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1

Evidence Based Navigation in Swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-complexity, evidence based navigation algorithm for swarms of mobile sensors is presented. It can be effectively used in scenarios where a particular event signature is characterized by a mix of weak signal modalities with certain degrees of intensity, distributed in a local region. The method is based on Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory and enables the mobile nodes to process

Duminda A. Dewasurendra; Peter H. Bauer; Matthias Scheutz; Kamal Premaratne

2006-01-01

2

Evidence of weak conscious experiences in the exclusion task  

PubMed Central

Exclusion tasks have been proposed as objective measures of unconscious perception as they do not depend upon subjective ratings. In exclusion tasks, participants have to complete a task without using a previously presented prime. Use of the prime is taken as evidence for unconscious processing in the absence of awareness, yet it may also simply indicate that participants have weak experiences but fail to realize that these affect the response or fail to counter the effect on the response. Here, we tested this claim by allowing participants to rate their experience of a masked prime on the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) after the exclusion task. Results showed that the prime was used almost as often when participants reported having seen a “weak glimpse” of the prime as when they claimed to have “no experience” of the prime, thus suggesting participants frequently have weak (possibly contentless) experiences of the stimulus when failing to exclude. This indicates that the criteria for report of awareness is lower (i.e., more liberal) than that for exclusion and that failure to exclude should not be taken as evidence of complete absence of awareness. PMID:25295024

Sandberg, Kristian; Del Pin, Simon H.; Bibby, Bo M.; Overgaard, Morten

2014-01-01

3

Evidence of weak conscious experiences in the exclusion task.  

PubMed

Exclusion tasks have been proposed as objective measures of unconscious perception as they do not depend upon subjective ratings. In exclusion tasks, participants have to complete a task without using a previously presented prime. Use of the prime is taken as evidence for unconscious processing in the absence of awareness, yet it may also simply indicate that participants have weak experiences but fail to realize that these affect the response or fail to counter the effect on the response. Here, we tested this claim by allowing participants to rate their experience of a masked prime on the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) after the exclusion task. Results showed that the prime was used almost as often when participants reported having seen a "weak glimpse" of the prime as when they claimed to have "no experience" of the prime, thus suggesting participants frequently have weak (possibly contentless) experiences of the stimulus when failing to exclude. This indicates that the criteria for report of awareness is lower (i.e., more liberal) than that for exclusion and that failure to exclude should not be taken as evidence of complete absence of awareness. PMID:25295024

Sandberg, Kristian; Del Pin, Simon H; Bibby, Bo M; Overgaard, Morten

2014-01-01

4

Evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

D Richards; A Lawrence

1998-01-01

5

Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important topic in any introductory chemistry course is that of acids and bases. Students generally have no trouble learning the Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Problems often arise, however, when chemistry teachers attempt to explain the difference between weak and strong acids, and between weak and strong bases.

Todd P. Silverstein

2000-01-01

6

Evidence for Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields Over the Hellas Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electron Reflectometer (ER) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected a plasma boundary between the ionosphere and the solar wind as the latter is diverted around and past the planet [Mitchell et al., GRL 27, 1871, 2000; Mitchell et al. JGR 106, 23419, 2001]. Above this boundary the 10-1000 eV electron population is dominated by solar wind electrons, while below the boundary it is dominated by ionospheric photoelectrons. This "photoelectron boundary", or PEB, is sensitive to pressure variations and moves vertically in response to changes in the ionospheric pressure from below and the solar wind pressure from above. The PEB is also sensitive to crustal magnetic fields, which locally increase the total ionospheric pressure and positively bias the PEB altitude. A map of the PEB altitude closely resembles maps of the crustal magnetic field intensity measured at 400 km by the MGS Magnetometer. As expected, the best correlation is between the PEB altitude and the horizontal magnetic field component, which provides vertical pressure support. We have analyzed more than 4.8 million electron spectra obtained in the mapping orbit, covering over 1.5 Martian years. We have empirically modeled and removed systematic variations in the PEB altitude associated with the solar wind interaction, thus isolating perturbations caused by crustal magnetic fields. We find a PEB altitude bias over the Hellas basin that is consistent with a horizontal magnetic field with an intensity of several nanotesla at 400 km altitude. This is compatible with upper limits to the horizontal crustal field strength set by MGS Magnetometer measurements. Weak crustal magnetic fields within the Hellas basin suggest that a weak Martian dynamo was still present when that basin cooled. No detectable PEB or magnetic signature is observed over the younger Argyre basin.

Mitchell, D. L.; Lee, C.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.; Cloutier, P. A.; Acuna, M. H.

2002-12-01

7

Evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been received with enthusiasm and interest by many nurses. It has, however, raised skepticism and negative reactions from others. This article seeks to address the place of EBP in care of the elderly by outlining EBP and providing some pertinent examples of how it can be used in caring for older people. Finally, it promotes EBP

Rhonda Nay

2003-01-01

8

Weakness analysis of singular value based watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singular value (SV)-based image watermarking has recently been gaining attention. The advantage of this watermarking approach is its robustness to distortion attacks. In this paper, we mathematically prove that SV-based watermarking algorithms are robust against distortion attacks as long as the attacks are not severe. The same mathematical proof, however, also confirms that such watermarking schemes are unfortunately susceptible to

Xiong Changzhen; Guo Fenhong; Li Zhengxi

2009-01-01

9

Evidence for a Weak Wind from the Young Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early history of the solar wind has remained largely a mystery due to the difficulty of detecting winds around young stars that can serve as analogs for the young Sun. Here we report on the detection of a wind from the 500 Myr old solar analog ?1 UMa (G1.5 V), using spectroscopic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect H I Ly? absorption from the interaction region between the stellar wind and interstellar medium, i.e., the stellar astrosphere. With the assistance of hydrodynamic models of the ?1 UMa astrosphere, we infer a wind only half as strong as the solar wind for this star. This suggests that the Sun and solar-like stars do not have particularly strong coronal winds in their youth. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-12596.

Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Redfield, Seth; Edelman, Eric

2014-02-01

10

Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zum Thema  \\u000a Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), die auf klinischer Forschung gegründete wissenschaftliche Medizin, wird beschrieben als „gewissenhafter,\\u000a ausdrücklicher und vernüftiger Gebrauch der gegenwärtig besten externen, wissenschaftlichen Evidenz für Entscheidungen in\\u000a der medizinischen Versorgung individueller Patienten. Die Praxis der EBM bedeutet die Integration individueller klinischer\\u000a Expertise mit der externen Evidenz aus systematischer Forschung”.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Auf den ärztlichen Entscheidungsprozeß sei also ausdrücklich hingewiesen, auch wenn

G. Antes

1998-01-01

11

Adapting Evidence-based Programs  

Cancer.gov

Be familiar with fellow module participants. Understand what evidence-based means, what evidence-based programs are, and why they are important to use in health interventions. Be familiar with the structure of the tutorial.

12

Demonstration of Weak Measurement Based on Atomic Spontaneous Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a new type of weak measurement based on the dynamics of spontaneous emission. The pointer in our scheme is given by the Lorentzian distribution characterizing atomic exponential decay via emission of a single photon. We thus introduce weak measurement, so far demonstrated nearly exclusively with laser beams and Gaussian statistics, into the quantum regime of single emitters and single quanta, enabling the exploitation of a wide class of sources that are abundant in nature. We describe a complete analogy between our scheme and weak measurement with conventional Gaussian pointers. Instead of a shift in the mean of a Gaussian distribution, an imaginary weak value is exhibited in our scheme by a significantly slower-than-natural exponential distribution of emitted photons at the postselected polarization, leading to a large shift in their mean arrival time. The dynamics of spontaneous emission offer a broader view of the measurement process than is usually considered within the weak measurement formalism. Our scheme opens the path for the use of atoms and atomlike systems as sensitive probes in weak measurements, one example being optical magnetometry.

Shomroni, Itay; Bechler, Orel; Rosenblum, Serge; Dayan, Barak

2013-07-01

13

Escape of DNA from a Weakly Biased Thin Nanopore: Experimental Evidence for a Universal Diffusive Behavior  

E-print Network

Escape of DNA from a Weakly Biased Thin Nanopore: Experimental Evidence for a Universal Diffusive) We report experimental escape time distributions of double-stranded DNA molecules initially threaded halfway through a thin solid-state nanopore. We find a universal behavior of the escape time distributions

Golovchenko, Jene A.

14

Evidence-based financial management.  

PubMed

Like the practice of evidence-based medicine, evidence-based financial management can be used by providers to improve results. The concept provides a framework that managers and researchers can use to help direct efforts in gathering and using evidence to support management decisions in health care. PMID:14560582

Finkler, Steven A; Henley, Richard J; Ward, David M

2003-10-01

15

Principles of evidence based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care professionals are increasingly required to base clinical decisions on the best available evidence. Evidence based medicine (EBM) is a systematic approach to clinical problem solving which allows the integration of the best available research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. This paper explains the concept of EBM and introduces the five step EBM model: formulation of answerable

A K Akobeng

2005-01-01

16

Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman.

Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina

2014-01-01

17

Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ?2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (?eff ? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-10-01

18

Using Evidence-Based Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to demystify the process and the common terminology used in the world of evidence-based health care and to point the reader to important resources necessary to answer a clinical question in an evidence-based fashion.

Laurie Scudder

2006-01-01

19

Evidence-Based Language Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

Pollock, Eric J.

2005-01-01

20

Evidence-Based Crime Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crime prevention should be rational and based on the best possible evidence. One would expect that decision-makers would take\\u000a careful account of any available evidence on what works. How can a program that has produced no discernable evidence of effectiveness,\\u000a as shown through numerous evaluations, be considered for implementation? Unfortunately, this happens all the time. Consider\\u000a the short-lived revival of

Brandon C. Welsh; David P. Farrington

21

Risk Assessment: Evidence Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

2007-01-01

22

Evidence-Based mini-manual  

E-print Network

1 Evidence-Based Medicine: mini-manual Based in part on the Evidence-Based Medicine Toolkit, http-making. The appraisal tools are adapted from the Users' Guides series prepared by the Evidence Based Medicine Working School of Public Health Sciences July, 2009 #12;2 #12;3 What is Evidence-Based Medicine? Evidence-based

MacMillan, Andrew

23

The Evidence Missing from Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. Regrettably, the task force report was largely silent on three critical issues. As a consequence, it omitted much of the evidence necessary for a complete picture of evidence-based

Stuart, Richard B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

2007-01-01

24

Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied. PMID:22315259

Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

25

Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

Rolfe, Gary

1999-01-01

26

Broadening the Evidence Base for Evidence-Based Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based evaluations of clinical preventive services help define priorities for research in prevention as part of primary health care. In this article, we draw on our experiences with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) to outline some major areas where research is needed to define the appropriate use of specific screening tests, counseling interventions, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis. Areas of

David Atkins; Carolyn G. DiGuiseppi

1998-01-01

27

Evidence-based chinese medicine for hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

28

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

29

Chromium acetylide complex based ferrimagnet and weak ferromagnet.  

PubMed

The crystal structures and magnetic properties of new molecule-based magnets, [CrCyclam(C[triple bond]C-3-thiophene)(2)][Ni(mdt)(2)] (1) and [CrCyclam(C[triple bond]C-Ph)(2)][Ni(mdt)(2)](H(2)O) (2) (Cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, mdt = 1,3-dithiole-4,5-dithiolate), are reported. The crystal structures of both compounds are characterized by ferrimagnetic chains of alternately stacked [CrCyclam(C[triple bond]C-R)](+) cations and [Ni(mdt)(2)](-) anions with intrachain exchange interactions of 2J = -6.1 K in 1 and -5.7 K in 2 (H = -2J Sigma(i) S(i) x S(i+1)). The material 1 exhibits ferrimagnetic transition at 2.3 K owing to weak interchain antiferromagnetic interactions between cations and anions. In the case of 2, cations in adjacent ferrimagnetic chains are bridged by a water molecule, resulting in an interchain antiferromagnetic coupling. Despite a centrosymmetry of a whole crystal of 2, one bridging water molecule occupies only one of the two centrosymmetric sites and breaks a local centrosymmetry between adjacent cations. The interchain antiferromagnetic interaction and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction originated from the local symmetry breakdown of 2 bring a weak-ferromagnetic transition at 3.7 K with a coercive force of less than 0.8 mT, followed by the second magnetic phase transition at 2.9 K. Below this temperature, the coercive force rapidly increases from 1 to 11.8 mT as the temperature decreases from 2.9 to 1.8 K, while the remanent magnetization monotonically increases from 0.008 mu(B) at 3.6 K to 0.12 mu(B) at 1.8 K. PMID:19746900

Nishijo, Junichi; Judai, Ken; Numao, Shigenori; Nishi, Nobuyuki

2009-10-01

30

Towards Evidence-Based Sustainable  

E-print Network

Towards Evidence- Based Sustainable Communities Report on Survey of Urban Sustainability Centers. Hilda Blanco and Genevieve Giuliano at the Center for Sustainable Communities, the School of Policy Poticha, Director of the Office for Sustainable Housing and Communities, and Ben Winter and Joshua Geyer

Wang, Hai

31

Tumor pH controls the in vivo efficacy of weak acid and base chemotherapeutics.  

PubMed

The extracellular pH of tumor tissue is significantly lower than the extracellular pH of normal tissue, whereas the intracellular pH of both tissues is similar. In principle, extracellular acidity may be expected to enhance the intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of weak acid chemotherapeutics that are membrane permeable in their uncharged state and inhibit the efficacy of weak bases. However, procedures for assessing the role of the gradient as a determinant of drug efficacy in vivo by altering the pH gradient may also alter drug availability and thus mask or exaggerate the effect of the gradient change. In the present study, we have altered the extracellular pH of tumors and compared the effect of the resultant pH gradient change on the efficacy of a weak acid versus a weak base. This experimental design gives rise to a change in the ratio of chlorambucil- to doxorubicin-induced tumor growth delay, independent of possible changes in drug availability. The extracellular pH of the 54A human tumor in NCr/Sed/nu/nu mice was altered by administration of 5 mg/g i.v. glucose. The resultant 0.2 pH unit increase in the tumor cell pH gradient gives rise to a predicted 2.3-fold increase in the ratio of chlorambucil to doxorubicin growth delay. The experimentally measured change in the growth delay ratio was 2.1. The results provide compelling evidence that the pH gradient in a determinant of the efficacy of weak electrolytes in the complex in vivo environment and may be exploited for the treatment of cancer. PMID:16731760

Gerweck, Leo E; Vijayappa, Shashirekha; Kozin, Sergey

2006-05-01

32

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

2005-01-01

33

Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2005-01-01

34

Desired Attributes of Evidence Assessments for Evidence-based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe three approaches to assessing evidence for stakeholders interested in evidence-based practices: narrative reviews, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), and registries. We then compare the approaches in terms of the degree to which they posses desired attributes of evidence assessments. Our review suggests that hybrid approaches that combined the best features of all three should be pursued

H. Stephen Leff; Jeremy A. Conley

2006-01-01

35

GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

2010-12-01

36

The Politics of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impetus for these essays on evidence in medicine and law is commonly called evidence-based medicine: the movement to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and cost of medical practices using tools from science and social science and to base clinical practice on such knowledge. Evidence-based medicine is portrayed as an alternative to medicine based on authority, tradition, and the physician's personal

Marc A. Rodwin

2001-01-01

37

Evidence-based Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

Kahan, D.

2012-12-01

38

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…

American Psychologist, 2006

2006-01-01

39

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of  

E-print Network

and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium (Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare

Connor, Ed

40

Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public  

E-print Network

Evidence-Based Practices for Designing Public Engagement in Transportation Kathryn Quick Assistant Questions for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we for Evidence-Based Design 1. What are the purposes of this public engagement effort? 2. Can we move beyond

Minnesota, University of

41

Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice  

PubMed Central

There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down questions into searchable statements, and adapting statements to suit both the question being asked and the resource being searched. A number of free, evidence-based resources are listed. Knowing how and where to access this information will enable practitioners to more easily use an evidence-based approach to their practice. PMID:21503266

Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel

2010-01-01

42

Evidence-based guidelines for managing mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To discuss implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for mucositis.DATA SOURCE: Published articles, book chapters, web sources, clinical experience, unpublished manuscripts.CONCLUSION: Nurses can implement evidence-based guidelines but must include an evaluation component to determine effect on clinical outcomes.IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses have an integral role implementing and evaluating evidence-based practice guidelines for managing mucositis. When evidence is lacking

Deborah B. McGuire; Edward B. Rubenstein; Douglas E. Peterson

2004-01-01

43

Virtually-synchronous communication based on a weak failure suspector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure detectors (or, more accurately Failure Suspectors (FS)) appear to be a fundamental service upon which to build fault-tolerant, distributed applications. This paper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e., that delivers failure and recovery information in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronous communication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failures and network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronous systems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failures by replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to implement virtually-synchronous communication: (1) at the lowest level, the FS component; (2) on top of it, a component (2a) that defines new views; and (3) a component (2b) that reliably multicasts messages within a view. The issues covered in this paper also lead to a better understanding of the various membership service semantics proposed in recent literature.

Schiper, Andre; Ricciardi, Aleta

1993-01-01

44

The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

Kvernbekk, Tone

2011-01-01

45

Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

2009-01-01

46

Synthetic approaches to cyclopentadienyl complexes bearing pendant weak bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain halocarbon-bond transition metal species, the attention was centered around metallocenes that carry pendant halocarbon moiety attached to the cyclopentadienyl ligands. Based on the work in our laboratory, pendant halocarbon cyclopentadienyl ligands were introduced onto a metal center without using a base. The strategy was based upon the regiospecific silyl cleavage reaction of an appropriately functionalized trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene.

Shahin Pirzad

1993-01-01

47

Inleiding in evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  In Capita selecta worden evidence based handelen en de theorievorming daarover verder uitgediept. Belangwekkende publicaties,\\u000a methoden, technieken, definities en discussies zullen in deze rubriek regelmatig aan de orde komen. Evidence based handelen\\u000a wordt op deze wijze voor de paramedici in een breder perspectief geplaatst. In deze tweede aflevering van Capita selecta een\\u000a gedeelte uit `Inleiding in evidence-based medicine’ (Offringa e.a.,

M. Offringa; W. J. J. Assendelft; R. J. P. M. Scholten

2003-01-01

48

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

49

Evidence-Based Research in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational newsletter highlights a lead article, "Evidence-Based Research in Education." The article explains that evidence-based research emerged in the field of medicine over 50 years ago, resulting in major advances in the treatment and prevention of disease. It adds that clinical guidelines and protocols are based on the results of…

Research Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

50

Practice-based evidence – overcoming insecure attachments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines educational psychologists’ (EPs’) engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use psychological theories that have little or no evidence to support their use. The article then

Mark Fox

2011-01-01

51

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for depression.  

PubMed

Depression is a distressing emotion that occurs during various times of the cancer trajectory. Depression often goes unrecognized and untreated, which can significantly affect cost, quality of life, and treatment adherence. The Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice depression project team reviewed current literature to identify evidence-based interventions to reduce depression in people with cancer. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions were evaluated, and opportunities for nurses to integrate recommendations into practice are offered in this article. PMID:25427607

Fulcher, Caryl D; Kim, Hee-Ju; Smith, Patsy R; Sherner, Tammie L

2014-12-01

52

OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF HASH TABLE BASED MULTIMEDIA FINGERPRINT DATABASES USING WEAK BITS  

E-print Network

OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF HASH TABLE BASED MULTIMEDIA FINGERPRINT DATABASES USING WEAK BITS Claus fingerprinting has been widely researched and successfully commercialized as a technology to trace and recognize both audio and video content. Most published research on multimedia fingerprinting focuses

Bauer, Claus

53

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC"). Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'. PMID:15634359

Dawes, Martin; Summerskill, William; Glasziou, Paul; Cartabellotta, Antonino; Martin, Janet; Hopayian, Kevork; Porzsolt, Franz; Burls, Amanda; Osborne, James

2005-01-01

54

Strong Versus Weak Coupling Pairing in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the functional renormalization group as well as strong-coupling methods to analyze the phase diagram of several of the iron-based superconductors. As in the previous studies by F. Wang, D.H. Lee et. al., we observe a nodeless sign-changing order parameter to be favored over a sizable part of the parameter space, but the physics quickly develops peculiarities depending on the doping, shape, size and orbital content of the Fermi surfaces in the different superconducting compounds. Using several new one-body models available in the literature (due to Kuroki, Graser and Raghu), we analyze the orbital content of the superconducting gap, which should be observable in spin-polarized ARPES experiments. We find that the effective theory of the Iron-based superconductors is a J1-J2 model in orbital space with J2> |J1| and antiferromagnetic, and analyze the behavior of the physical properties such as superconducting gap for systems ranging from electron overdoped (K, Cs)Fe2?xSex to hole-doped KxBa1-xFe2As2.

Bernevig, B. Andrei

2012-02-01

55

Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented. PMID:22980676

Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

2012-01-01

56

Evidence-based practice and orthopaedic nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.

Julia Kneale

2000-01-01

57

Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

2010-01-01

58

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a common form of distress that oncology nurses often observe in their patients. The incidence of anxiety may be as high as 50% in recently diagnosed patients and may persist into survivorship. How nurses respond to patients experiencing distress and anxiety influences further assessment of the patient's concerns, identification of anxiety, and the initiation of appropriate interventions. Evidence-based

Lisa Kennedy Sheldon; Susan Swanson; Amy Dolce; Kathleen Marsh; Julie Summers

2008-01-01

59

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

60

Evidences for weak crust during Alpine collision in external Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the external Western Alps, the collision started with the shortening of the proximal European (Dauphinois) margin. One peculiar feature is the crustal thickening that finally led to the exhumation of the basement External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) during the Neogene. In these massifs, various age of shortening, structural style and sequence of deformation have been proposed leading to different kinematics along the Alpine arc that in turn do not imply the same crustal/lithospheric strength. In this contribution, we present new structural and microstructural data along with Ar/Ar ages from field studies in the Oisans-Grandes Rousses massifs, between Grenoble and Briançon). From balanced cross-sections, we show that about half of the external zone crustal shortening is accommodated within the ECM with similar Ar/Ar ages in all massifs. Furthermore, the shear zones present very large thicknesses (several hundred meters) and do not reactivated either the inherited Liassic normal faults or the Variscan foliation. Finally, the main shortening structures are localized beneath inherited Liassic syn-rift basins. These results suggest that the crust was weak during its shortening. Such behavior is most likely due to the combination of several factors: the crust burial (below the overthrusting internal units) down to about 10km, the presence of weak inherited syn-rift basins, and the strain softening in shear zones that evolve in mica-rich phyllonites. These results are consistent with the studies in the Aar massif and should most likely apply to the Mont Blanc massif, whose relationships with its cover are still debated.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bellanger, Mathieu; Boutoux, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; Monié, Patrick; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lafosse, Manfred; Lacombe, Olivier; Mouthereau, Frederic; Baudin, Thierry

2013-04-01

61

The Principles of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates individual clinical expertise with the best available external evidence in the care of individual patients. By enabling clinicians to directly appraise and apply current clinical research, EBM deals with the problems of deterioration in clinical performance, information overload, and lag in application of research findings to clinical practice. Thus, EBM is a useful tool to address

S Wiebe

2000-01-01

62

Understanding evidence-based medicine: A primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidenced-based medicine is the concept of formalizing the scientific approach to the practice of medicine for identification of “evidence” to support our clinical decisions. It requires an understanding of critical appraisal and the basic epidemiologic principles of study design, point estimates, relative risk, odds ratios, confidence intervals, bias, and confounding. By using this information, clinicians can categorize evidence, assess causality,

J. Kell Williams; Fla Tampa

2001-01-01

63

Separation of boron isotopes by means of weak-base anion exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solution cortaining 5 mmol of boric acid was passed through a ; column packed with weak-base anion exchange re sin, Diaion WA 21 in free base ; form (0.8 cm² x 48 cm bed), and the borate band formed on the column was ; eluted with pure water. The boric acid concentration in each fraction of the ; effluent

M. Kotaka; K. Murayama; H. Kakihana

1973-01-01

64

Voltage and frequency control of inverter based weak LV network microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrid after intentional and unintentional switching events are investigated. The weak low voltage (LV) network based microgrid consists of two inverter based distributed generation (DG) units. One unit is a storage (battery) unit and the other is a photovoltaic (PV) cell. In this case the battery inverter with rapid response is

H. Laaksonen; P. Saari; R. Komulainen

2005-01-01

65

Introduction to EvidenceIntroduction to Evidence Based MedicineBased Medicine  

E-print Network

decisiontests or therapies, needed for clinical decision-- makingmaking #12;Background vs. ForegroundEvidence Based Medicine Patient Values Clinical Expertise Research Evidence Medical Decision #12;Evidence Based.e. diagnosticQuestions about issues of care, i.e. diagnostic tests or therapies, needed for clinical

66

Translating Research and Building the Evidence Base  

E-print Network

Translating Research and Building the Evidence Base John Eckenrode Professor of Human Development Director, Bronfenbrenner Center For Translational Research CCE Stakeholder Consortium March 22, 2013 #12;Mission of the Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research (BCTR) To strengthen and speed

Keinan, Alon

67

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

68

Evidence-Based Medicine and Medical Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last five years evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been promoted in mainstream medical literature in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom as a new paradigm in medical education and practice. \\

Keith Denny

1999-01-01

69

Infantile spasms--evidence based medical management.  

PubMed

Infantile spasms constitute significant burden of refractory epilepsy in children. The first line treatment choice varies at different centres. The author presents concise evidence based update on medical management of infantile spasms. PMID:24986193

Sahu, Jitendra Kumar

2014-10-01

70

The Art of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of a self-identified evidence-based practitioner. Discussion of EBP includes choosing an initial intervention and evaluation procedures, the iterative process of rechoosing and refining an intervention over the treatment life span, and the importance of evi- dence within the specific clinical situation. Two illustrative case studies are

David E. Pollio

2006-01-01

71

Evidence-based practice in acute ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo study the overall level of evidence-based practice in an accident and emergency eye unit in the UK and evaluate the extent of evidence-based practice by ophthalmologists and nurse practitioners (NPs).MethodsThe case notes of all new patients attending our accident and emergency department for a period of 1 week were reviewed prospectively. For each case, the diagnosis at presentation and

R Bhatt; S Sandramouli

2007-01-01

72

Evidence-Based Approach to Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early years of the 21st century, clinicians and medical researchers often use the term evidence-based medicine. Cancer\\u000a prevention, screening, diagnosis, and therapy, we hear, must be based on the best evidence to provide the best care. But is\\u000a this approach new? And if it is, what have we been doing until now? In this chapter, we hope to

Emily DeVoto; Barnett S. Kramer

73

Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based practice has had a growing impact on chiropractic education and the delivery of chiropractic care. For evidence-based practice to penetrate and transform a profession, the penetration must occur at 2 levels. One level is the degree to which individual practitioners possess the willingness and basic skills to search and assess the literature. Chiropractic education received a significant boost in this realm in 2005 when the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded 4 chiropractic institutions R25 education grants to strengthen their research/evidence-based practice curricula. The second level relates to whether the therapeutic interventions commonly employed by a particular health care discipline are supported by clinical research. A growing body of randomized controlled trials provides evidence of the effectiveness and safety of manual therapies. PMID:23875117

LeFebvre, Ron; Peterson, David; Haas, Mitchell

2013-01-01

74

Evidence for Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields over the Hellas, Chryse, and Acidalia Planitiae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electron Reflectometer (ER) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected a plasma boundary between the ionosphere and the solar wind as the latter is diverted around and past the planet [Mitchell et al., GRL, 27, 1871, 2000; Mitchell et al., JGR, 106, 23419, 2001]. Above this boundary the 10-1000 eV electron population is dominated by solar wind electrons, while below the boundary it is dominated by ionospheric photoelectrons. This "photoelectron boundary", or PEB, is sensitive to pressure variations and moves vertically in response to changes in the ionospheric pressure from below and the solar wind pressure from above. The PEB is also sensitive to crustal magnetic fields, which locally increase the total ionospheric pressure and positively bias the PEB altitude. We have empirically modeled and removed systematic variations in the PEB altitude associated with the solar wind interaction, thus isolating perturbations caused by crustal magnetic fields. A map of the PEB altitude perturbations closely resembles maps of the horizontal component of the crustal magnetic field measured at 400 km by the MGS Magnetometer (MAG). We find a PEB altitude bias over the Hellas basin that is consistent with a horizontal magnetic field with an intensity of several nanotesla at 400 km altitude. This is compatible with upper limits to the horizontal crustal field strength set by MGS MAG measurements. Since there is no evidence for significant crustal magnetic sources within the basin from MAG data obtained during aerobraking [Acuna et al. Science, 284, 790, 1999] or from electron reflection data obtained in the mapping orbit [Lillis et al., this conference], the most likely explanation is that the observed horizontal field originates from sources around the Hellas perimeter. No detectable PEB or magnetic signature is observed over the younger Argyre and Isidis Basins. There is also evidence for a significant enhancement (several nanoteslas) in the crustal field strength over Chryse Planitia and much of Acidalia Planitia, which are thought to contain hundreds of meters of material from the main outflow channels on Mars [Carr, Lunar Planetary Sci., 18, 155, 1987]. These fields appear to extend northward from a group of crustal magnetic sources along the dichotomy boundary that were mapped by the MGS Magnetometer.

Lee, C. O.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.; Cloutier, P. A.; Acuna, M. H.

2003-04-01

75

Allelic association but only weak evidence for linkage to the apolipoprotein E locus in late-onset Swedish Alzheimer families  

SciTech Connect

An association between the {epsilon}4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset AD families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE {epsilon}4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Liu, L.; Forsell, C.; Lilius, L. [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others] [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden); and others

1996-05-31

76

Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages  

PubMed Central

Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based. PMID:25395740

Jeve, Yadava B.; Davies, William

2014-01-01

77

Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages.  

PubMed

Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based. PMID:25395740

Jeve, Yadava B; Davies, William

2014-07-01

78

Evidence-based estimation of insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is a complex phenotype. Surrogate markers based on peripheral glucose and insulin (and in some cases NEFA) concentrations can provide, at best, moderate approximations to direct physiological measurements (Pearson r values 0.6-0.7). Where the focus is solely on insulin resistance, the evidence reviewed in the paper by Otten et al in this issue (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-014-3285-x ) suggests that surrogate markers based on fasting samples alone are as valid as those that require multiple samples and an oral glucose load. This provides an evidence base for simplifying the design of some clinical studies. PMID:25031068

Petrie, John R

2014-09-01

79

Psychiatric Mental Health Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element

Michael J. Rice

2008-01-01

80

Need for Evidence-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators believe that rather than being a mere possibility to improve as teachers, it is always "necessary" to improve. One way of improving teaching is to adopt teaching methods that are based on or supported by evidence of success in enhancing student learning. Most teachers base their instructional practices on tradition, the opinion of…

Groccia, James E.; Buskist, William

2011-01-01

81

Evidence-Based Practices and Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as ‘evidence-based practice’ in psychology and ‘scientifically-based research’ in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special education has raised additional concerns. An analysis of the benefits and limitations of current

Gary B. Mesibov; Victoria Shea

2011-01-01

82

Metadata for Evidence Based Medicine resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new metadata element set based on Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DC) and Admin- Core: Administrative Container C ore (A-Core) was proposed for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) sources after reviewing metadata elements and contents of current EBM sources and medical metadata for Internet resources. The metadata schema was designed to provide a common format for existing primary and secondary

Yukiko Sakai

2001-01-01

83

How Evidence-Based Are the Recommendations in Evidence-Based Guidelines?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTreatment recommendations for the same condition from different guideline bodies often disagree, even when the same randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence is cited. Guideline appraisal tools focus on methodology and quality of reporting, but not on the nature of the supporting evidence. This study was done to evaluate the quality of the evidence (based on consideration of its internal validity,

Finlay A. McAlister; Sean van Diepen; Rajdeep S. Padwal; Jeffrey A. Johnson; Sumit R. Majumdar

2007-01-01

84

Lessons to be Learned from Evidence-based Medicine: Practice and Promise of Evidence-based Medicine and Evidence-based Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents statistics of deaths caused by medical errors and argues the effects of misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment. Suggests evidence-based medicine to enhance the quality of practice and minimize error rates. Presents 10 evidence-based lessons and discusses the possible benefits of evidence-based medicine to evidence-based education and…

Wolf, Fredric M.

2000-01-01

85

Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers.  

PubMed

This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads to systematic, but in general small, corrections to earlier theoretical predictions describing the behavior of weak polyelectrolyte layers. However, polyelectrolyte uncharging results in a decrease in the concentration of counterions and inclusion of the Born Energy can result in a substantial decrease of the counterion concentration. The effect of considering the Born energy contribution is explored for end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers by calculating experimental observables which are known to depend on the presence of charges within the polyelectrolyte layer: inclusion of the Born energy contribution leads to a decrease in the capacitance of polyelectrolyte-modified electrodes, a decrease of conductivity of polyelectrolyte-modified nanopores and an increase in the repulsion exerted by a planar polyelectrolyte layer confined by an opposing wall. PMID:24437914

Nap, R J; Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I

2014-01-14

86

Queer challenges to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. PMID:23738815

Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec

2014-06-01

87

Evidence of surface transport and weak antilocalization in a single crystal of the Bi2Te2Se topological insulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators are known for their metallic surface states, a result of strong spin-orbit coupling, that exhibit unique surface transport phenomenon. However, these surface transport phenomena are buried in the presence of metallic bulk conduction. We synthesized very high quality Bi2Te2Se single crystals by using a modified Bridgman method that possess high bulk resistivity of >20 ? cm below 20 K, whereas the bulk is mostly inactive and surface transport dominates. The temperature dependence of resistivity follows an activation law like a gap semiconductor in temperature range 20-300 K. To extract the surface transport from that of the bulk, we designed a special measurement geometry to measure the resistance and found that single-crystal Bi2Te2Se exhibits a crossover from bulk to surface conduction at 20 K. Simultaneously, the material also shows strong evidence of weak antilocalization in magnetotransport owing to the protection against scattering by conducting surface states. This simple geometry facilitates finding evidence of surface transport in topological insulators, which are promising materials for future spintronic applications.

Shekhar, Chandra; Viol Barbosa, C. E.; Yan, Binghai; Ouardi, Siham; Schnelle, W.; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia

2014-10-01

88

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

2003-01-01

89

Changes in cross-bridge cycling underlie muscle weakness in patients with tropomyosin 3-based myopathy  

PubMed Central

Nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in six genes, all of which encode thin-filament proteins, including NEB (nebulin) and TPM3 (? tropomyosin). In contrast to the mechanisms underlying weakness in NEB-based myopathy, which are related to loss of thin-filament functions normally exerted by nebulin, the pathogenesis of muscle weakness in patients with TPM3 mutations remains largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractile phenotype of TPM3-based myopathy is different from that of NEB-based myopathy and that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the loss of the specific functions normally exerted by tropomyosin. To test this hypothesis, we used a multidisciplinary approach, including muscle fiber mechanics and confocal and electron microscopy to characterize the structural and functional phenotype of muscle fibers from five patients with TPM3-based myopathy and compared this with that of unaffected control subjects. Our findings demonstrate that patients with TPM3-based myopathy display a contractile phenotype that is very distinct from that of patients with NEB-based myopathy. Whereas both show severe myofilament-based muscle weakness, the contractile dysfunction in TPM3-based myopathy is largely explained by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics, but not by the dysregulation of sarcomeric thin-filament length that plays a prominent role in NEB-based myopathy. Interestingly, the loss of force-generating capacity in TPM3-based myopathy appears to be compensated by enhanced thin-filament activation. These findings provide a scientific basis for differential therapeutics aimed at restoring contractile performance in patients with TPM3-based versus NEB-based myopathy. PMID:21357678

Ottenheijm, Coen A.C.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Granzier, Henk; Beggs, Alan H.

2011-01-01

90

Changes in cross-bridge cycling underlie muscle weakness in patients with tropomyosin 3-based myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in six genes, all of which encode thin-filament proteins, including NEB (nebulin) and TPM3 (? tropomyosin). In contrast to the mechanisms underlying weakness in NEB-based myopathy, which are related to loss of thin-filament functions normally exerted by nebulin, the pathogenesis of muscle weakness in patients with TPM3 mutations remains largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractile phenotype of TPM3-based myopathy is different from that of NEB-based myopathy and that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the loss of the specific functions normally exerted by tropomyosin. To test this hypothesis, we used a multidisciplinary approach, including muscle fiber mechanics and confocal and electron microscopy to characterize the structural and functional phenotype of muscle fibers from five patients with TPM3-based myopathy and compared this with that of unaffected control subjects. Our findings demonstrate that patients with TPM3-based myopathy display a contractile phenotype that is very distinct from that of patients with NEB-based myopathy. Whereas both show severe myofilament-based muscle weakness, the contractile dysfunction in TPM3-based myopathy is largely explained by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics, but not by the dysregulation of sarcomeric thin-filament length that plays a prominent role in NEB-based myopathy. Interestingly, the loss of force-generating capacity in TPM3-based myopathy appears to be compensated by enhanced thin-filament activation. These findings provide a scientific basis for differential therapeutics aimed at restoring contractile performance in patients with TPM3-based versus NEB-based myopathy. PMID:21357678

Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Lawlor, Michael W; Stienen, Ger J M; Granzier, Henk; Beggs, Alan H

2011-05-15

91

The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

Todd, Ross

2008-01-01

92

Weak antilocalization effect in LPE-grown p-Hg0.8Cd0.2Te thin film and the evidence of Te-precipitation  

E-print Network

The weak antilocalization effect is observed in a p-type Hg0.8Cd0.2Te thin film with thickness ~10 micrometers. Based on the analysis of composition, carrier species and excellent fitting of data with a model concerning weak antilocalization effect in Te crystal, the most plausible explanation is that the observed weak antilocalization effect is caused by Te-precipitation.

R. Yang; L. M. Wei; G. L. Yu

2010-06-07

93

Evidence Based Research: Implications for Counselor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, the practice of evidence based research (EBR) in treatment decisions has been a standard in the medical field, and is quickly becoming a standard of practice in other human service fields. Counselor educators are faced with the necessity to begin to implement EBR into their teaching and scholarship, but have limited knowledge…

Bartley, Amy E.; Biles, Kathy E.; Low, Lori L.; Nakazawa-Hewitt, M.; Windish, Bonnie L.

94

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #359  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) response describes characteristics of graduation coach initiatives in three states (Georgia, Alabama, and California). Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast has received over 19 requests for information on various initiatives, programs or research related to improving graduation rates. For example, the…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2008

2008-01-01

95

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #510  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

96

Price Discrimination Based on Downstream Regulation: Evidence  

E-print Network

Price Discrimination Based on Downstream Regulation: Evidence from the Market for SO2 Scrubbers for flue-gas desulfurization devices [scrubbers] in the U.S. is used to show that the choice and stringency competitive upstream eco-industry charges higher prices for scrubbers to power plants participating in Phase I

Feigon, Brooke

97

Statewide Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based programs will be useful to the extent they produce benefits to individuals on a socially significant scale. It appears the combination of effective programs and effective implementation methods is required to assure consistent uses of programs and reliable benefits to children and families. To date, focus has been placed primarily…

Fixsen, Dean; Blase, Karen; Metz, Allison; van Dyke, Melissa

2013-01-01

98

Evidence-Based Practice Goes beyond Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is applying research to assist in the selection of interventions that result in increased client quality care. Recently the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (2010), a new accreditation body for recreational therapy education, included standards that state students should obtain knowledge…

Klitzing, Sandra

2012-01-01

99

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

100

The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.

Laursen, Erik K.

2010-01-01

101

The ABCs of evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice is an expectation of all health care practitioners. Associate degree nurses are no exception. Associate degree nursing students currently have little to no exposure as to how to integrate research into their practice. This article describes a course created and implemented to bring this knowledge to associate degree nursing students at their specified level of mandated competency.

Karen S. Lotz

2010-01-01

102

Evidence-based medicine for occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

inusing medical subject headings, and unreliable search strategies. With the use of the abstracts only, most clinical questions could be answered satisfactorily, but concrete risk estimates were often lacking. The lack of availability of full text journals decreased the reliability of the critical appraisal and risk estimation. Conclusions Evidence-based medicine is a feasible and useful method for occupational medicine. Instruction

J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Dijk van F. J. H; A. Malmivaara; C. T. J. Hulshof; K. Rasanen; E. Kankaanpaa; K. Mukala

2002-01-01

103

Updated Diagnoses and Evidence-based Treatments  

E-print Network

Updated Diagnoses and Evidence-based Treatments for Addiction Carlton Erickson, Ph for diagnosis by computer (e.g., SCID) · oen used by untrained personnel Recommended: · trained assessment counselor/technician · not given by computer w/o other criteria

Hofmann, Hans A.

104

Evidence-Based Assessment of Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for the development of evidence-based guidelines for the assessment of personality disorders, focusing in particular on integrated assessment strategies. The general strategy recommended herein is to first administer a self-report inventory to alert oneself to the potential presence of…

Widiger, Thomas A.; Samuel, Douglas B.

2005-01-01

105

Evidence-based drug–herbal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing use of herbals and other dietary supplements healthcare providers and consumers need to know whether problems might arise from using these preparations in combination with conventional drugs. However, the evidence of interactions between natural products and drugs is based on known or suspected pharmacologic activity, data derived from in vitro or animal studies, or isolated case

Mary L. Chavez; Melanie A. Jordan; Pedro I. Chavez

2006-01-01

106

Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

2004-01-01

107

Finding an Evidence-Based Program  

Cancer.gov

Know how to use your needs assessment and program goals and objectives to help you select your program. Be able to find evidence-based program resources. Know how to use search options to narrow your program choices and find out what programs will and will not work with your community.

108

Evidence-based practice in action  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Associate Editor for Journal of Pediatric Nursing (JPN), I will be assisting with evidence-based practice (EBP) submissions or other clinically based articles. I welcome questions, works-in-progress for constructive criticism, and finished submissions for review. This article comprises an overview of the EBP process, an EBP submission format for JPN, and 4 examples of EBP in a variety of pediatric

Maura MacPhee

2002-01-01

109

Evidence-based practice in action.  

PubMed

As Associate Editor for Journal of Pediatric Nursing (JPN), I will be assisting with evidence-based practice (EBP) submissions or other clinically based articles. I welcome questions, works-in-progress for constructive criticism, and finished submissions for review. This article comprises an overview of the EBP process, an EBP submission format for JPN, and 4 examples of EBP in a variety of pediatric clinical settings. PMID:12219333

MacPhee, Maura

2002-08-01

110

Prediction of oral absorption of cinnarizine - A highly supersaturating poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability.  

PubMed

Two important driving forces for oral absorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients are drug dissolution and permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. Poorly soluble weak bases typically exhibit high solubility under fasted gastric conditions. However, the solubility of such drugs usually decreases drastically in the fasted small intestine, constraining drug absorption. Since there is a discrepancy in solubility between the fasted state stomach and intestine, it is crucial to examine the influence of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation on the oral absorption of poorly soluble weak bases during and after fasted state gastric emptying. Cinnarizine is a poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability, exhibiting supersaturation and precipitation under simulated fasted state gastric emptying conditions. Interestingly, supersaturation and precipitation of cinnarizine under fed state conditions is not expected to occur, since the drug shows good solubility in fed state biorelevant media and exhibits a positive food effect in pharmacokinetic studies. The present work is aimed at investigating the dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of marketed cinnarizine tablets under fasted and fed state conditions using biorelevant dissolution and transfer methods. In order to predict the in vivo performance of these cinnarizine formulations, the in vitro results were then coupled with different physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, which considered either only dissolution or a combination of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation kinetics. The results of the in silico predictions were then compared with in vivo observations. The study revealed that under fasting conditions, plasma profiles could be accurately predicted only when supersaturation and precipitation as well as dissolution were taken into account. It was concluded that for poorly soluble weak bases with moderate permeability, supersaturation and precipitation during fasted state gastric emptying may have an essential influence on oral drug absorption and thus on in vivo drug performance. PMID:25195981

Berlin, Mark; Przyklenk, Karl-Heinz; Richtberg, Annette; Baumann, Wolfgang; Dressman, Jennifer B

2014-11-01

111

Acute Metabolic Alkalosis Enhances Response of C3H Mouse Mammary Tumors to the Weak Base Mitoxantrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of weak acid and weak base chemotherapeutic drugs by tumors is greatly influenced by the tumor extracellular \\/interstitial pH (pHe), the intracellular pH (p Hi ) maintained by the tumor cells, and by the ionization properties of the drug itself. The acid- outside plasmalemmal pH gradient in tumors acts to exclude weak base drugs like the anthracyclines, anthraqui- nones,

Natarajan Raghunand; Brent Mahoney; Robert van Sluis; Brenda Baggett; Robert J Gillies

2001-01-01

112

The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting  

PubMed Central

In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

Jiang, Kuosheng.; Xu, Guanghua.; Liang, Lin.; Tao, Tangfei.; Gu, Fengshou.

2014-01-01

113

The recovery of weak impulsive signals based on stochastic resonance and moving least squares fitting.  

PubMed

In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

Jiang, Kuosheng; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Tao, Tangfei; Gu, Fengshou

2014-01-01

114

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

115

Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing: the challenge of evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This article reconsiders the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing in light of the challenge of narrow empirics in the form of evidence-based practice. Objections to the dominance of evidence-based practice are reviewed, and the reasons for it are examined. It is argued that it is partially the result of weaknesses in the alternative patterns of ethical, personal, and esthetic knowing, the ineffability of which compromises accountability. This ineffability can be countered only by introducing a wider form of empirics than countenanced by evidence-based practice into all patterns of knowing, to demonstrate their salience and to make their use in practice transparent. PMID:19996934

Porter, Sam

2010-01-01

116

A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

2014-09-01

117

Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

2004-01-01

118

Evidence-Based Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) is still based on speculative and unproven paradigms in many centers. Therefore, we performed an evidence-based analysis to assess the best available treatment. Methods: A comprehensive Medline and Cochrane Library search was performed evaluating the indication and timing of interventional and surgical approaches, and the value of aprotinin, lexipafant, gabexate mesylate, and octreotide treatment. Each study was ranked according to the evidence-based methodology of Sackett; whenever feasible, we performed new meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Recommendations were based on the available level of evidence (A = large randomized; B = small randomized; C = prospective trial). Results: None of the evaluated medical treatments is recommended (level A). Patients with AP should receive early enteral nutrition (level B). While mild biliary AP is best treated by primary cholecystectomy (level B), patients with severe biliary AP require emergency endoscopic papillotomy followed by interval cholecystectomy (level A). Patients with necrotizing AP should receive imipenem or meropenem prophylaxis to decrease the risk of infected necrosis and mortality (level A). Sterile necrosis per se is not an indication for surgery (level C), and not all patients with infected necrosis require immediate surgery (level B). In general, early necrosectomy should be avoided (level B), and single necrosectomy with postoperative lavage should be preferred over “open-packing” because of fewer complications with comparable mortality rates (level C). Conclusions: While providing new insights into key aspects of AP management, this evidence-based analysis highlights the need for further clinical trials, particularly regarding the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and surgery. PMID:16432347

Heinrich, Stefan; Schafer, Markus; Rousson, Valentin; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-01-01

119

From evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence: the idea of situated generalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments across the world are seeking improvements in school performance. One avenue to improvement that has been widely promulgated is the reform of teaching through the development of evidence-based practice. This paper reports evaluation data from a national programme in England that sought to put teachers at the heart of the search for evidence on which improvements in practice could

Helen Simons; Saville Kushner; Keith Jones; David James

2003-01-01

120

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation  

E-print Network

Clustering of Medical Publications for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Sara Faisal Shash properties of medi- cal publications for the aim of Evidence Based Medicine summarisa- tion. Given a dataset of such clustering for natural language processing tasks in Evidence Based Medicine. 1 Introduction Evidence Based

Aliod, Diego Mollá

121

Evidence-Based Practice for Outpatient Clinical Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column focuses on evidence-based practice (EBP) within multidisciplinary outpatient settings, but first provides some definitions. Besides EBP (Burns and Hoagwood, 2005; Guyatt and Rennie, 2002), there are also evidence-based medicine (EBM; March et al., 2005), evidence-based service (EBS; Chorpita et al., 2002), and evidence-based treatment…

Hamilton, John D.

2006-01-01

122

Triggered single photon emitters based on stimulated parametric scattering in weakly nonlinear systems  

E-print Network

We introduce a scheme of single photon emission based on four-wave mixing in a three mode system with weak Kerr-type nonlinearity. A highly populated lower energy mode results in strong stimulated scattering of particle pairs out of the central mode, which consequently limits the central mode occupation. Thus, the system can be reduced to a $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear medium with greatly enhanced interaction constant. As a model setup we consider dipolaritons in semiconductor microcavities. Using the master equation approach we show strong antibunching under continuous wave pump, which largely exceeds the conventional blockade mechanism. Finally, using a pulsed excitation we demonstrate theoretically an on-demand single photon emitter in a weakly nonlinear system.

Kyriienko, Oleksandr

2014-01-01

123

What is evidence-based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Three challenges that physicians and decision makers in the health care systems have to meet are a remarkable proportion\\u000a of medical decisions without a sufficient base of scientific evidence, a slow and opaque process of integrating scientific\\u000a knowledge into medical practice and a steadily decreasing half-life period of the medical knowledge. Discussion: During the last two decades, a number

Gerd Antes; Daniel Galandi; Bertil Bouillon

1999-01-01

124

Evidence-based medicine in de praktijk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  Evidence-based medicine (EBM) heeft de laatste jaren een grote vlucht genomen in veel gebieden van de geneeskunde, maar over\\u000a de toepasbaarheid van deze methode in de bedrijfsgeneeskunde is relatief weinig bekend. Aan de hand van vier verschillende\\u000a vraagstukken uit de dagelijkse praktijk zijn met behulp van de EBM-methode, zoekvragen opgesteld die met de publiek toegankelijke\\u000a database van medische literatuur Medline,

J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Frank van Dijk; Antti Malmivaara; Carel Hulshof; Kimmo Räsänen; Eilo Kankaanpää; Kristiina Mukala

2004-01-01

125

Modernism, Postmodernism and (Evidence-Based) Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

One dominant discourse in the mental health arena revolves around evidence-based practice (EBP). Although there is ongoing\\u000a debate about the implementation of EBP in the mental health field, most of these discussions have been limited to modernist\\u000a ideas. While discussions about EBP have occurred from alternate perspectives, particularly postmodernism, a lack of open dialogue\\u000a has resulted in these two groups

Heather L. Ramey; Sarah Grubb

2009-01-01

126

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

127

Teaching Evidence-Based Practice to Administrative Groups: The Professional Academy of Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of social work moves toward the implementation of evidence-based practice, agencies require training, mentoring, and peer networking to ensure successful adoption. This article defines successful adoption as knowledge and competence in the process of evidence-based practice. Successful adoption is best accomplished through the education and training of organization teams comprising key leaders—executive staff and board members. The

Stephanie Krauss; Barbara Levin

2010-01-01

128

Evidence-based practice: A challenge for European developmental psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the evidence-based practice movement has been seeing great gains in impact. Standards for research leading to evidence-based practice have been defined. So far, however, in the area of education standards of evidence are not extensively implemented and in most federal European policies an evidence-based reform has not been attained. The present paper advocates investing effort in evidence-based

Christiane Spiel

2009-01-01

129

Evidence-Based Practice and Organizational Development in Libraries  

E-print Network

, on the basis of evidence, to improve the programs and services offered to customers. When evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries emerged, Lancaster’s students already knew what that was all about. As librarians they would be able to create healthy... of the rather recent movement to emphasize “evidence-based librarianship,” “evidence- based medicine,” and “evidence-based management.” In my idealism, I had always assumed that everyone shared my enthusiasm for published information, would always want...

Russell, Keith

2008-01-01

130

Evidence for weakly bound electrons in non-irradiated alkane crystals. The electrons as a probe of structural differences in crystals  

E-print Network

It is generally assumed that weakly bound (trapped) electrons in organic solids come only from radiolytical (or photochemical) processes like ionization caused by an excited positron entering the sample. This paper presents an evidence for the presence of these electrons in non-irradiated samples of docosane. We argue that these electrons can be located (trapped) either in interlamellar gaps or in spaces made by non-planar conformers. The electrons from the former ones are bound more weakly than those from the latter ones. The origin of Vis absorption for the samples is explained. These spectra can be used as a probe indicating differences in the solid structures of hydrocarbons.

Pietrow, M; Misiak, L E; Kornarzynski, K; Szurkowski, J; Rochowski, P; Grzegorczyk, M

2014-01-01

131

Seeking Best Practices: A Conceptual Framework for Planning and Improving Evidence-Based Practices  

PubMed Central

How can we encourage ongoing development, refinement, and evaluation of practices to identify and build an evidence base for best practices? On the basis of a review of the literature and expert input, we worked iteratively to create a framework with 2 interrelated components. The first — public health impact — consists of 5 elements: effectiveness, reach, feasibility, sustainability, and transferability. The second — quality of evidence — consists of 4 levels, ranging from weak to rigorous. At the intersection of public health impact and quality of evidence, a continuum of evidence-based practice emerges, representing the ongoing development of knowledge across 4 stages: emerging, promising, leading, and best. This conceptual framework brings together important aspects of impact and quality to provide a common lexicon and criteria for assessing and strengthening public health practice. We hope this work will invite and advance dialogue among public health practitioners and decision makers to build and strengthen a diverse evidence base for public health programs and strategies. PMID:24331280

Schooley, Michael W.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Kochtitzky, Chris S.; DeGroff, Amy S.; Devlin, Heather M.; Mercer, Shawna L.

2013-01-01

132

Seeking best practices: a conceptual framework for planning and improving evidence-based practices.  

PubMed

How can we encourage ongoing development, refinement, and evaluation of practices to identify and build an evidence base for best practices? On the basis of a review of the literature and expert input, we worked iteratively to create a framework with 2 interrelated components. The first - public health impact - consists of 5 elements: effectiveness, reach, feasibility, sustainability, and transferability. The second - quality of evidence - consists of 4 levels, ranging from weak to rigorous. At the intersection of public health impact and quality of evidence, a continuum of evidence-based practice emerges, representing the ongoing development of knowledge across 4 stages: emerging, promising, leading, and best. This conceptual framework brings together important aspects of impact and quality to provide a common lexicon and criteria for assessing and strengthening public health practice. We hope this work will invite and advance dialogue among public health practitioners and decision makers to build and strengthen a diverse evidence base for public health programs and strategies. PMID:24331280

Spencer, Lorine M; Schooley, Michael W; Anderson, Lynda A; Kochtitzky, Chris S; DeGroff, Amy S; Devlin, Heather M; Mercer, Shawna L

2013-01-01

133

Hawaii's statewide evidence-based practice program.  

PubMed

Hawaii's innovative statewide evidence-based practice program facilitates practice change across multiple health care systems. The innovation eliminated duplicative efforts and provided resources, was compatible with the values of health care organizations, and had experience with a pilot program. Interpersonal and mass media communication promoted and embedded the practice change. Users included nurse champions with multidisciplinary team members. The rate of adoption varied across projects and, although resources seemed to be a major determinant of successful institutionalization, there does not seem to be a predictable pattern of successful project implementation. PMID:25155528

Mark, Debra D; Latimer, Rene'e W; White, Joan P; Bransford, Deborah; Johnson, Katherine G; Song, Valerie L

2014-09-01

134

Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments  

PubMed Central

Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources. PMID:22002453

Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

2010-01-01

135

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

1994-01-01

136

Evidence-based psychiatric nursing practice: Rhetoric or reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most desirable basis to substantiate clinical practice is the evidence of well-established research findings. Developing evidence-based care involves defining the clinical question, finding the evidence, analyzing the evidence, using the evidence, and evaluating the outcome. Practice guidelines and clinical algorithms are useful tools for applying research findings in a practical way. Other mental health professionals are actively incorporating an

Gail W. Stuart

2001-01-01

137

Experimental evidence of ageing and slow restoration of the weak-contact configuration in tilted 3D granular packings  

E-print Network

Granular packings slowly driven towards their instability threshold are studied using a digital imaging technique as well as a nonlinear acoustic method. The former method allows us to study grain rearrangements on the surface during the tilting and the latter enables to selectively probe the modifications of the weak-contact fraction in the material bulk. Gradual ageing of both the surface activity and the weak-contact reconfigurations is observed as a result of repeated tilt cycles up to a given angle smaller than the angle of avalanche. For an aged configuration reached after several consecutive tilt cycles, abrupt resumption of the on-surface activity and of the weak-contact rearrangements occurs when the packing is subsequently inclined beyond the previous maximal tilting angle. This behavior is compared with literature results from numerical simulations of inclined 2D packings. It is also found that the aged weak-contact configurations exhibit spontaneous restoration towards the initial state if the packing remains at rest for tens of minutes. When the packing is titled forth and back between zero and near-critical angles, instead of ageing, the weak-contact configuration exhibits "internal weak-contact avalanches" in the vicinity of both the near-critical and zero angles. By contrast, the stronger-contact skeleton remains stable.

Sébastien Kiesgen De Richter; Vladimir Zaitsev; Patrick Richard; Renaud Delannay; Gérard Le Caër; Vincent Tournat

2010-11-08

138

Patch-based label fusion using local confidence-measures and weak segmentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for the fully automatic segmentation of the liver and spleen is presented. In a multi-atlas based segmentation framework, several existing segmentations are deformed in parallel to image intensity based registrations targeting the unseen patient. A new locally adaptive label fusion method is presented as the core of this paper. In a patch comparison approach, the transformed segmentations are compared to a weak segmentation of the target organ in the unseen patient. The weak segmentation roughly estimates the hidden truth. Traditional fusion approaches just rely on the deformed expert segmentations only. The result of patch comparison is a confidence weight for a neighboring voxel-label in the atlas label images to contribute to the voxel under study. Fusion is finally carried out in a weighted averaging scheme. The new contribution is the incorporation of locally determined confidence features of the unseen patient into the fusion process. For a small experimental set-up consisting of 12 patients, the proposed method performs favorable to standard classifier label fusion methods. In leave-one-out experiments, we obtain a mean Dice ratio of 0.92 for the liver and 0.82 for the spleen.

Mastmeyer, André; Fortmeier, Dirk; Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Simon, Martin; Handels, Heinz

2013-03-01

139

Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2007-01-01

140

An Examination of the Bases of Evidence-Based Interventions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychology has proposed a system to aid in the identification of evidence-based interventions (Kratochwill & Stoiber, this issue; Lewis-Snyder, Stoiber, & Kratochwill, this issue; Shernoff, Kratochwill, & Stoiber, this issue). In this commentary, issues related to the politics of exclusion, design and theory, methods, and multiculturalism…

Wampold, Bruce E.

2002-01-01

141

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2011-04-01

142

Teaching residents evidence-based medicine skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To measure the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to teach residents four essential evidence-based medicine\\u000a (EBM) skills: question formulation, literature searching, understanding quantitative outcomes, and critical appraisal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Firm-based, controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Urban public hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five first-year internal medicine residents: 18 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTION: An EBM course, taught 2

Christopher A. Smith; Pamela S. Ganschow; Brendan M. Reilly; Arthur T. Evans; Robert A. McNutt; Albert Osei; Muhammad Saquib; Satish Surabhi; Sunil Yadav

2000-01-01

143

The notion of evidence in evidence-based practice by the nursing philosophy working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions concerning the nature of evidence in evidence-based practice have kindled debate within nursing and other health care disciplines. Such questions include the ends for which evidence is sought, the form(s) of evidence, and the values underlying evidence-based practice. In this article, some of the issues, contradictions, and tensions implicit in these questions are highlighted. It is imperative that the

Donna M Romyn; Marion N Allen; Geertje Boschma; Susan M Duncan; Nancy Edgecombe; Louise A Jensen; Janet C Ross-Kerr; Patricia Marck; Mahvash Salsali; Ann E Tourangeau; Fay Warnock

2003-01-01

144

Some Results of Weak Anticipative Concept Applied in Simulation Based Decision Support in Enterprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation models are used as for decision support and learning in enterprises and in schools. Tree cases of successful applications demonstrate usefulness of weak anticipative information. Job shop scheduling production with makespan criterion presents a real case customized flexible furniture production optimization. The genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling optimization is presented. Simulation based inventory control for products with stochastic lead time and demand describes inventory optimization for products with stochastic lead time and demand. Dynamic programming and fuzzy control algorithms reduce the total cost without producing stock-outs in most cases. Values of decision making information based on simulation were discussed too. All two cases will be discussed from optimization, modeling and learning point of view.

Kljaji?, Miroljub; Kofja?, Davorin; Kljaji? Borštnar, Mirjana; Škraba, Andrej

2010-11-01

145

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educa- tional interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tenta- tively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when exemplary practices are followed as re- gards (a) measurement, (b) quantifying effects, (c) avoiding common

BRUCE THOMPSON

146

Training the Evidence-Based Practitioner  

PubMed Central

An important goal of chiropractic clinical education should be to teach specific evidence-based practice (EBP) skills to chiropractic students, interns, and doctors. Using a nominal group process, the authors produced a document similar to the Council of Chiropractic Education standards for clinical competencies that can be used to drive an EBP curriculum. Standard texts and journal articles were consulted to create the standards for this program and each standard and corresponding learning objective was discussed in detail and was then graded by the committee in terms of importance and the level of competency that should be attained. Six standards and 31 learning objectives were generated with the learning objectives being further divided into lists of specific competencies. It is the hope of these authors that by sharing this document it can serve as a comprehensive and detailed seed document for other institutions. PMID:21677870

LeFebvre, Ronald P.; Peterson, David H.; Haas, Mitchell; Gillette, Richard G.; Novak, Charles W.; Tapper, Janet; Muench, John P.

2011-01-01

147

HANDS: standardised intravascular practice based on evidence.  

PubMed

Observed and audited variability in the insertion and care of vascular access devices (VADs), despite national guidance, led an intravascular (i.v.) team to develop seven basic standards under the mnemonic of HANDS. This initiative combined the Saving Lives guidance (Department of Health, 2007) with i.v. care bundles to reinforce best practice. The main reasons for the project were to decrease bacteraemia rates related to i.v. devices and to improve practice. The strategy of strengthening care bundling--Project HANDS--with a targeted education programme was adopted to ensure i.v. practice was consistent and evidence based. This project took a novel approach that evaluated the application of infection control measures, using i.v. device care as a tool to influence organisational change. This resulted in quality improvements and better patient outcomes. Further actions include disseminating the learning from this project to healthcare partners and in the community. PMID:23252175

Caguioa, Jennifer; Pilpil, Fernando; Greensitt, Chris; Carnan, Donna

148

The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

149

Information Retrieval for Evidence-Based Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses evidence-based decision making; describes techniques to support evidence-based retrieval in the field of medicine which emphasize the retrieval and application of high quality knowledge to solve real-world problems; and considers the transferability of evidence-based information seeking to other fields. (Contains 69 references.) (LRW)

Ford, Nigel; Miller, Dave; Booth, Andrew; O'Rourke, Alan; Ralph, Jane; Turnock, Edward

1999-01-01

150

Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies #12;#12;Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based

Alpay, S. Pamir

151

Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

Schoenwald, Sonja K.

2008-01-01

152

Overview of Evidence-based Medicine: Challenges for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been driven by the need to cope with information overload, by cost-control, and by a public impatient for the best in diagnostics and treatment. Clinical guidelines, care maps, and outcome measures are quality improvement tools for the appro- priateness, efficiency, and effectiveness of health ser- vices. Although they are imperfect, their value increases with the quality

Matthew J. McQueen

2001-01-01

153

Case-Based Reasoning in CARE-PARTNER: Gathering Evidence for Evidence-Based Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the CARE-PARTNER system. Functionally, it offers via the WWW knowledge-support assistance to clinicians responsible for the long-term follow-up of stem-cell post-transplant patient care. CARE- PARTNER aims at implementing the concept of evidence-based medical practice, which recommends the practice of medicine based on proven and validated knowledge. From an artificial intelligence viewpoint, it proposes a multimodal reasoning framework

Isabelle Bichindaritz; Emin Kansu; Keith M. Sullivan

1998-01-01

154

Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid Strong Base Titrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple analogy can often provide an instructor with a means of helping students to understand an unfamiliar concept. An analogy involving money can be particularly helpful as most students have experience in dealing with a range of financial transactions in their everyday lives. In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.

Last, Arthur M.

2003-12-01

155

Specialized Community-Based Care: An Evidence-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Specialized community-based care (SCBC) refers to services that manage chronic illness through formalized links between primary and specialized care. Objectives The objectives of this evidence-based analysis (EBA) were as follows: to summarize the literature on SCBC, also known as intermediate care to synthesize the evidence from previous Medical Advisory Secretariat (now Health Quality Ontario) EBAs on SCBC for heart failure, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic wounds to examine the role of SCBC in family practice Results Part 1: Systematic Review of Intermediate Care Seven systematic reviews on intermediate care since 2008 were identified. The literature base is complex and difficult to define. There is evidence to suggest that intermediate care is effective in improving outcomes; however, the effective interventions are still uncertain. Part 2: Synthesis of Evidence in Intermediate Care Mortality • Heart failure Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Hospitalization • Heart failure Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Emergency Department Visits • Heart failure Nonsignificant reduction in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant reduction in patients receiving SCBC Disease-Specific Patient Outcomes • COPD Nonsignificant improvement in lung function in patients receiving SCBC • Diabetes Significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure in patients receiving SCBC • Chronic wounds Significant increase in the proportion of healed wounds in patients receiving SCBC Quality of Life • Heart failure Trend toward improvement in patients receiving SCBC • COPD Significant improvement in patients receiving SCBC Part 3: Intermediate Care in Family Practice—Evidence-Based Analysis Five randomized controlled trials were identified comparing SCBC to usual care in family practice. Inclusion criteria were 1) the presence of multiple chronic conditions, and 2) interventions that included 2 or more health care professions. The GRADE quality of the evidence was assessed as low for all outcomes due to the inconsistency and indirectness of the results. Limitations This review did not look at disease-specific studies on intermediate care in family practice. Conclusions Specialized community-based care effectively improves outcomes in patients with heart failure, COPD, and diabetes. The effectiveness of SCBC in family practice is unclear. PMID:23226812

2012-01-01

156

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

157

Experimental evidence of ageing and slow restoration of the weak-contact configuration in tilted 3D granular packings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular packings slowly driven towards their instability threshold are studied using a digital imaging technique as well as a nonlinear acoustic method. The former method allows us to study grain rearrangements on the surface during the tilting and the latter enables us to selectively probe the modifications of the weak-contact fraction in the material bulk. Gradual ageing of both the

S. Kiesgen de Richter; V. Yu Zaitsev; Patrick Richard; Renaud Delannay; G. Le Caër; Vincent Tournat

2010-01-01

158

An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

Joy C. MacDermid

2004-01-01

159

Increasing capacity for evidence-based practice through the evidence-based practice academy.  

PubMed

Although mentoring is an important aspect of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP), few models exist for EBP education. The EBP Academy is an innovative, 6-month educational program designed to develop clinical staff as EBP nurse mentors. Sessions provide protected time for participants to work on their EBP projects with assigned mentors who have EBP expertise and similar clinical or research interests. Participants develop EBP projects focused on improving care in their clinical areas. Evaluation of the EBP Academy is based on a four-level model, including participant feedback about the program, perception of meeting program objectives, ability to apply knowledge to practice through EBP projects, and outcome data measured as a result of implementing the EBP changes. By developing EBP mentors, capacity to move nursing practice to a stronger evidence-based foundation can be enhanced. Positive, professional nursing and patient outcomes have been demonstrated when structured EBP education is provided. PMID:24494661

Green, Angela; Jeffs, Debra; Huett, Amy; Jones, Luann R; Schmid, Barbara; Scott, Angela R; Walker, Liz

2014-02-01

160

3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

2010-11-01

161

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

162

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2011 measures, will strengthen the evidence base for such complex interventions as acupuncture. 1. Introduction is sufficient evidence of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conventional medicine and to encourage

Napadow, Vitaly

163

The 400d Galaxy Cluster Survey weak lensing programme. III. Evidence for consistent WL and X-ray masses at z ? 0.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Scaling properties of galaxy cluster observables with cluster mass provide central insights into the processes shaping clusters. Calibrating proxies for cluster mass that are relatively cheap to observe will moreover be crucial to harvest the cosmological information available from the number and growth of clusters with upcoming surveys like eROSITA and Euclid. The recent Planck results led to suggestions that X-ray masses might be biased low by ~40%, more than previously considered. Aims: We aim to extend knowledge of the weak lensing - X-ray mass scaling towards lower masses (as low as 1 × 1014M?) in a sample representative of the z ~ 0.4-0.5 population. Thus, we extend the direct calibration of cluster mass estimates to higher redshifts. Methods: We investigate the scaling behaviour of MMT/Megacam weak lensing (WL) masses for 8 clusters at 0.39 ? z ? 0.80 as part of the 400d WL programme with hydrostatic Chandra X-ray masses as well as those based on the proxies, e.g. YX = TXMgas. Results: Overall, we find good agreement between WL and X-ray masses, with different mass bias estimators all consistent with zero. When subdividing the sample into a low-mass and a high-mass subsample, we find the high-mass subsample to show no significant mass bias while for the low-mass subsample, there is a bias towards overestimated X-ray masses at the ~2? level for some mass proxies. The overall scatter in the mass-mass scaling relations is surprisingly low. Investigating possible causes, we find that neither the greater range in WL than in X-ray masses nor the small scatter can be traced back to the parameter settings in the WL analysis. Conclusions: We do not find evidence for a strong (~40%) underestimate in the X-ray masses, as suggested to reconcile recent Planck cluster counts and cosmological constraints. For high-mass clusters, our measurements are consistent with other studies in the literature. The mass dependent bias, significant at ~2?, may hint at a physically different cluster population (less relaxed clusters with more substructure and mergers); or it may be due to small number statistics. Further studies of low-mass high-z lensing clusters will elucidate their mass scaling behaviour. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Israel, Holger; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Erben, Thomas; Massey, Richard J.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Schneider, Peter; Vikhlinin, Alexey

2014-04-01

164

Using Evidence-Based Principles in Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

To help students better understand how to use evidence-based principles in clinical practice, Prof. Storkel is revising her SPLH 880 course so that students can access evidence from clinical research and apply it to specific ...

Storkel, Holly Lynn

2004-01-01

165

An Iterative Framework for EEG-based Image Search: Robust Retrieval with Weak Classifiers  

PubMed Central

We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

Uscumlic, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millan, Jose del R.

2013-01-01

166

The ultrasonic weak short-pulse responses of microbubbles based on a two-frequency approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic short-pulse responses of microbubbles are of interest in cavitation, transient responses, and contrast imaging. We extend the two-frequency analytic solutions of Newhouse and Shankar [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1473-1477 (1984)] to approximate the short-pulse responses of microbubbles in a low-amplitude field. Based on their results, there is an expected component near dc in the spectrum of bubble echoes excited by a short pulse. Here this component is named the low-frequency response, and its theoretical properties are verified experimentally. Including the fundamental and second-harmonic components, the weak short-pulse responses of microbubbles include three types of response. Our work has determined the constraint conditions under which this approximated solution can be used to analyze these short-pulse responses. This paper also provides the amplitude and spectral properties of these responses. The low-frequency response has a special bandwidth-dependent property and has potential applications in imaging and bubble sizing.

Wu, Chung-Yuo; Tsao, Jenho

2003-11-01

167

Dynamic Logics of Evidence-Based Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds evidence structure to standard models of belief, in the form of families of sets of worlds. We show how these\\u000a more fine-grained models support natural actions of “evidence management”, ranging from update with external new information\\u000a to internal rearrangement. We show how this perspective leads to new richer languages for existing neighborhood semantics\\u000a for modal logic. Our

J. van Benthem; E. J. Pacuit

2011-01-01

168

Gaussian Weak Classifiers Based on Haar-Like Features with Four Rectangles for Real-time Face Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes Gaussian weak classifiers (GWCs) for use in real-time face detection systems. GWCs are based on Haar-like features (HFs) with four rectangles (HF4s), which constitute the majority of the HFs used to train a face detector. To label an image as face or clutter (non-face), GWC uses the responses of the two HF2s in a HF4 to compute a Mahalanobis distance which is later compared to a threshold to make decisions. For a fixed accuracy on the face class, GWCs can classify clutter images with more accuracy than the existing weak classifier types. Our experiments compare the accuracy and speed of the face detectors built with four different weak classifier types: GWCs, Viola & Jones’s, Rasolzadeh et al.’s and Mita et al.’s. On the standard MIT+CMU image database, the GWC-based face detector provided 40% less false positives and required 32% less time for the scanning process when compared to the detector that used Viola & Jones’s weak classifiers. When compared to detectors that used Rasolzadeh et al.’s and Mita et al.’s weak classifiers, the GWC-based detector produced 11% and 9% fewer false positives. Simultaneously, it required 37% and 42% less time for the scanning process.

Pavani, Sri-Kaushik; Delgado Gomez, David; Frangi, Alejandro F.

169

Opening Pandora's Box: Evidence-based practice for educational psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years evidence-based practice has become of central concern to health and social services in this country. The fundamental tenant is that there must be a clear link between professional practice and its research base. This paper outlines the concept of evidence-based practice and how it rests on the concept of good quality research -- defined as

Mark Fox

2003-01-01

170

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

2011-01-01

171

Opening Pandora's Box: Evidence-Based Practice for Educational Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years evidence-based practice has become of central concern to health and social services in this country. The fundamental tenant is that there must be a clear link between professional practice and its research base. This paper outlines the concept of evidence-based practice and how it rests on the concept of good quality…

Fox, Mark

2003-01-01

172

Basing PRFs on Constant-Query Weak PRFs: Minimizing Assumptions for Efficient Symmetric Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well known that all basic private-key cryptographic primitives can be built from one-way functions, finding\\u000a weak assumptions from which practical implementations of such primitives exist remains a challenging task. Towards this goal,\\u000a this paper introduces the notion of a constant-query weak PRF, a function with a secret key which is computationally indistinguishable from a truly random function

Ueli M. Maurer; Stefano Tessaro

2008-01-01

173

Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice integrates individual practitioner expertise with the best available evidence while also considering the values and expectations of clients. Research can be categorized into two broad areas: primary (experiments, clinical trials, and surveys) and secondary research (overviews of major studies, practice guidelines, and decision and economic analyses). One of the major challenges to incorporating research evidence into organizational life

Michelle Johnson; Michael J. Austin

2008-01-01

174

Need for evidence-based practice in prosthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement Of Problem. Patients, their insurers, the courts, and the scientific community are demanding more evidence to support the effectiveness of health care strategies. Purpose. This article describes evidence-based practice, its origins, and value as a way of addressing the demand for evidence of treatment effectiveness in maxillofacial prosthetics. Material And Methods. A limited review of maxillofacial prosthetics literature was

James D. Anderson

2000-01-01

175

Basing Cryptographic Protocols on TamperEvident Seals #  

E-print Network

Basing Cryptographic Protocols on Tamper­Evident Seals # Tal Moran and Moni Naor ## Department are commonly known as ``tamper evident seals''. These are used widely, from containers for food and medicines are called ``tamper­evident seals''. Another physical object with this property is the ``scratch­o# card

176

Evidence-based HIV prevention in community settings: provider perspectives on evidence and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the efforts to expand evidence-based practice (EBP) in HIV prevention at the community level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Frontline service providers, who are charged with adopting and implementing these interventions, however, have resisted and criticized the dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Their failure

Jill Owczarzak

2012-01-01

177

Evidence-based HIV prevention in community settings: provider perspectives on evidence and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the efforts to expand evidence-based practice (EBP) in HIV prevention at the community level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Frontline service providers, who are charged with adopting and implementing these interventions, however, have resisted and criticized the dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Their failure

Jill Owczarzak

2011-01-01

178

Why the Evidence-Based Paradigm in Early Childhood Education and Care Is Anything but Evident  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praxeological research is a necessary contribution to the research field in early childhood education and care, which is currently dominated by an evidence-based paradigm that tends to consider the measurement of predefined outcomes as the most valid form of research. We analyse the history of the evidence-based paradigm in the field of medicine…

Vandenbroeck, Michel; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi

2012-01-01

179

Toward a Phylogenetic Classification of Primates Based on DNA Evidence Complemented by Fossil Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly resolved primate cladogram based on DNA evidence is congruent with extant and fossil osteological evidence. A provisional primate classification based on this cladogram and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age. Order Primates

Morris Goodman; Calvin A. Porter; John Czelusniak; Scott L. Page; Horacio Schneider; Jeheskel Shoshani; Gregg Gunnell; Colin P. Groves

1998-01-01

180

Evidence Based Practice of Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2012-01-01

181

Basis of antimalarial action: non-weak base effects of chloroquine on acid vesicle pH  

SciTech Connect

Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. This increase in pH results from two mechanisms, one of which is markedly reduced in chloroquine-resistant parasites. Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the delta pH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. The non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine on parasite vesicle pH are also responsible for its safety because these chloroquine concentrations do not affect mammalian cells.

Krogstad, D.J.; Schlesinger, P.H.

1987-03-01

182

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than

C Mimura; P Griffiths

2003-01-01

183

Developing an Integrated Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum for Family Medicine Residency at the University of Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general consensus in the academic community that evidence- based medicine (EBM) teaching is essential. Unfortunately, many postgraduate programs have significant weakness in their EBM programs. The Family Medicine Residency committee at the University of Alberta felt their EBM curriculum would benefit from critical review and revision. An EBM Curriculum Committee was created to evaluate previous components and develop

G. Michael Allan; Christina Korownyk; Amy Tan; Hugh Hindle; Lina Kung; Donna Manca

2008-01-01

184

Evidence-Based Elections Philip B. Stark  

E-print Network

. If it can't, it says so. #12;Generating and Assessing Evidence Audit trail Typically, VVPR. Compliance Audit chance of correcting the outcome if it is wrong (if audit trail is sufficiently intact). · "Intelligent requiring super-majority · multi-candidate contests · vote-for-n contests, · multiple contests audited

Stark, Philip B.

185

Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

Berg, Kris

2010-01-01

186

Sparse representation based latent components analysis for machinery weak fault detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak machinery fault detection is a difficult task because of two main reasons (1) At the early stage of fault development, signature of fault related component performs incompletely and is quite different from that at the apparent failure stage. In most instances, it seems almost identical with the normal operating state. (2) The fault feature is always submerged and distorted by relatively strong background noise and macro-structural vibrations even if the fault component already performs completely, especially when the structure of fault components and interference are close. To solve these problems, we should penetrate into the underlying structure of the signal. Sparse representation provides a class of algorithms for finding succinct representations of signal that capture higher-level features in the data. With the purpose of extracting incomplete or seriously overwhelmed fault components, a sparse representation based latent components decomposition method is proposed in this paper. As a special case of sparse representation, shift-invariant sparse coding algorithm provides an effective basis functions learning scheme for capturing the underlying structure of machinery fault signal by iteratively solving two convex optimization problems: an L1-regularized least squares problem and an L2-constrained least squares problem. Among these basis functions, fault feature can be probably contained and extracted if optimal latent component is filtered. The proposed scheme is applied to analyze vibration signals of both rolling bearings and gears. Experiment of accelerated lifetime test of bearings validates the proposed method's ability of detecting early fault. Besides, experiments of fault bearings and gears with heavy noise and interference show the approach can effectively distinguish subtle differences between defect and interference. All the experimental data are analyzed by wavelet shrinkage and basis pursuit de-noising (BPDN) method for comparison.

Tang, Haifeng; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming

2014-06-01

187

Narrow scale flow across a weak field by the top of Earth's core: evidence from Ørsted, Magsat,and SV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test two geophysical hypotheses against observation, the Ørsted Initial Field Model [Olsen et al., 2000] is used to estimate the radius of Earth's core by spectral methods. The model coefficients are used to compute the mean square magnetic flux density in spherical harmonics of degree n on the reference sphere (radius a = 6371.2 km), which is an observational spectrum R(n). The theoretical spectrum tested, {R(n)} = K[(n+1/2)/(n(n+1))](c/a)**(2n+4), is obtained from the hypotheses of narrow scale flow across a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth's core. It describes a low degree, core-source magnetic energy range and is similar to spectra advanced by Stevenson [1983] and McLeod [1985, 1996]. Core radius c and amplitude K are estimated by fitting log-theoretical to log-observational spectra at low degrees. Estimates of c from R(n) at degrees 1 through N range between 3441 and 3542 km as N increases from 4 to 12. None of these estimates differ significantly from the seismologic core radius (3480 km). Significant differences do occur if N exceeds 12, which is consistent with appreciable non-core (crustal) source fields at degrees 13 and above, or if other spectral forms are assumed. Similar results are obtained from 1980 epoch Magsat models [Sabaka, Olsen &Langel, 2000, 2002; Cain et al., 1990; Langel, Estes &Mead, 1982]. One way to deduce {R(n)} uses the expected low degree spectrum for secular variation (SV) induced by narrow scale flow by the top of the core, {F(n)} = Cn(n+1/2)(n+1)(c/a)**(2n+4). The value of c obtained by fitting this form to the mean observational SV spectrum from model GSFC 9/80 is 3470 +/- 91 km, also in accord with seismologic estimates. This test of the kinematic narrow scale flow hypothesis is independent of the dynamic weak field hypothesis. The agreement between SV, Magsat, Ørsted and seismologic estimates of core radius means the hypotheses pass these tests. Analysis of some recent observational SV spectra, however, reveals geodynamically intriguing deviations from this expected form, systematic deviations reminiscent of rapid quadrupole rebound, lateral heterogeneity in deep mantle electric conductivity, and perhaps variations in the lateral correlation length scales of core surface flow.

Voorhies, C.

2003-04-01

188

Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

2010-01-01

189

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

190

Preparing Future Generations of Evidence-Based Endocrinologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much to recommend an increased emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) training in medical education. Evidence-based\\u000a practice has emerged as a national priority in efforts to improve health care quality (1). Physicians are encouraged to identify, appraise, and apply the best evidence in their decision making for individual patients.\\u000a However, this ideal remains far from realization. Physicians leave the

Michael L. Green

191

From evidence-based medicine to genomic medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ‘evidence-based medicine’ dates back to mid-19th century or even earlier. It remains pivotal in planning, funding\\u000a and in delivering the health care. Clinicians, public health practitioners, health commissioners\\/purchasers, health planners,\\u000a politicians and public seek formal ‘evidence’ in approving any form of health care provision. Essentially ‘evidence-based\\u000a medicine’ aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the

Dhavendra Kumar

2007-01-01

192

Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice. PMID:23056715

Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

2010-01-01

193

Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

Foster, Robyn

2014-01-01

194

Developing the skills required for evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research

Beverley French

1998-01-01

195

Counting what counts: performance measurement and evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual and practical links between performance measurement and evidence-based library and information practice (EBLIP) and to identify lessons to be learned from evidence-based healthcare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a selective review of key writings in EBLIP for reference to performance measurement. Findings – The paper finds that performance measurement

Andrew Booth

2006-01-01

196

Towards an Understanding of Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have seen a rise in the use of the term "evidence-based practice" and a simultaneous increase in the variations in its definition and evaluation. Subsequently, this rise in interest for evidence-based practices has become a double-edged sword for practitioners--that is, while there are a number of interpretations on the…

Digennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

2008-01-01

197

Evidence-Based Practice and the Culture of Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires attention to the client context, including client culture. We propose that the developmental period of adolescence is characterized by a unique culture that has important implications for evidence-based practice. Specifically, this paper explores three features of adolescent culture (importance of technology, centrality of peers, and the ongoing challenge of identity formation and individuation) that may be especially

Timothy D. Nelson; Jennifer Mize Nelson

2010-01-01

198

Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Conducting Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…

Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary

2004-01-01

199

Evidence-based Clinical Guidelines in , Zhisheng Huang1  

E-print Network

and have not yet supported for the se- mantic inter-operability. The semantic enriched guidelinesEvidence-based Clinical Guidelines in SemanticCT Qing Hu1,2 , Zhisheng Huang1 , Frank van Harmelen1. In this pa- per, we present a semantic approach of evidence-based clinical guidelines. That lightweight

van Harmelen, Frank

200

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

201

Evidence-based Software Production James Kirby, Jr.  

E-print Network

. For example, Gawande describes how, in 1900, over 40% of a family's income in the U.S. went to food. Farming, Design, Reliability, Experimentation, Verification. Keywords Evidence-based, software production, data and improvement of software production. Such evidence should be based on standardized, widely collected data

Lutz, Robyn R.

202

Evidence-Based Guidelines in Laboratory Medicine: Principles and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Guidelines are commonly used tools for supporting medical decisions. Formulating evidence- based recommendations has become a leading principle in guideline development. Aim: This narrative review integrates the most recent methods of evidence-based guideline development and adapts those to the field of laboratory medicine. Summary: We present a 10-step process and a list of criteria for the development of laboratory

Wytze P. Oosterhuis; David E. Bruns; Joseph Watine; Sverre Sandberg; Andrea R. Horvath

2004-01-01

203

Evidence based onderwijs: De leraar en de school aan zet  

E-print Network

Evidence based onderwijs: De leraar en de school aan zet Martin Valcke Martin.Valcke@UGent.be 8 februari 2012 Mentorendag UGent #12;Structuur · Controverse: Kwaliteitsvol onderwijs... wat werkt ... tips and tricks ...evidence based onderwijs ... · Meningen over kwaliteit: even "testen" · Effecten? Wat

Gent, Universiteit

204

[Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].  

PubMed

As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

2013-12-01

205

Overcoming Challenges to Using Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for School Mental Health Assistance at the University of Maryland recently completed a review of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs that can be used by school mental health clinicians. Based on the review, a school-based program operating in 22 Baltimore City schools has purchased and trained clinicians in a number of protocols for evidence-based interventions. We present findings

Cindy M. Schaeffer; Eric Bruns; Mark Weist; Sharon Hoover Stephan; Julie Goldstein; Yolanda Simpson

2005-01-01

206

Finding the Common Core: Evidence-Based Practices, Clinically Relevant Evidence, and Core Mechanisms of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the quality of children’s mental health care can benefit from the adoption of evidence based and evidence informed\\u000a treatments. However, the promise of moving science into practice is hampered by three core elements that need to be addressed\\u000a in the current conversation among key stakeholders: (1) expanding our understanding of the clinical relevance of different\\u000a types of evidence, (2)

Thomas L. SextonSusan; Susan Douglas Kelley

2010-01-01

207

Resisting Evidence: The Study of Evidence-Based Medicine as a Contemporary Social Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) emerged relatively recently to describe the explicit process of applying research evidence to medical practice. The movement was high profile, yet not overly successful: many clinicians do not use up-to-date evidence in their everyday work. This article shows how a social movement perspective can be used to analyse the emerg- ence of EBM and shed light on

Catherine Pope

2003-01-01

208

Building performance-based accountability with limited empirical evidence: performance measurement for public health preparedness.  

PubMed

Efforts to respond to performance-based accountability mandates for public health emergency preparedness have been hindered by a weak evidence base linking preparedness activities with response outcomes. We describe an approach to measure development that was successfully implemented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Emergency Preparedness Cooperative Agreement. The approach leverages insights from process mapping and experts to guide measure selection, and provides mechanisms for reducing performance-irrelevant variation in measurement data. Also, issues are identified that need to be addressed to advance the science of measurement in public health emergency preparedness. PMID:24229520

Shelton, Shoshana R; Nelson, Christopher D; McLees, Anita W; Mumford, Karen; Thomas, Craig

2013-08-01

209

Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations of deformed weakly bound nuclei using continuous bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations for deformed weakly bound nuclei are solved using a basis of Poschl-Teller-Ginocchio and Bessel/Coulomb wave functions, which possess proper asymptotic behavior. Results compare well with standard Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov calculations using box boundary condition or transformed harmonic oscillator basis.

Stoitsov, M.; Michel, N.; Matsuyanagi, K.

2014-09-01

210

Weak FEL Gain Detection with a Modulated Laser-Based Beam Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) such as the LCLS, the FEL gain signal is accompanied by spontaneous radiation with a significant power level. Detecting the weak FEL gain among the large spontaneous background in the early stage of the exponential growth or for a low quality electron beam is important in commissioning the FEL. In this paper, we describe

P. Emma; Z. Huang; J. Wu

2005-01-01

211

A Review of Online Evidence-based Practice Point-of-Care Information Summary Providers  

PubMed Central

Background Busy clinicians need easy access to evidence-based information to inform their clinical practice. Publishers and organizations have designed specific tools to meet doctors’ needs at the point of care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe online point-of-care summaries and evaluate their breadth, content development, and editorial policy against their claims of being “evidence-based.” Methods We searched Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and information conference proceedings from January to December 2008. We included English Web-based point-of-care summaries designed to deliver predigested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, periodically updated, evidence-based information to clinicians. Two investigators independently extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of summaries. We assessed and ranked point-of-care products according to: (1) coverage (volume) of medical conditions, (2) editorial quality, and (3) evidence-based methodology. We explored how these factors were associated. Results We retrieved 30 eligible summaries. Of these products, 18 met our inclusion criteria and were qualitatively described, and 16 provided sufficient data for quantitative evaluation. The median volume of medical conditions covered was 80.6% (interquartile range, 68.9% - 84.2%) and varied for the different products. Similarly, differences emerged for editorial policy (median 8.0, interquartile range 5.8 - 10.3) and evidence-based methodology scores (median 10.0, interquartile range 1.0 - 12.8) on a 15-point scale. None of these dimensions turned out to be significantly associated with the other dimensions (editorial quality and volume, Spearman rank correlation r = -0.001, P = .99; evidence-based methodology and volume, r = -0.19, P = .48; editorial and evidence-based methodology, r = 0.43, P =.09). Conclusions Publishers are moving to develop point-of-care summary products. Some of these have better profiles than others, and there is room for improved reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these products. PMID:20610379

Liberati, Alessandro; Moschetti, Ivan; Tagliabue, Ludovica; Moja, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

212

Extending the evidence hierarchy to enhance evidence-based practice for substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper examines the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in the context of the developmental status of theory, research and practice on substance use disorders. Scope Hierarchical views that favor randomized con- trolled trials (RCTs) over other forms of evidence are reviewed, and the benefits and limitations of RCTs are considered as they intersect with contemporary issues in the field.

Jalie A. Tucker; David L. Roth

2006-01-01

213

Evidence based practice: the practicalities of keeping abreast of clinical evidence while in training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a practical account of why and how to learn to practise evidence based medicine while still in clinical training. It highlights practical benefits to learning the skills (such as passing exams, coping with information overload and helping patients), and explains how to manage each of the four essential steps (asking questions, acquiring information, appraising evidence, and applying

R Phillips; P Glasziou

2008-01-01

214

A population perspective to evidence based medicine: “evidence for population health”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the notion that the public health community could learn lessons from the success of evidence based medicine (EBM) and develop a public health counterpart called “Evidence for Population Health”. While EBM focuses on individual patients, its public health counterpart would aim to improve the health of communities effectively and efficiently.

R F Heller; J Page

2002-01-01

215

From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

2010-01-01

216

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Abeed Sarker Diego Molla  

E-print Network

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Statistics Abeed Sarker system achieves a percentile rank of 97.3%. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) urges that this approach improves summarisation results in the challenging domain of Evidence Based Medicine. 1www

Aliod, Diego Mollá

217

Evidence Based Dental Care: Integrating Clinical Expertise with Systematic Research  

PubMed Central

Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the “gold standard” in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21st century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24701551

Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R.; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

218

Evidence-based dentistry as it relates to dental materials.  

PubMed

Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is reviewed in depth to underscore the limitations for evidence-based dental materials information that exist at this time. Anecdotal estimates of evidence for dental practice are in the range of 8 percent to 10 percent. While the process of evaluating the literature base for dental evidence began 20 years ago, it was not practical to implement it until high-speed wireless connections, open access to journals, and omnipresent connections via smart phones became a reality. EBD includes five stages of information collection and analysis, starting with a careful definition of a clinical question using the PICO(T) approach. Clinical evidence in randomized control trials is considered the best. Clinical trial perspectives (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) and outcome designs (RCTs, SCTs, CCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies) are quite varied. Aggregation techniques (including meta-analyses) allow meaningful combinations of clinical data from trials with similar designs but with fewer rigors. Appraisals attempt to assess the entire evidence base without bias and answer clinical questions. Varying intensities to these approaches, Cochrane Collaboration, ADA-EBD Library, UTHSCSA CATs Library, are used to answer questions. Dental materials evidence from clinical trials is infrequent, short-term, and often not compliant with current guidelines (registration, CONSORT, PRISMA). Reports in current evidence libraries indicate less than 5 percent of evidence is related to restorative dental materials. PMID:24571523

Bayne, Stephen C; Fitzgerald, Mark

2014-01-01

219

Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine: Is It Working in Practice?  

PubMed Central

The principles of Evidence-Based Medicine have been established for about two decades, with the need for evidence-based clinical practice now being accepted in most health systems around the world. These principles can be employed in laboratory medicine. The key steps in evidence-based practice, namely (i) formulating the question; (ii) searching for evidence; (iii) appraising evidence; (iv) applying evidence; and (v) assessing the experience are all accepted but, as yet, translation into daily clinical and laboratory practice has been slow. Furthermore, the demand for evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) has been slow to develop. There are many contrasting observations about laboratory medicine, for example (i) there is too much testing vs insufficient testing; (ii) testing is expensive vs laboratories are expected to generate income; and (iii) test results have little impact on outcomes vs test results are crucial to clinical decision making. However, there is little evidence to support any of these observations. Integrating the principles of EBLM into routine practice will help to resolve some of these issues by identifying (a) where laboratory medicine fits into the care pathway; (b) where testing is appropriate; (c) the nature and quality of evidence required to demonstrate the clinical utility of a test; (d) how the test result impacts on clinical actions; (e) where changes in the care pathway will occur; and (f) where benefit/value can be achieved. These answers will help to establish the culture of EBLM in clinical and laboratory practice. PMID:22363094

Price, Christopher P

2012-01-01

220

Responses of carbon acquisition traits to irradiance and light quality in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae): evidence for weak integration of plastic responses.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that traits will be integrated, either because of pleiotropy or because natural selection may favor suites of integrated traits. Plant responses to different environments can provide evidence of such integration. We grew Mercurialis annua plants in high-density stands in high irradiance, in neutral shade, and in high red to far-red (R:FR) shade, resulting in environments of high irradiance, low R:FR; low irradiance, low R:FR; and low irradiance, high R:FR. We measured gas exchange, leaf morphology, stem elongation, and biomass traits and tested the prediction that traits within each functional group would show higher trait integration, as evidenced by high correlations among traits within environments, higher correlations of trait plasticity, and lower plasticity of trait correlations. Overall, we found evidence of only moderate integration for some groups of traits. Functionally related groups of traits, or pairs of traits, could be strongly integrated by one criterion but weakly integrated by another of the criteria. Stem elongation traits, though often observed to be strongly integrated in other taxa, showed little evidence of integration. Internode traits exhibited a novel pattern of responses to low R:FR, with increased elongation of the hypocotyl, decreased elongation of the first internode, and no change in the second internode. We propose that these responses to light are more likely to be the result of natural selection than the consequence of constraints imposed by pleiotropy. PMID:21665740

Sleeman, Jonathan D; Dudley, Susan A; Pannell, John R; Barrett, Spencer C H

2002-09-01

221

Magnetic phase diagram of a molecule-based ferrimagnet: Weak ferromagnetism and multiple dimensionality crossovers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of the molecule-based magnet, [MnOEP][HCBD], (OEP=meso-octaethylporphyrinato, HCBD=hexacyanobutadiene) from 1.7 to 20 K was performed. The earlier reported magnetic transition at 19.6 K, ascribed to a crossover from a one-dimensional Heisenberg-like ferrimagnet to a two-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet, is further probed via ac-dc magnetic studies consisting of dc magnetization as a function of field at various temperatures, and magnetization as a function of temperature with both field cooling and zero-field cooling. In addition, the ac susceptibility was measured as a function of temperature and applied dc field. The appearance of a nonzero out-of-phase component of the ac susceptibility in zero dc field at 8 K accompanied by a shoulder in the in-phase component indicates the presence of a magnetic transition near that temperature. Irreversibilities and a spontaneous moment observed below 4.2 K indicate an additional lower temperature transition. The ac and dc data allow a determination of the temperature-field phase boundaries around these transitions. Evidence of a tricritical point at 2 kOe and 19.6 K and a multicritical point at 9.5 kOe and 8 K is presented. The nature of the ordered states, along with the possible mechanisms responsible for the transitions, including dipole-dipole interactions, are analyzed.

Wynn, C. M.; Gîr?u, M. A.; Miller, Joel S.; Epstein, A. J.

1997-12-01

222

Miocene climate seasonality in southern India - first direct evidence for a weak Indian monsoon during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian monsoon is an integral component of the global climate system. This large-scale atmospheric circulation comprises the East Asian summer and winter monsoon and the Indian monsoon subsystems, all characterized by seasonal reversing winds and precipitation changes associated with asymmetric heating of land and sea. The Neogene monsoon history is mainly reconstructed from chemical and physical weathering rates recorded in widely continuous marine sequences of the Indus Fan, Bengal Fan and South China Sea, which, depending on the source, physiography and sediment, indicate drier or wetter climates. These indirect climate proxies display an unusually dry period during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, 16.5-15 Ma). As part of the FWF-projects P18189, P21414 and P23492, we present an Early/Middle Miocene coastal palynoflora record from the siliciclastic Ambalapuzha Formation at the coastal cliff of Varkala (Kerala Basin, SW India). Pollen assemblages and facies document a coastal wetland with mangrove vegetation. The Coexistence Approach was applied for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. This method uses climatic tolerances of all nearest living relatives known for a fossil flora by assuming that the tolerances of a fossil taxon are not significantly different from its modern counterpart. The maximum overlap of the environmental tolerances of all nearest living relatives (coexistence interval) is then regarded as being indicative of the most likely palaeoenvironment. By enquiring the Palaeoflora Database (http://www.palaeoflora.de/), the palaeoclimatic parameters of the pollen flora were calculated. The reconstructed climatic parameters for the MMCO show a seasonal precipitation pattern with a dry and a wet period and moderate rainfalls during the warmest period, which is comparable to the present day annual precipitation cycle in coastal Kerala, and affirms the presence of a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation over South India during the MMCO. However, the precipitation amounts during the wet (average 75%) and the warmest period (average 68%) were significantly reduced compared to today, while the rainfalls during the dry seasons are in the same order. This implies a weak Indian monsoon during the MMCO and a low thermal land - sea gradient between the Eurasian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Although a ~3°C warmer global climate during the MMCO and a weaker monsoon accounts for a higher near-surface air temperature during summer, the calculated mean annual temperature (MAT; 24.4°C) is 2.7°C lower than at present. The estimated warmest month temperature is, however, in the same range as today. Therefore, the low coldest month temperature (CMT; 20.6-22.8°C) in the Miocene has to account for the high MAT difference. This parameter represents the lower temperature threshold of the Varkala flora, and displays only the minimum temperature during the coldest month, which is significantly lower than the average CMT. Accordingly, the Miocene CMT approximates the present 24-h minimum temperature during the coldest month in Kerala (22.4°C). The reconstructed seasonal temperature cycle supports climate models, which suggest a higher temperature increase in mid-latitudes than in low-latitudes as well as warmer equatorial sea surface temperatures during the MMCO.

Piller, W. E.; Reuter, M.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.

2012-04-01

223

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education Assignment designed to promote a deeper, more comprehensive and critical understanding of the

Ellen Tuchman; Monique Lalane

2011-01-01

224

The art of inconsistency: evidence-based practice my way.  

PubMed

Inconsistency of care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a common complaint amongst caregivers. This paper discusses evidence-based medicine and standards of care in relation to personal preference where care-giving choices are concerned. It is suggested that moral distress may be diminished by consistently applying evidence-based practice, adhering to standards of care and optimizing the team dynamic by engaging in consensus-based collaboration. PMID:19710655

Golec, L

2009-09-01

225

Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care  

PubMed Central

Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries. PMID:22355229

Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

2011-01-01

226

EVIDENCE - BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

A push for the use of evidence?based medicine and evidence?based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence?based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision?making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well?being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence?based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy. PMID:23091778

Lehecka, B.J.

2012-01-01

227

Weak FEL Gain Detection with a Modulated Laser-Based Beam Heater  

E-print Network

For an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) such as the LCLS, the FEL gain signal is accompanied by spontaneous radiation with a significant power level. Detecting the weak FEL gain among the large spontaneous background in the early stage of the exponential growth or for a low quality electron beam is important in commissioning the FEL. In this paper, we describe a simple "lock-in" method of weak FEL gain detection by slowly modulating the laser power of a designated beam heater that controls the local energy spread of the electron beam. We present numerical modeling that shows the effectiveness of this method and discuss its implementation in the LCLS.

Emma, Paul; Wu, Juhao

2005-01-01

228

Weak FEL Gain Detection with a Modulated Laser-Based Beam Heater  

SciTech Connect

For an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) such as the LCLS, the FEL gain signal is accompanied by spontaneous radiation with a significant power level. Detecting the weak FEL gain among the large spontaneous background in the early stage of the exponential growth or for a low quality electron beam is important in commissioning the FEL. In this paper, we describe a simple ''lock-in'' method of weak FEL gain detection, suggested by K. Robinson, accomplished by slowly modulating the laser power of a designated beam heater that controls the local energy spread of the electron beam. We present numerical modeling that shows the effectiveness of this method and discuss its implementation in the LCLS.

Emma, P.; Huang, Z.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

2005-05-25

229

Evidence-based practices for safe patient handling and movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than\\u000a scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver\\u000a injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used\\u000a strategies have demonstrated that they are ineffective.

Audrey Nelson; Andrea S. Baptiste

2006-01-01

230

A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

2014-01-01

231

Hypothesis-Based Weight-of-Evidence evaluation of methanol as a human carcinogen.  

PubMed

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for exposure to methanol to cause lymphomas in humans. The concern stems from a few animal studies reporting an association, although evidence suggests the studies may have been confounded by chronic respiratory infection. Although the toxicological evidence for methanol carcinogenesis is weak, two modes of action have been put forth, one involving metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde, followed by formaldehyde induction of lymphoma, and another involving oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide release during catalase-induced metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde. In this article, we apply our Hypothesis-Based Weight-of-Evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the evidence regarding methanol exposure and lymphoma, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another, tracing the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulating how one could account for the suite of available observations. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the apparent association between methanol exposure and lymphoma in some animal studies is weak and strains biological plausibility, and is better interpreted as due to confounding or to a mechanism not relevant in humans. PMID:22166730

Bailey, Lisa A; Prueitt, Robyn L; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

2012-03-01

232

A weakly nonlinear theory based explanation for wave interactions in rotating channel flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A weakly nonlinear wave-interaction theory is used to explain the decay of linearly unstable oblique waves in rotating channel flow at low Reynolds number. At the low Reynolds number studied, the waves tend to stabilize each other and therefore when no waves are preferentially excited, the linearly most unstable mode reaches a nonlinear amplitude first and causes the stabilization of all competing modes.

Singer, Bart A.

1992-01-01

233

Further results on projection-based inference in IV regressions with weak, collinear or missing instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We study a general family of Anderson–Rubin-type procedures, allowing for arbitrary collinearity among the instruments and endogenous variables. Using finite-sample distributional theory, we show that the proposed procedures, besides being robust to weak instruments, are also robust to the exclusion of relevant instruments,and to the distribution of endogenous,regressors. A solution to the problem,of computing,linear projections from,general possibly singular quadric,surfaces

Jean-Marie Dufour; Mohamed Taamouti

2005-01-01

234

On evidence and evidence-based medicine: Lessons from the philosophy of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term “evidence-based medicine” has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that

Maya J. Goldenberg

2006-01-01

235

Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of Science Literacy for All in Science Teaching Journals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science literacy for all is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching journals' recommendations are anchored to high-quality evidence. We found that (a) most National Science Teacher Association journals' science literacy recommendations have weak or no evidence base and (b) those with evidence reference teaching journals, teacher resource books, and literacy education more often than science education research. We concluded that all participants in the knowledge production cycle and transfer process—authors, editors, and reviewers—need to encourage evidence-based practices anchored to ongoing reforms and to literacy and science education research.

Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.

2012-10-01

236

1 Principles of Evidence-Based Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The standard medical education in Western medicine has emphasized skills and knowledge learned from experts, particularly\\u000a those encountered in the course of postgraduate medical education, and through national publications and meetings. This reliance\\u000a on experts, referred to by Dr. Paul Gerber of Dartmouth Medical School as “eminence-based medicine” (1), is based on the construct\\u000a that the individual practitioner, particularly a

L. Santiago Medina; C. Craig Blackmore; Kimberly E. Applegate

237

Principles of Evidence-Based Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The standard medical education in Western medicine has emphasized skills and knowledge learned from experts, particularly\\u000a those encountered in the course of postgraduate medical education, and through national publications and meetings. This reliance\\u000a on experts, referred to by Dr. Paul Gerber of Dartmouth Medical School as “eminence-based medicine” (1), is based on the construct\\u000a that the individual practitioner, particularly a

L. Santiago Medina; C. Craig Blackmore; Kimberly E. Applegate

238

An evidence-based approach to spine surgery.  

PubMed

Health care reform will emphasize evidence-based medicine to provide the highest quality care. Recent literature has emerged in spinal surgery that has profoundly increased the evidence base for several spinal procedures. There is now good evidence from randomized controlled trials that surgical treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation, decompression for spinal stenosis, and decompression and fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis all offer significant clinical benefit in the face of serious back and radicular pain when compared with nonsurgical care. Studies of nonsurgical and surgical treatments for chronic low back pain are inconclusive, limited by study design/methodology. Continuing to increase study quality in the field of spine surgery is more important now than ever before. Optimizing diagnostic specificity, surgical indications, and measuring outcomes with validated instruments should help the spine care community acquire essential data to provide the highest quality evidence-based care, while simultaneously eliminating procedures that lack evidence of efficacy or value. PMID:19890181

Allen, R Todd; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Glassman, Steven D; Currier, Bradford; Albert, Todd J; Phillips, Frank M

2009-01-01

239

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, a consensus has emerged regarding a set of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia that address symptom management and psychosocial functioning. Yet, surveys suggest that the great majority of the population of individuals with schizophrenia do not receive evidence-based care. In this article, we review the empirical literature on implementation of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia patients. We first examine lessons learned from implementation studies in general medicine. We then summarize the implementation literature specific to schizophrenia, including medication practices, psychosocial interventions, information technology, and state- and federal-level interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future directions. PMID:19491315

Drake, Robert E.; Bond, Gary R.; Essock, Susan M.

2009-01-01

240

Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice in the Software Industrial Setting  

E-print Network

Bringing Research Evidence into Software Industry Practice A Study on Evidence-based Practice folklore; organizational culture; team practices; evidence-based and empirical software engineering. I which decisions and choices may be eva- luated. It is possible that evidence-based software engineer

241

Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

2013-01-01

242

What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

Roberts, Margaret

2010-01-01

243

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

244

Evidence-Based Practice in the Early Childhood Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is a decision-making process that integrates the best available scientific research evidence with family and professional wisdom and values. The editors argue that it has the potential to transform the services provided to children and families because it incorporates the "different ways of knowing" that characterize early…

Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Wesley, Patricia W., Ed.

2006-01-01

245

Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

Goldstein, Brian A.

2008-01-01

246

Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers that may prevent the concept from being understood correctly, accepted philosophically, and implemented

Theodore Kowalski

2009-01-01

247

Practice-Based Evidence--Overcoming Insecure Attachments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines educational psychologists' (EPs') engagement with evidence-based practice (EBP). In particular it considers the limitations of randomised controlled trials and the difficulties of obtaining sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of interventions. This means that there is a possibility that EPs continue to use…

Fox, Mark

2011-01-01

248

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #652  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which states are using which turnaround models, as represented in the recent U.S. Department of Education's "Blueprint for Reform: The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act?" A search for state-level policies on turnaround models was completed based on the targeted states list provided. According to US Department of…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2010

2010-01-01

249

Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based-  

E-print Network

National University, Singapore 3 Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Singapore National University, Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, University of Singapore #12;Ms Siti ZUBAIDAH, Assistant Director of Nursing (Evidence Based- Nursing Unit) Dr Emily Ang Deputy

Kan, Min-Yen

250

Why isn't more injury prevention evidence-based?  

PubMed

The focus on evidence-based practice is critical to addressing the issue of injuries, yet advances in the science of injury prevention have not always led to advances in practice. Effective approaches are not always adopted, or when adopted and transferred from one setting to another, they do not always achieve expected results. These challenges were the basis of two breakout sessions at the second European Injury Control and Safety Promotion Conference in Paris, France (October 2008). In summarising the key issues raised during those sessions, this article describes what is meant by evidence-based practice, discusses why evidence-based practice tends not to occur and considers approaches that may facilitate the adoption and implementation of evidence-based strategies. To address the challenge, specific action is required, both on the part of the research community and those responsible for developing and implementing injury prevention policies and programmes. PMID:19941204

MacKay, J Morag; Vincenten, Joanne

2009-06-01

251

Towards Evidence-Based Practice in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that teaching should be informed by research and reports interim findings from three of the four projects from the Evidence-based Practice in Science Education (EPSE) Research Network. (Author/DDR)

Millar, Robin; Leach, John; Osborne, Jonathan; Ratcliffe, Mary; Hames, Vicky; Hind, Andy; Bartholomew, Hannah; Collins, Sue; Lewis, Jenny; Scott, Phil; Duschl, Rick

2002-01-01

252

An organizational cybernetics framework for achieving balance in evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence.  

PubMed

This article applies the systems science of organizational cybernetics to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the provision of social work services in a residential treatment center setting. It does so by systemically balancing EBP with practice-based evidence (PBE) with a focus on the organizational and information system infrastructures necessary to ensure successful implementation. This application is illustrated by discussing a residential treatment program that implemented evidence-based programming and evaluated the results; however, the systemic principles articulated can be applied to any human services organizational setting. PMID:24405136

Fitch, Dale

2014-01-01

253

History and Development of Evidence-based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates the timeline of the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The term “evidence-based medicine” is relatively new. In fact, as far as we can tell, investigators from McMaster’s University began using the term during the 1990s. EBM was defined as “a systemic approach to analyze published research as the basis of clinical decision making.” Then in 1996, the

Jeffrey A. Claridge; Timothy C. Fabian

2005-01-01

254

Evidence-Based Public Health: Origins, Assumptions, and Cautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the origins and assumptions of evidence-based medicine as rooted in the philosophy of science called\\u000a positivism. The basic principles of the positivist approach to science, empiricism, exclusivity, universality, and autonomy\\u000a are explained and identified in reproductive and perinatal health outcomes related studies from the systematic reviews of\\u000a the Cochrane Library, the premier database on evidence-based medicine. A

Luis A. Avilés; Dani Filc

255

Evidence-Based Practice: Beyond Empirically Supported Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Must the clinician choose between a practice that is strictly objective and data based and one that is purely subjective and experience based? Optimally, practitioners need to follow a model of evidence-based psychotherapy practice, such as the disciplined inquiry or local clinical scientist model, that encompasses a theoretical formulation, empirically supported treatments (ESTs), empirically supported therapy relationships, clinicians' accumulated practical

Stanley B. Messer

2004-01-01

256

Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews,  

E-print Network

-based personalized medicine becomes standard practice, it will be even Permission to make digital or hard copiesEvidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews, and the Need for Automated Text-based Medicine (EBM). EBM is dependent upon the wide availability and coverage of accurate, objective syntheses

Meng, Weiyi

257

Evidence based design for improved patient experience.  

PubMed

In addition to the health benefits of improving acoustical comfort for patients and staff in healthcare environments, there is now a financial incentive. Since October 2012, Value Based Purchasing reimbursements of Medicare from the Federal Government is dependent in part upon Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient satisfaction survey results, which includes a rating for the noise level at night. This study explores the relationship of sound level with their associated patient satisfaction scores from hospital noise surveys performed by Acoustics By Design. The noise study results are presented across different parameters such as the type of patient unit, patient noise levels, nurses' station noise levels, time of day, and private versus semi-private rooms. Measurements were also performed prior to and after completion of acoustical/noise mitigation. PMID:25236006

Miller, Melinda; Van Wyk, Kenric; Murphy, Kristen

2014-04-01

258

Towards Trustable Digital Evidence with PKIDEV: PKI Based Digital Evidence Verification Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to Capture and Preserve Digital Evidence Securely? For the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities that involve computers, digital evidence collected in the crime scene has a vital importance. On one side, it is a very challenging task for forensics professionals to collect them without any loss or damage. On the other, there is the second problem of providing the integrity and authenticity in order to achieve legal acceptance in a court of law. By conceiving digital evidence simply as one instance of digital data, it is evident that modern cryptography offers elegant solutions for this second problem. However, to our knowledge, there is not any previous work proposing a systematic model having a holistic view to address all the related security problems in this particular case of digital evidence verification. In this paper, we present PKIDEV (Public Key Infrastructure based Digital Evidence Verification model) as an integrated solution to provide security for the process of capturing and preserving digital evidence. PKIDEV employs, inter alia, cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and secure time-stamping as well as latest technologies such as GPS and EDGE. In our study, we also identify the problems public-key cryptography brings when it is applied to the verification of digital evidence.

Uzunay, Yusuf; Incebacak, Davut; Bicakci, Kemal

259

Evidence-based reproductive medicine: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine has become the golden standard of good medical practice. I analysed meta-analyses and systematic reviews, the cornerstones of evidence-based medicine, pertaining to two important problems in in vitro fertilization: failed implantation and poor ovarian response to ovarian stimulation. Numerous interventions and procedures have been tried to facilitate implantation and to enhance the ovarian response to stimulation. Notwithstanding the fact that many clinical trials have been performed, very few procedures can as yet stand the critical test of evidence-based medicine. A plea is made for co-ordination between clinicians and reviewers and co-operation between infertility centres to combine their efforts to set up sufficiently powered clinical trials to arrive at more solid evidence for a number of interventions in in vitro fertilization programmes. PMID:24753948

Dhont, M.

2013-01-01

260

Exploring weak ligand-protein interactions by long-lived NMR states: improved contrast in fragment-based drug screening.  

PubMed

Ligands that have an affinity for protein targets can be screened very effectively by exploiting favorable properties of long-lived states (LLS) in NMR spectroscopy. In this work, we describe the use of LLS for competitive binding experiments to measure accurate dissociation constants of fragments that bind weakly to the ATP binding site of the N-terminal ATPase domain of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The LLS approach allows one to characterize ligands with an exceptionally wide range of affinities, since it can be used for ligand concentrations [L] that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the dissociation constants K(D). This property makes the LLS method particularly attractive for the initial steps of fragment-based drug screening, where small molecular fragments that bind weakly to a target protein must be identified, which is a difficult task for many other biophysical methods. PMID:25196717

Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Chiarparin, Elisabetta; Williams, Glyn; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

2014-10-13

261

Safety profile of Coartem®: the evidence base  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials. The majority of the reported adverse events seen in these studies are mild or moderate in severity and tend to affect the gastrointestinal or nervous systems. These adverse events, which are common in both adults and children, are also typical of symptoms of malaria or concomitant infections present in these patients. The wealth of safety data on artemether/lumefantrine has not identified any neurological, cardiac or haematological safety concerns. In addition, repeated administration is not associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions including neurological adverse events. This finding is especially relevant for children from regions with high malaria transmission rates who often receive many courses of anti-malarial medications during their lifetime. Data are also available to show that there were no clinically relevant differences in pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to artemether/lumefantrine compared with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy. The six-dose regimen of artemether/lumefantrine is therefore well tolerated in a wide range of patient populations. In addition, post-marketing experience, based on the delivery of 250 million treatments as of July 2009, has not identified any new safety concerns for artemether/lumefantrine apart from hypersensitivity and allergies, known class effects of artemisinin derivatives. PMID:19818173

Falade, Catherine; Manyando, Christine

2009-01-01

262

Expanding the Domains of Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence Based Practice Attitude Scale50  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development\\u000a and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61–74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership.\\u000a However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current

Gregory A. AaronsGuy; Guy Cafri; Lindsay Lugo; Angelina Sawitzky

263

Developing Evidence-Based Practice: The Role of Case-Based Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can practitioners engage in evidence-based practice when the evidence for effectiveness of psychological treatments comes from randomized controlled trials using patient populations different from those encountered in everyday settings and treatment manuals that seem oversimplified and inflexible? The authors argue that important evidence about best practice comes from case-based research, which builds knowledge in a clinically useful manner and

David J. A. Edwards; Frank M. Dattilio; Dennis B. Bromley

2004-01-01

264

Reduction of inequalities in health: assessing evidence-based tools  

PubMed Central

Background The reduction of health inequalities is a focus of many national and international health organisations. The need for pragmatic evidence-based approaches has led to the development of a number of evidence-based equity initiatives. This paper describes a new program that focuses upon evidence- based tools, which are useful for policy initiatives that reduce inequities. Methods This paper is based on a presentation that was given at the "Regional Consultation on Policy Tools: Equity in Population Health Reports," held in Toronto, Canada in June 2002. Results Five assessment tools were presented. 1. A database of systematic reviews on the effects of educational, legal, social, and health interventions to reduce unfair inequalities is being established through the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. 2 Decision aids and shared decision making can be facilitated in disadvantaged groups by 'health coaches' to help people become better decision makers, negotiators, and navigators of the health system; a pilot study in Chile has provided proof of this concept. 3. The CIET Cycle: Combining adapted cluster survey techniques with qualitative methods, CIET's population based applications support evidence-based decision making at local and national levels. The CIET map generates maps directly from survey or routine institutional data, to be used as evidence-based decisions aids. Complex data can be displayed attractively, providing an important tool for studying and comparing health indicators among and between different populations. 4. The Ottawa Equity Gauge is applying the Global Equity Gauge Alliance framework to an industrialised country setting. 5 The Needs-Based Health Assessment Toolkit, established to assemble information on which clinical and health policy decisions can be based, is being expanded to ensure a focus on distribution and average health indicators. Conclusion Evidence-based planning tools have much to offer the goal of equitable health development. PMID:17005046

Tugwell, Peter; O'Connor, Annette; Andersson, Neil; Mhatre, Sharmila; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Mary Jane; Robinson, Vivian; Hatcher-Roberts, Jan; Shea, Beverley; Francis, Daniel; Beardmore, Jil; Wells, George A; Losos, Joe

2006-01-01

265

Canadian guidelines for the evidence-based treatment of tic disorders: pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

This article seeks to provide the practising clinician with guidance on the pharmacological management of tic disorders in children and adults. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the treatment of tic disorders. A multi-institutional group of 14 experts in psychiatry, child psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, and psychology engaged in a consensus meeting. The evidence was presented and discussed, and nominal group techniques were employed to arrive at consensus on recommendations. A strong recommendation is made when the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the risks and burdens, and can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation. With a weak recommendation, the benefits, risks, and burdens are more closely balanced, and the best action may differ depending on the circumstances. Based on these principles, weak recommendations were made for the use of pimozide, haloperidol, fluphenazine, metoclopramide (children only), risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, topiramate, baclofen (children only), botulinum toxin injections, tetrabenazine, and cannabinoids (adults only). Strong recommendations were made for the use of clonidine and guanfacine (children only). While the evidence supports the efficacy of many of the antipsychotics for the treatment of tics, the high rates of side effects associated with these medications resulted in only weak recommendations for these drugs. In situations where tics are not severe or disabling, the use of a medication with only a weak recommendation is not warranted. However, when tics are more distressing and interfering, the need for tic suppression to improve quality of life is stronger, and patients and clinicians may be more willing to accept the risks of pharmacotherapy. PMID:22397999

Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Gorman, Daniel; McKinlay, Duncan; Day, Lundy; Billinghurst, Lori; Carroll, Alan; Dion, Yves; Luscombe, Sandra; Steeves, Thomas; Sandor, Paul

2012-03-01

266

Model for Implementing Evidence Based Health Care System in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Regarding the role and importance of paradigm of evidence based practice and its remarkable impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of clinical services and healthcare, development of an integrated system seems necessary in order to manage dispersed data and ensure using evidence in clinical decision making, thus the aim of this study was designing a model for implementing national system of evidence based health care in Iran. Methodos: This paper is a study of comparative type which has been written in three stages: investigation of structure and process of evidence based practice in selected countries, investigation and analysis of current status in Iran in this regard and recommendation of strategies which make model implementation feasible in the country. Such methods as review of literature, focus group discussion and Delphi technique were used for investigation. Results: According to studies, insuring an evidence based practice culture in the country requires a system called National Evidence Based Health Care System which consists of three subsystems including national system of clinical knowledge management, national evidence-based practice system and integrated national network of clinical effectiveness. Conclusion: The ultimate goal of health care system in every country is maintaining and improving community health. Achievement of this goal depends on effectiveness of delivered services and consistency of the services with national and local priorities. In order to achieve clinical effectiveness, the best practice should be realized in the country, implementation of which requires a set of macro and micro strategies enabling facilitation, promotion or guaranteeing clinical knowledge application in the country. PMID:24427754

MANAVI, Saeed; OLYAEE MANESH, Alireza; YAZDANI, Shahram; SHAMS, Lida; NASIRI, Taha; SHIRVANI, Armin; EMAMI RAZAVI, Hasan

2013-01-01

267

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines, the cognitive-behavioral

Corinne David-Ferdon; Nadine J. Kaslow

2008-01-01

268

Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…

Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

269

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

270

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

271

Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine: Supporting Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an implicit acceptance that an evidence-based culture underpins the practice of laboratory medicine, in part because it is perceived as the scientific foundation of medicine. However, several reviews of specific test procedures or technologies have shown that the evi- dence base is limited and in many cases flawed. One of the key deficiencies in the scientific literature on

Christopher P. Price

2000-01-01

272

Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

Eileen Gambrill

2006-01-01

273

Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they

J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest

2011-01-01

274

What is an evidence-based appropriate workup?  

PubMed Central

At the present time, there is no evidence-based guidance available for workup of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In the absence of such evidence, we must rely on expert consensus, which dictates that a workup should typically include documentation of SUI, assessment of impact on the patient, and information on voiding function. Typical assessment may need to be adjusted for more complicated populations (e.g., those with mixed incontinence, those who have failed previous treatment). PMID:23092769

Zimmern, Philippe E.

2012-01-01

275

Promoting Evidence-Based Practice in Child Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for the adoption of an evidence-based approach to decision-making in child protection. Such a change hinges upon the availability of good quality, up-to-date evidence that is readily accessible to practitioners and policy-makers. Following a resume' of the arguments for recognizing controlled trials as methodologically superior to other forms of methodology in evaluating professional interventions, the article presents

Geraldine Macdonald

1998-01-01

276

How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?  

PubMed Central

Background All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of interest to chiropractors, there are still many areas such as diagnosis, prognosis, choice of treatment, and management that have not been subjected to extensive scrutiny. Discussion In this paper we argue that a simple system consisting of three questions will help clinicians deal with some of the complexities of clinical practice, in particular what to do when clear clinical evidence is lacking. Question 1 asks: are there objectively tested facts to support the concept? Question 2: are the concepts that form the basis for this clinical act or decision based on scientifically acceptable concepts? And question three; is the concept based on long-term and widely accepted experience? This method that we call the “Traffic Light System” can be applied to most clinical processes. Summary We explain how the Traffic Light System can be used as a simple framework to help chiropractors make clinical decisions in a simple and lucid manner. We do this by explaining the roles of biological plausibility and clinical experience and how they should be weighted in relation to scientific evidence in the clinical decision making process, and in particular how to proceed, when evidence is missing. PMID:23837495

2013-01-01

277

Inherent weaknesses of cosmology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources of astrophysical evidence necessary to verify a cosmological model are reviewed. Cosmological history of the universe is divided into four epochs, each unique in its physical conditions related to observability at present. The current epoch, started after recombination of hydrogen in the universe, offers the most in observability. In earlier epochs, verifiable astrophysical evidence gradually disappeared. It seems that no astrophysical evidence has been left behind from the singularity epoch of the Universe. The gradual disappearance of astrophysical evidence ascertainable at present is the result of physical conditions structured within the cosmological models, hence indicating certain inherent weaknesses of cosmology as a verifiable physical theory.

Chiu, H.-Y.

1986-01-01

278

Epidemiological evidence relating snus to health - an updated review based on recent publications  

PubMed Central

An earlier review summarized evidence relating use of snus (Swedish-type moist snuff) to health and to initiation and cessation of smoking. This update considers the effect recent publications on snus use and health have on the overall evidence. The additional evidence extends the list of neoplastic conditions unassociated with snus use (oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, lung) to include colorectal cancer and acoustic neuroma, and further undermines the weakly-based argument that snus use increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, although there is a report of poorer cancer survival in users. It remains undemonstrated that “snuff-dipper’s lesion” increases risk of oral cancer, and recent publications add to the evidence that snus use has no effect on periodontitis or dental caries. Although onset of acute myocardial infarction is not adversely associated with snus use, there is some evidence of an association with reduced survival. Whether this is a direct effect of snus use or a result of confounding by socioeconomic status or other factors requires further investigation, as does a report of an increased risk of heart failure in snus users. Even if some adverse health effects of snus use do exist, it remains clear that they are far less than those of smoking. PMID:24314326

2013-01-01

279

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s=1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb{sup -1}. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c{sup 2}. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c{sup 2}. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /INFN, Padua

2012-07-01

280

Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in higgs boson searches at the tevatron.  

PubMed

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359

Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alvarez González, B; Alverson, G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Bu, X B; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chevalier-Théry, S; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cihangir, S; Ciocci, M A; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Croc, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Das, A; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Dell'orso, M; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; d'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Dong, P; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Garcia, J E; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gomez, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hagopian, S; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Heck, M; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hewamanage, S; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kasper, P A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S

2012-08-17

281

Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7fb-1. The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150GeV/c2. We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135GeV/c2. The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.

Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Álvarez González, B.; Alverson, G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Bu, X. B.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cihangir, S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Croc, A.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Das, A.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; d'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia, J. E.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hagopian, S.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, M.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hewamanage, S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.

2012-08-01

282

Estimate of Wolfenstein's Parameters rho and eta Based on a Geometry Viewpoint to the Weak CP Phase  

E-print Network

Based on a geometric postulation on the weak CP phase in Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, a positive rho is asserted. Besides, 0.18

Yong Liu

1999-07-18

283

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. PMID:23198980

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

2013-01-01

284

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang

2013-03-01

285

Using evidence-based management in a medical practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based management (EBMa) is the application of the evidence-based medicine process to making management decisions. EBMa has been described in a number of publications, which note the advantages of utilizing EBMa and offer generic guidance on the nature of EBMa evidence. This paper provides a specific EBMa pathway for physician practice and health system mangers to use to conduct EBMa database searches. It provides an example of conducting an EBMa search for a practice-based management problem. It describes how to do database searches using Advance Google Scholar, PubMed, and other data sources. It discusses challenges to conducting quality searches, including access to paid subscription databases, and offers suggestions to improve searches. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of establishing a culture of inquiry and using rapid cycle improvement methods to develop organizational EBMa support so health systems will devote adequate resources to information acquisition. PMID:20222263

Solomon, Robert J

2010-01-01

286

Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.  

PubMed

This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). PMID:25395997

Patwardhan, Bhushan

2014-01-01

287

Cochrane Lecture 1997. What evidence do we need for evidence based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As presently understood, evidence based medicine aims to advance practice from its traditional unverifiable mix of art and science to rational use of measurable inputs and outputs. In practice, however, its advocates accept uncritically a desocialised definition of science, assume that major clinical decisions are taken at the level of secondary specialist rather than primary generalist care, and ignore the

J T Hart

1997-01-01

288

Untangling the Evidence: Introducing an Empirical Model for Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This research is the first to investigate the experiences of teacher-librarians as evidence-based practice. An empirically derived model is presented in this paper. Method: This qualitative study utilised the expanded critical incident approach, and investigated the real-life experiences of fifteen Australian teacher-librarians,…

Gillespie, Ann

2014-01-01

289

School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: I. From Evidence-Based Practices to Evidence-Based Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes current perspectives on evidence-based practices in psychology, medicine, and education; discusses challenges in the implementation and dissemination of research-based findings into schools; describes differences between current models of organizational behavior as studied in children's mental health services and in education; and…

Hoagwood, Kimberly; Johnson, Jacqueline

2003-01-01

290

Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.  

PubMed

Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2014;45(10):461-466. PMID:25221988

Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

2014-10-01

291

Mental Health Clinicians' Experiences of Implementing Evidence-Based Treatments  

PubMed Central

Implementation research has tremendous potential to bridge the research-practice gap; however, we know more about barriers to evidence-based care than the factors that contribute to the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). This qualitative study explores the experiences of clinicians (N = 11) who were implementing EBTs, highlighting the factors that they perceived to be most critical to successful implementation. The clinicians’ narratives reveal many leverage points that can inform administrators, clinical supervisors, and clinicians who wish to implement EBTs, as well as other stakeholders who wish to develop and test strategies for moving EBTs into routine care. PMID:24066630

Powell, Byron J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; McMillen, J. Curtis

2013-01-01

292

Application of meta-analysis in evidence-based oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit and independent organization, dedicated to providing up-to-date\\u000a evidence-based information about the effects of healthcare in the form of systematic reviews. Meta-analysis is a statistical\\u000a tool to prepare the systematic reviews. This paper briefly introduces the above terms and how to apply evidence-based oncology.\\u000a Recent findings by using meta-analysis for cancers of the breast,

Xiaoping Lin; Qingsheng Wang

2008-01-01

293

A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.  

PubMed

Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. PMID:24211703

Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

2014-01-10

294

Acute metabolic alkalosis enhances response of C3H mouse mammary tumors to the weak base mitoxantrone.  

PubMed

Uptake of weak acid and weak base chemotherapeutic drugs by tumors is greatly influenced by the tumor extracellular/interstitial pH (pH(e)), the intracellular pH (pH(i)) maintained by the tumor cells, and by the ionization properties of the drug itself. The acid-outside plasmalemmal pH gradient in tumors acts to exclude weak base drugs like the anthracyclines, anthraquinones, and vinca alkaloids from the cells, leading to a substantial degree of "physiological drug resistance" in tumors. We have induced acute metabolic alkalosis in C3H tumor-bearing C3H/hen mice, by gavage and by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of NaHCO(3). (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of 3-aminopropylphosphonate show increases of up to 0.6 pH units in tumor pH(e), and 0.2 to 0.3 pH units in hind leg tissue pH(e), within 2 hours of i.p. administration of NaHCO(3). Theoretical calculations of mitoxantrone uptake into tumor and normal (hind leg) tissue at the measured pH(e) and pH(i) values indicate that a gain in therapeutic index of up to 3.3-fold is possible with NaHCO(3) pretreatment. Treatment of C3H tumor-bearing mice with 12 mg/kg mitoxantrone resulted in a tumor growth delay of 9 days, whereas combined NaHCO(3)--mitoxantrone therapy resulted in an enhancement of the TGD to 16 days. PMID:11494116

Raghunand, N; Mahoney, B; van Sluis, R; Baggett, B; Gillies, R J

2001-01-01

295

Evidence-based interventions for neonatal abstinence syndrome.  

PubMed

This review aimed to determine best nursing practice by systematically and critically reviewing the appropriate literature and expert guidelines. Using keyword and literature databases, over 480 journal titles were reviewed. Twenty-four articles and three expert guidelines were chosen. The majority of articles selected as evidence were Level IV--opinions of respected authorities based clinical experiences, descriptive studies, case reports, or reports of experts. Two articles were Level I-II--experimental studies. Results of the review showed that traditional supportive interventions also have a body of evidence for their use. Although there is much research regarding neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the majority of future research needs to be at a higher level of evidence. Nursing applications include obtaining evidence for best practice through diligent searches of the literature and expert guidelines. PMID:25269356

MacMullen, Nancy J; Dulski, Laura A; Blobaum, Paul

2014-01-01

296

Advancing the evidence base in cancer: psychosocial multicenter trials  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is associated with significant distress and psychosocial morbidity. Although psychosocial interventions have been developed in an attempt to improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, there is continued debate about whether there is adequate high-level evidence to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. The evidence base is limited as a result of numerous challenges faced by those attempting to conduct psychosocial intervention trials within the health system. Barriers include insufficient participant recruitment, difficulty generalizing from single-trial studies, difficulty in building and managing research teams with multidisciplinary expertise, lack of research design expertise and a lack of incentives for researchers conducting intervention research. To strengthen the evidence base, more intervention studies employing methodologically rigorous research designs are necessary. Methods In order to advance the evidence base of interventions designed to improve psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients and survivors, we propose the formation of a collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of such interventions. Results Establishment of such a group would improve the quality of the evidence base in psychosocial research in cancer patients, by increasing support for conducting intervention research and providing intervention research training opportunities. A multidisciplinary collaborative group conducting multicenter trials would have the capacity to overcome many of the barriers that currently exist. Conclusions A stronger evidence base is necessary to identify effective psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. The proposed formation of a psycho-oncology collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions would assist in achieving this outcome. PMID:22992443

2012-01-01

297

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRIANGULAR APERTURE GEOGRID-REINFORCED BASES OVER WEAK SUBGRADE UNDER CYCLIC LOADING  

E-print Network

of resilient displacement, stress distribution, and modulus variation were investigated. Nineteen large-scale laboratory cyclic plate loading tests were conducted on unpaved sections with three different base course thicknesses. Three types of triangular...

Qian, Yu

2009-12-09

298

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

299

Estimating the Parameters of Semiconductor Lasers Based on Weak Optical Feedback Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of semiconductor lasers (SL) and the optical feedback level factor C in SLs. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of self-mixing signals observed in self-mixing optical feedback interferometry. Unlike existing approaches, the approach tries to estimate the parameters LEF and C by a gradient-based optimization

Jiangtao Xi; Yanguang Yu; J. F. Chicharo; T. Bosch

2004-01-01

300

A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.  

PubMed

Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

2012-01-01

301

Creating evidence-based research in adapted physical activity.  

PubMed

Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design. PMID:22467832

Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

2012-04-01

302

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O'Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

2008-01-01

303

Evidence Based Medicine and Shared Decision Making: The challenge of getting both evidence and preferences into health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and Shared Medical Decision Making (SDM) are changing the nature of health care decisions. It is broadly accepted that health care decisions require the integration of research evidence and individual preferences. These approaches are justified on both efficacy grounds (that evidence based practice and Shared Decision Making should lead to better health outcomes and may lead

Alexandra Barratt

2008-01-01

304

Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

2005-01-01

305

Commentary: evidence-based practice and forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

A diverse sampling of articles was considered as a landscape against which evidence-based practice has been and should be a part of forensic psychiatry. Caveats were identified, limitations suggested, and recommendations made as to how such a marriage might work. PMID:20018998

Schneider, Richard D

2009-01-01

306

Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

Leimer, Christina

2012-01-01

307

Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional techniques that meet prescribed criteria related to the research design, quality, quantity, and effect size of supporting research, which have the potential to help bridge the research-to-practice gap and improve student outcomes. In this article, the authors (a) discuss the importance of clear…

Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Sara Cothren

2013-01-01

308

Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

2013-01-01

309

Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

2013-01-01

310

Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

Lisa Given

2006-01-01

311

How Evidence-Based Practices Contribute to Community Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In

Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Charles A. Rapp; Anthony M. Zipple

2004-01-01

312

INTEGRATING EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND SOCIAL WORK FIELD EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work academic community is currently considering and critiquing the idea of evidence-based practice (EBP). Given the vital part that practicum education plays in the social work profession, understanding the views of field instructors on this subject is essential. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University surveyed 283 field instructors within 180 agencies and found

Tonya Edmond; Deborah Megivern; Cynthia Williams; Estelle Rochman; Matthew Howard

2006-01-01

313

Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

Littek, Celeste

2013-01-01

314

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

315

Is there an evidence-based practice for burns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doublts and questions about clinical decision making need to be answered. Evidence-based medicine aims to provide answers by systematically finding information from the vast assortmment of research papers in the literature and bringing it together to use in everyday practice and in the best interests of the patient. Although clinical (and experimental) studies have a variety of methodologics, ranging from

Charmaine Childs

1998-01-01

316

Developing Research Competence to Support Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy pro- grams, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the

Lora E. Burke; Elizabeth A. Schlenk; Susan M. Sereika; Susan M. Cohen; Mary Beth Happ; Janice S. Dorman

2005-01-01

317

Critical Thinking: Knowledge and Skills for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP…

Finn, Patrick

2011-01-01

318

Interteaching: An Evidence-Based Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "interteaching" as an evidence-based method of instruction. Instructors often rely on more traditional approaches, such as lectures, as means to deliver instruction. Despite high usage, these methods are ineffective at achieving desirable academic outcomes. We discuss an innovative approach to delivering instruction…

Brown, Thomas Wade; Killingsworth, Kenneth; Alavosius, Mark P.

2014-01-01

319

Toward Evidence-Based Practice with Domestic Violence Perpetrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the policy and practice of interventions with male perpetrators of domestic violence in light of the widely accepted principles of evidence-based practice. Thus far, these policies and practices have enjoyed immunity from the external, empirical accountability available through implementing the findings from evaluations research and other empirical practice analyses. This immunity is supported by a policy framework

Kenneth Corvo; Donald Dutton; Wan-Yi Chen

2008-01-01

320

Why isn't more injury prevention evidence-based?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus on evidence-based practice is critical to addressing the issue of injuries, yet advances in the science of injury prevention have not always led to advances in practice. Effective approaches are not always adopted, or when adopted and transferred from one setting to another, they do not always achieve expected results. These challenges were the basis of two breakout

J. Morag MacKay; Joanne Vincenten

2009-01-01

321

Meeting the information needs of an evidence-based world  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many new and exciting health information developments in Australia today. However, there are also many gaps and problems in the information available to support evidence-based decision-making. For example, computerisation in health lags behind other industries. However, these problems should not prevent us using the available data to manage individual care and the health care system more effectively. It

BETH REID

1997-01-01

322

Combining Performance Feedback and Evidence-based Educational Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study is intended to advance patient safety by demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling surveillance report performance feedback with evidence-based educational materials and other communications that help hospitals identify priorities and methods for medical injury prevention. Methods: Medical injury surveillance findings are reported semiannually to hospitals to support their quality improvement efforts. We developed educational manuals for five priority

John R. Meurer; Linda N. Meurer; Jean Grube; Karen J. Brasel; Chris McLaughlin; Stephen Hargarten; Peter M. Layde

323

Evidence-based toxicology: a comprehensive framework for causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies deficiencies in some current practices of causation and risk evaluation by toxicologists and formulates an evidence-based solution. The practice of toxicology focuses on adverse health events caused by physical or chemical agents. Some relations between agents and events are identified risks, meaning unwanted events known to occur at some frequency. However, other relations that are only possibilities

Philip S Guzelian; Michael S Victoroff; N Christine Halmes; Robert C James; Christopher P Guzelian

2005-01-01

324

Building evidence-based practice with staff nurses through mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence- based practice (EBP) is an effective way for nurses to improve patient outcomes. Although EBP has gained popularity, barriers to implementation exist. This study explored whether mentoring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in EBP would increase their participation in EBP. A sample of 20 nurses were mentored in an EBP project. The EBP Beliefs Scale and EBP Implementation

Kathleen DiGaudio Mariano; Linda M. Caley; Linda Eschberger; Ann Woloszyn; Patricia Volker; Michael S. Leonard; Ying Tung

2009-01-01

325

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: A Regional Dissemination Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)

Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas

2003-01-01

326

Teaching Evidence-based Medicine: Caveats and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three caveats to the evidence-based paradigm in medical education: (1) detection of abnormalities that may not ever be overtly expressed inflates apparent diagnostic test performance; (2) probability revision is valuable primarily as an exercise to gain qualitative insights; and (3) patients are likely to be interested in more than just…

Welch, H. Gilbert; Lurie, Jon D.

2000-01-01

327

Teaching Evidence-based Medicine Using Literature for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based medicine--the process of using research findings systematically as the basis for clinical decisions--can be taught using problem-solving teaching methods. Evaluates whether it was possible to motivate students to use the original literature by giving them selected patient problems to solve. (Author/ASK)

Mottonen, Merja; Tapanainen, Paivi; Nuutinen, Matti; Rantala, Heikki; Vainionpaa, Leena; Uhari, Matti

2001-01-01

328

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia Sarah-Lan Mathez a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean

Richner, Heinz

329

Educating the Millennial Generation for evidence based information practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how library education can best incorporate the profession's emerging interest in evidence-based practice (EBP) whilst ensuring that the educational experience is meaningful to the contemporary library student. Design\\/methodology\\/appraoch – A learning and teaching model developed by the Queensland University of Technology will be presented as a case study on how

Helen Partridge; Gillian Hallam

2006-01-01

330

Evidence-based Management Strategies for Treatment of Chronic Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The care and management of patients with chronic wounds and their far-reaching effects challenge both the patient and the practitioner. Further complicating this situation is the paucity of evidence-based treatment strategies for chronic wound care. After searching both MEDLINE and Cochrane databases, we reviewed currently available articles con- cerning chronic wound care. Utilizing this information, we have outlined a review

Frank Werdin; Hans-Eberhardt Schaller; Hans-Oliver Rennekampff

331

Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation: From Insight to Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on accountability and evidence-based practice, evaluation has become increasingly important in the contexts in which educational psychologists (EPs) practice. This paper describes a Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) system, derived from Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) which was developed to evaluate outcomes of a wide…

Dunsmuir, Sandra; Brown, Emma; Iyadurai, Suzi; Monsen, Jeremy

2009-01-01

332

Evidence-Based Practice for Conduct Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients exhibiting symptoms associated with conduct disorder present challenges in assessment and treatment. The difficulties are not only the complexities of correct identification and appropriate intervention, but also that the knowledge is rapidly growing. Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides a useful framework for dealing with these issues.…

Thomas, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

333

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #833A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, research on dropout prevention has become focused on using evidence-based practice, and data-driven decisions, to mitigate students' dropping out of high school and instead, support and prepare students for career and college. Early warning systems or on-track indicators, in which readily available student-level data are used…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

2011-01-01

334

Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

335

Evidence-based Practice and the Endeavor of Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of us who are clinicians want to broaden the discussion of evidence-based psychotherapy. We want to move beyond the basics of the easy to measure efficacy studies, and into a more complex realm. In today's climate, it is a challenge for practicing psychologists to balance the needs to develop and maintain a personally effective therapeutic voice, translate multiple streams

Carol Goodheart

336

Original research in pathology: judgment, or evidence-based medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathology is both a medical specialty and an investigative scientific discipline, concerned with understanding the essential nature of human disease. Ultimately, pathology is accountable as well, as measured by the accuracy of our diagnoses and the resultant patient care outcomes. As such, we must consider the evidence base underlying our practices. Within the realm of Laboratory Medicine, extensive attention has

James M Crawford

2007-01-01

337

Evidence-Based Teaching: Now and in the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of assembling this "New Directions in Teaching and Learning" volume was to introduce college and university teachers to a broad range of approaches that reflect evidence-based teaching (EBT). As each of the preceding chapters has shown, EBT not only can increase student learning across a variety of measures, it also can increase…

Buskist, William; Groccia, James E.

2011-01-01

338

Evidence-Based Therapies for Oppositional Behavior in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this chapter is to present and critically evaluate current evidence-based interventions for oppositional behavior (OB) in young children. Children with OB are typically described by parents and teachers as argumentative, disobedient, disruptive, demanding, and defiant. We have operationalized “young children” as including children between the ages of 3 and 8, thus encompassing the preschool and early

Robert J. McMahon; Julie S. Kotler

339

Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.  

PubMed

Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

2010-08-01

340

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

341

Integrating Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social work academic community is currently considering and critiquing the idea of evidence-based practice (EBP). Given the vital part that practicum education plays in the social work profession, understanding the views of field instructors on this subject is essential. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University…

Edmond, Tonya; Megivern, Deborah; Williams, Cynthia; Rochman, Estelle; Howard, Matthew

2006-01-01

342

Evidence-Based Youth Psychotherapy in the Mental Health Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why…

Weisz, John R.; Ugueto, Ana M.; Cheron, Daniel M.; Herren, Jenny

2013-01-01

343

Organizing mental health services: an evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims. Health policy makers and program developers seek evidence-based guidance on how to organize and finance mental health services. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) commissioned a conceptual framework for thinking about health care services as a medical technology. The following framework was developed, citing empirical research from mental health services research as the

Howard H. Goldman; Sten Thelander

2000-01-01

344

Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Practice in College Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lead off article to the special volume on evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) in college and university counseling and mental health centers presents an overview of the topic and outlines the structure of this publication. A focus on EBP research and practice generally, and in institutions of higher education specifically, is provided for…

Cooper, Stewart E.

2005-01-01

345

The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958\\/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support their scientific explanations. This article presents the centrepiece of this special issue, the

Nathaniel J. S. Brown; Erin Marie Furtak; Michael J Timms; Sam O. Nagashima; Mark Wilson

2010-01-01

346

The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

2010-01-01

347

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

348

A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED KINETIC MODEL OF RAT AND MOUSE GESTATION: DISPOSITION OF A WEAK ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

A physiologically based toxicokinetic model of gestation in the rat mouse has been developed. The model is superimposed on the normal growth curve for nonpregnant females. It describes the entire gestation period including organogenesis. The model consists of uterus, mammary tiss...

349

[Evidence-based medicine: a movement in crisis?].  

PubMed

A recent paper published in The BMJ has argued that the evidence-based medicine movement is now facing a serious crisis. In the authors' opinion, the first problem is that the EBM "quality mark" has been misappropriated by vested interests. The second aspect is that the volume of evidence, especially clinical guidelines, has become unmanageable. Moreover, the statistically significant benefits may be marginal in clinical practice. Also, inflexible rules and technology driven prompts may produce care that is management driven rather than patient centred. In the end, evidence-based guidelines often map poorly to complex multimorbidity. To address the above concerns, the authors believe that a campaign for real EBM is needed: patients must demand better evidence, better presented, better explained, and applied in a more personalised way. All the relevant stakeholders (researchers, editors, publishers, etc.) should contribute to return to the movement's founding principles. The article is a detailed summary of issues already known of great interest, but perhaps with an over-emphasis in the title and tone, without focusing on the key aspect: the production and shaping of the evidence. PMID:25229758

Ciccone, Giovannino

2014-09-01

350

An Evidence-Based Combining Classifier for Brain Signal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, high dimensionality and noisy signals. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of brain signals and the impacts of mental states on brain function, the brain signals are associated with an inherent uncertainty. In this paper, an evidence-based combining classifiers method is proposed for brain signal analysis. This method exploits the power of combining classifiers for solving complex problems and the ability of evidence theory to model as well as to reduce the existing uncertainty. The proposed method models the uncertainty in the labels of training samples in each feature space by assigning soft and crisp labels to them. Then, some classifiers are employed to approximate the belief function corresponding to each feature space. By combining the evidence raised from each classifier through the evidence theory, more confident decisions about testing samples can be made. The obtained results by the proposed method compared to some other evidence-based and fixed rule combining methods on artificial and real datasets exhibit the ability of the proposed method in dealing with complex and uncertain classification problems. PMID:24392125

Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

2014-01-01

351

An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

2013-01-01

352

Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

2013-01-01

353

Weakly guiding analysis of elliptical core step index waveguides based on the characteristic numbers of Mathieu's equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new weak guidance analysis for step index elliptical core optical fibers is developed. The method shows that weakly guiding, or linearly polarized (LP), modes are determined by and correspond uniquely to the characteristic numbers of Mathieu's equation. This is the first analysis of elliptical core weakly guiding modes which determines propagation constants and indexes modes by directly solving the

J. K. Shaw; W. M. Henry; W. R. Winfrey

1995-01-01

354

Evidence-Based Review of Interventions for Medically At-Risk Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To conduct an evidence-based review of intervention studies of older drivers with medical conditions. METHOD. We used the American Occupational Therapy Association’s classification criteria (Levels I–V, I = highest level of evidence) to identify driving interventions. We classified studies using letters to represent the strength of recommendations: A = strongly recommend the intervention; B = recommend intervention is provided routinely; C = weak evidence that the intervention can improve outcomes; D = recommend not to provide the intervention; I = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the intervention. RESULTS. For clients with stroke, we recommend a graded simulator intervention (A) and multimodal training in traffic theory knowledge and on-road interventions (B); we make no recommendation for or against Dynavision, Useful Field of View, or visual–perceptual interventions (I). For clients with visual deficits, we recommend educational intervention (A) and bioptic training (B); we make no recommendation for or against prism lenses (I). For clients with dementia, we recommend driving restriction interventions (C) and make no recommendation for or against use of compensatory driving strategies (I). CONCLUSION. Level I studies are needed to identify effective interventions for medically at-risk older drivers. PMID:25005514

Monahan, Miriam; Auten, Beth; Yarney, Abraham

2014-01-01

355

Intravenous salbutamol for childhood asthma: evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed

Intravenous salbutamol is commonly used to treat children with severe asthma unresponsive to inhaled ?2-agonist therapy. However, in this setting, there is little clinical trial data demonstrating its effectiveness. Additionally, there are significant concerns that intravenous salbutamol-dosing recommendations for children with acute asthma are excessive, and unnecessarily raise the potential for adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis and tachycardia which, by increasing respiratory workload, exacerbate respiratory failure. Here, we review salbutamol clinical pharmacology and toxicology, evidence relating to its use in acute asthma and highlight gaps in the evidence base. PMID:24938536

Starkey, E S; Mulla, H; Sammons, H M; Pandya, H C

2014-09-01

356

Overview of evidence-based practice and translation science.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice and translation science are not interchangeable terms; EBP is the application of evidence in practice (the doing of EBP), whereas translation science is the study of implementation interventions, factors, and contextual variables that affect knowledge uptake and use in practices and communities. The use of collaborative networks such as the National Nursing Practice Network maximizes sharing of resources and knowledge about EBPs, an infrastructure for conducting multi-site translation studies, and a venue for large scale-up of EBP projects across multiple healthcare settings. PMID:25155527

Titler, Marita G

2014-09-01

357

The Four Cornerstones of Evidence-Based Practice in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to place evidence-based practice within its wider scholarly contexts and draw lessons from the experiences of other professions that are engaged in implementing it. The analysis is based primarily on evidence-based medicine, the parent discipline of evidence-based practice, but the author also draws on evidence-based

Gilgun, Jane F.

2005-01-01

358

Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners) to the

Karin Hannes; Marcus Leys; Etienne Vermeire; Bert Aertgeerts; Frank Buntinx; Anne-Marie Depoorter

2005-01-01

359

Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

2008-01-01

360

Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care  

PubMed Central

Background Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing education setting. Methods We developed and evaluated a continuing education workshop on evidence-based principles and methods for chiropractic practitioners. Forty-seven chiropractors participated in the training and testing. The course consisted of 12.5 hours of training in which practitioners learned to develop focused questions, search electronic data bases, critically review articles and apply information from the literature to specific clinical questions. Following the workshop, we assessed the program performance through the use of knowledge testing and anonymous presentation quality surveys. Results Eighty-five percent of the participants completed all of the test, survey and data collection items. Pretest knowledge scores (15-item test) were low (47%). Post intervention scores (15-item test) improved with an effect size of 2.0. A 59-item knowledge posttest yielded very good results (mean score 88%). The quality of presentation was rated very good, and most participants (90%) would "definitely recommend" or "recommend" the workshop to a colleague. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the continuing education course was effective in enhancing knowledge in the evidence-based approach and that the presentation was well accepted. PMID:16930482

Feise, Ronald J; Grod, Jaroslaw P; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

2006-01-01

361

Highly efficient SO? absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.  

PubMed

A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process. PMID:23323771

Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

2013-02-01

362

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

363

Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice: The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health provider attitudes toward organizational change have not been well studied. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into real-world settings represent organizational change that may be limited or facilitated by provider attitudes toward adoption of new treatments, interventions, and practices. A brief measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBPs was developed and attitudes were examined

Gregory A. Aarons

2004-01-01

364

Strengths and Limitations of Evidence-Based Dermatology  

PubMed Central

The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also limitations that can only improve with better primary studies and updated reviews such as those done by the Cochrane Collaboration. Most dermatologists are interested in integrating the best external evidence with the care of individual patients and have been practicing good EBD without realizing it. PMID:24700929

Williams, Hywel C

2014-01-01

365

Weak-lensing detection of intracluster filaments with ground-based data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the current standard model of cosmology, matter in the Universe arranges itself along a network of filamentary structure. These filaments connect the main nodes of this so-called "cosmic web", which are clusters of galaxies. Although its large-scale distribution is clearly characterized by numerical simulations, constraining the dark-matter content of the cosmic web in reality turns out to be difficult. The natural method of choice is gravitational lensing. However, the direct detection and mapping of the elusive filament signal is challenging and in this work we present two methods that are specifically tailored to achieve this task. A linear matched filter aims at detecting the smooth mass-component of filaments and is optimized to perform a shear decomposition that follows the anisotropic component of the lensing signal. Filaments clearly inherit this property due to their morphology. At the same time, the contamination arising from the central massive cluster is controlled in a natural way. The filament 1? detection is of about ? ~ 0.01 - 0.005 according to the filter's template width and length, enabling the detection of structures beyond reach with other approaches. The second, complementary method seeks to detect the clumpy component of filaments. The detection is determined by the number density of subclump identifications in an area enclosing the potential filament, as was found within the observed field with the filter approach. We tested both methods against mocked observations based on realistic N-body simulations of filamentary structure and proved the feasibility of detecting filaments with ground-based data.

Maturi, Matteo; Merten, Julian

2013-11-01

366

Evidence-based clinical behavior analysis, evidence-based medicine and the Cochrane collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encouraging professionals in training and later to consider practice-related research findings when making important clinical decisions is an on-going concern. Evidenced-Based Medicine (EBM) and the Cochrane Collaboration (CC) provide a source of tools and ideas for doing so, as well as a roster of colleagues who share this interest. Evidenced-based medicine involves integrating clinical expertise with the best available external

Eileen Gambrill

1999-01-01

367

Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H?O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H?O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions. PMID:24038552

Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

2013-12-01

368

Proton spectra from Non-Mesonic Weak Decay of p-shell Lambda-Hypernuclei and evidence for the two-nucleon induced process  

E-print Network

New spectra from the FINUDA experiment of the Non Mesonic Weak Decay (NMWD) proton kinetic energy for 9(Lambda)Be, 11(Lambda)B, 12(Lambda)C, 13(Lambda)C, 15 (Lambda)N and 16(Lambda)O are presented and discussed along with the published data on 5(Lambda)He and 7(Lambda)Li. Exploiting the large mass number range and the low energy threshold (15 MeV) for the proton detection of FINUDA, an evaluation of both Final State Interactions (FSI) and the two nucleon induced NMWD contributions to the decay process has been done. Based on this evaluation, a linear dependence of FSI on the hypernuclear mass number A is found and for the two nucleon stimulated decay rate the experimental value of Gamma2/Gammap=0.43+-0.25 is determined for the first time. A value for the two nucleon stimulated decay rate to the total decay rate Gamma2/GammaNMWD=0.24+-0.10 is also extracted.

M. Agnello; A. Andronenkov; G. Beer; L. Benussi; M. Bertani; H. C. Bhang; G. Bonomi; E. Botta; M. Bregant; T. Bressani; S. Bufalino; L. Busso; D. Calvo; P. Camerini; B. Dalena; F. De Mori; G. DErasmo; F. L. Fabbri; A. Feliciello; A. Filippi; E. M. Fiore; A. Fontana; H. Fujioka; P. Genova; P. Gianotti; N. Grion; O. Hartmann; V. Lenti; V. Lucherini; S. Marcello; T. Maruta; N. Mirfakhrai; P. Montagna; O. Morra; T. Nagae; D. Nakajima; H. Outa; E. Pace; M. Palomba; A. Pantaleo; A. Panzarasa; V. Paticchio; S. Piano; F. Pompili; R. Rui; M. Sekimoto; G. Simonetti; A. Toyoda; R. Wheadon; A. Zenoni; G. Garbarino

2009-10-26

369

Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

2008-01-01

370

Understanding the Evolution of NSAID: A Knowledge Domain Visualization Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine  

E-print Network

in the practice of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). In this article, we describe a knowledge domain visualization-based in the medical literature? What is the big picture of all the available evidence? Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM the evolution of a pharmacological field, which is intrinsically evidence-based medicine. The goal of the study

Chen, Chaomei

371

Weak magnetic fields in Ap/Bp stars. Evidence for a dipole field lower limit and a tentative interpretation of the magnetic dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:We investigated a sample of 28 well-known spectroscopically-identified magnetic Ap/Bp stars, with weak, poorly-determined or previously undetected magnetic fields. The aim of this study is to explore the weak part of the magnetic field distribution of Ap/Bp stars. Methods: Using the MuSiCoS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters at Télescope Bernard Lyot (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France) and the cross-correlation technique Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD), we obtained 282 LSD Stokes V signatures of our 28 sample stars, in order to detect the magnetic field and to infer its longitudinal component with high precision (median ?=40 G). Results: For the 28 studied stars, we obtained 27 detections of Stokes V Zeeman signatures from the MuSiCoS observations. Detection of the Stokes V signature of the 28th star (HD 32650) was obtained during science demonstration time of the new NARVAL spectropolarimeter at Pic du Midi. This result clearly shows that when observed with sufficient precision, all firmly classified Ap/Bp stars show detectable surface magnetic fields. Furthermore, all detected magnetic fields correspond to longitudinal fields which are significantly greater than some tens of G. To better characterise the surface magnetic field intensities and geometries of the sample, we phased the longitudinal field measurements of each star using new and previously-published rotational periods, and modeled them to infer the dipolar field intensity (B_d, measured at the magnetic pole) and the magnetic obliquity (?). The distribution of derived dipole strengths for these stars exhibits a plateau at about 1 kG, falling off to larger and smaller field strengths. Remarkably, in this sample of stars selected for their presumably weak magnetic fields, we find only 2 stars for which the derived dipole strength is weaker than 300 G. We interpret this “magnetic threshold” as a critical value necessary for the stability of large-scale magnetic fields, and develop a simple quantitative model that is able to approximately reproduce the observed threshold characteristics. This scenario leads to a natural explanation of the small fraction of intermediate-mass magnetic stars. It may also explain the near-absence of magnetic fields in more massive B and O-type stars. Based on data obtained using the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Observatoire du Pic du Midi, CNRS and Université Paul Sabatier, France. Figures 7 to 32 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/475/1053

Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Silvester, J.; Lignières, F.; Bagnulo, S.; Bale, K.; Dintrans, B.; Donati, J. F.; Folsom, C. P.; Gruberbauer, M.; Hui Bon Hoa, A.; Jeffers, S.; Johnson, N.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lèbre, A.; Lueftinger, T.; Marsden, S.; Mouillet, D.; Naseri, S.; Paletou, F.; Petit, P.; Power, J.; Rincon, F.; Strasser, S.; Toqué, N.

2007-12-01

372

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Hecht, Debra B.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark J.

2009-01-01

373

Family-centered, evidence-based phototherapy delivery.  

PubMed

Jaundice develops in most newborn infants and is one of the most common reasons infants are rehospitalized after birth. American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines strongly support the recommendation that clinicians promote and support breastfeeding. Recognizing that the disruptions associated with phototherapy interfere with breastfeeding, the challenge often faced by clinicians is how to provide effective phototherapy while supporting evidence-based practices, such as rooming-in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding. We report here on a case that reflects a common clinical scenario in newborn medicine in order to describe a technique for providing phototherapy while maintaining evidence-based practices. This approach will assist clinicians in providing best-practices and family-centered care. PMID:23669526

Szucs, Kinga A; Rosenman, Marc B

2013-06-01

374

An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

2009-01-01

375

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. Conclusion SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders. PMID:23071200

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2014-01-01

376

Practitioner Attitudes Toward Evidence-based Practice: Themes and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

 Abstract  The widespread successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into community mental health settings will require\\u000a a thorough understanding of practitioner attitudes toward these approaches. This study reports on the results of two community\\u000a mental health practitioner focus groups investigating attitudes toward EBPs, perceived challenges to implementing EBPs, and\\u000a recommendations for researchers interested in facilitating EBP use in community settings. The

Timothy D. Nelson; Ric G. Steele; Jennifer A. Mize

2006-01-01

377

Common Processes in Evidence-Based Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are\\u000a able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent\\u000a HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify common processes described in the procedural manuals,\\u000a and then compared the programs. Nineteen common processes were categorized as structural

Barbara L. Ingram; Diane Flannery; Amy Elkavich; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

2008-01-01

378

The Promises And Pitfalls Of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Evidence-based medicine,(EBM) aims to address,the persistent problem,of clinical practice variation with the help of various tools, including standardized practice guidelines. While advocates welcome the stronger scientific foundation of such guidelines, critics fear that they will lead to “cookbook medicine.” Studies show, however, that few guidelines lead to consistent changes in provider behavior. The hopes, fears, and mixed re- cord

Stefan Timmermans; Aaron Mauck

2005-01-01

379

Whither our art? Clinical wisdom and evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute.\\u000a For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other,\\u000a human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why\\u000a particular beliefs are held,

Malcolm Parker

2002-01-01

380

Evidence-based medicine training in internal medicine residency programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize evidence-based medicine (EBM) curricula in internal medicine residency programs, a written survey was mailed\\u000a to 417 program directors of U.S. internal medicine residency programs. For programs offering a freestanding (dedicated curricular\\u000a time) EBM curriculum, the survey inquired about its objectives, format, curricular time, attendance, faculty development,\\u000a resources, and evaluation. All directors responded to questions regarding integrating EBM teaching

Michael L. Green

2000-01-01

381

Using motivational interviewing: through evidence-based health coaching.  

PubMed

To enhance compliance and achieve better outcomes, providers must actively engage their patients and caregivers in different ways than in the past. One strategy that has gained national attention is motivational interviewing through evidence-based health coaching. A closer look at this exciting new clinical skill reveals what it is, how it works, why it is so successful, and why our traditional patient approach has fallen short. PMID:25268529

Huffman, Melinda

2014-10-01

382

Protecting generalism: moving on from evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed Central

Quality of decision making in modern health care is defined with reference to evidence-based medicine. There are concerns that this approach is insufficient for, and may thus threaten the future of, generalist primary care. We urgently need to extend our account of quality of knowledge use and decision making in order to protect and develop the discipline. Interpretive medicine describes an alternative framework for use in generalist care. Priorities for clinical practice and research are identified. PMID:20594443

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

383

The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Educators have sometimes been chided for the enthusiasm with which they embrace new trends and concepts. Their enthusiasm\\u000a regarding evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial, however, as it will be key to the movement of EBP from the laboratory\\u000a to real-world settings, such as public schools. Generalizing from the laboratory to public schools is essential if EBP are\\u000a to ever reach

Peter Doehring; Vincent Winterling

384

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and

Stanley J. Huey Jr; Antonio J. Polo

2008-01-01

385

A Short History of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has made a clear contribution to medicine in a short 10 yr or so. Why then should we stop and\\u000a consider where it came from and who the people were who generated this new direction? We do not expect any intervention in\\u000a medicine, whether theoretical or therapeutic, to be perfect. The enthusiasm that greets a new approach

Jeanne Daly

386

[Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health: evidence-based and pondering].  

PubMed

The correlation between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health is always one of the hotspots. Many scholars have performed so many clinical researches all over the world, providing evidence-based medicine (EBM) reference for clarifying their correlation. In this paper, we raise ideas and expectation on the basis of a Meta-analysis about vegetarian diets and blood pressure (published on JAMA Internal Medicine in Feb 2014) in combination of main clinical research literature in this field in recent 20 years. PMID:25046943

Chen, Keji; Liu, Yue

2014-06-01

387

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective?To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology.?Method?Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.”?Results?Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above.?Conclusions?Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures. PMID:17905801

Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joan

2008-01-01

388

Evidence-based approach to harmonised reference intervals.  

PubMed

Although we are in the era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a substantial gap between theory and current practice with the application of reference intervals as decision making tools. Different laboratories may have different reference intervals for the same tests using the same analytical methods and platforms. These differences have the potential to confuse physicians making the assessment and monitoring of patients more difficult by providing discordant information. This paper attempts to demonstrate how to use evidence-based approach for harmonising reference intervals. In order to consider harmonisation we must first have an appreciation of the various factors that influence the determination of that reference interval such as the choice of individuals within the population studied, biological variability of the analyte studied, partitioning, sample collection, analytical aspects such as bias and statistical models. An a priori approach for determining reference intervals, whilst recommended, may be beyond the scope of most laboratories and consideration should be given to the use of a validated indirect a posteriori approach. Regardless of method used, the continuing application of an evidence-based approach in harmonised reference intervals to meet the quality expectations of physicians should be pursued. PMID:24183842

Koerbin, Gus; Sikaris, Ken Andrew; Jones, Graham Ross Dallas; Ryan, Julie; Reed, Maxine; Tate, Jill

2014-05-15

389

An Implementation Strategy of Evidence-Based Application Lifecycle Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application lifecycle management (ALM) facilitate and integrate facilitate and integrate requirements management, architecture, coding, testing, tracking, and release management. Process automation and seamless traceability among tools are getting important. In this paper, we suggest new approach to achieve the seamless traceability and process automation. For these features, knowledge formalization is critical. Evidence-based medicine is good reference architecture to ALM2. Software Engineering ontology is powerful solution to semantic gap between tools and guideline-based process execution environment can be practical solution to process automation.

Kim, Jeong Ah; Choi, Seungyong

390

Rational Helicobacter pylori therapy: evidence-based medicine rather than medicine-based evidence.  

PubMed

Data are available such that choice of Helicobacter pylori therapy for an individual patient can be reliably predicted. Here, treatment success is defined as a cure rate of 90% or greater. Treatment outcome in a population or a patient can be calculated based on the effectiveness of a regimen for infections with susceptible and with resistant strains coupled with the knowledge of the prevalence of resistance (ie, based on formal measurement, clinical experience, or both). We provide the formula for predicting outcome and we illustrate the calculations. Because clarithromycin-containing triple therapy and 10-day sequential therapy are now only effective in special populations, they are considered obsolete; neither should continue to be used as empiric therapies (ie, 7- and 14-day triple therapies fail when clarithromycin resistance exceeds 5% and 15%, respectively, and 10-day sequential therapy fails when metronidazole resistance exceeds 20%). Therapy should be individualized based on prior history and whether the patient is in a high-risk group for resistance. The preferred choices for Western countries are 14-day concomitant therapy, 14-day bismuth quadruple therapy, and 14-day hybrid sequential-concomitant therapy. We also provide details regarding the successful use of fluoroquinolone-, rifabutin-, and furazolidone-containing therapies. Finally, we provide recommendations for the efficient development (ie, identification and optimization) of new regimens, as well as how to prevent or minimize failures. The trial-and-error approach for identifying and testing regimens frequently resulted in poor treatment success. The described approach allows outcome to be predicted and should simplify treatment and drug development. PMID:23751282

Graham, David Y; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang

2014-02-01

391

Tactics for teaching evidence-based practice: improving self-efficacy in finding and appraising evidence in a master's evidence-based practice unit.  

PubMed

This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741-6787. PMID:25131896

Chang, Anne; Levin, Rona F

2014-08-01

392

Integration of Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: A probabilistic decision support model such as the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes an immense amount of input data that necessitates a systematic, integrated approach for data collection, and management. As a result of this approach, IMM is able to forecasts medical events, resource utilization and crew health during space flight. METHODS: Inflight data is the most desirable input for the Integrated Medical Model. Non-attributable inflight data is collected from the Lifetime Surveillance for Astronaut Health study as well as the engineers, flight surgeons, and astronauts themselves. When inflight data is unavailable cohort studies, other models and Bayesian analyses are used, in addition to subject matters experts input on occasion. To determine the quality of evidence of a medical condition, the data source is categorized and assigned a level of evidence from 1-5; the highest level is one. The collected data reside and are managed in a relational SQL database with a web-based interface for data entry and review. The database is also capable of interfacing with outside applications which expands capabilities within the database itself. Via the public interface, customers can access a formatted Clinical Findings Form (CLiFF) that outlines the model input and evidence base for each medical condition. Changes to the database are tracked using a documented Configuration Management process. DISSCUSSION: This strategic approach provides a comprehensive data management plan for IMM. The IMM Database s structure and architecture has proven to support additional usages. As seen by the resources utilization across medical conditions analysis. In addition, the IMM Database s web-based interface provides a user-friendly format for customers to browse and download the clinical information for medical conditions. It is this type of functionality that will provide Exploratory Medicine Capabilities the evidence base for their medical condition list. CONCLUSION: The IMM Database in junction with the IMM is helping NASA aerospace program improve the health care and reduce risk for the astronauts crew. Both the database and model will continue to expand to meet customer needs through its multi-disciplinary evidence based approach to managing data. Future expansion could serve as a platform for a Space Medicine Wiki of medical conditions.

Saile, Lyn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; Kerstman, Eric; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei

2011-01-01

393

Cochrane Lecture 1997. What evidence do we need for evidence based medicine?  

PubMed Central

As presently understood, evidence based medicine aims to advance practice from its traditional unverifiable mix of art and science to rational use of measurable inputs and outputs. In practice, however, its advocates accept uncritically a desocialised definition of science, assume that major clinical decisions are taken at the level of secondary specialist rather than primary generalist care, and ignore the multiple nature of most clinical problems, as well as the complexity of social problems within which clinical problems arise and have to be solved. These reductionist assumptions derive from the use of evidence based medicine as a tool for managed care in a transactional model for consultations. If these assumptions persist, they will strengthen reification of disease and promote the episodic output of process regardless of health outcome. We need to work within a different paradigm based on development of patients as co-producers rather than consumers, promoting continuing output of health gain through shared decisions using all relevant evidence, within a broader, socialised definition of science. Adoption of this model would require a major social and cultural shift for health professionals. This shift has already begun, promoted by changes in public attitudes to professional authority, changes in the relation of professionals to managers, and pressures for improved effectiveness and efficiency which, contrary to received wisdom, seem more likely to endorse cooperative than transactional clinical production. Progress on these lines is resisted by rapidly growing and extremely powerful economic and political interests. Health professionals and strategists have yet to recognise and admit the existence of this choice. PMID:9519124

Hart, J T

1997-01-01

394

The Care and Feeding of Evidence Based Medicine  

PubMed Central

Wide interest in evidence based medicine (EBM) and its value in patient care, insurance payment decisions, and public health planning has triggered intense medical journal and media coverage that merits review, explanation, and comment. Published EBM data vary in quality for reasons that have been the subject of many perceptive literature reviews. Study design can be faulted, and conflicts of interest, personal and economic, can potentially bias study results and their publication. Practical guides for data evaluation are presented here, with discussion of technical and sociological issues that affect information quality and its clinical application. Clinical practice often appears to resist good evidence in making clinical choices. Personal views of some practicing physicians about EBM are presented that underlie the occasional difficulties in applying valid research information in patient care. Improvements in study design and publication standards may enhance the clinical application of evidence-based information. EBM guided practice holds promise to improve outcomes and expense, to standardize and streamline process in ways that make for much safer patient care. PMID:22532934

2012-01-01

395

Information systems: the key to evidence-based health practice.  

PubMed Central

Increasing prominence is being given to the use of best current evidence in clinical practice and health services and programme management decision-making. The role of information in evidence-based practice (EBP) is discussed, together with questions of how advanced information systems and technology (IS&T) can contribute to the establishment of a broader perspective for EBP. The author examines the development, validation and use of a variety of sources of evidence and knowledge that go beyond the well-established paradigm of research, clinical trials, and systematic literature review. Opportunities and challenges in the implementation and use of IS&T and knowledge management tools are examined for six application areas: reference databases, contextual data, clinical data repositories, administrative data repositories, decision support software, and Internet-based interactive health information and communication. Computerized and telecommunications applications that support EBP follow a hierarchy in which systems, tasks and complexity range from reference retrieval and the processing of relatively routine transactions, to complex "data mining" and rule-driven decision support systems. PMID:11143195

Rodrigues, R. J.

2000-01-01

396

An Approach for Query-focused Text Summarisation for Evidence Based Medicine  

E-print Network

An Approach for Query-focused Text Summarisation for Evidence Based Medicine Abeed Sarker1 , Diego Processing, Evidence Based Medicine, Query-focused Summarisation 1 Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a practice that requires practitioners to incorporate the best evidence from published research, when

Aliod, Diego Mollá

397

Classifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy , Carl Sable2  

E-print Network

strategies. In the medical domain, physicians are urged to practice Evidence Based Medicine when faced al., 2000). Evidence based medicine refers to the use of the best evidence from scientificClassifying Medical Questions based on an Evidence Taxonomy Hong Yu1 , Carl Sable2 , Hai Ran Zhu3 1

Yu, Hong

398

Promoting evidence-based practice and translational research.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an evolutionary step in the nursing model of excellence in professional practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. A healthcare culture focused on excellence and world-class patient care requires that nursing research and EBP are integrated into the professional practice model and nursing care delivery. To achieve this, it requires the development of staff expertise, time allocation for staff to participate in scholarly activities, resources that support EBP and research, and expert consultants in EBP and nursing translational research. This article describes the systems and structures in place to provide staff with resources in order to translate research and deliver EBP and the multiple initiatives in disseminating evidence to the point of care. PMID:20562571

Barnsteiner, Jane H; Reeder, Vanetta Cheeks; Palma, Wendy H; Preston, Ave Maria; Walton, Mary K

2010-01-01

399

Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.  

PubMed

Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. PMID:25214616

Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

2014-09-12

400

Evidence-based medicine. Interpreting studies and setting policy.  

PubMed

The ascendancy of EBM has been accompanied by a greater awareness of its shortcomings. It is increasingly evident from the cost, length, and difficulty of performing RCTs that studies cannot be launched to address every question in medicine. Good evidence is often lacking in medicine. Epistomologists question the very notions of evidence and the suitability of current study designs and measurement tools to research the salient issues of concern to patients and others concerned with quality. Lack of evidence of effectiveness does not prove ineffectiveness, yet, in reaction to EBM, insurance companies and government often make this inference to justify decisions to withhold coverage or research support. The unbridled enthusiasm for the evidence-based practice guideline of the early 1990s has been tempered by a more mature understanding of its limitations. Not many practice guidelines are developed well, and the implementation of flawed guidelines can cause harm. The seven-step process outlined earlier is slow, laborious, and expensive (sometimes costing hundreds of thousands of dollars). Moreover, there is little evidence that either the rigor of the methods or the guidelines themselves have a meaningful effect on practice behavior or patient outcomes. To the most cynical observers, the only consistent beneficiaries of guidelines are payers, who use guidelines with considerable success in reducing costs, lengths of stay, and utilization rates. Even ardent advocates of guidelines acknowledge the evidence that disseminating reviews and recommendations, by itself, fails to motivate clinicians to increase delivery of effective interventions and to abandon ineffective ones. This absence of response has stimulated a closer look at the barriers to behavior change and the design of thoughtful implementation strategies that begin with, but reach beyond, simple guidelines. Tools such as reminder systems, standing orders, academic detailing, peer review and audit, feedback, and health system changes recognize that knowing what to do is only one piece of an increasingly complex puzzle. The competitive marketplace of managed health care has added new economic influences on clinician behavior but is also fueling private-sector interest in good research. Patients, clinicians, and policy makers will continue to seek better data concerning what works in medicine and what does not. PMID:10949772

Woolf, S H; George, J N

2000-08-01

401

Perspectives--A Problem in Our Field: Making Distinctions between Evidence-Based Treatment and Evidence-Based Practice as a Decision-Making Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contend that the term "evidence-based treatment" (EBT) is often used synonymously with the term "evidence-based practice" (EBP) without making an important distinction. If a practitioner is applying an EBT, it should not be assumed that one is "practicing" the evidence. Within the infant-family and early childhood field, this confusion…

Brandt, Kristie; Diel, James; Feder, Joshua; Lillas, Connie

2012-01-01

402

Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Care to Ethnic Minority Communities: Has Its Practice Fallen Short of Its Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has contributed substantially to the advancement of knowledge in the treatment and prevention of adult mental health disorders. A fundamental assumption, based on documented evidence of effectiveness with certain populations, is that EBP is equally effective and applicable to all populations. However, small sample…

Aisenberg, Eugene

2008-01-01

403

Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

2011-01-01

404

Management of fibromyalgia syndrome - an interdisciplinary evidence-based guideline  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) of 1–2% in the general population associated with high disease-related costs and the conflicting data on treatment effectiveness had led to the development of evidence-based guidelines designed to provide patients and physicians guidance in selecting among the alternatives. Until now no evidence-based interdisciplinary (including patients) guideline for the management of FMS was available in Europe. Therefore a guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was developed by 13 German medical and psychological associations and two patient self-help organisations. The task was coordinated by two German scientific umbrella organisations, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany AWMF and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Pain Therapy DIVS. A systematic search of the literature including all controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of FMS was performed in the Cochrane Library (1993–12/2006), Medline (1980–12/2006), PsychInfo (1966–12/2006) and Scopus (1980–12/ 2006). Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford-Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Grading of the strengths of recommendations was done according to the German program for disease management guidelines. Standardized procedures were used to reach a consensus on recommendations. The guideline was reviewed and finally approved by the boards of the societies involved and published online by the AWMF on april 25, 2008: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004.htm. A short version of the guideline for patients is available as well: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004p.htm. The following procedures in the management of FMS were strongly recommended: information on diagnosis and therapeutic options and patient-centered communication, aerobic exercise, cognitive and operant behavioural therapy, multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homoeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients’ preferences. PMID:19675740

Hauser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flugge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Kollner, Volker; Kuhn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbacher, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina

2008-01-01

405

20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease...AS AMENDED Filing Notices and Claims; Submitting Evidence Evidence and Burden of Proof § 10.116 What...

2010-04-01

406

Teaching evidence-based medicine to medical students.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the rubric for an approach to learning and practicing medicine that applies skills from clinical epidemiology, library science, and information management to clinical practice. Teaching EBM effectively requires a longitudinal approach throughout medical education. This presents many opportunities for academic emergency physicians, especially in the setting of an emergency medicine clerkship. EBM is best taught at the bedside, although this depends on a skilled and interested faculty. Bedside teaching of EBM also requires ready access to modern information resources. Other venues for teaching EBM include morning report, teaching conferences, and journal clubs. Many tools can be used to aid the process, including Web-based sources such as UpToDate, textbooks, and Web-based tutorials, educational prescriptions, and critically appraised topics. PMID:15579428

Ismach, Richard B

2004-12-01

407

DETECTION OF WEAK CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS AROUND THE DAZ WHITE DWARF WD 1124-293: EVIDENCE FOR THE ACCRETION OF MULTIPLE ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect

Single metal-polluted white dwarfs with no dusty disks are believed to be actively accreting metals from a circumstellar disk of gas caused by the destruction of asteroids perturbed by planetary systems. We report, for the first time, the detection of circumstellar Ca II gas in absorption around the DAZ WD 1124-293, which lacks an infrared excess. We constrain the gas to >7 R{sub WD} and <32000 AU, and estimate it to be at {approx}54 R{sub WD}, well within WD 1124-293's tidal disruption radius. This detection is based on several epochs of spectroscopy around the Ca II H and K lines ({lambda} = 3968 A, 3933 A) with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We confirm the circumstellar nature of the gas by observing nearby sightlines and finding no evidence for gas from the local interstellar medium. Through archival data we have measured the equivalent width of the two photospheric Ca lines over a period of 11 years. We see <5%-7% epoch-to-epoch variation in equivalent widths over this time period, and no evidence for long term trends. The presence of a circumstellar gas implies a near edge-on inclination to the system, thus we place limits to short period transiting planetary companions with R > R{sub Circled-Plus} using the Wide Angle Search for Planets survey. The presence of gas in orbit around WD 1124-293 implies that most DAZs could harbor planetary systems. Since 25%-30% of white dwarfs show metal line absorption, the dynamical process for perturbing small bodies must be robust.

Debes, J. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kilic, M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Faedi, F. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Shkolnik, E. L. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Weinberger, A. J.; Slesnick, C. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5249 Broad Branch RD, N.W., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-07-20

408

Evidence-based platelet transfusion recommendations in neonates.  

PubMed

Even though for certain varieties of neonatal thrombocytopenia, intravenous immunoglobulin or corticosteroids are recommended as treatments, platelet transfusions represent the only specific therapy currently available for most thrombocytopenic neonates in NICUs. The majority of these NICU platelet transfusions, up to 98% in some recent reports, are given to prevent, rather than to treat, bleeding. The trigger limit of platelet count to prophylactically treat non-bleeding patients is generally arbitrary. A complete definition, of the benefits and the risks of prophylactic platelet transfusions in thrombocytopenic neonates is necessary. In fact, there is great variability worldwide in neonatal platelet transfusion practice, due to the lack of concrete evidence to guide transfusion decisions. Evidence-based guidelines do not exist to decide when platelet transfusion should be given. The practice of neonatal platelet transfusions is based almost entirely on expert opinion and reasoning. Consequently, these practices, not supported by definitive data, vary widely. To increase benefits and safety, new widespread changes in platelet transfusion guidelines are necessary. New transfusion paradigms should not be based on reasoning alone, but on important experimental validation. The neonatologists would better accept them and more closely adhere to. PMID:21878062

Del Vecchio, Antonio; Motta, Mario

2011-10-01

409

Perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: novel performance based evidence.  

PubMed

Existing research into perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is limited by a reliance upon self-report measures. This study used novel performance based measures to investigate whether there is behavioural evidence for elevated perfectionism in AN. 153 participants took part in the study - 81 with a diagnosis of AN and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants completed two performance based tasks assessing perfectionism - a text replication task and a bead sorting task - along with self-report measures of perfectionism. Significant group differences were observed on both tasks. In the text replication task the AN group took significantly longer compared with healthy controls (p?=?0.03, d?=?0.36) and produced significantly higher quality copies (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). In the bead sorting task, there was a trend towards more participants in the AN group choosing to check their work compared with the HC group (p?=?0.07, d?=?0.30) and the AN group took significantly longer checking than those in the HC group (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). Only copy quality uniquely predicted scores on self report measures of perfectionism. This study provides empirically tested evidence of elevated performance based perfectionism in AN compared with a healthy control group. PMID:25360690

Lloyd, Samantha; Yiend, Jenny; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tchanturia, Kate

2014-01-01

410

Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: Novel Performance Based Evidence  

PubMed Central

Existing research into perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is limited by a reliance upon self-report measures. This study used novel performance based measures to investigate whether there is behavioural evidence for elevated perfectionism in AN. 153 participants took part in the study – 81 with a diagnosis of AN and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants completed two performance based tasks assessing perfectionism – a text replication task and a bead sorting task – along with self-report measures of perfectionism. Significant group differences were observed on both tasks. In the text replication task the AN group took significantly longer compared with healthy controls (p?=?0.03, d?=?0.36) and produced significantly higher quality copies (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). In the bead sorting task, there was a trend towards more participants in the AN group choosing to check their work compared with the HC group (p?=?0.07, d?=?0.30) and the AN group took significantly longer checking than those in the HC group (p?=?<0.01, d?=?0.45). Only copy quality uniquely predicted scores on self report measures of perfectionism. This study provides empirically tested evidence of elevated performance based perfectionism in AN compared with a healthy control group. PMID:25360690

Lloyd, Samantha; Yiend, Jenny; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tchanturia, Kate

2014-01-01

411

Promoting Health Equity in Cities Through Evidence-Based Action  

PubMed Central

The impact of the urban setting on health and, in particular, health inequities has been widely documented. However, only a few countries have examined their inter- or intra-city health inequalities, and few do so regularly. Information that shows the gaps between cities or within the same city is a crucial requirement to trigger appropriate local actions to promote health equity. To generate relevant evidence and take appropriate actions to tackle health inequities, local authorities need a variety of tools. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of health systems performance, these tools should: (1) adopt a multi-sectoral approach; (2) link evidence to actions; (3) be simple and user-friendly; and (4) be operationally feasible and sustainable. In this paper we have illustrated the use of one such tool, The World Health Organization’s Urban HEART, which guides users through a process to identify health inequities, focusing on health determinants and then developing actions based on the evidence generated. In a time of increasing financial constraints, there is a pressing need to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. Tools are needed to guide policy makers in their planning process to identify best-practice interventions that promote health equity in their cities. PMID:20811780

Kumaresan, Jacob; Alwan, Ala; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

2010-01-01

412

Evidence base for pre-employment medical screening  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper examines the evidence base for the use of pre-employment/pre-placement medical examinations. The use of pre?employment examinations is often driven more by cultural practices than evidence. There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness in preventing health-related occupational risks. Hypertension screening is highlighted as a common pre-employment practice for which there is no standardized criteria to use to determine fitness for work. There are inherent problems in screening for psychiatric disorders and substance abuse as well as potential for racial bias and other unintended negative effects. This paper questions the economic case for this practice and also expresses concerns about paternalism related to identified risk factors. Health assessments should only be included when appropriate to the task environment and the general use of pre-employment exams and drug screening should be eliminated. Generally, a health assessment by questionnaire should suffice. Occupational health providers should advise against the application of physical or mental standards that are not relevant to fulfilment of the essential job functions. Consensus development regarding best practice, as well as consideration for acquiring outcome data related to pre-employment practice, is recommended. PMID:19649367

2009-01-01

413

Score-based likelihood ratios for handwriting evidence.  

PubMed

Score-based approaches for computing forensic likelihood ratios are becoming more prevalent in the forensic literature. When two items of evidential value are entangled via a scorefunction, several nuances arise when attempting to model the score behavior under the competing source-level propositions. Specific assumptions must be made in order to appropriately model the numerator and denominator probability distributions. This process is fairly straightforward for the numerator of the score-based likelihood ratio, entailing the generation of a database of scores obtained by pairing items of evidence from the same source. However, this process presents ambiguities for the denominator database generation - in particular, how best to generate a database of scores between two items of different sources. Many alternatives have appeared in the literature, three of which we will consider in detail. They differ in their approach to generating denominator databases, by pairing (1) the item of known source with randomly selected items from a relevant database; (2) the item of unknown source with randomly generated items from a relevant database; or (3) two randomly generated items. When the two items differ in type, perhaps one having higher information content, these three alternatives can produce very different denominator databases. While each of these alternatives has appeared in the literature, the decision of how to generate the denominator database is often made without calling attention to the subjective nature of this process. In this paper, we compare each of the three methods (and the resulting score-based likelihood ratios), which can be thought of as three distinct interpretations of the denominator proposition. Our goal in performing these comparisons is to illustrate the effect that subtle modifications of these propositions can have on inferences drawn from the evidence evaluation procedure. The study was performed using a data set composed of cursive writing samples from over 400 writers. We found that, when provided with the same two items of evidence, the three methods often would lead to differing conclusions (with rates of disagreement ranging from 0.005 to 0.48). Rates of misleading evidence and Tippet plots are both used to characterize the range of behavior for the methods over varying sized questioned documents. The appendix shows that the three score-based likelihood ratios are theoretically very different not only from each other, but also from the likelihood ratio, and as a consequence each display drastically different behavior. PMID:22297142

Hepler, Amanda B; Saunders, Christopher P; Davis, Linda J; Buscaglia, JoAnn

2012-06-10

414

Cultivating quality: shared governance supports evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Blending a shared governance model with the concept of evidence-based practice (EBP) creates a dynamic situation for both nurses and hospitals: staff nurses are directly involved in improving the care they provide while growing in their practice and becoming more invested in their institution. Shared governance enables staff nurses to assume leadership roles in identifying areas for change and driving the change through an EBP process, while nursing leaders provide the tools and maintain an environment that will allow such a process to take place. PMID:19858858

Waddell, Ashley W G

2009-11-01

415

Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

2013-05-01

416

NLM Evidence-based Information at Your Fingertips - NBNA  

SciTech Connect

The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.

Womble, R.

2010-08-06

417

Strategies for leading the implementation of evidence-based practices.  

PubMed

Many mental health authority and program administrators would like to implement behavioral health practices that have been demonstrated to be effective. Leading practice implementation involves promoting behavior change in health care providers. Reviews of the general medical literature on practice change conclude that education alone has little impact on practitioner behavior and that intensive, multifaceted interventions that attend to local circumstances have the greatest likelihood of affecting change. This article briefly reviews the literature on health care practice change and offers some strategy suggestions for administrators who are leading evidence-based practice implementation initiatives. PMID:14711126

Torrey, William C; Finnerty, Molly; Evans, Arthur; Wyzik, Phillip

2003-12-01

418

Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

419

Batch and fixed-bed assessment of sulphate removal by the weak base ion exchange resin Amberlyst A21.  

PubMed

This paper investigated sulphate removal from aqueous solutions by Amberlyst A21, a polystyrene weak base ion exchange resin. Both the pH and initial sulphate concentration were observed to strongly affect sorption yields, which were largest in acidic environments. Working under optimum operational conditions, sulphate sorption by Amberlyst A21 was relatively fast and reached equilibrium after 45min of contact between the solid and liquid phases. Sorption kinetics could be described by either the pseudo-first order (k1=3.05×10(-5)s(-1)) or pseudo-second order model (k2=1.67×10(-4)s(-1)), and both the Freundlich and Langmuir models successfully fitted the equilibrium data. Sulphate uptake by Amberlyst A21 was a physisorption process (?H=-25.06kJmol(-1)) that occurred with entropy reduction (?S=-0.042kJmol(-1)K(-1)). Elution experiments showed that sulphate is easily desorbed (?100%) from the resin by sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10 or pH 12. Fixed-bed experiments assessed the effects of the initial sulphate concentration, bed height and flow rate on the breakthrough curves and the efficiency of the Amberlyst A21 in the treatment of a real effluent. In all studied conditions, the maximum sulphate loading resin varied between 8 and 40mg(SO4(2-))mL(resin)(-1). PMID:25151243

Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

2014-09-15

420

[Ethical problems in clinical practice of evidence-based medicine].  

PubMed

Ethical problems as consequences of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have insufficiently been investigated and discussed. EBM--as initially intended--is usually interpreted as an attempt to treat patients individually with respect to their personal preferences and the present situation according to the best available clinical evidence. This practice is in line with accepted medical ethics. Therefore, it does not appear to be a relevant issue for discussion at first sight. However, between the theoretical concept and the practical use (or misuse) of this approach discrepancies exist which require some considerations. In particular the practical use of EBM generates a number of ethical problems: EBM is increasingly misused as an instrument of resource-allocation. Based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for very specific patient groups, the general access to medical supply is regulated and limited. The recurrence to general ("supra-individual") external evidence may additionally be in strong contrast to the individual patients' intentions and will and leads to conflicts for therapy decisions. If no longer the individual preferences and the patients' will are in the center of therapy decisions but a so called "general welfare", the mutual trust between patient and doctor is eroded. The utilitaristic approach of a primacy of this general welfare in opposition to the individual welfare is favored by the present interpretation and use of EBM. This conflicts with the perception of the doctor as a patient's advocate. However, the doctor being the patient's advocate is the basis of the traditional medical ethos. We should take care that we do not completely lose the basis of our medical ethos. PMID:19585442

Rogler, G; Fröhlich, G

2009-07-01

421

Caught on Video! Using Handheld Digital Video Cameras to Support Evidence-Based Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging elementary students in evidence-based reasoning is an essential aspect of science and engineering education. Evidence-based reasoning involves students making claims (i.e., answers to questions, or solutions to problems), providing evidence to support those claims, and articulating their reasoning to connect the evidence to the claim. In…

Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Nealy, Jennifer; Roland, Christine; Ryan, Amy

2011-01-01

422

Building an Evidence Base for Speech-Language Services in the Schools: Challenges and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists are faced with demands for evidence to support practice. Federal legislation requires high-quality evidence for decisions regarding school-based services as part of evidence-based practice. The purpose of this article is to discuss the limited scientific evidence for making appropriate decisions about speech-language…

Whitmire, Kathleen A.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Mele-McCarthy, Joan A.; Staskowski, Maureen

2014-01-01

423

Basing Cryptographic Protocols on Tamper-Evident Tal Moran,a,1,2  

E-print Network

Basing Cryptographic Protocols on Tamper-Evident Seals$ Tal Moran,a,1,2 , Moni Naora,3 a of "tamper-evident seals" in cryptographic protocols. A tamper-evident seal is a primitive based on very are called "tamper-evident seals". Another physical object with this property is the "scratch-off card", of

Moran, Tal

424

A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture WenQian Liu  

E-print Network

A Design for Evidence-based Software Architecture Research WenQian Liu , Charles L. Chen, Vidya issues on evidence-based SE particularly on combining and using evidence, describe triangulation studies. The first step is to collect evidence about practice in industry before design- ing relevant

Perry, Dewayne E.

425

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

426

Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

2010-01-01

427

Evidence-based practice in group work with incarcerated youth.  

PubMed

As a result of the Youth Criminal Justice Act's increased focus on restorative justice, treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration of youth, many more juvenile offenders require mental health services while resident in youth detention facilities [Youth Criminal Justice Act (2002, c.1). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/Y-1.5]. Several common characteristics such as violence, aggression, and other antisocial behaviors, associated with criminal behavior, have been identified among male and female offenders. Dialectical behavior therapy, originally developed by Linehan [Linehan, M. M., 1993a. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guildford Press] for chronically parasuicidal women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, has been successfully modified for use with other populations, including violent and impulse-oriented male and female adolescents residing in correctional facilities. The intent of this article is to encourage the wider use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) with young offenders. It includes an extensive review of the evidence-base to date and describes some of the creative modifications that have been made to standard DBT program format to meet the particular needs of various groups in both Canada and the United States. In keeping with the movement toward more evidence-based practice, the authors argue that DBT is a promising approach in group work with incarcerated adolescents and should be more widely used. PMID:19647875

Quinn, Ashley; Shera, Wes

2009-01-01

428

Three collaborative models for scaling up evidence-based practices.  

PubMed

The current paper describes three models of research-practice collaboration to scale-up evidence-based practices (EBP): (1) the Rolling Cohort model in England, (2) the Cascading Dissemination model in San Diego County, and (3) the Community Development Team model in 53 California and Ohio counties. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and KEEP are the focal evidence-based practices that are designed to improve outcomes for children and families in the child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health systems. The three scale-up models each originated from collaboration between community partners and researchers with the shared goal of wide-spread implementation and sustainability of MTFC/KEEP. The three models were implemented in a variety of contexts; Rolling Cohort was implemented nationally, Cascading Dissemination was implemented within one county, and Community Development Team was targeted at the state level. The current paper presents an overview of the development of each model, the policy frameworks in which they are embedded, system challenges encountered during scale-up, and lessons learned. Common elements of successful scale-up efforts, barriers to success, factors relating to enduring practice relationships, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21484449

Chamberlain, Patricia; Roberts, Rosemarie; Jones, Helen; Marsenich, Lynne; Sosna, Todd; Price, Joseph M

2012-07-01

429

Evidence-centered design for simulation-based assessment.  

PubMed

Simulations provide opportunities for people to learn and to develop skills for situations that are expensive, time-consuming, or dangerous. Careful design can support their learning by tailoring the features of situations to their levels of skill, allowing repeated attempts, and providing timely feedback. The same environments provide opportunities for assessing people's capabilities to act in these situations. This article describes an assessment design framework that can help projects develop effective simulation-based assessments. It reviews the rationale and terminology of the "evidence-centered" assessment design framework, discusses how it aligns with the principles of simulation design, and illustrates ideas with examples from engineering and medicine. Advice is offered for designing a new simulation-based assessment and for adapting an existing simulation system for assessment purposes. PMID:24084311

Mislevy, Robert J

2013-10-01

430

Evidence-based decision making in action: Part 2--evaluating and applying the clinical evidence.  

PubMed

This is the second of a two-part series addressing the use of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) in the use of home bleaching. In Part 1, a case scenario demonstrated the skills involved in (1) structuring a clinical question and (2) conducting an online search using PubMed.1 Part 2 demonstrates the third and fourth steps in the EBDM process, i.e., (3) critical appraisal to assess the validity of a study and (4) applying that information to clinical decision making. This 4-step approach to EBDM recognizes that clinicians can never be completely current with all conditions, medications, materials, and products. Thus, EBDM provides a mechanism for addressing these gaps in knowledge in order to provide the best care possible. PMID:12595932

Forrest, Jane L; Miller, Syrene A

2003-02-15

431

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff retention in a children's services system. The study took place in the context

Gregory A. Aarons; David H. Sommerfeld; Debra B. Hecht; Jane F. Silovsky; Mark J. Chaffin

2009-01-01

432

Longitudinal Teaching of Evidence-Based Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether longitudinal design and delivery of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) content was effective in increasing students’ knowledge, skills, and confidence as they progressed through a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. Three student cohorts were followed from 2005 to 2009 (n=367), as they learned about EBDM through lectures, actively researching case-based questions, and researching and writing answers to therapy-based questions generated in practice settings. Assessment. Longitudinal evaluations included repeated multiple-choice examinations, confidence surveys, and written answers to practice-based questions (clinical inquiries). Students’ knowledge and perception of EBDM principles increased over each of the 3 years. Students’ self-efficacy (10-items, p<0.0001) and perceived skills (7-items, p<0.0001) in applying EBDM skills to answer practice-based questions also increased. Graded clinical inquiries verified that students performed satisfactorily in the final 2 years of the program. Conclusions. This study demonstrated a successful integration of EBDM throughout the curriculum. EBDM can effectively be taught by repetition, use of real examples, and provision of feedback. PMID:23275662

Martin, Beth A.; Kraus, Connie K.; Kim, Su-Young

2012-01-01

433

The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234  

PubMed Central

There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

Williams, Peter G.

2014-01-01

434

The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.  

PubMed

There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

Williams, Peter G

2014-09-01

435

Evidence-based medicine breaking the borders – A working model for the European Union to facilitate evidence-based health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The promotion of evidence-based health care to improve quality of care has become an important political agenda worldwide. In April 2003, the European Commission acknowledged the lack of evidence-based health care in the European Union. Nevertheless, neither the new eHealth 2005 Action Plan nor the Public Health Program 2003 explicitly state the facilitation of evidence-based health care as a goal.

Gerald Gartlehner; Cecil G. Sheps; Sheps Cen

2004-01-01

436

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychiatric Care: Defining Levels of Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and application of the current research evidence to a clinical problem is a goal reflected in professional codes and institutional mission statements. The use of expert opinions and traditions is no longer clinically or legally defensible in an era of using emerging evidence. Application of current research evidence is the emerging standard of care for all health care personnel,

Michael J. Rice

2008-01-01

437

Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i) the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii) the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints. PMID:21951830

2011-01-01

438

Implementation of evidence in practice settings: some methodological issues arising from the South Thames Evidence Based Practice Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is acknowledged that the NHS fails to benefit from its research investment. Effective methods for implementing evidence into practice are contested within medicine and, as yet, are poorly understood in nursing and professions allied to medicine. This paper discusses the methodological development of the model used in the South Thames Evidence Based Practice project in the context of contemporary

S. M. G. McLaren; F. Ross

2000-01-01

439

Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions  

PubMed Central

The numbers of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been growing exponentially, both therapeutic and prevention programs. Yet, EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically re-examine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by re-examining the biomedical model for validating EBIs and the compartmentalization of EBIs as disease-specific, institutionally-based, counseling programs. The model of Disruptive Innovations suggests that we re-engineer EBIs based on their most robust features in order to reach more people in less time and at lower cost. Four new research agendas will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F.

2013-01-01

440

From tradition to evidence: decolonization of the evidence-based practice system.  

PubMed

Culture counts in the prevention and treatment of behavioral ailments. The Native American Health Center (NAHC) has successfully developed a model that incorporates cultural adaptations into EBPs, yet also believes community-defined and practice-based evidence are relevant in the validation of traditional practices. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) traditional practices are more than complementary forms of healing. They are stand-alone methods, developed and used by tribal people long before the concept of EBPs existed. There is a need for funders to respect these practices as autonomous mental health strategies. The reasons for promoting change are explained through an understanding of key dimensions of AI/AN behavioral health issues. These key dimensions were identified in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report and an extensive literature review of Indigenous research methodologies. Recommendations are made based upon their ability to promote AI/AN empowerment, to support movement toward self-determination using the Indigenous Research Agenda model. This model honors fluid movement of Indigenous people through states of survival, recovery, development and self-determination through four categories for action: decolonization, mobilization, transformation, and healing. The end results are options for holistic approaches to influence policy changes in the EBP system. PMID:22400463

Lucero, Esther

2011-01-01

441

The professional portfolio: an evidence-based assessment method.  

PubMed

Competency assessment is critical for a myriad of disciplines, including medicine, law, education, and nursing. Many nurse managers and educators are responsible for nursing competency assessment, and assessment results are often used for annual reviews, promotions, and satisfying accrediting agencies' requirements. Credentialing bodies continually seek methods to measure and document the continuing competence of licensees or certificants. Many methods and frameworks for continued competency assessment exist. The portfolio process is one method to validate personal and professional accomplishments in an interactive, multidimensional manner. This article illustrates how portfolios can be used to assess competence. One specialty nursing certification board's process of creating an evidence-based portfolio for recertification or reactivation of a credential is used as an example. The theoretical background, development process, implementation, and future implications may serve as a template for other organizations in developing their own portfolio models. PMID:20000263

Byrne, Michelle; Schroeter, Kathryn; Carter, Shannon; Mower, Julie

2009-12-01

442

Evidence-based medicine and the practicing clinician  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes of practicing general internists toward evidence-based medicine (EBM—defined as the process of systematically\\u000a finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions) and their perceived\\u000a barriers to its use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered mail questionnaire conducted between June and October 1997.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Canada.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were sent to all 521 physician members

Finlay A. McAlister; Ian Graham; Gerald W. Karr; Andreas Laupacis

1999-01-01

443

Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia: Evidence-based Strategies  

PubMed Central

Treatment-resistant symptoms complicate the clinical course of schizophrenia, and a large proportion of patients do not reach functional recovery. In consequence, polypharmacy is frequently used in treatment-refractory cases, addressing psychotic positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, treatment-emergent side effects caused by antipsychotics and comorbid depressive or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To a large extent, such strategies are not covered by pharmacological guidelines which strongly suggest antipsychotic monotherapy. Add-on strategies comprise combinations of several antipsychotic agents and augmentations with mood stabilizers; moreover, antidepressants and experimental substances are applied. Based on the accumulated evidence of clinical trials and meta-analyses, combinations of clozapine with certain second-generation antipsychotic agents and the augmentation of antipsychotics with antidepressants seem recommendable, while the augmentation with mood stabilizers cannot be considered superior to placebo. Forthcoming investigations will have to focus on innovative pharmacological agents, the clinical spectrum of cognitive deficits and the implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:22654380

Englisch, Susanne; Zink, Mathias

2012-01-01

444

Evidence-based psychotherapy for schizophrenia: 2011 update.  

PubMed

Many patients with schizophrenia have psychological distress and receive some form of psychotherapy. Several different psychotherapeutic approaches for schizophrenia have been developed and studied. Of these approaches, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has the strongest evidence base and has shown benefit for symptom reduction in outpatients with residual symptoms. In addition to CBT, other approaches include compliance therapy, personal therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and supportive therapy. Although usually studied as distinct approaches, these therapies overlap with each other in their therapeutic elements. Psychotherapy for schizophrenia continues to evolve with the recent advent of such approaches as metacognitive therapy, narrative therapies, and mindfulness therapy. Future research may also consider three different goals of psychotherapy in this patient population: to provide emotional support, to enhance functional recovery, and to alter the underlying illness process. PMID:21814072

Dickerson, Faith B; Lehman, Anthony F

2011-08-01

445

Evidence-based psychosocial practices and recovery from schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Pessimistic views about the course and outcome of schizophrenia have been replaced by a more hopeful perspective that emphasizes on providing opportunities for recovery. Recovery, from a provider perspective, means that priority is placed on providing access to treatments and community services that have been proven effective in both decreasing symptoms and assisting individuals to lead maximally productive and personally meaningful lives. In 2004, the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) published a consensus list of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that includes six psychosocial treatments. These psychosocial interventions in combination with access to pharmacotherapy are important components of comprehensive treatment programs for the seriously mentally ill. This paper summarizes and updates the research basis for the PORT psychosocial EBPs and discusses several additional issues and research topics to be considered in the future. PMID:20070131

Shean, Glenn D

2009-01-01

446

The Magnet Recognition Program and evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

From the original Magnet study (1981) to now, health care organizations have begun to embrace the Magnet Recognition Program in record numbers. A visit to the Magnet web site (http://nursingworld.org/ancc/magnet.html) listed 186 Magnet hospitals, with many more healthcare facilities currently under review. As the Magnet Recognition Program has grown, so has the development of evidence-based practice (EBP). In fact, EBP is one of the cornerstones of the Magnet Recognition Program, as well as the involvement of staff nurses in research and/or EBP activities. This article will give a brief introduction of the Magnet Recognition Program and suggest activities that will involve staff nurses in EBP. PMID:16769526

Clark, Martha L

2006-06-01

447

The Challenge of Developing Evidence-Based Genetics Health Care in Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based genetics health care is the conscientious use of current best evidence in decision-making at the clinical,\\u000a administrative and policy-making levels. As knowledge generated from genomics research is integrated into medical care, the\\u000a needs for appropriate evidence become more complex. The challenges to evidence-based care include: a lack of policy-relevant\\u000a evidence in the domains of basic, clinical and health services

Brenda J. Wilson

2006-01-01

448

A Bridge Too Far? Stepping Stones for Evidence Based Practice in an Academic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entering its second decade, evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP), the now-preferred term for evidence based librarianship, can count some notable successes. In particular, the initiation and growth of an international open access journal, the ongoing development of an International Conference series, and a proliferation of articles on the stages of the evidence based process attest to its ongoing

Andrew Booth

2009-01-01

449

Danger and Opportunity: Challenges in Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in the Social Work Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice has received increased emphasis within the social work field in the past decade and social work educational programs are including more evidence-based practice content in their curricula. This article examines some issues social work educators may wish to consider as they teach evidence-based practice to social work…

Scheyett, Anna

2006-01-01

450

Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 350361 Evidence-based policy recommendations on cancer  

E-print Network

of evidence-based medicine has underscored the need for consortia of researchers specialized in reviewing Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Evidence-based medicine; Cancer,2]. The new era of evidence-based medicine has spawned a number of consortia of biomedical researchers specia

Barthelat, Francois

451

MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine  

E-print Network

MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine Göran Falkman Department of Computer Abstract. MedView is a project that meets the challenges of evidence-based oral medicine by providing]. The increased interest in evidence-based medicine is a direct response to these demands. The MedView project

Torgersson, Olof

452

Evidence-Based Practice Empowers Early Childhood Professionals and Families. FPG Snapshot #33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice emerged as a result of the gap often seen between research and practice and gained momentum with the standards and accountability movement. Yet it originates in medicine. Healthcare professionals using evidence-based medicine determine a patient's treatment based on an assessment of evidence from the literature and current…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2006

2006-01-01

453

Validation of the Fresno test of competence in evidence based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the development and validation of a test of knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Family practice residency programme in California; a list server for those who teach evidence based medicine; and an evidence based medicine seminar series. Participants Family practice residents and faculty members (n=43); volunteers self identified as experts in

Kathleen D Ramos; Sean Schafer; Susan M Tracz; South Cedar; California State

2003-01-01

454

Health First: an evidence-based alcohol strategy for the UK Health First  

E-print Network

from www.stir.ac.uk/management/about/social-marketing Acknowledgements The development of this strategy#12;Health First: an evidence-based alcohol strategy for the UK 1 Health First An evidence-based alcohol strategy for the UK #12;Health First: an evidence-based alcohol strategy for the UK 2 Health First

Little, Tony

455

Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper considers the validity of evidence-based practice in social work. It critically examines various underlying presuppositions and assumptions entailed in evidence- based practice and draws out their implications for social work. The paper is divided into three main parts. Following a consideration of the background to the develop- ment of evidence-based practice and a discussion of its key

Stephen A. Webb

2001-01-01

456

Treatment of cutaneous warts: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Cutaneous warts are common skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus infection. Treatment is aimed at relieving the patient's physical and psychological discomfort and at preventing the spread of infection by autoinoculation. Among the available medical and destructive therapeutic options for cutaneous warts, none is uniformly effective or virucidal. Moreover, in most cases their safety and efficacy has not been assessed in double-blind, controlled clinical trials, so that the reproducibility of many of the listed treatments is difficult to evaluate and a possible placebo effect cannot be ruled out. The aim of this article is to describe the outcome of current therapies for each clinical wart type according to evidence-based medicine studies published in the literature. For each clinical form, the existing treatments are classified as first-, second-, and third-line therapy. First-line therapy includes medical treatments (salicylic acid, silver nitrate, glutaraldehyde) that are useful to treat a single wart or a few and/or small common warts of short duration (less than 1 year). If these treatments have failed or are contraindicated, cryotherapy may be considered as second-line therapy. For recurrent or difficult-to-treat lesions, third-line therapy includes a variety of alternative therapeutic options (topical, intralesional, systemic, and physical destruction) that are generally off-label (not US FDA approved), and whose use is limited by drawbacks or adverse effects. From pooled evidence-based medicine data, it is possible to conclude that significantly higher remission rates may be expected only with cryotherapy and salicylic acid used in combination. PMID:22292461

Dall'oglio, Federica; D'Amico, Valentina; Nasca, Maria R; Micali, Giuseppe

2012-04-01

457

Evidence for a pairing anti-halo effect in the odd-even staggering in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a three-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of {sup 30,31,32}Ne and {sup 14,15,16}C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the pairing anti-halo effect. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for s and p waves using the HFB wave functions.

Hagino, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Sagawa, H. [Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8560 (Japan)

2011-07-15

458

Second-generation H1-antihistamines in chronic urticaria: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

The effects of urticaria are predominantly mediated by histamine release; therefore, H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Second-generation H1-antihistamines, compared with their first-generation counterparts, have demonstrated improved peripheral H1-receptor selectivity and decreased lipophilicity (which minimizes CNS adverse effects), and antiallergic properties in addition to being histamine inverse agonists. Evidence of clinical efficacy and tolerability of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US for the treatment of chronic urticaria (CU) was analyzed using the GRADE system to develop the strength of recommendations for particular therapies. The evidence for the safety and efficacy of the majority of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US is of high quality and leads to a strong recommendation for their use in CU. There is a limited amount of data of variable quality comparing the efficacy between various second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU leading to weak recommendations for using cetirizine over fexofenadine and levocetirizine over desloratadine. Limited data of variable quality exist for the efficacy of higher doses of second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU patients not responsive to standard doses. These limited data lead to a strong recommendation that higher than recommended doses of fexofenadine do not offer greater efficacy in control of CU and a weak recommendation that higher doses of levocetirizine and desloratadine are more effective in CU unresponsive to standard doses. More studies of higher quality are required to make any firm recommendations regarding second-generation H1-antihistamines in the treatment of physical urticarias. All second-generation H1-antihistamines appear to be very well tolerated in CU patients, with rare reports of adverse effects. Due to the relatively large gaps in the quantity and quality of evidence, particularly for choice of H1-antihistamines, use of higher doses, and use in physical urticarias, greater emphasis in management decisions should be based on the risk/benefit ratio and the patient's personal values and preferences (including cost) in clinical decision making. PMID:21967114

Kavosh, Eric R; Khan, David A

2011-12-01

459

Resisting Weakness of the Will  

PubMed Central

I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

Levy, Neil

2012-01-01

460

Feature extraction of rolling bearing’s early weak fault based on EEMD and tunable Q-factor wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When early weak fault emerges in rolling bearing the fault feature is too weak to extract using the traditional fault diagnosis methods such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and envelope demodulation. The tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) is the improvement of traditional one single Q-factor wavelet transform, and it is very fit for separating the low Q-factor transient impact component from the high Q-factor sustained oscillation components when fault emerges in rolling bearing. However, it is hard to extract the rolling bearing’ early weak fault feature perfectly using the TQWT directly. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is the improvement of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which not only has the virtue of self-adaptability of EMD but also overcomes the mode mixing problem of EMD. The original signal of rolling bearing’ early weak fault is decomposed by EEMD and several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are obtained. Then the IMF with biggest kurtosis index value is selected and handled by the TQWT subsequently. At last, the envelope demodulation method is applied on the low Q-factor transient impact component and satisfactory extraction result is obtained.

Wang, Hongchao; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming

2014-10-01

461

Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

2007-01-01

462

Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

2007-01-01

463

Efficient literature searching: a core skill for the practice of evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEfficient literature searching and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature are the two key skills defining the practice of evidence-based medicine. Although clinicians embrace the concepts of evidence-based medicine, most identify limited personal time as the major barrier towards its implementation into daily practice. Busy clinicians who practice evidence-based medicine identify systematic reviews and

GordonStuart Doig; Fiona Simpson

2003-01-01

464

Effects of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on quality of care: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Evidence-based clinical guidelines aim to improve the quality of care. In The Netherlands, considerable time and effort have been invested in the development and implementation of evidence-based guidelines since the 1990s. Thus far, no reviews are available on their effectiveness. The primary aim of this article was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of Dutch evidence-based clinical guidelines in

M. Lugtenberg; J. S. Burgers; G. P. Westert

2009-01-01

465

Advancing the Evidence Base of Rehabilitation Treatments: A Developmental Approach  

PubMed Central

Translational research refers to the development of new scientific discoveries into evidence-based treatments for human diseases and conditions. This developmental process requires that a number of scientific, as well as social and psychological obstacles, be overcome during a sequence of research stages that address different goals. Rehabilitation, like other biomedical disciplines, requires this kind of developmental process. For a variety of reasons, however, development of rehabilitation treatments is less linear than the familiar phases of pharmaceutical research. In addition, research on treatments intended to address impairments (body structure/function, in terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), faces the challenge of determining the likely impact of an impairment-level treatment on the multifaceted activities and aspects of participation that are the typical goals of rehabilitation treatments. This article describes the application of treatment theory and enablement theory to the development of new impairment-based treatments, and examines similarities and differences between the developmental sequence needed for rehabilitation treatment research versus pharmaceutical research in other areas of medicine. PMID:22683206

Whyte, John; Barrett, A.M.

2013-01-01

466

Evidence-based treatment of carotid artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Carotid atheromatous disease is an important cause of stroke. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a well-established option for reducing the risk of subsequent stroke due to symptomatic stenosis (> 50%). With adequately low perioperative risk (< 3%) and sufficient life expectancy, CEA may be used for asymptomatic stenosis (> 60%). Recently, carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) has emerged as an alternative revascularization technique. Trial design considerations are discussed in relation to trial results to provide an understanding of why some trials were considered positive whereas others were not. This review then addresses both the original randomized studies showing that CEA is superior to best medical management and the newer studies comparing the procedure to stent insertion in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. Additionally, recent population-based studies show that improvements in best medical management may be lowering the stroke risk for asymptomatic stenosis. Finally, the choice of revascularization technique is discussed with respect to symptom status. Based on current evidence, CAS should remain limited to specific indications. PMID:21631221

Young, Kate C; Jain, Anunaya; Jain, Minal; Replogle, Robert E; Benesch, Curtis G; Jahromi, Babak S

2011-06-01

467

Evidence-based management of sport-related concussion.  

PubMed

Concussion is not only one of the most common injuries encountered by athletes participating in contact and collision sports, but also among the most complex injuries to manage in a sports medicine setting. Over the past two decades, we have made great progress in advancing the basic and clinical science of concussion. These advances have had enormous clinical translational value for developing evidence-based guidelines for management of concussion in sports. Applied clinical research has clarified the defining characteristics of sport-related concussion (SRC) that support new diagnostic criteria. At the same time, major advancements have been realized in the development and validation of clinical tools that allow a more objective and accurate assessment of concussion and performance-based measures of recovery. These tools provide clinicians with a more informed basis for determining an athlete's cognitive and physical fitness to return to competition after concussion. Standardized injury management protocols that systematically prescribe rest, graded activity, and return to play have been adopted in nearly all clinical settings. Herein, we briefly summarize the findings and recommendations from several national and international consensus guidelines and position statements on best practice in the evaluation and management of SRC. PMID:24923397

McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin

2014-01-01

468

An extended model based on the modified Nernst-Planck equation for describing transdermal iontophoresis of weak electrolytes.  

PubMed

An extended model for iontophoretic enhancement of transdermal drug permeation under constant voltage is described based on the previously modified Nernst-Planck equation, which included the effect of convective solvent flow. This model resulted in an analytical expression for the enhancement factor as a function of applied voltage, convective flow velocity due to electroosmosis, ratio of lipid to aqueous pathway passive permeability, and weighted average net ionic valence of the permeant in the aqueous epidermis domain. The shift of pH in the epidermis compared to bulk caused by the electrical double layer at the lipid-aqueous domain interface was evaluated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This was solved numerically for representative surface charge densities and yielded pH differences between bulk and epidermal aqueous domain between 0.05 and 0.4 pH units. The developed model was used to analyze the experimental enhancement of an amphoteric weak electrolyte measured in vitro using human cadaver epidermis and a voltage of 250 mV at different pH values. Parameter values characterizing the involved factors were determined that yielded the experimental enhancement factors and passive permeability coefficients at all pH values. The model provided a very good agreement between experimental and calculated enhancement and passive permeability. The deduced parameters showed (i) that the pH shift in the aqueous permeation pathway had a notable effect on the ionic valence and the partitioning of the drug in this domain for a high surface charge density and depending on the pK(a) and pI of the drug in relation to the bulk pH; (ii) the magnitude and the direction of convective transport due to electroosmosis typically reflected the density and sign, respectively, of surface charge of the tissue and its effect on enhancement was substantial for bulk pH values differing from the pI of epidermal tissue; (iii) the aqueous pathway predominantly determined passive permeability of the studied compound despite its measurable lipophilicity and therefore the lipid pathway did not notably affect enhancement. Hence, the proposed model can provide a good quantitative insight into the interplay between different phenomena and permeant properties influencing iontophoresis and can potentially be used as a predictive tool of the process. PMID:16724334

Imanidis, Georgios; Luetolf, Peter

2006-07-01

469

SOME COMMENTS ON ENERGY PSYCHOLOGY: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE: PREMATURE CONCLUSIONS BASED ON INCOMPLETE EVIDENCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the evidence on energy psychology (EP) was published in this journal. Although Feinstein’s stated intention of reviewing the evidence is one we support, we noted that important EP studies were omitted from the review that did not confirm the claims being made by EP proponents. We also identify other problems with the review, such as the lack

MONICA PIGNOTTI; BRUCE THYER

2009-01-01

470

Community-Based Prevention Using Simple, Low-Cost, Evidence-Based Kernels and Behavior Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paradox exists in community prevention of violence and drugs. Good research now exists on evidence-based programs, yet extensive expenditures on prevention have not produced community-level results. Various multiproblems are quite prevalent in the United States, such as violence, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), conduct problems,…

Embry, Dennis D.

2004-01-01

471

Population-Based Provider Engagement in Delivery of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions: Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population-wide interventions do not often address parenting, and relatively little is known about large scale dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions. Most parenting interventions are not designed to reach the majority of parents in a geographic area or to influence prevalence rates for a problem, nor do they take full advantage…

Shapiro, Cheri J.; Prinz, Ronald J.; Sanders, Matthew R.

2010-01-01

472