guidelines. Practice management issues include methods to improve cervical cancer screening rates, coding and billing, and telemedicine. Textbooks, CD-ROMs, and courses are listed for new learners and experienced providers who want to update and sharpen their skills. PMID:16148248

  1. Evidence for weakly bound electrons in non-irradiated alkane crystals: The electrons as a probe of structural differences in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrow, M. Misiak, L. E.; Gagoś, M.; Kornarzyński, K.; Szurkowski, J.; Grzegorczyk, M.; Rochowski, P.

    2015-02-14

    It is generally assumed that weakly bound (trapped) electrons in organic solids come only from radiolytical (or photochemical) processes like ionization caused by an excited positron entering the sample. This paper presents evidence for the presence of these electrons in non-irradiated samples of docosane. This can be due to the triboelectrification process. We argue that these electrons can be located (trapped) either in interlamellar gaps or in spaces made by non-planar conformers. Electrons from the former ones are bound more weakly than electrons from the latter ones. The origin of Vis absorption for the samples is explained. These spectra can be used as a probe indicating differences in the solid structures of hydrocarbons.

  2. Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction for axial flow blade based on weak coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. B.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow in whole flow passage of axial flow hydraulic turbine was conducted based on the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε model. Stress analysis of axial flow blade were carried on by elasticity unsteady FEM. The fluid domain and solid domain were calculated by sequential iteration. Based on weak coupling technology, the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the axial flow blade was conducted. Instantaneous flow field characteristic and stress distribution on blade were analyzed. According to the comparing with the results of pure flow numerical simulation, the pressure difference between press side and suction side increases after considering the FSI, to a certain extent, which will worsen cavitations performance of the blade. Meanwhile, stress distribution on the blades do not change significantly, but the maximum stress value increases markedly, and the maximum displacement reduces slightly. The research demonstrates that the FSI not only changes the distribution of the flow field in blade area, but also have a greater impact on the stress of the blades.

  3. Weak-coherent-state-based time-frequency quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    We study large-alphabet quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the use of weak-coherent states and the time-frequency uncertainty relation. The large alphabet is achieved by dividing time and spectrum into M bins resulting in a frame similar to traditional pulse-position modulation (in time domain). However, the non-uniform occurrence of a photon prepared in a time/frequency bin creates the space for eavesdropping. By analysis, we show that a new intercept-resend attack strategy exists, which is stronger than that has been reported in the literature and hence the secret key rate of time-frequency QKD (TF-QKD) can be more tightly bounded. We then analyse the secret key rates of TF-QKD under various practical issues, such as channel loss, background noise, jitter and atmospheric turbulence in order to better understand the applicability of TF-QKD. Further, we discuss the information reconciliation for TF-QKD. Specifically, we investigate the layered coding scheme for TF-QKD based on quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check codes against jitter and atmospheric turbulence. By simulation, we demonstrate that information reconciliation can be efficiently achieved.

  4. Total phenol analysis of weakly supported water using a laccase-based microband biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sekretaryova, Alina N; Volkov, Anton V; Zozoulenko, Igor V; Turner, Anthony P F; Vagin, Mikhail Yu; Eriksson, Mats

    2016-02-11

    The monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewaters in a simple manner is of great importance for environmental control. Here, a novel screen printed laccase-based microband array for in situ, total phenol estimation in wastewaters and for water quality monitoring without additional sample pre-treatment is presented. Numerical simulations using the finite element method were utilized for the characterization of micro-scale graphite electrodes. Anodization followed by covalent modification was used for the electrode functionalization with laccase. The functionalization efficiency and the electrochemical performance in direct and catechol-mediated oxygen reduction were studied at the microband laccase electrodes and compared with macro-scale electrode structures. The reduction of the dimensions of the enzyme biosensor, when used under optimized conditions, led to a significant improvement in its analytical characteristics. The elaborated microsensor showed fast responses towards catechol additions to tap water - a weakly supported medium - characterized by a linear range from 0.2 to 10 μM, a sensitivity of 1.35 ± 0.4 A M(-1) cm(-2) and a dynamic range up to 43 μM. This enhanced laccase-based microsensor was used for water quality monitoring and its performance for total phenol analysis of wastewater samples from different stages of the cleaning process was compared to a standard method. PMID:26803001

  5. Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2016-10-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is particularly suited for the young population and ecological measurement. However, thus far, not enough effort has been given to the clinical diagnosis of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by using fNIRS. The current study provided some insights into the quantitative analysis of functional networks in young children (ages 4.8-8.0years old) with and without ASD and, in particular, investigated the network efficiency and lobe-level connectivity of their functional networks while watching a cartoon. The main results included that: (i) Weak network efficiency was observed in young children with ASD, even for a wide range of threshold for the binarization of functional networks; (ii) A maximum classification accuracy rate of 83.3% was obtained for all participants by using the k-means clustering method with network efficiencies as the feature parameters; and (iii) Weak lobe-level inter-region connections were uncovered in the right prefrontal cortex, including its linkages with the left prefrontal cortex and the bilateral temporal cortex. Such results indicate that the right prefrontal cortex might make a major contribution to the psychopathology of young children with ASD at the functional network architecture level, and at the functional lobe-connectivity level, respectively. PMID:27474793

  6. [Philosophical background of evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sang-Ok

    2004-12-01

    Through the whole history of medicine, there runs a long struggle between two principal tendencies - empiricism and rationalism. The empirical trend lays its emphasis on "experience" for the cure of the sick. The rationalistic trend lays its main emphasis on "mechanism" for the causes of diseases. The term "evidence-based (EBM)", defined as "the conscious, explicit and judicious use of the best current evidence in making decisions about the individual patients", was introduced about ten years ago. The proponents has been described EBM as a "paradigm shift" that will change medical practice in the years ahead. But there has been considerable debate about the value of EBM. The modern medicine, following philosophy of modern science such as the 'realism controlled by empiricism', has developed biomedical model. But the EBM wrapped with clinical epidemiology and statistics, represents response of empiricism to the rationalism (realism). The roots of EBM extend back at least as far as the Paris clinical school, and the work of Pierre Louis in Paris in the early 19th century.Is EBM a paradigm shift? To answer this question, we have to specify the alternative with which we are comparing EBM. The alternative to EBM is the basic science approach: studying the pathophysiological mechanism of the body. But EBM is so clearly intertwined with and complementary to the basic science that it would make little sense to see EBM as a paradigm shift away from basic science. In a sense, evidence-based medicine shows only methodological contribution aimed at improving the gathering and sorting of the best information published by biomedical scientists and clinical epidemiologists for use in clinical practice. Although EBM and the traditional medicine embody different approaches, this does not mean that they are competitors. In fact, the two approach need each; neither can stand alone for the development of clinical practice. PMID:15726761

  7. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25438362

  8. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25507879

  9. Reconstructing data: evidence-based medicine and evidence-based public health in context.

    PubMed

    Nadav, Davidovitch; Dani, Filc

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) as the gold-standard practice in biomedicine and public health practices represents a significant epistemological turn in modern medicine. The development of Evidence-Based Public Health (EBPH) followed the emergence of Evidence-Based Medicine, as an attempt to ground health policies and interventions on "sound facts". The present paper analyzes the historical and sociological roots of this turn. We evaluate the ethical and social consequences of this transformation, both within the medical profession (the polarization between a medical elite which strengthened its professional status, and a rank and file which experienced a process of "de-professionalization") and in its relationship to the welfare state (the link between the medical elite, EBM, EBPH and the commodification of health care and public health). PMID:17214142

  10. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  11. An Examination of the Bases of Evidence-Based Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    School psychology has proposed a system to aid in the identification of evidence-based interventions (Kratochwill & Stoiber, this issue; Lewis-Snyder, Stoiber, & Kratochwill, this issue; Shernoff, Kratochwill, & Stoiber, this issue). In this commentary, issues related to the politics of exclusion, design and theory, methods, and multiculturalism…

  12. Nurse-led elective cardioversion: an evidence-based practice review.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    By posing a clinical practice question, this article aims to document and explore the published evidence base supporting nurse-led cardioversion. A literature review was undertaken to determine the best evidence for practice. Five articles and two conference abstracts describing practice were found to be pertinent to the question. Description of the methodology used was a weakness of all the articles studied, with only one article purported to be framed as a research study. The remainder describe a planned change in nursing practice to encompass the delivery of a service previously, organizationally viewed as, physician led. Evaluations of practice were descriptive and supported by audit data in most articles, however, appropriate evidential comparisons were not offered. These articles were critically appraised in relation to safety and efficacy. Whilst the evidence may be seen to be limited and weak, it does add credence to the notion that a nurse with a suitable experiential background and knowledge base can make a significant contribution to the care of this group of patients. It is clearly evident that further developments in practice should be framed within a research context to support and strengthen the evidence base. Four prominent themes emerged from the review, 'change milieu', 'reshaping boundaries', 'nurse-led', 'efficacy of practice', which are modelled into a conceptual framework. Nursing roles are expanding within the cardiological setting, affording practitioners unprecedented practice opportunities within a supportive organizational framework, however, these roles must be subject to appropriate evaluation in order to continue informing a robust evidence base. PMID:16161378

  13. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DDoESSA)0.5 from electron spin resonance measurements.

    PubMed

    Santana, V T; Nascimento, O R; Djurado, D; Travers, J P; Pron, A; Walmsley, L

    2013-03-20

    X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a conducting free-standing film of polyaniline plasticized and protonated with di-n-dodecyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid (DDoESSA). The magnetic field was applied parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film. At around 75 K a transition is observed from Pauli susceptibility to a localized state in which the spin 1/2 polarons behave as spin 1/2 dimers. A rough estimation of the intradimer and interdimer exchange constants is obtained. Below 5 K, ESR data reveal a weak ferromagnetism with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector mainly oriented in the plane of the film. The existence of a relatively well-defined n-fold axis along the chain direction in the crystalline regions confers a symmetry compatible with such analysis. PMID:23423800

  14. Evidence for weak electron confinement in spin valves having Co90 Fe10 /Cu/ Co90 Fe10 trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat, S.; Zeltser, A.; Li, J.; Nix, L.; Gurney, B. A.

    2004-07-01

    The temperature and spacer-layer thickness dependences of the free layer coupling field in spin valves having Co90Fe10/Cu/Co90Fe10 pinned-/spacer-/free layer trilayer structures have been measured. Our data verify a previously made theoretical prediction that the coupling field depends on both the shape of the Fermi surface of the spacer layer and the degree of confinement of the magnetic carriers in the spacer quantum well. In weakly confining systems such as Co90Fe10/Cu/Co90Fe10 the latter mechanism can be large in the temperature range of interest and can have a significant impact on the temperature and spacer-layer thickness dependence of interlayer coupling fields. Including both mechanisms we are able to quantify the contribution of both the oscillatory interlayer and the Néel coupling field as well as the temperature-dependent data for the phase of the oscillations.

  15. Evidence for weak electron confinement in spin-valves having CoFe10/Cu/CoFe10 trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat, Stefan; Zeltser, Alexander; Li, Jinshan; Nix, Lamar; Gurney, Bruce A.

    2004-03-01

    The temperature and spacer-layer thickness dependence of the free layer coupling field in spin-valves having CoFe10/Cu/CoFe10 pinned-/spacer-/free layer trilayer structures has been measured. Our data verifies a previously made theoretical prediction that the coupling field depends on both the shape of the Fermi surface of the spacer layer and the degree of confinement of the magnetic carriers in the spacer quantum well. In weakly confining systems such as CoFe10/Cu/CoFe10 the latter mechanism can be large in the temperature range on interest and can have a significant impact on the temperature and spacer-layer dependence of interlayer coupling fields. Including both mechanisms we are able to quantify the contribution of both the oscillatory interlayer and the Néel coupling field as well as the temperature dependent data for the phase of the oscillations.

  16. Weak transient fault feature extraction based on an optimized Morlet wavelet and kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi; Xing, Jianfeng; Mao, Yongfang

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at solving the key problem in weak transient detection, the present study proposes a new transient feature extraction approach using the optimized Morlet wavelet transform, kurtosis index and soft-thresholding. Firstly, a fast optimization algorithm based on the Shannon entropy is developed to obtain the optimized Morlet wavelet parameter. Compared to the existing Morlet wavelet parameter optimization algorithm, this algorithm has lower computation complexity. After performing the optimized Morlet wavelet transform on the analyzed signal, the kurtosis index is used to select the characteristic scales and obtain the corresponding wavelet coefficients. From the time-frequency distribution of the periodic impulsive signal, it is found that the transient signal can be reconstructed by the wavelet coefficients at several characteristic scales, rather than the wavelet coefficients at just one characteristic scale, so as to improve the accuracy of transient detection. Due to the noise influence on the characteristic wavelet coefficients, the adaptive soft-thresholding method is applied to denoise these coefficients. With the denoised wavelet coefficients, the transient signal can be reconstructed. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of two simulated signals, and the diagnosis of a rolling bearing fault and a gearbox fault. The superiority of the method over the fast kurtogram method was verified by the results of simulation analysis and real experiments. It is concluded that the proposed method is extremely suitable for extracting the periodic impulsive feature from strong background noise.

  17. Density functional method including weak interactions: Dispersion coefficients based on the local response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    A new method to calculate the atom-atom dispersion coefficients in a molecule is proposed for the use in density functional theory with dispersion (DFT-D) correction. The method is based on the local response approximation due to Dobson and Dinte [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1780 (1996)], with modified dielectric model recently proposed by Vydrov and van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104105 (2009)]. The local response model is used to calculate the distributed multipole polarizabilities of atoms in a molecule, from which the dispersion coefficients are obtained by an explicit frequency integral of the Casimir-Polder type. Thus obtained atomic polarizabilities are also used in the damping function for the short-range singularity. Unlike empirical DFT-D methods, the local response dispersion (LRD) method is able to calculate the dispersion energy from the ground-state electron density only. It is applicable to any geometry, free from physical constants such as van der Waals radii or atomic polarizabilities, and computationally very efficient. The LRD method combined with the long-range corrected DFT functional (LC-BOP) is applied to calculations of S22 weakly bound complex set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. Binding energies obtained by the LC-BOP+LRD agree remarkably well with ab initio references.

  18. Density functional method including weak interactions: Dispersion coefficients based on the local response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    A new method to calculate the atom-atom dispersion coefficients in a molecule is proposed for the use in density functional theory with dispersion (DFT-D) correction. The method is based on the local response approximation due to Dobson and Dinte [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1780 (1996)], with modified dielectric model recently proposed by Vydrov and van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104105 (2009)]. The local response model is used to calculate the distributed multipole polarizabilities of atoms in a molecule, from which the dispersion coefficients are obtained by an explicit frequency integral of the Casimir-Polder type. Thus obtained atomic polarizabilities are also used in the damping function for the short-range singularity. Unlike empirical DFT-D methods, the local response dispersion (LRD) method is able to calculate the dispersion energy from the ground-state electron density only. It is applicable to any geometry, free from physical constants such as van der Waals radii or atomic polarizabilities, and computationally very efficient. The LRD method combined with the long-range corrected DFT functional (LC-BOP) is applied to calculations of S22 weakly bound complex set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. Binding energies obtained by the LC-BOP + LRD agree remarkably well with ab initio references.

  19. Evaluating the Quality of Evidence from Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Diamond, Karen E.; McWilliam, Robin; Snyder, Patricia; Snyder, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when…

  20. Rapid Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Eye Tracking Evidence for the Limits of Weak Central Coherence.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence. PMID:25820816

  1. Sepsis management: An evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Shahzad, Hira; Jamil, Bushra; Hussain, Erfan

    2016-03-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines have outlined an early goal directed therapy (EGDT) which demonstrates a standardized approach to ensure prompt and effective management of sepsis. Having said that, there are barriers associated with the application of evidence-based practice, which often lead to an overall poorer adherence to guidelines. Considering the global burden of disease, data from low- to middle-income countries is scarce. Asia is the largest continent but most Asian countries do not have a well-developed healthcare system and compliance rates to resuscitation and management bundles are as low as 7.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Intensive care units are not adequately equipped and financial concerns limit implementation of expensive treatment strategies. Healthcare policy-makers should be notified in order to alleviate financial restrictions and ensure delivery of standard care to septic patients. PMID:26968289

  2. Reducing Emergency Department Crowding: Evidence Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding has become a major barrier to receiving timely care. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on identifying evidence based strategies for reducing the ED crowding by improving the intake. In addition to a review of literature, qualitative survey methods were used to identify strategies, which were classified into 10 suggested procedures categorized into three types of changes. Physical improvements include using physician cubicles, creating a team triage area and an internal waiting area for less acute patients instead of occupying beds. Technology improvements; include using informatics to update the electronic emergency record with information, using palmar scanning to instantly identify patients and using radio communication devices. Process improvements; include a scribe program to decrease clerical documentation tasks, switching between low flow and high flow processes, placing a physician in triage and using patient segmentation methods. PMID:27350468

  3. Evidence Base Update for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tristram; Iadarola, Suzannah

    2015-01-01

    This evidence base update examines the level of empirical support for interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) younger than 5 years old. It focuses on research published since a previous review in this journal (Rogers & Vismara, 2008 ). We identified psychological or behavioral interventions that had been manualized and evaluated in either (a) experimental or quasi-experimental group studies or (b) systematic reviews of single-subject studies. We extracted data from all studies that met these criteria and were published after the previous review. Interventions were categorized across two dimensions. First, primary theoretical principles included applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental social-pragmatic (DSP), or both. Second, practice elements included scope (comprehensive or focused), modality (individual intervention with the child, parent training, or classrooms), and intervention targets (e.g., spoken language or alternative and augmentative communication). We classified two interventions as well-established (individual, comprehensive ABA and teacher-implemented, focused ABA + DSP), 3 as probably efficacious (individual, focused ABA for augmentative and alternative communication; individual, focused ABA + DSP; and focused DSP parent training), and 5 as possibly efficacious (individual, comprehensive ABA + DSP; comprehensive ABA classrooms; focused ABA for spoken communication; focused ABA parent training; and teacher-implemented, focused DSP). The evidence base for ASD interventions has grown substantially since 2008. An increasing number of interventions have some empirical support; others are emerging as potentially efficacious. Priorities for future research include improving outcome measures, developing interventions for understudied ASD symptoms (e.g., repetitive behaviors), pinpointing mechanisms of action in interventions, and adapting interventions for implementation with fidelity by community providers. PMID:26430947

  4. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  5. Home-based telehealth to deliver evidence-based psychotherapy in veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Martha; Gros, Daniel F; Yuen, Erica; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Foa, Edna B; Acierno, Ron

    2012-03-01

    Although medical service delivery via home-based telehealth technology (HBT) is gaining wider acceptance in managing chronic illnesses such as diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, few studies have tested HBT applications of psychotherapy. Clinicians, administrators, and researchers question whether delivering psychotherapeutic services to patients in their homes via video-conferencing technology compromises patient safety, potency of treatment, or data security. Despite these concerns, HBT service delivery may increase access to evidence-based psychotherapies for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who may be less willing or less able to receive weekly treatment at a VA medical center or outpatient clinic due to symptom severity or other similar barriers to care. Indeed, although combat-exposed service members endorse high rates of psychiatric disorders, few appear to initiate mental health services or receive an adequate dose of treatment. Thus, using HBT technologies to administer evidence-based therapies remains uncharted territory in both the clinical and research arenas. This manuscript describes an ongoing four year randomized controlled trial comparing in-person Prolonged Exposure (PE) - a specialized evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD - and PE delivered via HBT, with a particular focus on the selection, application, and strengths/weaknesses of HBT procedures. PMID:22101225

  6. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  7. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srihari, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  8. 75 FR 79455 - OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION There is a close connection, even an inextricable relationship, between open government and evidence- based regulation. If regulatory choices are based on careful analysis of the evidence, and if opportunities are provided...

  9. The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

  10. Basis of antimalarial action: non-weak base effects of chloroquine on acid vesicle pH

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, D.J.; Schlesinger, P.H.

    1987-03-01

    Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. This increase in pH results from two mechanisms, one of which is markedly reduced in chloroquine-resistant parasites. Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the delta pH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. The non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine on parasite vesicle pH are also responsible for its safety because these chloroquine concentrations do not affect mammalian cells.

  11. Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

  12. A compensation-based power flow method for weakly meshed distribution and transmission networks

    SciTech Connect

    Shirmohammadi, D.; Hong, H.W.; Semlyen, A.; Luo, G.X.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes a new power flow method for solving weakly meshed distribution and transmission networks, using a multi-port compensation technique and basic formulation of Kirchhoff's laws. This method has excellent convergence characteristics and is very robust. A computer program implementing this power flow solution scheme was developed and successfully applied to several practical distribution networks with radial and weakly meshed structure. This program was also successfully used for solving radial and weakly meshed transmission networks. The method can be applied to the solution of both the three-phase (unbalanced) and single-phase (balanced) representation of the network. In this paper, however, only the single phase representation is treated in detail.

  13. Information literacy for evidence-based practice in perianesthesia nurses: readiness for evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jacqueline

    2010-04-01

    Information literacy, the recognition of information required, and the development of skills for locating, evaluating, and effectively using relevant evidence is needed for evidence-based practice (EBP). The purpose of this study was to examine perianesthesia nurses' perception of searching skills and access to evidence sources. The design was a descriptive, exploratory survey. The sample consisted of ASPAN members (n = 64) and nonmembers (n = 64). The Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice instrument was used. Findings were that ASPAN members read more journal articles, were more proficient with computers, and used Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) more frequently than nonmembers. The three top barriers to use of research were: lack of understanding of organization or structure of electronic databases, lack of skills to critique and/or synthesize the literature, and difficulty in accessing research materials. In conclusion, education is needed for critiquing literature and understanding electronic databases and research articles to promote EBP in perianesthesia areas. PMID:20359640

  14. Building a Performance-Based Assessment System To Diagnose Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Sara S.; Hughes, Kay E.

    This paper provides a brief description of the development of the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTTS) program by F. G. Roswell and J. S. Chall. It also describes the editorial and statistical procedures that were used to validate the program for determining students' strengths and weaknesses in important areas…

  15. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  16. Evidence-based guidelines: Improving AGREEment on consistence evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Napolitano, Andrea; Santini, Daniele; Maiello, Evaristo; Torri, Valter; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Modern clinical practice relies on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based guidelines (EBGs). The critical evaluation of EBGs value is therefore an essential step to further improve clinical practice. In our opinion, correlating levels of evidence and grades of recommendation can be an easy tool to quickly display internal consistence of EBGs. PMID:26909252

  17. Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

    2010-01-01

    This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

  18. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. PMID:25579747

  19. Controlling biofilm with evidence-based dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Sebastian G

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes research that has assessed the effectiveness of various antimicrobial-containing dentifrices in preventing and/or reducing a number of oral health problems facing our patients today. The results of these studies indicate that, when compared with a conventional fluoride dentifrice, the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice is the one with the most evidence to support its ability to deliver significant oral health benefits with no adverse effects. The benefits maybe summarized as follows: improved levels ofsupragingival plaque control; improved gingival health; reducedlikelihood of gingivitis progressing to periodontitis; arrest progression of periodontitis; prevention of supragingival calculus; and reduction in oral malodor. With increased interest in the association of oral health with systemic health, this dentifrice is well-positioned to help reduce the likelihood of gingivitis establishing itself and possibly developing into periodontitis (Figure 1). It also has the potential to have beneficial effects on general health because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results presented in this article, it is clear that the general population can derive significant clinical benefits from the daily use of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. The dental profession should feel confident to recommend its use to patients to improve oral health and maintain or promote overall health. PMID:21462625

  20. 'We hold these truths to be self-evident': deconstructing 'evidence-based' medical practice.

    PubMed

    Devisch, Ignaas; Murray, Stuart J

    2009-12-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) claims to be based on 'evidence', rather than 'intuition'. However, EBM's fundamental distinction between quantitative 'evidence' and qualitative 'intuition' is not self-evident. The meaning of 'evidence' is unclear and no studies of quality exist to demonstrate the superiority of EBM in health care settings. This paper argues that, despite itself, EBM holds out only the illusion of conclusive scientific rigour for clinical decision making, and that EBM ultimately is unable to fulfil its own structural criteria for 'evidence'. Methods Our deconstructive analysis of EBM draws on the work of the French philosopher, Jacques Derrida. Deconstruction works in the name of justice to lay bare, to expose what has been hidden from view. In plain language, we deconstruct EBM's paradigm of 'evidence', the randomized controlled trial (RCT), to demonstrate that there cannot be incontrovertible evidence for EBM as such. We argue that EBM therefore 'auto-deconstructs' its own paradigm, and that medical practitioners, policymakers and patients alike ought to be aware of this failure within EBM itself. Results EBM's strict distinction between admissible evidence (based on RCTs) and other supposedly inadmissible evidence is not itself based on evidence, but rather, on intuition. In other words, according to EBM's own logic, there can be no 'evidentiary' basis for its distinction between admissible and inadmissible evidence. Ultimately, to uphold this fundamental distinction, EBM must seek recourse in (bio)political ideology and an epistemology akin to faith. PMID:20367689

  1. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  2. Space-Time Correlation of Stable Boundary-Layer, Weak Wind Data from Ground Based Acoustic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, A. R.; Thomas, C. K.

    2011-12-01

    We present data collected using ground based acoustic sensing in order to connect near-surface motions including turbulence and sub-meso modes under stable, weak wind conditions to possible external forcing mechanisms from aloft. Under stable stratification and weak wind conditions the generation of the weak, intermittent turbulence is poorly understood, but critical to understanding and modeling the dispersion and diffusion of pollutants and other trace gases. Recent studies have suggested that the driving processes behind weak wind turbulence may include external forcing on the sub-meso scale. The forcing mechanisms may include gravity waves, 2 dimensional horizontal modes, solitons, or interactions between surface flow and low-level jets. Efforts to detect weak wind, sub-meso scale processes have failed so far due to a lack of sufficient spatial coverage necessary for capturing these events. This research has taken an unconventional observational approach by using a pair of SODAR (Sound Detection And Ranging) units. The SODARs have collected data on short time scales with a significant vertical (15 - 300 meters) and horizontal (200 - 1000 meters) coverage. The experiment took place on Oregon State University's Research Farms located roughly a mile to the east of OSU's campus. The site was chosen for its homogenous terrain which allowed the two SODAR's to be separated across the domain without their measurements being contaminated by influence from surface heterogeneity. The experiment has provided a data set comprised of more than 3 months of semi-continuous SODAR data. By making use of the Multi-resolution Decomposition method we will present results on the space-time correlations of the boundary-layer winds on multiple different time scales. The results will be a significant step towards improving the predictability of weak wind meanderings, identifying scaling parameters for sub-meso scale motions, and help to improve air quality and diffusion models.

  3. Evidence base in guideline generation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mühlhauser, I; Meyer, G

    2013-06-01

    During recent years much emphasis has been on the validity, reliability, reproducibility, clinical applicability, clarity, multidisciplinary process, scheduled review and documentation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Still, CPGs show substantial variance in methodological quality. The present paper mainly focuses on two aspects that are particularly critical and contemporary from the perspective of evidence-based medicine: patient centredness and shared decision making, and conflict of interest. Sophisticated patient and consumer involvement at all stages of CPG development could be judged as being the gold standard. However, co-opting patients or consumer representatives and using other techniques of active patient involvement does not replace individual patient preferences in clinical decision-making processes. Current CPGs do not meet patient needs, since they do not provide concise, easy-to-read summaries of the benefits and risks of medicines together with more comprehensive scientific data as a prerequisite for informed or shared decision making. The vast majority of CPG panels have a financial conflict of interest (COI) and under-reporting is common. Not all organisations producing CPGs have set up COI policies, and existing policies vary widely. To solve the problem, CPG experts have recommended that methodologists without any important COI should lead the development process and have primary responsibility. There is a lot of room for other improvements through network transnational activities in the field of CPG development. Waste of time and resources should be avoided through sharing published and unpublished data identified, appraised and extracted for guideline development. The EASD could provide such a clearing house. PMID:23475367

  4. Detection of weak transient signals based on wavelet packet transform and manifold learning for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Jiang, Kuosheng

    2015-03-01

    The kurtogram-based methods have been proved powerful and practical to detect and characterize transient components in a signal. The basic idea of the kurtogram-based methods is to use the kurtosis as a measure to discover the presence of transient impulse components and to indicate the frequency band where these occur. However, the performance of the kurtogram-based methods is poor due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. As the weak transient signal with a wide spread frequency band can be easily masked by noise. Besides, selecting signal just in one frequency band will leave out some transient features. Aiming at these shortcomings, different frequency bands signal fusion is adopted in this paper. Considering that manifold learning aims at discovering the nonlinear intrinsic structure which embedded in high dimensional data, this paper proposes a waveform feature manifold (WFM) method to extract the weak signature from waveform feature space which obtained by binary wavelet packet transform. Minimum permutation entropy is used to select the optimal parameter in a manifold learning algorithm. A simulated bearing fault signal and two real bearing fault signals are used to validate the improved performance of the proposed method through the comparison with the kurtogram-based methods. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the kurtogram-based methods and is effective in weak signature extraction.

  5. Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Degmova, J.; Sitek, J.

    2010-07-13

    Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Moessbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Moessbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A{sub 23} parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A{sub 23} parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A{sub 23} parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A{sub 23} parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.

  6. MultiDarkLens Simulations: weak lensing light-cones and data base presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Jullo, Eric; Metcalf, R. Benton; de la Torre, Sylvain; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco; Comparat, Johan; Göttlober, Stefan; Kyplin, Anatoly; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Petkova, Margarita; Shan, HuanYuan; Tessore, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a large database of weak lensing light cones constructed using different snapshots from the Big MultiDark simulation (BigMDPL). The ray-tracing through different multiple plane has been performed with the GLAMER code accounting both for single source redshifts and for sources distributed along the cosmic time. This first paper presents weak lensing forecasts and results according to the geometry of the VIPERS-W1 and VIPERS-W4 field of view. Additional fields will be available on our database and new ones can be run upon request. Our database also contains some tools for lensing analysis. In this paper we present results for convergence power spectra, one point and high order weak lensing statistics useful for forecasts and for cosmological studies. Covariance matrices have also been computed for the different realisations of the W1 and W4 fields. In addition we compute also galaxy-shear and projected density contrasts for different halo masses at two lens redshift according to the CFHTLS source redshift distribution both using stacking and cross-correlation techniques, finding very good agreement.

  7. Evidence based management of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    McCaul, James A; Cascarini, Luke; Godden, Daryl; Coombes, Darryl; Brennan, Peter A; Kerawala, Cyrus J

    2014-05-01

    Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is caused by the acute onset of lower motor neurone weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of untreated cases. In the remainder facial nerve function will be impaired in the long term. We summarise current published articles regarding early management strategies to maximise recovery of facial nerve function and minimise long-term sequelae in the condition. PMID:24685475

  8. Prediction of oral absorption of cinnarizine--a highly supersaturating poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark; Przyklenk, Karl-Heinz; Richtberg, Annette; Baumann, Wolfgang; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-11-01

    Two important driving forces for oral absorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients are drug dissolution and permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. Poorly soluble weak bases typically exhibit high solubility under fasted gastric conditions. However, the solubility of such drugs usually decreases drastically in the fasted small intestine, constraining drug absorption. Since there is a discrepancy in solubility between the fasted state stomach and intestine, it is crucial to examine the influence of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation on the oral absorption of poorly soluble weak bases during and after fasted state gastric emptying. Cinnarizine is a poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability, exhibiting supersaturation and precipitation under simulated fasted state gastric emptying conditions. Interestingly, supersaturation and precipitation of cinnarizine under fed state conditions is not expected to occur, since the drug shows good solubility in fed state biorelevant media and exhibits a positive food effect in pharmacokinetic studies. The present work is aimed at investigating the dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of marketed cinnarizine tablets under fasted and fed state conditions using biorelevant dissolution and transfer methods. In order to predict the in vivo performance of these cinnarizine formulations, the in vitro results were then coupled with different physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, which considered either only dissolution or a combination of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation kinetics. The results of the in silico predictions were then compared with in vivo observations. The study revealed that under fasting conditions, plasma profiles could be accurately predicted only when supersaturation and precipitation as well as dissolution were taken into account. It was concluded that for poorly soluble weak bases with moderate permeability, supersaturation and precipitation

  9. Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-based practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement ratings for evidence-based and nonevidence-based behavior management practices for children…

  10. Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

  11. Why the Evidence-Based Paradigm in Early Childhood Education and Care Is Anything but Evident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    Praxeological research is a necessary contribution to the research field in early childhood education and care, which is currently dominated by an evidence-based paradigm that tends to consider the measurement of predefined outcomes as the most valid form of research. We analyse the history of the evidence-based paradigm in the field of medicine…

  12. Investigation of disturbance effects on space-based weak lensing measurements with an integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Michael; Kaplan, Michael; Sholl, Michael; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-07-01

    Many astrophysicists consider the mystery of accelerated expansion of the universe by a field called dark energy as the greatest challenge to solve in cosmology. Gravitational weak lensing has been identfied as one of the best methods to provide constraints on dark energy model parameters. Weak lensing introduces image shear which can be measured statistically from a large sample of galaxies by determining the ellipticity parameters. Several papers have suggested that a goal in the ability to measure shape biases should be <0.1% - this goal will be reviewed in terms of the observatory "transfer function" with comments interspersed regarding allocation inconsistencies. Time-varying effects introduced by thermoelastic deformations and vibration add bias and noise to the galaxy shape measurements. This is compounded by the wide field-of-view required for the weak lensing science which leads to a spatially varying point spead function (PSF). To fully understand these effects, a detailed integrated model (IM) was constructed which includes a coupled scene/ structure/ optics/ disturbance model. This IM was applied to the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega design concept. Results indicate that previous models of vibration disturbance effects have been too simplified and the allocation for vibration needs to be re-evaluated. Furthermore, because of the complicated processing required to accurately extract shape parameters, it is argued that an IM is needed for maximizing science return by iterating the telescope/ instrument design against mission cost constraints, and processing e¤ectiveness of shape extraction algorithms, instrument calibration techniques and measurement desensitization of observatory effects.

  13. Evidence Based Practice of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2012-01-01

    The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

  14. [Strategy for promoting evidence-based nursing practice in hospital].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Tang, Lee-Chun; Chou, Shin-Shang

    2013-10-01

    Evidence-based practice has been demonstrated to improve quality of care, increase patients' satisfaction, and reduce the costs of medical care. Therefore, evidence-based practice is now central to the clinical decision-making process and to achieving better quality of care. Today, it is one of the important indicators of core competences for healthcare providers and accreditation for healthcare and educational systems. Further, evidence-based practice encourages in-school and continuous education programs to integrate evidence-based elements and concepts into curricula. Healthcare facilities and professional organizations proactively host campaigns and encourage healthcare providers to participate in evidence-based related training courses. However, the clinical evidence-based practice progress is slow. The general lack of a model for organizational follow-up may be a key factor associated with the slow adoption phenomenon. The authors provide a brief introduction to the evidence-based practice model, then described how it may be successfully translated through a staged process into the evidence-based practices of organizational cultures. This article may be used as a reference by healthcare facilities to promote evidence-based nursing practice. PMID:24096462

  15. Evidence-based practice: developing mentors to support students.

    PubMed

    Barry, Debbie; Houghton, Trish; Warburton, Tyler

    2016-08-17

    This article, the ninth in a series of 11, provides guidance for new and established mentors and practice teachers on evidence-based practice, the seventh domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of contemporary healthcare and is central to student preparation programmes for nursing, midwifery and specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN). The article describes evidence-based practice, discussing the importance and implementation of an evidence-based approach in the context of role development for mentors and practice teachers in the preparation of nursing, midwifery and SCPHN students. PMID:27533414

  16. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient. PMID:19565800

  17. Integrating evidence-based perfusion into practices: the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Likosky, Donald S

    2006-12-01

    There is surmounting pressure for clinicians domestically and abroad not only to practice evidence-based perfusion, but also to supplement practice with documentation thereof. In this editorial, I shall describe an international initiative aimed at embracing this dictum from patients, regulatory bodies, and payers. "Research is the only hope that the future will be different than the past"- Daniel Mintz, MD "Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.... It is ideas not vested interests which are dangerous for good or evil."-John Maynard Keynes. PMID:17312899

  18. Integrating Evidence-Based Perfusion Into Practices: The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: There is surmounting pressure for clinicians domestically and abroad not only to practice evidence-based perfusion, but also to supplement practice with documentation thereof. In this editorial, I shall describe an international initiative aimed at embracing this dictum from patients, regulatory bodies, and payers. “Research is the only hope that the future will be different than the past”—Daniel Mintz, MD “Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences are usually the slaves of some defunct economist…. It is ideas not vested interests which are dangerous for good or evil.”—John Maynard Keynes PMID:17312899

  19. Evidence of weak localization in quantum interference effects observed in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei; Gao, Ming; Wang, Xuefeng; Song, Fengqi; Du, Jun; Wang, Xinran; Xu, Yongbing; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Quantum interference effects (QIEs) dominate the appearance of low-temperature resistivity minimum in colossal magnetoresistance manganites. The T(1/2) dependent resistivity under high magnetic field has been evidenced as electron-electron (e-e) interaction. However, the evidence of the other source of QIEs, weak localization (WL), still remains insufficient in manganites. Here we report on the direct experimental evidence of WL in QIEs observed in the single-crystal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) ultrathin films deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The sharp cusps around zero magnetic field in magnetoresistance measurements is unambiguously observed, which corresponds to the WL effect. This convincingly leads to the solid conclusion that the resistivity minima at low temperatures in single-crystal manganites are attributed to both the e-e interaction and the WL effect. Moreover, the temperature-dependent phase-coherence length corroborates the WL effect of LSMO ultrathin films is within a two-dimensional localization theory. PMID:27181882

  20. Evidence of weak localization in quantum interference effects observed in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ultrathin films

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Wei; Gao, Ming; Wang, Xuefeng; Song, Fengqi; Du, Jun; Wang, Xinran; Xu, Yongbing; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Quantum interference effects (QIEs) dominate the appearance of low-temperature resistivity minimum in colossal magnetoresistance manganites. The T1/2 dependent resistivity under high magnetic field has been evidenced as electron-electron (e-e) interaction. However, the evidence of the other source of QIEs, weak localization (WL), still remains insufficient in manganites. Here we report on the direct experimental evidence of WL in QIEs observed in the single-crystal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) ultrathin films deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The sharp cusps around zero magnetic field in magnetoresistance measurements is unambiguously observed, which corresponds to the WL effect. This convincingly leads to the solid conclusion that the resistivity minima at low temperatures in single-crystal manganites are attributed to both the e-e interaction and the WL effect. Moreover, the temperature-dependent phase-coherence length corroborates the WL effect of LSMO ultrathin films is within a two-dimensional localization theory. PMID:27181882

  1. Examining hand dominance using dynamometric grip strength testing as evidence for overwork weakness in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Clarke, Daniel; Fornusek, Che; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Burns, Joshua; Hackett, Daniel A

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies was carried out to evaluate the potential of overwork weakness on the basis of grip strength of dominant and nondominant hands in individuals with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Numerous electronic databases were searched from the earliest records to February 2016. Studies of any design including participants older than 18 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of CMT that measured grip strength of both hands using dynamometric testing were eligible for inclusion. Of 12 593 articles identified following removal of duplicates, five articles fulfilled the criteria. A total of 166 participants, mostly with CMT1 or CMT2, were described from the studies included. Hand and finger pinch grip strength for the dominant compared with the nondominant hand was not statistically different. There is no definitive evidence that preferential use of the dominant hand in CMT impairs function relative to the nondominant hand. Thus, robust exercise trials of progressive resistance training are needed to understand the extent of adaptations possible and provide evidence of the safety of such regimens. PMID:27177353

  2. Pedagogic Research and Evidence-Based Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Roger; Breen, Rosanna; Paton-Saltzberg, Renee

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of modular schemes and a semesterised academic year are amongst the most fundamental changes ever to occur in UK higher education. There is, however, a notable lack of pedagogic research evidence on the effects upon student learning of course frameworks and the temporal structure of large-scale learning units. In the absence of…

  3. Investigating the Evidence Base of Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Shama; Frederickson, Norah

    2006-01-01

    Social stories were developed in order to support individuals with autism to better cope with social situations, an area of particular difficulty for this population. Despite its growing popularity, there is limited research evidence on the effectiveness of this approach. A review of research on social stories undertaken between 1994 and 2004 was…

  4. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  5. Clinical practice guidelines for gastric cancer in Korea: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae G; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2014-06-01

    Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase. PMID:25061536

  6. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Fulga, I C; Pikulin, D I; Loring, T A

    2016-06-24

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand. PMID:27391744

  7. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulga, I. C.; Pikulin, D. I.; Loring, T. A.

    2016-06-01

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand.

  8. Predictions of high-frequency ground-motion in Taiwan based on weak motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Akinci, Aybige; Malagnini, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Following a recent paper we use weak-motion waveforms to calibrate a model for the prediction of earthquake-induced ground-motion in Taiwan, in the 0.25-5.0 Hz frequency range, valid up to Mw 7.6. The excitation/attenuation model is given in terms of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation, Qs(f), geometrical spreading, g(r), a magnitude-dependent stress parameters Δσ for the excitation terms, and a site term for each seismic station used in the study. A set of weak-motion data was gathered from about 170 aftershocks of the Chi-Chi earthquake, Mw 7.6, of 1999 September 20, (17:47 UTC), recorded by 10 broad-band seismic stations. The moment magnitudes of the registered aftershocks ranged from Mw 3.0 to 6.5, and the hypocentral distances from a few kilometres to about 250 km. A frequency-dependent crustal quality factor, Q(f) = 350f0.32, was obtained, to be coupled with the geometrical spreading function Earthquake-related excitation spectra were calibrated over our empirical results by using a magnitude-dependent Brune model with a stress drop value of Δσ= 8.0 ± 1.0 MPa for the largest event of Mw 6.5 in our data set and with a near surface attenuation parameter of κ= 0.05 s. Results on region-specific crustal attenuation and source scaling were used to generate stochastic simulations both for point-source and extended-fault ruptures through the computer codes: Stochastic Model SIMulation, SMSIM and Extended-Fault Model Simulation, EXSIM. The absolute peak ground accelerations (PGA), peak ground velocities (PGV) and 5 per cent-damped Spectral Accelerations (SA) at three different frequencies, 0.33 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 3.0 Hz for several magnitudes and distance ranges were predicted at large magnitudes, well beyond magnitude Mw 6.5, the upper limit for the events of our

  9. Evidence-based treatments for cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    Gooriah, Rubesh; Buture, Alina; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2015-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH), one of the most painful syndromes known to man, is managed with acute and preventive medications. The brief duration and severity of the attacks command the use of rapid-acting pain relievers. Inhalation of oxygen and subcutaneous sumatriptan are the two most effective acute therapeutic options for sufferers of CH. Several preventive medications are available, the most effective of which is verapamil. However, most of these agents are not backed by strong clinical evidence. In some patients, these options can be ineffective, especially in those who develop chronic CH. Surgical procedures for the chronic refractory form of the disorder should then be contemplated, the most promising of which is hypothalamic deep brain stimulation. We hereby review the pathogenesis of CH and the evidence behind the treatment options for this debilitating condition. PMID:26635477

  10. Exploring Weak Ligand–Protein Interactions by Long-Lived NMR States: Improved Contrast in Fragment-Based Drug Screening**

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Chiarparin, Elisabetta; Williams, Glyn; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Ligands that have an affinity for protein targets can be screened very effectively by exploiting favorable properties of long-lived states (LLS) in NMR spectroscopy. In this work, we describe the use of LLS for competitive binding experiments to measure accurate dissociation constants of fragments that bind weakly to the ATP binding site of the N-terminal ATPase domain of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The LLS approach allows one to characterize ligands with an exceptionally wide range of affinities, since it can be used for ligand concentrations [L] that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the dissociation constants KD. This property makes the LLS method particularly attractive for the initial steps of fragment-based drug screening, where small molecular fragments that bind weakly to a target protein must be identified, which is a difficult task for many other biophysical methods. PMID:25196717

  11. Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice. PMID:23056715

  12. Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

    2013-04-01

    Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

  13. Analysis of weak signal detection based on tri-stable system under Levy noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Fang, He; Ying-Ying, Cui; Tian-Qi, Zhang; Gang, Zhang; Ying, Song

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic resonance system is an effective method to extract weak signal. However, system output is directly influenced by system parameters. Aiming at this, the Levy noise is combined with a tri-stable stochastic resonance system. The average signal-to-noise ratio gain is regarded as an index to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. The characteristics of tri-stable stochastic resonance under Levy noise is analyzed in depth. First, the method of generating Levy noise, the effect of tri-stable system parameters on the potential function and corresponding potential force are presented in detail. Then, the effects of tri-stable system parameters w, a, b, and Levy noise intensity amplification factor D on the resonant output can be explored with different Levy noises. Finally, the tri-stable stochastic resonance system is applied to the bearing fault detection. Simulation results show that the stochastic resonance phenomenon can be induced by tuning the system parameters w, a, and b under different distributions of Levy noise, then the weak signal can be detected. The parameter intervals which can induce stochastic resonances are approximately equal. Moreover, by adjusting the intensity amplification factor D of Levy noise, the stochastic resonances can happen similarly. In bearing fault detection, the detection effect of the tri-stable stochastic resonance system is superior to the bistable stochastic resonance system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371164), the Chongqing Municipal Distinguished Youth Foundation, China (Grant No. CSTC2011jjjq40002), and the Research Project of Chongqing Municipal Educational Commission, China (Grant No. KJ130524).

  14. Building performance-based accountability with limited empirical evidence: performance measurement for public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Nelson, Christopher D; McLees, Anita W; Mumford, Karen; Thomas, Craig

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to respond to performance-based accountability mandates for public health emergency preparedness have been hindered by a weak evidence base linking preparedness activities with response outcomes. We describe an approach to measure development that was successfully implemented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Emergency Preparedness Cooperative Agreement. The approach leverages insights from process mapping and experts to guide measure selection, and provides mechanisms for reducing performance-irrelevant variation in measurement data. Also, issues are identified that need to be addressed to advance the science of measurement in public health emergency preparedness. PMID:24229520

  15. Back to basics: implementing evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    As health care transitions from volume-based care to value-based care, it is imperative that perioperative nurses implement evidence-based practices that support effective care. Implementing evidence-based practice is a challenge but improves patient outcomes, standardizes care, and decreases patient care costs. Understanding how care interventions work and how to implement them is important to compete in today's health care market. This "Back to Basics" article discusses how to identify, review, and appraise research; make recommendations to implement new practices; evaluate the outcomes of the implementations; and make necessary changes to facilitate evidence-based practice. PMID:25537331

  16. Evidence-based Nursing Practice: To Infinity and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Tess M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an historical background for evidence-based practice and methods for assimilating research into practice. Information searching, systematic reviews, and other decision-making models are discussed using specific questions for establishing policy guidelines. Stresses the need for evidence-based practice implementing the best-known practices…

  17. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  18. Report on Evidence-Based Interventions: Recommended Next Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Epstein, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on the work of the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. Discusses the significant advances and errors of commission and omission made by the Task Force in their efforts to develop a framework for the identification of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). This discussion is followed by description of a…

  19. Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

  20. Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rise in the use of the term "evidence-based practice" and a simultaneous increase in the variations in its definition and evaluation. Subsequently, this rise in interest for evidence-based practices has become a double-edged sword for practitioners--that is, while there are a number of interpretations on the…

  1. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  2. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  3. Personalizing Research: Special Educators' Awareness of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guckert, Mary; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence-based practices are considered critical to student success, a research-to-practice gap exists. This qualitative study examined practicing special education teachers' perceptions of their use of evidence-based practices. Special education teachers were interviewed and their classroom practices examined. Major themes emerged and…

  4. Teaching Evidence-based Medical Care: Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grad, Roland; Macaulay, Ann C.; Warner, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a teaching initiative in evidence-based medical care in McGill University's family practice residency program. Discusses results of pre- and post-course self-assessments by students, which indicated significant increases in skill at formulating clinical questions and searching for evidence-based answers, appraising reviews,…

  5. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

  6. Evidence-based medicine: applications in dietetic practice.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory E; Gray, Lorraine K

    2002-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been defined as "the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." Evidence-based practice requires the ability to apply knowledge of medical informatics (eg, efficiently searching the medical literature) and clinical epidemiology (eg, being able to critically appraise the literature) to the treatment of individual patients. Being able to apply the principles of evidence-based medicine in the dietetic practice adds to the credibility and value of dietetics professionals, is consistent with the dietetic code of ethics, and is empowering. This article provides an introduction to the history, philosophy, and methods of evidence-based medicine as applied to the dietetic practice. This article focuses on a 5-step process to finding the best evidence to answer clinical questions: (a) formulate the question, (b) search for answers, (c) appraise the evidence, (d) apply the results, and (e) assess the outcome. We describe the 4S methodology-a systematic approach to efficiently finding the best evidence to answer clinical questions involving the use of systems (comprehensive, evidence-based resources), synopses (compilations of structured abstracts of high-quality studies), syntheses (systematic reviews), and studies (original research articles). Particular emphasis is given to a method for critically appraising papers that emphasizes validity, importance, and clinical applicability. Resources (including Web sites) for further learning are provided. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1263-1272. PMID:12792624

  7. NCLEX-RN success: evidence-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie H; Baker, Susan Scott

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based nursing requires that students think reflectively and use clinical inquiry to develop clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Likewise, nursing students need a strategy to be successful in passing the NCLEX-RN. The authors identify strategies based on nursing research to facilitate student success. While learning the evidence-based nursing process, the student must begin to think like a nurse while answering clinical practice questions. Using the skills taught for evidence-based nursing can be a powerful tool to approach the NCLEX-RN and succeed. PMID:22024676

  8. Evidence synthesis and its role in evidence-based health care.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan

    2014-12-01

    The central role of evidence synthesis (or the systematic review of evidence) in evidence-based health care is often poorly understood. There are numerous examples in the literature of poorly conceived and/or executed systematic reviews and of a lack of awareness of the international standards developed by the international leaders in systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration has played a critical global role in developing and refining systematic review methods in relation to evidence of effects and of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25458130

  9. The dynamics of stock exchange based on the formalism of weak continuous quantum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnyk, S.; Tuluzov, I.

    2010-07-01

    The problem of measurement in economic models and the possibility of their quantum-mechanical description are considered. It is revealed that the apparent paradox of such a description is associated with a priori requirement of conformity of the model to all the alternatives of free choice of the observer. The measurement of the state of a trader on a stock exchange is formally defined as his responses to the proposals of sale at a fixed price. It is shown that an analogue of Bell's inequalities for this measurement model is violated at the most general assumptions related to the strategy of the trader and requires a quantum-mechanical description of the dynamics of his condition. In the framework of the theory of weak continuous quantum measurements, the equation of stock price dynamics and the quantum-mechanical generalization of the F. Black and M. Scholes model for pricing options are obtained. The fundamental distinctions between the obtained model and the classical one are discussed.

  10. Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Vivek; Saha, Kasturi; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2013-02-01

    The ability of a few-photon light field to impart an appreciable phase shift on another light field is critical for many quantum information applications. A recently proposed paradigm for quantum computation utilizes weak nonlinearities, where a strong field mediates such cross-phase shifts between single photons. Such a protocol promises to be feasible in terms of scalability to many qubits if a cross-phase shift of 10-5 to 10-2 radians per photon can be achieved. A promising platform to achieve such cross-phase shifts is the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre, which can highly confine atomic vapours and light over distances much greater than the diffraction length. Here, we produce large cross-phase shifts of 0.3 mrad per photon with a fast response time (<5 ns) using rubidium atoms confined to a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre, which represents, to our knowledge, the largest such nonlinear phase shift induced in a single pass through a room-temperature medium.