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1

Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Ameri- cas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol

Thomas F. Babor; Raul Caetano

2005-01-01

2

Neutron-diffraction evidence for the ferrimagnetic ground state of a molecule-based magnet with weakly coupled sublattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diruthenium compound [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two weakly coupled, ferrimagnetically ordered sublattices occupying the same volume. Due to the weak, antiferromagnetic dipolar interaction Kc ? 5 × 10-3 meV between sublattices, a small magnetic field Hc ˜ Kc/?B ? 800 Oe aligns the sublattice moments. Powder neutron-diffraction measurements on a deuterated sample confirm an earlier prediction that the sublattice moments are restricted by the anisotropy of the diruthenium ‘paddle-wheels’ to the cubic diagonals. Those measurements also suggest that quantum corrections to the ground state are significant.

Fishman, Randy S.; Campo, Javier; Vos, Thomas E.; Miller, Joel S.

2012-12-01

3

Is WTI crude oil market becoming weakly efficient over time?: New evidence from multiscale analysis based on detrended fluctuation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the work in Tabak and Cajueiro [Are the crude oil markets becoming weakly efficient over time, Energy Economics 29 (2007) 28-36] and Alvarez-Ramirez et al. [Short-term predictability of crude oil markets: a detrended fluctuation analysis approach, Energy Economics 30 (2008) 2645-2656]. In this paper, we test for the efficiency of WTI crude oil market through observing the

Yudong Wang; Li Liu

2010-01-01

4

Neutron-Diffraction Evidence for the Ferrimagnetic Ground State of a Molecule-Based Magnet with Weakly Coupled Sublattices  

SciTech Connect

The diruthenium compound [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two weakly coupled, ferrimag- netically ordered sublattices occupying the same volume. The magnetic field Hc 800 Oe required to align the two sublattice moments is proportional to the antiferromagnetic dipolar interaction Kc B Hc 5 10 3 meV between sublattices. Powder neutron-diffraction measurements on a deuterated sample reveal that the sublattice moments are restricted by the anisotropy of the diruthenium paddle-wheel complexes to the cubic diagonals. Those measurements also suggest that the quantum corrections to the ground state are significant.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Campo, Javier [University of Zaragoza, Spain; Vos, Thomas E. [University of Utah; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

2012-01-01

5

Investigating Acids and Bases: Strong vs Weak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an extension to standard labs that have students generate a pH curve from strong acid/strong base data. Students are asked to predict and test how the the titration end point will shift when titrating vinegar (a weak acid) with NaOH (a strong base).

6

Evidence-based dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in an age of information, innovation and change. Clinical decision making based on good quality evidence should lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Each practitioner has a role in assesing this information. This paper outlines this role, together with the advantages and problems of introducing an evidence-based approach to dentistry.

D Richards; A Lawrence

1998-01-01

7

Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally varying ACS point-spread function, and improved modelling of charge-transfer inefficiency, we measured a lensing signal that is consistent with pure gravitational modes and no significant shape systematics. We carefully estimated the statistical uncertainty from simulated COSMOS-like fields obtained from ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, including the full non-Gaussian sampling variance. We tested our lensing pipeline on simulated space-based data, recalibrated non-linear power spectrum corrections using the ray-tracing analysis, employed photometric redshift information to reduce potential contamination by intrinsic galaxy alignments, and marginalized over systematic uncertainties. We find that the weak lensing signal scales with redshift as expected from general relativity for a concordance ?CDM cosmology, including the full cross-correlations between different redshift bins. Assuming a flat ?CDM cosmology, we measure ?_8(?_m/0.3)0.51 = 0.75±0.08 from lensing, in perfect agreement with WMAP-5, yielding joint constraints ?_m = 0.266+0.025-0.023, ?_8 = 0.802+0.028-0.029 (all 68.3% conf.). Dropping the assumption of flatness and using priors from the HST Key Project and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis only, we find a negative deceleration parameter q0 at 94.3% confidence from the tomographic lensing analysis, providing independent evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. For a flat wCDM cosmology and prior w ? [-2,0], we obtain w <-0.41 (90% conf.). Our dark energy constraints are still relatively weak solely due to the limited area of COSMOS. However, they provide an important demonstration of the usefulness of tomographic weak lensing measurements from space. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility and the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Schrabback, T.; Hartlap, J.; Joachimi, B.; Kilbinger, M.; Simon, P.; Benabed, K.; Brada?, M.; Eifler, T.; Erben, T.; Fassnacht, C. D.; High, F. William; Hilbert, S.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kuijken, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Mellier, Y.; Morganson, E.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.

2010-06-01

8

Evidence for Weak-Form Market Efficiency in Hotel Real Estate Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to test for evidence of weak-form market efficiency in hotel real estate markets by measuring how rapidly price changes diffuse in geographically proximal areas. Using autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis, we found that there is little evidence that past hotel prices predict future hotel prices in the same city as well as neigh- boring cities.

Seonghee Oak; William P. Andrew

2003-01-01

9

Evidence-based management.  

PubMed

For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge. PMID:16447370

Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

2006-01-01

10

Demonstration of Weak Measurement Based on Atomic Spontaneous Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a new type of weak measurement based on the dynamics of spontaneous emission. The pointer in our scheme is given by the Lorentzian distribution characterizing atomic exponential decay via emission of a single photon. We thus introduce weak measurement, so far demonstrated nearly exclusively with laser beams and Gaussian statistics, into the quantum regime of single emitters and single quanta, enabling the exploitation of a wide class of sources that are abundant in nature. We describe a complete analogy between our scheme and weak measurement with conventional Gaussian pointers. Instead of a shift in the mean of a Gaussian distribution, an imaginary weak value is exhibited in our scheme by a significantly slower-than-natural exponential distribution of emitted photons at the postselected polarization, leading to a large shift in their mean arrival time. The dynamics of spontaneous emission offer a broader view of the measurement process than is usually considered within the weak measurement formalism. Our scheme opens the path for the use of atoms and atomlike systems as sensitive probes in weak measurements, one example being optical magnetometry.

Shomroni, Itay; Bechler, Orel; Rosenblum, Serge; Dayan, Barak

2013-07-01

11

On the interpretation of likelihood ratios in forensic science evidence: Presentation formats and the weak evidence effect.  

PubMed

Likelihood ratios are increasingly being adopted to convey expert evaluative opinions to courts. In the absence of appropriate databases, many of these likelihood ratios will include verbal rather than numerical estimates of the support offered by the analysis. However evidence suggests that verbal formulations of uncertainty are a less effective form of communication than equivalent numerical formulations. Moreover, when evidence strength is low a misinterpretation of the valence of the evidence - a "weak evidence effect" - has been found. We report the results of an experiment involving N=404 (student and online) participants who read a brief summary of a burglary trial containing expert testimony. The expert evidence was varied across conditions in terms of evidence strength (low or high) and presentation method (numerical, verbal, table or visual scale). Results suggest that of these presentation methods, numerical expressions produce belief-change and implicit likelihood ratios which were most commensurate with those intended by the expert and most resistant to the weak evidence effect. These findings raise questions about the extent to which low strength verbal evaluative opinions can be effectively communicated to decision makers at trial. PMID:24814330

Martire, K A; Kemp, R I; Sayle, M; Newell, B R

2014-07-01

12

Weak localization effects as evidence for bulk quantization in Bi2Se3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong spin-orbit coupling in topological insulators results in the ubiquitously observed weak antilocalization feature in their magnetoresistance. Here we present magnetoresistance measurements in ultrathin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and show that in the two-dimensional quantum limit, in which the topological insulator bulk becomes quantized, an additional negative magnetoresistance feature appears. Detailed analysis associates this feature with weak localization of the quantized bulk channels, thus providing evidence for this quantization. Examination of the dephasing fields at different temperatures indicates different scattering mechanism in the bulk vs the surface states.

Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav; Yang, Qi I.; Hammond, Robert H.; Zhou, Bo; Palevski, Alexander; Chen, Yulin; Kapitulnik, Aharon

2013-09-01

13

The Simultaneous Determination of Muscle Cell pH Using a Weak Acid and Weak Base  

PubMed Central

Should significant pH heterogeneity exist within cells then the simultaneous calculation of intracellular pH from the distribution of a weak acid will give a value closest to the highest pH in the system, whereas calculation from the distribution of a weak base will give a value closer to the lowest pH. These two values should then differ significantly. Intact rat diaphragms were exposed in vitro to varying bicarbonate concentrations (pure metabolic) and CO2 tensions (pure respiratory), and steady-state cell pH was measured simultaneously either by distribution of the weak acid 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione-14C (pH DMO) or by distribution of the weak base nicotine-14C (pH nicotine). The latter compound was found suitable to measure cell pH since it was neither metabolized nor bound by rat diaphragms. At an external pH of 7.40, pH DMO was 7.17 while pH nicotine was 6.69—a pH difference of 0.48 pH units (P < 0.001). In either respiratory or metabolic alkalosis both DMO and pH nicotine rose so that differences between them remained essentially constant. Metabolic acidosis induced a decrease in both values though they fell more slowly than did extracellular pH. In contradistinction, in respiratory acidosis, decreasing extracellular pH from 7.40 to 6.80 resulted in 0.35 pH unit drop in pH DMO while pH nicotine remained constant. In every experiment, under all external conditions, pH DMO exceeded pH nicotine. These results indicate that there is significant pH heterogeneity within diaphragm muscle, but the degree of heterogeneity may vary under different external conditions. The metabolic implications of these findings are discussed. In addition, the data show that true overall cell pH is between 6.69 and 7.17—a full pH higher than would be expected from thermodynamic considerations alone. This implies the presence of active processes to maintain cell pH.

Adler, Sheldon

1972-01-01

14

Evidence-Based Language Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

Pollock, Eric J.

2005-01-01

15

Evidence-Based Compression  

PubMed Central

Objective: To summarize the currently published scientific evidence for the venous flow effects of mechanical devices, particularly intermittent pneumatic compression, and the relation to prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Summary Background Data: While intermittent pneumatic compression is an established method of DVT prophylaxis, the variety of systems that are available can use very different compression techniques and sequences. In order for appropriate choices to be made to provide the optimum protection for patients, the general performance of systems, and physiological effects of particular properties, must be analyzed objectively. Methods: Medline was searched from 1970 to 2002, and all relevant papers were searched for further appropriate references. Papers were selected for inclusion when they addressed specifically the questions posed in this review. Results: All the major types of intermittent compression systems are successful in emptying deep veins of the lower limb and preventing stasis in a variety of subject groups. Compression stockings appear to function more by preventing distension of veins. Rapid inflation, high pressures, and graded sequential intermittent compression systems will have particular augmentation profiles, but there is no evidence that such features improve the prophylactic ability of the system. Conclusions: The most important factors in selecting a mechanical prophylactic system, particularly during and after surgery, are patient compliance and the appropriateness of the site of compression. There is no evidence that the peak venous velocity produced by a system is a valid measure of medical performance.

Morris, Rhys J.; Woodcock, John P.

2004-01-01

16

Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

2012-12-01

17

Evidence of deflected super-Alfvénic electron jet in a reconnection region with weak guide field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

numerical simulations demonstrated that electron diffusion region develops into two-scale structure, i.e., the inner electron diffusion region and the outer electron diffusion region. The outer diffusion region is manifested as super-Alfvénic electron jet embedded in central current sheet. However, the electron jets are deflected from neutral sheet with a weak guide field. In this paper we present the in situ evidence of deflected super-Alfvénic electron jet in a reconnection region with a weak guide field in the Earth's magnetotail. The electron-scale jet was detected at about 37 ion inertial lengths from the X line. There was a strong electric field at the jet. The strong electric field at the jet was primarily balanced by Hall electric field, as the intense current was mainly carried by magnetized electrons. Another event in the magnetosheath also supports our conclusion that guide field deflects the electron jet away the neutral sheet.

Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua; Tang, Rongxin; Pang, Ye; Xu, Xiaojun; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong

2014-03-01

18

Evidence-Based Practice: Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key steps of evidence-based practice is to critically appraise evidence to best answer a clinical question. Mental health clinicians need to understand the importance of qualitative evidence to their practice, including levels of qualitative evidence, qualitative inquiry methods, and criteria used to appraise qualitative evidence to determine how implementing the best qualitative evidence into their practice will

Kathleen M. Williamson

2009-01-01

19

Risk Assessment: Evidence Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

2007-01-01

20

Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied.

Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

21

Evidence-based intrapartum care.  

PubMed

Routine care in normal labour may range from supportive care at home to intensive monitoring and multiple interventions in hospital. Good evidence of effectiveness is necessary to justify interventions in the normal process of labour. Inadequate evidence is available to support perineal shaving, routine enemas, starvation in labour and excluding the choice for home births. Evidence supports continuity of care led by midwives, companionship in labour, restricting the use of episiotomy, and active management of the third stage of labour, including routine use of 10 units of oxytocin. Both benefits and risks are associated with routine amniotomy, continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, epidural analgesia, and oxytocin-ergometrine to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. More evidence is needed regarding the emotional consequences of labour interventions, home births, vaginal cleansing, opioid use, the partograph, second-stage labour techniques, misoprostol for primary prevention of postpartum haemorrhage, and strategies to promote evidence-based care in labour. PMID:15749069

Hofmeyr, G J

2005-02-01

22

From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies. [Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it

L. G. A. Bonneux

2007-01-01

23

Broadening the Evidence Base for Evidence-Based Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based evaluations of clinical preventive services help define priorities for research in prevention as part of primary health care. In this article, we draw on our experiences with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) to outline some major areas where research is needed to define the appropriate use of specific screening tests, counseling interventions, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis. Areas of

David Atkins; Carolyn G. DiGuiseppi

1998-01-01

24

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

25

From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They\\u000a reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking\\u000a forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence\\u000a based bioethics suggest that it is better

Luc Bonneux

2007-01-01

26

Electrophysiological and molecular genetic evidence for sympatrically occuring cryptic species in African weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Mormyridae: Campylomormyrus).  

PubMed

For two sympatric species of African weakly electric fish, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Campylomormyrus numenius, we monitored ontogenetic differentiation in electric organ discharge (EOD) and established a molecular phylogeny, based on 2222bp from cytochrome b, the S7 ribosomal protein gene, and four flanking regions of unlinked microsatellite loci. In C. tamandua, there is one common EOD type, regardless of age and sex, whereas in C. numenius we were able to identify three different male adult EOD waveform types, which emerged from a single common EOD observed in juveniles. Two of these EOD types formed well supported clades in our phylogenetic analysis. In an independent line of evidence, we were able to affirm the classification into three groups by microsatellite data. The correct assignment and the high pairwise F(ST) values support our hypothesis that these groups are reproductively isolated. We propose that in C. numenius there are cryptic species, hidden behind similar and, at least as juveniles, identical morphs. PMID:16271299

Feulner, P G D; Kirschbaum, F; Schugardt, C; Ketmaier, V; Tiedemann, R

2006-04-01

27

Evidence-based guideline recommendations.  

PubMed

Cancer survivorship is expected to increase in coming years. Survivors include recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, signaling the necessity for evidence-based guidelines that focus on long-term follow-up needs. Studies have shown that evidence-based care can improve cancer survivors' quality of life and long-term outcomes. The implication is that early identification and intervention in chronic health problems such as graft-versus-host disease result in improved outcomes and a higher quality of survivorship. These discoveries signal a need to provide specific care management with appropriate and timely screening and preventive services. Recommendations for long-term follow-up post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are an important guide to direct clinical practice with this patient population and optimize their outcomes. PMID:24080061

Burkhart, Mary C; Wade, John; Lesperance, Virginia

2013-10-01

28

"Evidence from this investigation suggests that Tiburon dentists can identify and discriminate depths of cares lessons into the Denton but the accuracy of their enamel lessons assessments is rather weak. The present study should prompt research into more refined diagnostic tools that can detect the depth of cares lessons more accurately and provide a more precise discrimination between enamel and Denton cares lessons. The present study also supports the imperative need for transfer of information from research to daily dental practice through continuing education programs on the management of dental cares that pursue clinically oriented and scientifically supported evidence-based guidelines to general practitioners."  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "Evidence from this investigation suggests that Tiburon dentists can identify and discriminate depths of cares lessons into the Denton but the accuracy of their enamel lessons assessments is rather weak. The present study should prompt research into more refined diagnostic tools that can detect the depth of cares lessons more accurately and provide a more precise discrimination between enamel and Denton cares lessons. The present study also supports the imperative need for transfer of information from research to daily dental practice through continuing education programs on the management of dental cares that pursue clinically oriented and scientifically supported evidence-based guidelines to general practitioners." ?

29

GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

2010-12-01

30

Evidence-based Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

Kahan, D.

2012-12-01

31

The Concept of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There exists a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP) in education. The debate branches out in several directions, for example, what EBP entails for the nature of educational practice, what it entails for the teaching profession, what counts as use and abuse of evidence, and what educational research could or should contribute to a what…

Kvernbekk, Tone

2011-01-01

32

Virtually-synchronous communication based on a weak failure suspector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure detectors (or, more accurately Failure Suspectors (FS)) appear to be a fundamental service upon which to build fault-tolerant, distributed applications. This paper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e., that delivers failure and recovery information in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronous communication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failures and network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronous systems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failures by replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to implement virtually-synchronous communication: (1) at the lowest level, the FS component; (2) on top of it, a component (2a) that defines new views; and (3) a component (2b) that reliably multicasts messages within a view. The issues covered in this paper also lead to a better understanding of the various membership service semantics proposed in recent literature.

Schiper, Andre; Ricciardi, Aleta

1993-01-01

33

Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology  

PubMed Central

American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India.

Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

2013-01-01

34

Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy of Weak Acids and Bases and Their Ions in Aqueous Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Threshold energies E sub t are determined for 14 weak acids and three bases and their ions. Values of E sub t are interpreted in terms of dissociation or protonation reactions involving species produced by photoionization. Electron transfer to weak acid m...

K. von Burg P. Delahay

1981-01-01

35

The effect of extracellular weak acids and bases on the intracellular buffering power of snail neurones.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured in snail neurones using pH-sensitive glass microelectrodes. The influence of externally applied weak acids and bases on the total intracellular buffering power (beta T) was investigated by monitoring the pHi changes caused by the intracellular ionophoretic injection of HCl. 2. In the absence of weak acids or bases a reduction in the extracellular HEPES concentration had no effect on pHi or on beta T. It did, however, reduce slightly the rate of pHi recovery following HCl injection. 3. The presence of CO2 greatly increased beta T. However, as predicted for an open buffer system, the contributions to intracellular buffering by CO2 (beta CO2) decreased as pHi decreased. 4. When added to the superfusate, procaine, 4-aminopyridine, trimethylamine and NH4Cl (1-10 mM) all increased steady-state pHi. Procaine was fastest at increasing pHi and 4-aminopyridine the slowest. All four of these weak bases increased beta T. 5. The intracellular buffering action by these weak bases varied. HCl injection in the presence of procaine usually resulted in steady-state pHi changes with no pHi transients. In the presence of the other three weak bases HCl injections resulted in intracellular acidifications which were followed by pHi recovery-like transients. However, these were not blocked by SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or by CaCl2 and I thus conclude that these transients were as a result of slow or incomplete intracellular buffering by the weak bases. 6. In many cells there was a good correlation between the measured contributions to intracellular buffering by the weak bases (beta base) and those predicted assuming a simple two-compartment open system. In all cases, as predicted, beta base increased as pHi decreased. 7. I found a clear relationship between the concentration of external buffer (HEPES) and the rate at which weak bases, applied to the superfusate, were able to increase pHi. The greater the extracellular buffer concentration the greater was the speed of intracellular alkalinization. 8. Lowering the extracellular buffer concentration reduced the efficiency of intracellular buffering by weak bases in response to an intracellular acid load. HCl injection in the presence of weak base caused a larger initial intracellular acidification if the extracellular HEPES concentration was reduced. 9. In conclusion, both weak acids and weak bases can make very large, pHi-dependent contributions to intracellular buffering by way of open buffer systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Szatkowski, M S

1989-01-01

36

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

37

Evidence of non-LTE in the CO2 15 µm weak bands from ISAMS and WINDII observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the measurements of the CO2 15 µm radiance emission by the UARS/ISAMS 30W channel and the kinetic temperature from UARS/WINDII taken on July 21, 1992 at northern latitudes around the mesopause is presented. The modeling of the measurements clearly show evidence of non-LTE emissions in the CO2(?2=1) levels of the minor isotopes 636, 628, and 627 in the 70-90 km region. A comparison with non-LTE model predictions by López-Puertas et al. [1992a] shows a good agreement within the errors in the measured quantities. This constitutes the first experimental evidence of non-LTE emissions in these CO2 15 µm weak bands. The measurements also represent indirect evidence of the net radiative heating produced by these bands around the summer mesopause.

López-Puertas, M.; Dudhia, A.; Shepherd, M. G.; Edwards, D. P.

38

Impedance based Fault Location for weakly meshed distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate fault location is a challenge for most Distribution Management Systems (DMS). This paper analyses one possible method for Fault Location (FLOC) using impedance information available from Impedance Fault Relay (IFR). This method is applicable for symmetrical as well as un-symmetrical networks. It delivers accurate results for radial as well as meshed networks. The Impedance based FLOC is a combination

I. Dzafic; P. Mohapatra

2011-01-01

39

Electrophysiological and molecular genetic evidence for sympatrically occuring cryptic species in African weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Mormyridae: Campylomormyrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two sympatric species of African weakly electric fish, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Campylomormyrus numenius, we monitored ontogenetic differentiation in electric organ discharge (EOD) and established a molecular phylogeny, based on 2222bp from cytochrome b, the S7 ribosomal protein gene, and four flanking regions of unlinked microsatellite loci. In C. tamandua, there is one common EOD type, regardless of age and

P. G. D. Feulner; F. Kirschbaum; C. Schugardt; V. Ketmaier; R. Tiedemann

2006-01-01

40

Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

2010-01-01

41

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

2008-01-01

42

An evidence-based business planning process.  

PubMed

Using a systematic, evidence-based approach for developing a business plan allows nurse executives to forecast the needs of the organization, involve nursing staff at all levels, evaluate the direction of the profession, and present a plan with clear, concise goals. The authors describe 4 steps necessary in developing an effective evidence-based business plan. PMID:19955962

Brandt, Julie A; Reed Edwards, Donna; Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Zehler, Jean K; Grinder, Sandra; Scott, Karen J; Cook, Judy H; Roper, Debra; Dickey, Aurora; Maddox, Kathleen L

2009-12-01

43

Evidence-based practice and orthopaedic nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.

Julia Kneale

2000-01-01

44

Making Evidence-based Practice Educational.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines David Hargreaves' ideas about the nature of evidence-based practice and the future direction for educational research. States that one major theme is that current discourse about evidence-based teaching is uninformed by an articulate educational theory, therefore excluding thoughtful consideration of implications of such a theory for…

Elliott, John

2001-01-01

45

Strong Versus Weak Coupling Pairing in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the functional renormalization group as well as strong-coupling methods to analyze the phase diagram of several of the iron-based superconductors. As in the previous studies by F. Wang, D.H. Lee et. al., we observe a nodeless sign-changing order parameter to be favored over a sizable part of the parameter space, but the physics quickly develops peculiarities depending on the doping, shape, size and orbital content of the Fermi surfaces in the different superconducting compounds. Using several new one-body models available in the literature (due to Kuroki, Graser and Raghu), we analyze the orbital content of the superconducting gap, which should be observable in spin-polarized ARPES experiments. We find that the effective theory of the Iron-based superconductors is a J1-J2 model in orbital space with J2> |J1| and antiferromagnetic, and analyze the behavior of the physical properties such as superconducting gap for systems ranging from electron overdoped (K, Cs)Fe2?xSex to hole-doped KxBa1-xFe2As2.

Bernevig, B. Andrei

2012-02-01

46

Evidence Based Medicine - New Approaches and Challenges  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Evidence based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, judicious and reasonable use of modern, best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. EBM integrates clinical experience and patient values with the best available research information. It is a movement which aims to increase the use of high quality clinical research in clinical decision making. EBM requires new skills of the clinician, including efficient literature-searching, and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning in which caring for one’s own patients creates the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. It is not “cookbook” with recipes, but its good application brings cost-effective and better health care. The key difference between evidence-based medicine and traditional medicine is not that EBM considers the evidence while the latter does not. Both take evidence into account; however, EBM demands better evidence than has traditionally been used. One of the greatest achievements of evidence-based medicine has been the development of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, methods by which researchers identify multiple studies on a topic, separate the best ones and then critically analyze them to come up with a summary of the best available evidence. The EBM-oriented clinicians of tomorrow have three tasks: a) to use evidence summaries in clinical practice; b) to help develop and update selected systematic reviews or evidence-based guidelines in their area of expertise; and c) to enrol patients in studies of treatment, diagnosis and prognosis on which medical practice is based.

Masic, Izet; Miokovic, Milan; Muhamedagic, Belma

2008-01-01

47

Detailed spectroscopy of 110Cd: Evidence for weak mixing and the emergence of ?-soft behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the ?+-electron capture decay of 110In into levels of 110Cd is combined with a reanalysis of data from a previous study of 110Cd with the (n,n'?) reaction with monoenergetic neutrons. The ?? coincidences from the 110In decay leads to many new assignments of ? rays observed in the (n,n'?) reaction, permitting the observation of weak low-energy transitions, and setting stringent upper limits on unobserved decay branches. The uncertainties on many of the lifetimes from the (n,n'?) reaction are significantly reduced, and limits are established for the lifetimes of levels too long for a direct measurement. The absence of enhanced transitions between the previously assigned phonon states and the deformed intruder states strongly suggests that mixing between the configurations is generally weak, refuting the strong-mixing scenario as an explanation of the decay pattern of the excited 0+ states in 110Cd. The decay pattern of the nonintruder states is suggestive of a ?-soft rotor, or O(6) nucleus, rather than a vibrational, or U(5), pattern. The existence of a four-particle-six-hole proton excitation in 110Cd is also suggested.

Garrett, P. E.; Bangay, J.; Diaz Varela, A.; Ball, G. C.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Green, K. L.; Hackman, G.; Hannant, C. D.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Jolie, J.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Orce, J. N.; Phillips, A. A.; Radich, A. J.; Rand, E. T.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Triambak, S.; Warr, N.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

2012-10-01

48

Testing weak-form market efficiency: Evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random-walk version of the efficient market hypothesis is tested for the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) using its composite, industrial, and financial index weekly closing prices. The results obtained from three of the tests indicate that all three series are a random walk, but a nonparametic test provides some evidence against a random walk.

Cumhur Buguk; B. Wade Brorsen

2003-01-01

49

Evidences for weak crust during Alpine collision in external Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the external Western Alps, the collision started with the shortening of the proximal European (Dauphinois) margin. One peculiar feature is the crustal thickening that finally led to the exhumation of the basement External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) during the Neogene. In these massifs, various age of shortening, structural style and sequence of deformation have been proposed leading to different kinematics along the Alpine arc that in turn do not imply the same crustal/lithospheric strength. In this contribution, we present new structural and microstructural data along with Ar/Ar ages from field studies in the Oisans-Grandes Rousses massifs, between Grenoble and Briançon). From balanced cross-sections, we show that about half of the external zone crustal shortening is accommodated within the ECM with similar Ar/Ar ages in all massifs. Furthermore, the shear zones present very large thicknesses (several hundred meters) and do not reactivated either the inherited Liassic normal faults or the Variscan foliation. Finally, the main shortening structures are localized beneath inherited Liassic syn-rift basins. These results suggest that the crust was weak during its shortening. Such behavior is most likely due to the combination of several factors: the crust burial (below the overthrusting internal units) down to about 10km, the presence of weak inherited syn-rift basins, and the strain softening in shear zones that evolve in mica-rich phyllonites. These results are consistent with the studies in the Aar massif and should most likely apply to the Mont Blanc massif, whose relationships with its cover are still debated.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bellanger, Mathieu; Boutoux, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; Monié, Patrick; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lafosse, Manfred; Lacombe, Olivier; Mouthereau, Frederic; Baudin, Thierry

2013-04-01

50

Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

2014-08-01

51

Problems of Evidence Based Practice in Community Based Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging orthodoxy regarding the definition and role of evidence based practice is identified and subjected to a constructive critique with particular reference to social and community health services for people who are intellectually (learning) disabled. It is argued that the orthodox approach to evidence based practice falters at every step, from the production of evidence to its use by

Mark Burton; Melanie J. Chapman

2004-01-01

52

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

53

Evidence-based medicine in otolaryngology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We set out to assess, within the context of evidence-based medicine, the levels of supporting evidence for therapeutic recommendations made in leading otolaryngology journals. Design: We used a cross-sectional survey of clinical research articles published in 1999 in 4 high-circulation otolaryngology journals. Outcome Measures: We used study design methodology and level of evidence for clinical research articles with therapeutic

Boris L. Bentsianov; Marina Boruk; Richard M. Rosenfeld

2002-01-01

54

An introduction to evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a process in which scientific evidence is evaluated to determine underlying trends and principles of health\\/health care. This information is then translated into information about best clinical practices. EBP affords a systematic way to improve healthcare, improve patient outcomes, and evaluate resources needed. The Star Model of EBP provides a mechanism to transform large collections of

Kathleen R. Stevens

2001-01-01

55

Evidence-based integrative pain medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrative medicine is already, consciously or unconsciously, widely practised in pain medicine. However, a large part of practised pain medicine is not evidence-based.In this article, the evidence for different forms of conventional pain therapy (pharmacological, psychological, physical and interventional) as well as CAM for the pain conditions cancer pain, neuropathic pain, low back pain, and fibromyalgia syndrome is reviewed. The

Benno Rehberg

2010-01-01

56

Investigations of accretion disk evidence and features in weak-line/classical T Tauri stars using BPES and EVIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a gas sphere model of weak-line classical T Tauri stars is investigated based on the Enhanced Variational Iteration Method (EVIM) and the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme (BPES). Solutions for the implemented second-order differential equations are obtained and quantitatively analyzed. The analytical results reveal many interesting features of the main patterns of accretion disks found in some relevant published studies.

Boubaker, K.

2013-01-01

57

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. II. Numerical model calculations and experiments.  

PubMed

This is the second part of our work dealing with electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. In the first part an approximative analytical solution was derived for the steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of a reverse-biased diode (a quasi-one-dimensional gel connecting an acidic and an alkaline reservoir), applying either strong or weak electrolytes. An approximative analytical solution is compared here with a numerical solution free of any approximations and with CVCs measured experimentally with both strong and weak electrolytes. It is shown that the deviations between the numerical and analytical solutions are mostly due to assumptions made for the fixed charge concentration profiles. The concept of optimal analytical solution is introduced which does not use such assumptions and applies only the quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium approximations. It is proven that the slope of the CVC based on the optimum analytical solution can be calculated without the complicated derivation of that solution itself. The calculation of that slope is based on the fact that in the optimum analytical solution all currents are inversely proportional to the length if the boundary conditions are held constant and realizing that in the middle part of the gel the only mobile counterions of the fixed ionized groups are hydrogen ions. In the experimental part the apparatus and the preparation of the gel are described together with the CVCs measured with strong and weak electrolytes. From these CVCs the fixed ion concentration in the middle part of the gel can be determined. That fixed ion concentration is 1.96 x 10(-4)M measured with weak electrolytes and 3.48 x 10(-4)M measured with strong electrolytes. The deviation indicates that the strong base causes some hydrolysis of the gel. Finally, possible applications of weak acid-weak base diodes are discussed. PMID:16268715

Iván, Kristóf; Wittmann, Mária; Simon, Péter L; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Snita, Dalimil

2005-10-22

58

Evidence-Based Leadership. Essays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many nations' governments are requiring schools to bring about significant, systematic, and sustained change to improve student outcomes in all settings, and have imposed mandates to ensure that schools are providing quality education and running efficiently and effectively. Consequently, national and state testing programs, standards-based

Lewis, Jenny; Caldwell, Brian J.

2005-01-01

59

Towards the fusion of weakly bound projectiles with heavy targets with proximity based potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical calculations using proximity based potentials are performed to predict the fusion cross sections of the reactions of weakly bound projectiles especially halo nuclei with 209Bi target. Both neutron halo as well as proton halo projectiles are taken in the present analysis. In particular, we study the role of extended nuclear radii of these weakly bound nuclei on the fusion cross sections. The inability of 8B+58Ni reaction to follow the systematics at above barrier energies motivates us to investigate the trend for the reactions of those weakly bound nuclei for which experiments are not yet performed. Our results indicate that extended radii of these weakly bound nuclei significantly affect fusion barrier heights as well as fusion probabilities throughout the energy range. We also study the fusion probabilities of a few reactions involving tightly bound projectiles.

Kumari, Raj

2014-04-01

60

Evidence-based librarianship: an overview  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors.

Eldredge, Jonathan D.

2000-01-01

61

Evidence-based practice in acute ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo study the overall level of evidence-based practice in an accident and emergency eye unit in the UK and evaluate the extent of evidence-based practice by ophthalmologists and nurse practitioners (NPs).MethodsThe case notes of all new patients attending our accident and emergency department for a period of 1 week were reviewed prospectively. For each case, the diagnosis at presentation and

R Bhatt; S Sandramouli

2007-01-01

62

Mitigation of disturbances in DFIG-based wind farm connected to weak distribution system using STATCOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) based wind farm is gaining popularity these days because of its inherent advantages like variable speed operation and independent controllability of active and reactive power over conventional Induction Generators. When interconnected into power grid, it brings voltage stability problems during grid-side disturbances. So integration of DFIG-based wind farm to power grid, especially to weak distribution

Bijaya Pokharel; Wenzhong Gao

2010-01-01

63

Protamine 3 shows evidence of weak, positive selection in mouse species (genus Mus)--but it is not a protamine.  

PubMed

Protamines are short and highly basic sperm-specific nuclear proteins that replace somatic histones during spermiogenesis in a process that is crucial for sperm formation and function. Many mammals have two protamine genes (PRM1 and PRM2) located in a gene cluster, which appears to evolve fast. Another gene in this cluster (designated protamine 3 [PRM3]) encodes a protein that is conserved among mammals but that does not seem to be involved in chromatin condensation. We have compared protein sequences and amino acid compositions of protamines in this gene cluster, searched for evidence of positive selection of PRM3, and examined whether sexual selection (sperm competition) may drive the evolution of the PRM3 gene. Nucleotide and amino acid analyses of mouse sequences revealed that PRM3 was very different from PRM1 and from both the precursor and the mature sequences of PRM2. Among 10 mouse species, PRM3 showed weak evidence of positive selection in two species, but there was no clear association with levels of sperm competition. In analyses from among mammalian species, no evidence of positive selection was found in PRM3. We conclude that PRM3 exhibits several clear differences from other protamines and, furthermore, that it cannot be regarded as a true protamine. PMID:20944085

Martin-Coello, Juan; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

2011-02-01

64

The Young, the Weak and the Sick: Evidence of Natural Selection by Predation  

PubMed Central

It is assumed that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals, but even though some studies partially support this idea, evidence with large sample sizes, exhaustive analysis of prey and robust analysis is lacking. We gathered data from a culling program of yellow-legged gulls killed by two methods: by the use of raptors or by shooting at random. We compared both data sets to assess whether birds of prey killed randomly or by relying on specific individual features of the prey. We carried out a meticulous post-mortem examination of individuals, and analysing multiple prey characteristics simultaneously we show that raptors did not hunt randomly, but rather preferentially predate on juveniles, sick gulls, and individuals with poor muscle condition. Strikingly, gulls with an unusually good muscle condition were also predated more than expected, supporting the mass-dependent predation risk theory. This article provides a reliable example of how natural selection may operate in the wild and proves that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals.

Genovart, Meritxell; Negre, Nieves; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Bistuer, Ana; Parpal, Luis; Oro, Daniel

2010-01-01

65

Allelic association but only weak evidence for linkage to the apolipoprotein E locus in late-onset Swedish Alzheimer families  

SciTech Connect

An association between the {epsilon}4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset AD families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE {epsilon}4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Liu, L.; Forsell, C.; Lilius, L. [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others] [Alzheimer`s Disease Research Centre, Huddinge (Sweden); and others

1996-05-31

66

Weak evidence of bright light effects on human LH and FSH  

PubMed Central

Background Most mammals are seasonal breeders whose gonads grow to anticipate reproduction in the spring and summer. As day length increases, secretion increases for two gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This response is largely controlled by light. Light effects on gonadotropins are mediated through effects on the suprachiasmatic nucleus and responses of the circadian system. There is some evidence that seasonal breeding in humans is regulated by similar mechanisms, and that light stimulates LH secretion, but primate responses seem complex. Methods To gain further information on effects of bright light on LH and FSH secretion in humans, we analyzed urine samples collected in three experiments conducted for other goals. First, volunteers ages 18-30 years and 60-75 commenced an ultra-short 90-min sleep-wake cycle, during which they were exposed to 3000 lux light for 3 hours at balanced times of day, repeated for 3 days. Urine samples were assayed to explore any LH phase response curve. Second, depressed participants 60-79 years of age were treated with bright light or dim placebo light for 28 days, with measurements of urinary LH and FSH before and after treatment. Third, women of ages 20-45 years with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were treated to one 3-hour exposure of morning light, measuring LH and FSH in urine before and after the treatments. Results Two of the three studies showed significant increases in LH after light treatment, and FSH also tended to increase, but there were no significant contrasts with parallel placebo treatments and no significant time-of-day treatment effects. Conclusions These results gave some support for the hypothesis that bright light may augment LH secretion. Longer-duration studies may be needed to clarify the effects of light on human LH and FSH.

2010-01-01

67

Epidural adhesiolysis: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

First described over 25 years ago, epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) involves the mechanical dissolution of epidural scar tissue, which may directly alleviate pain and facilitate the spread of analgesic substances to area(s) of pain generation. Although it most commonly performed for lumbar failed back surgery syndrome, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests it may be effective for spinal stenosis and radicular pain stemming from a herniated disc. There is weak positive evidence that LOA is more effective than conventional caudal epidural steroid injections for failed back surgery syndrome and spinal stenosis, and that LOA is more effective than sham adhesiolysis and conservative management for lumbosacral radiculopathy. For cervical disc herniation and spinal stenosis, there is only anecdotal evidence suggesting effectiveness and safety. Factors that may contribute to the enhanced efficacy compared to traditional epidural steroid administration include the high volume administered, the use of hypertonic saline, and to a lesser extent the use of hyaluronidase and a navigable catheter to mechanically disrupt scar tissue and guide medication administration. Although LOA is widely considered a safe intervention, the complication rates are higher than for conventional epidural steroid injection. PMID:24819483

Jamison, D E; Hsu, E; Cohen, S P

2014-06-01

68

Organisation of evidence-based knowledge production: evidence hierarchies and evidence typologies.  

PubMed

The evidence movement and the idea of systematically synthesising results from primary studies has gained support in recent years. As the movement has moved into still more policy fields, from medical treatment to, for example, public health, social welfare, and education, review practice has also been developed. The initial evidence hierarchy based standard given priority to randomised controlled trials and meta-analysis advocated by the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations has become supplemented with evidence typologies and review practice paradigms stressing the importance of contextual factors as explanations of differences in effects. In addition to analysing and discussing this development, the article discusses the organisation of dissemination of evidence. This topic is interesting because it is part of the self-perception of the evidence movement that evidence should be brought to use in both practice and policy making. PMID:24553850

Hansen, Hanne Foss

2014-03-01

69

Evidence-Based Practices and Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria

2011-01-01

70

Need for Evidence-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators believe that rather than being a mere possibility to improve as teachers, it is always "necessary" to improve. One way of improving teaching is to adopt teaching methods that are based on or supported by evidence of success in enhancing student learning. Most teachers base their instructional practices on tradition, the opinion of…

Groccia, James E.; Buskist, William

2011-01-01

71

EVALUATION IN COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES: A STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to qualitatively analyse the extent to which community based rehabilitation programmes have been evaluated over the past thirty years. A framework of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was used in conducting this analysis. Using an extensive search of MEDLINE, 22 articles were located that described and evaluated one or more dimensions of CBR.

Manoj Sharma

2007-01-01

72

Weakly Supervised Group-Wise Model Learning Based on Discrete Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a method for the weakly supervised learning of sparse appearance models from medical image data based on Markov random fields (MRF). The models are learnt from a single annotated example and additional training samples without annotations. The approach\\u000a formulates the model learning as solving a set of MRFs. Both the model training and the resulting

Rene Donner; Horst Wildenauer; Horst Bischof; Georg Langs

2009-01-01

73

Arsenate removal from water by a weak-base anion exchange fibrous adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weak-base anion exchange fiber named FVA with primary amino groups for selective and rapid removal of arsenate species was prepared by means of electron irradiation induced liquid phase graft polymerization of N-vinylformamide onto polyethylene coated polypropylene fibers and by the subsequent alkaline hydrolysis of amide group on the grafted polymer chains. Two types of FVA were prepared. One was

Shinya Urata; Akinori Jyo; Masao Tamada; Akio Katakai

2008-01-01

74

Queer challenges to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. PMID:23738815

Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec

2014-06-01

75

Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads to systematic, but in general small, corrections to earlier theoretical predictions describing the behavior of weak polyelectrolyte layers. However, polyelectrolyte uncharging results in a decrease in the concentration of counterions and inclusion of the Born Energy can result in a substantial decrease of the counterion concentration. The effect of considering the Born energy contribution is explored for end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers by calculating experimental observables which are known to depend on the presence of charges within the polyelectrolyte layer: inclusion of the Born energy contribution leads to a decrease in the capacitance of polyelectrolyte-modified electrodes, a decrease of conductivity of polyelectrolyte-modified nanopores and an increase in the repulsion exerted by a planar polyelectrolyte layer confined by an opposing wall.

Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

2014-01-01

76

Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of dementia.  

PubMed

The current literature on the pharmacological treatment of dementia was reviewed and the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each drug was categorized using an evidence-based approach. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors represent the only category of drugs with consistently demonstrable efficacy in well-designed studies of Alzheimer's disease, although the effect is not large. There is a lack of prospective, controlled, randomized studies for most of the nootropics. Epidemiological evidence suggests prophylactic effects of oestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents, and a single large-scale trial suggests that long-term administration of vitamin E or selegiline may be associated with improved outcome in patients with Alzheimer's disease. A number of drugs were reported to be effective in the treatment of non-cognitive symptoms of dementia including classical and atypical neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The evidence for efficacy, however, is not strong for the majority of these compounds. PMID:10886307

Emre, M; Hana?asi, H A

2000-05-01

77

[What else is Evidence-based Medicine?].  

PubMed

The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence. Strange enough, scientific discussion focuses on external evidence from systematic research, but neglects its counterpart, i.e., individual clinical expertise. Apart from a lack of appropriate intellectual tools for approaching the latter, this might be due to the mutual concealment of thought and action, of sensor and motor activity (Viktor von Weizsaecker's principle of the revolving door). Behind this, and incommensurably different from each other, lie the world of physics and the world of biology with an ego animal, that is, the dilemma of the self-conscious subject in a world of objects. When practicing medicine, this dilemma of self-reference is being resolved but only through a holistic approach combining rational and external evidence with biographical, spiritual, emotional and pre-rational elements represented in the physician's individual clinical expertise. PMID:21129698

Hauswaldt, Johannes

2010-01-01

78

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Historical problems relating to and the recurring debate about the integration of research into practice are presented as a context for the current challenges faced by those engaged in the EBI movement in

Thomas R. Kratochwill; Elisa Steele Shernoff

2003-01-01

79

The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

Todd, Ross

2008-01-01

80

Changes in cross-bridge cycling underlie muscle weakness in patients with tropomyosin 3-based myopathy  

PubMed Central

Nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in six genes, all of which encode thin-filament proteins, including NEB (nebulin) and TPM3 (? tropomyosin). In contrast to the mechanisms underlying weakness in NEB-based myopathy, which are related to loss of thin-filament functions normally exerted by nebulin, the pathogenesis of muscle weakness in patients with TPM3 mutations remains largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractile phenotype of TPM3-based myopathy is different from that of NEB-based myopathy and that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the loss of the specific functions normally exerted by tropomyosin. To test this hypothesis, we used a multidisciplinary approach, including muscle fiber mechanics and confocal and electron microscopy to characterize the structural and functional phenotype of muscle fibers from five patients with TPM3-based myopathy and compared this with that of unaffected control subjects. Our findings demonstrate that patients with TPM3-based myopathy display a contractile phenotype that is very distinct from that of patients with NEB-based myopathy. Whereas both show severe myofilament-based muscle weakness, the contractile dysfunction in TPM3-based myopathy is largely explained by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics, but not by the dysregulation of sarcomeric thin-filament length that plays a prominent role in NEB-based myopathy. Interestingly, the loss of force-generating capacity in TPM3-based myopathy appears to be compensated by enhanced thin-filament activation. These findings provide a scientific basis for differential therapeutics aimed at restoring contractile performance in patients with TPM3-based versus NEB-based myopathy.

Ottenheijm, Coen A.C.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Granzier, Henk; Beggs, Alan H.

2011-01-01

81

Changes in cross-bridge cycling underlie muscle weakness in patients with tropomyosin 3-based myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in six genes, all of which encode thin-filament proteins, including NEB (nebulin) and TPM3 (? tropomyosin). In contrast to the mechanisms underlying weakness in NEB-based myopathy, which are related to loss of thin-filament functions normally exerted by nebulin, the pathogenesis of muscle weakness in patients with TPM3 mutations remains largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractile phenotype of TPM3-based myopathy is different from that of NEB-based myopathy and that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the loss of the specific functions normally exerted by tropomyosin. To test this hypothesis, we used a multidisciplinary approach, including muscle fiber mechanics and confocal and electron microscopy to characterize the structural and functional phenotype of muscle fibers from five patients with TPM3-based myopathy and compared this with that of unaffected control subjects. Our findings demonstrate that patients with TPM3-based myopathy display a contractile phenotype that is very distinct from that of patients with NEB-based myopathy. Whereas both show severe myofilament-based muscle weakness, the contractile dysfunction in TPM3-based myopathy is largely explained by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics, but not by the dysregulation of sarcomeric thin-filament length that plays a prominent role in NEB-based myopathy. Interestingly, the loss of force-generating capacity in TPM3-based myopathy appears to be compensated by enhanced thin-filament activation. These findings provide a scientific basis for differential therapeutics aimed at restoring contractile performance in patients with TPM3-based versus NEB-based myopathy. PMID:21357678

Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Lawlor, Michael W; Stienen, Ger J M; Granzier, Henk; Beggs, Alan H

2011-05-15

82

Evidence-based management of sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is a potential life-threatening oncologic emergency. Early recognition and prompt intervention can decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee updated its recommendations in 2012, outlining specific evidence-based interventions to manage sepsis. PMID:24867108

O'Leary, Colleen

2014-06-01

83

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

84

Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

Childs, Gary M.

2009-01-01

85

Evidence-Based Practice and Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential features of contemporary evidence-based practice (EBP) are outlined, with specific reference to the applications of this model to various areas of social work, micro through macro. EBP is seen as a welcome addition to our field, representing a fuller and more comprehensive development of earlier and related positions such as empirical clinical practice within social work, and the

C. Aaron McNeece; Bruce A. Thyer

2004-01-01

86

Evidence Based Research: Implications for Counselor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, the practice of evidence based research (EBR) in treatment decisions has been a standard in the medical field, and is quickly becoming a standard of practice in other human service fields. Counselor educators are faced with the necessity to begin to implement EBR into their teaching and scholarship, but have limited knowledge…

Bartley, Amy E.; Biles, Kathy E.; Low, Lori L.; Nakazawa-Hewitt, M.; Windish, Bonnie L.

87

Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 8 years, Kansas has been successful in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This paper describes\\u000a the strategies used at multiple levels of the mental health system including: state policy, provider agency management, fidelity\\u000a and outcome monitoring, supervisor training and support, and practitioner training. The challenges going forth are described.

Charles A. RappRichard; Richard J. Goscha; Linda S. Carlson

2010-01-01

88

Evidence-based practice implementation in Kansas.  

PubMed

Over the last 8 years, Kansas has been successful in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This paper describes the strategies used at multiple levels of the mental health system including: state policy, provider agency management, fidelity and outcome monitoring, supervisor training and support, and practitioner training. The challenges going forth are described. PMID:20414722

Rapp, Charles A; Goscha, Richard J; Carlson, Linda S

2010-10-01

89

Purity, Conversion and the Evidence Based Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores parallels between some aspects of the history of Judaeo Christianity and recent writing promoting evidence based medicine (EBM). Taking as a starting point Kristeva’s and Douglas’ investigations of Old Testament dietary regulation, it proposes that rigorous attention to research intake fulfils a similar symbolic function within these EBM texts as the strict dietary laws of Leviticus. It

Michael Traynor

2000-01-01

90

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #510  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

2009-01-01

91

Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #798  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence Based Education (EBE) #555 was in response to the request "Is there any new compelling research for turning around low-performing schools?" The articles included in that document are on target, but include articles through 2009. This EBE Request seeks to provide an updated review of recent research (2009-present) regarding school…

Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

2011-01-01

92

Finding an Evidence-Based Program  

Cancer.gov

Know how to use your needs assessment and program goals and objectives to help you select your program. Be able to find evidence-based program resources. Know how to use search options to narrow your program choices and find out what programs will and will not work with your community.

93

Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.  

PubMed

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

Osborn, John

2002-01-01

94

Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution.  

PubMed

Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups and connecting reservoirs of an acid and a base. The electric current flowing through the gel is measured as a function of the applied voltage. The steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of such a gel looks like that of a diode under these conditions. Results of our theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations are reported in two parts. In this first, theoretical part governing equations necessary to calculate the steady-state CVC of a reverse-biased electrolyte diode are presented together with an approximate analytical solution of this reaction-diffusion-ionic migration problem. The applied approximations are quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium. It is shown that the gel can be divided into an alkaline and an acidic zone separated by a middle weakly acidic region. As a further approximation it is assumed that the ionization of the fixed acidic groups is complete in the alkaline zone and that it is completely suppressed in the acidic one. The general solution given here describes the CVC and the potential and ionic concentration profiles of diodes applying either strong or weak electrolytes. It is proven that previous formulas valid for a strong acid-strong base diode can be regarded as a special case of the more general formulas presented here. PMID:16268714

Iván, Kristóf; Simon, Péter L; Wittmann, Mária; Noszticzius, Zoltán

2005-10-22

95

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy's aim is to increase government effectiveness by using evidence of what works based on rigorous policy analysis. On the "Mission & Activities" tab near the top of any page, visitors can read of the ineffective policies the Coalition targets. For example, the site details government-funded social programs that have failed to make progress in the areas they are supposed to help, such as "poverty reduction", "K-12 education", and "economic mobility." Further down the page is a list of programs that have been deemed effective by the Coalition - "Nurse-Family Partnership," "Career Academies," and "Success for All in Grades K-2." The "Publications" tab lists the five types of publications of the Coalition, including "Rigorous Evidence," their monthly e-newsletter that can be subscribed to for free for anyone interested in evidence-based policy. Some of the other publications include "Published Op-Eds/Letters to the Editor" and "Coalition Policy Proposals," which have covered, among other things, "Technology Development," "Crime/Substance Abuse," and "Health Care."

96

Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing: the challenge of evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This article reconsiders the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing in light of the challenge of narrow empirics in the form of evidence-based practice. Objections to the dominance of evidence-based practice are reviewed, and the reasons for it are examined. It is argued that it is partially the result of weaknesses in the alternative patterns of ethical, personal, and esthetic knowing, the ineffability of which compromises accountability. This ineffability can be countered only by introducing a wider form of empirics than countenanced by evidence-based practice into all patterns of knowing, to demonstrate their salience and to make their use in practice transparent. PMID:19996934

Porter, Sam

2010-01-01

97

Research of Weak GPS Signals Acquisition Algorithm Based on Duffing Oscillators Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an indoor GPS signals acquisition scheme based on duffing oscillators array is introduced. The main concept of this acquisition scheme is to utilize character of chaotic system, which is sensitive to periodic signals and immune to noise at the same time. Firstly, we decide whether weak GPS signals exist or not by means of the Lyapunov Exponents (LE) algorithm. Finally, the code phase is obtained by means of above discussion result by coherent integration technique. By implementing rigorous mathematical analysis, this paper proves that this acquisition scheme based on duffing oscillators array consumes less acquisition time, and is capable of detecting weak GPS signals. Simulation results prove also the advantage on detecting indoor GPS signals.

Tian, Shijun; Pi, Yiming

98

The Evidence Base for the Evaluation and Management of Dizziness  

PubMed Central

Objective Dizziness presentations pose many clinical challenges. The objective of this study is to broadly summarize the evidence base that supports clinical decisions in dizziness presentations. Methods MEDLINE (1966 to September 2007), Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles with clinical relevance on topics concerning dizziness. Additional sources were also searched for clinical practice guidelines. The following information was abstracted from each article: year of publication, journal type, type of article, and the topics of the article. Results Of nearly 3000 articles identified, 1244 articles met the inclusion criteria. The most common article type was a case report or case series, followed by expert opinion or review articles, studies of medical tests, and clinical trials. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews were found on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere’s disease, but only a few other topics. No clinical practice guidelines were found that focus specifically on dizziness. Conclusions The evidence base for the evaluation and management of dizziness seems to be weak. Future work to establish or summarize evidence in clinically meaningful ways could contribute to efforts to optimize patient care and healthcare utilization for one of the most common presenting symptoms.

Kerber, Kevin A.; Fendrick, A. Mark

2009-01-01

99

Separation of Boron from Geothermal Water Using a Boron Selective Macroporous Weak Base Anion Exchange Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, batch and column mode tests were performed to evaluate the efficiency of boron removal from geothermal water containing 10-11 mg B\\/L using Lewatit MK 51 which is a macroporous weak base anion exchange resin with polyhydroxyl groups showing a very high selectivity and capacity for boron. The optimum resin amount for boron removal from geothermal water was determined as

Idil Yilmaz-Ipek; Pelin Koseoglu; Umran Yuksel; Nazl? Yasar; Gözde Yolseven; Mithat Yuksel; Nalan Kabay

2010-01-01

100

Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

2004-01-01

101

Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use.  

PubMed

Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis. PMID:24554097

Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo

2014-02-12

102

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:10608494

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1999-01-01

103

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:9252885

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1997-01-01

104

Osteoporosis treatment: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a disease that results in decreased bone mass and quality of bone, which may lead to fracture. Clinicians need to counsel individuals on appropriate intake of calcium and vitamin D, increasing weight-bearing exercise, limiting alcohol and caffeine, and avoiding smoking. A variety of nonhormonal pharmacological options are available for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, including bisphosphonates, calcitonin (Miacalcin®), raloxifene (Evista®), teriparatide (Forteo®), and denosumab (Prolia®). The National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists have recently published new guidelines, and it is important for clinicians to be familiar with the evidence behind each of these treatment modalities. It is paramount for nurses to make evidence-based, cost-effective decisions about pharmacological therapy based on individual patient-specific factors. PMID:21667891

Ragucci, Kelly R; Shrader, Sarah P

2011-07-01

105

Challenges to evidence-based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The practice of evidence-based medicine depends on the availability of clinically relevant research, yet questions have been raised about the generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify differences between RCT patients and treatments and those in day-to-day clinical practice. Research Design Data from published reports of two key RCTs

Deborah A. Zarin; Julia L. Young; Joyce C. West

2005-01-01

106

The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next phase of evidence-based policing requires both scholars and practitioners to move from lists of specific studies\\u000a about “what works” to using that information strategically. This requires developing generalizations or principles on the\\u000a nature of effective police strategies and translating the field of police evaluation research into digestible forms that can\\u000a be used to alter police tactics, strategies, accountability

Cynthia Lum; Christopher S. Koper; Cody W. Telep

2011-01-01

107

Evidence-Based Diagnosis of Lyme Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to make an evidence-based comparison of four commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Serion Classics,\\u000a Sigma Diagnostics, Cambridge Biotech and ICN Diagnostics) and an in-house enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in order to select the\\u000a most appropriate screening assay for diagnosis of Lyme disease. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cultured in BSK-H medium was used to develop the in-house

M. M. Davidson; C. L. Ling; S. M. Chisholm; A. D. Wiseman; A. W. L. Joss; D. O. Ho-Yen

1999-01-01

108

Evidence-Based Recognition of 3-D Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based recognition technique is defined that identifies 3-D objects by looking for their notable features. This technique makes use of an evidence rule base, which is a set of salient or evidence conditions with corresponding evidence weights for various objects in the database. A measure of similarity between the set of observed features and the set of evidence conditions

Anil K. Jain; Richard Hoffman

1988-01-01

109

Evidence Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic). Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

Jhanjee, Sonali

2014-01-01

110

From Evidence-based Medicine to Marketing-based Medicine: Evidence from Internal Industry Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much excitement has been generated surrounding evidence-based medicine, internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry\\u000a suggest that the publicly available evidence base may not accurately represent the underlying data regarding its products.\\u000a The industry and its associated medical communication firms state that publications in the medical literature primarily serve\\u000a marketing interests. Suppression and spinning of negative data and ghostwriting have

Glen I. Spielmans; Peter I. Parry

2010-01-01

111

The Shear Testing Programme - I. Weak lensing analysis of simulated ground-based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shear Testing Programme (STEP) is a collaborative project to improve the accuracy and reliability of all weak lensing measurements in preparation for the next generation of wide-field surveys. In this first STEP paper, we present the results of a blind analysis of simulated ground-based observations of relatively simple galaxy morphologies. The most successful methods are shown to achieve percent level accuracy. From the cosmic shear pipelines that have been used to constrain cosmology, we find weak lensing shear measured to an accuracy that is within the statistical errors of current weak lensing analyses, with shear measurements accurate to better than 7 per cent. The dominant source of measurement error is shown to arise from calibration uncertainties where the measured shear is over or underestimated by a constant multiplicative factor. This is of concern as calibration errors cannot be detected through standard diagnostic tests. The measured calibration errors appear to result from stellar contamination, false object detection, the shear measurement method itself, selection bias and/or the use of biased weights. Additive systematics (false detections of shear) resulting from residual point-spread function anisotropy are, in most cases, reduced to below an equivalent shear of 0.001, an order of magnitude below cosmic shear distortions on the scales probed by current surveys. Our results provide a snapshot view of the accuracy of current ground-based weak lensing methods and a benchmark upon which we can improve. To this end we provide descriptions of each method tested and include details of the eight different implementations of the commonly used Kaiser, Squires & Broadhurst method (KSB+) to aid the improvement of future KSB+ analyses.

Heymans, Catherine; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Bacon, David; Berge, Joel; Bernstein, Gary; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bridle, Sarah; Brown, Michael L.; Clowe, Douglas; Dahle, Håkon; Erben, Thomas; Gray, Meghan; Hetterscheidt, Marco; Hoekstra, Henk; Hudelot, Patrick; Jarvis, Mike; Kuijken, Konrad; Margoniner, Vera; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Nakajima, Reiko; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, Jason; Schrabback, Tim; Wittman, David

2006-05-01

112

Weak snow layer detection based on relative differences in snow properties between layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow stratigraphy information plays a prominent role in avalanche forecasting. Therefore, it is important how both manually collected and simulated snow profiles are interpreted in regard to snow stability. In the last few years several semi-quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the subjectivity of stability evaluation derived from snow profiles. One of them is the threshold sum approach (TSA), which identifies structural discontinuities related to mechanical stability within snow profiles by analyzing snow layers (i.e. grain size, type, hardness) and their interface properties (i.e. depth, difference in grain size and hardness). The threshold values identifying the structural properties were defined statistically and are optimized for the data sets they were based on. Since this approach relies entirely on absolute thresholds, problems arise, if properties (e.g. grain size estimation) are collected in a different way. Even though guidelines for collecting snow profiles are internationally defined, slight differences between observers of different avalanche services exist. The same problem arises when using this approach for simulated snow profiles. We propose a revised threshold sum approach for snow profile interpretation. Instead of using absolute values, we applied relative differences and values to the snow profiles, e.g. it was not considered how soft a snow layer is, but rather how soft it was compared to the weighted average value of the profile. This method allows the detection of potential weak layers within a snow profile but does not give an absolute estimation of their weakness. In other words, we give a probability that a particular layer is a weak layer. We tested this relative threshold approach (RTA) on a data set consisting of 128 manually recorded snow profiles, which were collected near the fracture line of or on slopes adjacent to skier-triggered avalanches. Results are encouraging since the RTA detected the weak layers related to the avalanches observed in the field as potential weak layers with a higher probability than the other layers of the profiles. This approach has the advantage to be independent from the subjectivity of the measurements (e.g. grain size estimation) - provided a variable is measured consistently within a profile - and can directly be applied to simulated profiles. A further step includes testing the RTA on simulated profiles and comparing the potential weak layers with failure layers identified in manually observed profiles completed with stability tests.

Monti, Fabiano; Schweizer, Jürg

2013-04-01

113

Assertive Community Treatment: The Evidence. Evidence-Based Practices Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Evidence introduces all stakeholders to the research literature and other resources on Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). This booklet includes: a document that reviews the ACT research literature, a selected bibliography for further reading, and re...

2008-01-01

114

Discrimination of enantiomers based on LSPR biosensors fabricated with weak enantioselective and nonselective receptors.  

PubMed

Chiral recognition based on enantioselective sensors is superior to conventional chromatographic enantioseparation techniques in terms of simplicity and rapidity. Normally, highly specific enantioselective receptors are used for the fabrication of enantioselective sensors. However, to date there only limited number of highly specific chiral selectors are reported, which greatly confines the development of enantioselective sensors. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively weak chiral selectors to construct an enantioselective biosensor for accurate chiral discrimination of enantiomers. The detection of racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (TNA) was demonstrated as an example. The sensor was made up of a dual-channel microfluidic chip. One channel of the chip was modified with human serum albumin (HSA), which was reported to be a weak chiral selector for TNA; while the other channel was modified with a monoclonal anti-TNA antibody, which was a non-enantioselective TNA receptor. A portable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) detection system was integrated with the microfluidic chip to accomplish the signal collection. Our investigation revealed that the combination of LSPR responses obtained from the two channels can be used for quantitative discrimination of the (R)- and (S)-TNA. The limit of detection was found to be 150nM for (R)-TNA and 100nM for (S)-TNA. The feasibility of use relatively weak chiral selectors could potentially promote the development of various enantioselective sensors. PMID:23578974

Guo, Longhua; Wang, Daifang; Xu, Yang; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Dai, Hong; Yang, Huang-Hao; Chen, Guonan

2013-09-15

115

[Evidence-based psychotherapy of schizophrenic psychoses].  

PubMed

On the basis of the scientific state of knowledge it is outlined that psychotherapy is an important part of an efficacious and guideline-compliant treatment of schizophrenia. Firstly, aspects of the methodologically sound British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines regarding the field of psychosis psychotherapy are presented in which cognitive behavioral therapy and family interventions are recommended without restrictions. Afterwards, empirically substantiated starting points for psychosis psychotherapy are described, taking particular account of the cognitive model of delusions. Furthermore, disorder-specific strategies of building the therapeutic relationship are identified, which take account of symptoms, such as mistrust or affective flattening. Finally, the evidence-based therapeutic strategies for relapse prevention and symptom reduction are delineated. In conclusion, psychosis psychotherapy does not have an evidence problem but an implementation problem. PMID:22733380

Klingberg, S; Wittorf, A

2012-07-01

116

Evidence and guidelines in otorhinolaryngology: the merits of evidence-based case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based medicine refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence to support decision making at point of care. To facilitate the transition of evidence into daily practice several evidence-based otorhinolaryngology guidelines have been developed. In this thesis we first describe a survey among Dutch otorhinolaryngologists to study their current awareness, knowledge, and opinion of these

M. C. J. Aarts

2012-01-01

117

Coherent random fiber laser based on nanoparticles scattering in the extremely weakly scattering regime.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the realization of a coherent random fiber laser (RFL) in the extremely weakly scattering regime, which contains a dispersive solution of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye pyrromethene 597 in carbon disulfide that was injected into a hollow optical fiber. Multiple scattering of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes NPs greatly enhanced by the waveguide confinement effect was experimentally verified to account for coherent lasing observed in our RFL system. This Letter extends the NPs-based RFLs from the incoherent regime to the coherent regime. PMID:23368465

Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Qun; Miao, Bo; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Gang; Chen, Yang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Qijin

2012-12-21

118

An interrogation system based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers for weak fiber Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interrogation system based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers for weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) was proposed. The first semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was used to modulate the light, and the second SOA separated the reflected signal from the different FBGs through delayed switching. The proposed system has lower insertion loss and higher spatial resolution, and can interrogate the time- and wavelength-division multiplexed FBG array. Up to 50 FBGs, with a reflectivity of 0.2% and a spatial resolution of 5 m along the optical fiber, were distinguished to demonstrate the interrogation system.

Luo, Zhihui; Wen, Hongqiao; Guo, Huiyong

2014-06-01

119

Progress in evidence based reproductive surgery  

PubMed Central

The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) was introduced in 1996 to improve the methodological quality of published reports of randomised controlled trials. By doing a systematic review of randomised controlled trials on reproductive surgery, our group can demonstrate that the overall quality of the published reports of randomised studies on reproductive surgical interventions has improved after CONSORT. Nevertheless, some problems still ­remain. By discussing the benefits and pitfalls of randomised trials in reproductive surgery, our opinion paper aims to stimulate the reader’s further interest in evidence-based practice in reproductive surgery.

Bosteels, J.; Weyers, S.; Siristatidis, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; D'Hooghe, T.

2011-01-01

120

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2011-04-01

121

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence from Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when…

Thompson, Bruce; Diamond, Karen E.; McWilliam, Robin; Snyder, Patricia; Snyder, Scott W.

2005-01-01

122

Some Results of Weak Anticipative Concept Applied in Simulation Based Decision Support in Enterprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation models are used as for decision support and learning in enterprises and in schools. Tree cases of successful applications demonstrate usefulness of weak anticipative information. Job shop scheduling production with makespan criterion presents a real case customized flexible furniture production optimization. The genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling optimization is presented. Simulation based inventory control for products with stochastic lead time and demand describes inventory optimization for products with stochastic lead time and demand. Dynamic programming and fuzzy control algorithms reduce the total cost without producing stock-outs in most cases. Values of decision making information based on simulation were discussed too. All two cases will be discussed from optimization, modeling and learning point of view.

Kljaji?, Miroljub; Kofja?, Davorin; Kljaji? Borštnar, Mirjana; Škraba, Andrej

2010-11-01

123

Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews and Outside Reports  

Cancer.gov

Factsheets, Evidence-Based Reviews & Reports View All  |  Tab View Factsheets Evidence-Based Reviews Reports Please see: NCI Fact Sheets: Diet and Nutrition These documents are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine

124

Evidence-based medicine for orthopedic practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is regarded as a new paradigm in medical practice, equal in enormity to the human genome project. However, there is still much confusion and misunderstanding about the concept and content of EBM. It is often limited to searching the literature and reading papers, serving cost cutters, and suppressing clinical freedom. Some believe that the use of clinical guidelines or the managed care system intimidates doctors' discretion during clinical practice and that EBM is a fashionable tendency of a group of medical academics armed with epidemiological and statistical jargon. Medical practice is a lifelong, continuous process of self-learning, and it requires clinicians to keep up to date on various developments. EBM is our practice for integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available evidence when making decisions about our care for each patient. EBM is one answer for making it possible to cover most of our activities as orthopedic surgeons, from the daily practice of patient care to writing and reading scientific papers. PMID:12486483

Akai, Masami

2002-01-01

125

Evidence-based practice. The role of staff development.  

PubMed

Knowledge and use of evidence-based practice are essential to ensure best practices and safe patient outcomes. Staff development specialists must be leaders in this initiative to support clinical nurses toward improved practice outcomes. This article describes the background for understanding the historical evolution from research utilization to evidence-based practice, defines some key concepts related to evidence-based practice, and suggests essential components for building evidence-based practice programs in healthcare institutions. PMID:15027342

Krugman, Mary

2003-01-01

126

Quantum discord with weak measurement operators of quasi-Werner states based on bipartite entangled coherent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.

Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.

2013-11-01

127

Evidence-Based Resources for Public Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000aEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM) for clinical medicine involves using the best evidence to care for individual patients. Evidence-based public health (EBPH) involves using the best evidence to develop public health policies and intervention programs. There are various EBM resources available to help clinicians sort through the vast amount of medical literature to find the best evidence for their practice needs,

E. Hatheway Simpson; Elaine Russo Martin; Sharon Telleen; Roger S. Luckmann

2003-01-01

128

The ABCs of Evidence-Based Practice for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical teachers adhere to federal policies regarding evidence-based practices. Quickly identifying and effectively using evidence-based programs and practices is particularly important for special educators, because students in special education often already have academic or behavioral deficits. Using evidence-based practices with…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Blatz, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

129

Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

Srihari, Vinod

2008-01-01

130

Case-Based Reasoning in CARE-PARTNER: Gathering Evidence for Evidence-Based Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the CARE-PARTNER system. Functionally, it offers via the WWW knowledge-support assistance to clinicians responsible for the long-term follow-up of stem-cell post-transplant patient care. CARE- PARTNER aims at implementing the concept of evidence-based medical practice, which recommends the practice of medicine based on proven and validated knowledge. From an artificial intelligence viewpoint, it proposes a multimodal reasoning framework

Isabelle Bichindaritz; Emin Kansu; Keith M. Sullivan

1998-01-01

131

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

132

Evidence for Unexpected Weaknesses in Learning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder without Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen children (ages 6-16) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared to 20 controls on both process and product scores from the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. Children with ADHD initially learned the same number of words as controls but showed weaknesses recalling the words after delays. (Contains…

Cutting, Laurie E.; Koth, Christine W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.

2003-01-01

133

Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined. Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH⋯B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

2012-06-01

134

An introduction to evidence-based practice for hand therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodologic approach to clinical practice in which evidence is used to reach an informed decision when making a diagnosis, selecting a diagnostic test, picking an intervention, or determining a prognosis. Finding the best evidence through searching and critical appraisal of the methodologic quality of clinical evidence are essential steps. Matching clinical recommendations to the level

Joy C. MacDermid

2004-01-01

135

Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid Strong Base Titrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple analogy can often provide an instructor with a means of helping students to understand an unfamiliar concept. An analogy involving money can be particularly helpful as most students have experience in dealing with a range of financial transactions in their everyday lives. In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.

Last, Arthur M.

2003-12-01

136

Increasing capacity for evidence-based practice through the evidence-based practice academy.  

PubMed

Although mentoring is an important aspect of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP), few models exist for EBP education. The EBP Academy is an innovative, 6-month educational program designed to develop clinical staff as EBP nurse mentors. Sessions provide protected time for participants to work on their EBP projects with assigned mentors who have EBP expertise and similar clinical or research interests. Participants develop EBP projects focused on improving care in their clinical areas. Evaluation of the EBP Academy is based on a four-level model, including participant feedback about the program, perception of meeting program objectives, ability to apply knowledge to practice through EBP projects, and outcome data measured as a result of implementing the EBP changes. By developing EBP mentors, capacity to move nursing practice to a stronger evidence-based foundation can be enhanced. Positive, professional nursing and patient outcomes have been demonstrated when structured EBP education is provided. PMID:24494661

Green, Angela; Jeffs, Debra; Huett, Amy; Jones, Luann R; Schmid, Barbara; Scott, Angela R; Walker, Liz

2014-02-01

137

A fast weak motif-finding algorithm based on community detection in graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of transcription factor binding sites (also called ‘motif discovery’) in DNA sequences is a basic step in understanding genetic regulation. Although many successful programs have been developed, the problem is far from being solved on account of diversity in gene expression/regulation and the low specificity of binding sites. State-of-the-art algorithms have their own constraints (e.g., high time or space complexity for finding long motifs, low precision in identification of weak motifs, or the OOPS constraint: one occurrence of the motif instance per sequence) which limit their scope of application. Results In this paper, we present a novel and fast algorithm we call TFBSGroup. It is based on community detection from a graph and is used to discover long and weak (l,d) motifs under the ZOMOPS constraint (zero, one or multiple occurrence(s) of the motif instance(s) per sequence), where l is the length of a motif and d is the maximum number of mutations between a motif instance and the motif itself. Firstly, TFBSGroup transforms the (l, d) motif search in sequences to focus on the discovery of dense subgraphs within a graph. It identifies these subgraphs using a fast community detection method for obtaining coarse-grained candidate motifs. Next, it greedily refines these candidate motifs towards the true motif within their own communities. Empirical studies on synthetic (l, d) samples have shown that TFBSGroup is very efficient (e.g., it can find true (18, 6), (24, 8) motifs within 30 seconds). More importantly, the algorithm has succeeded in rapidly identifying motifs in a large data set of prokaryotic promoters generated from the Escherichia coli database RegulonDB. The algorithm has also accurately identified motifs in ChIP-seq data sets for 12 mouse transcription factors involved in ES cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Conclusions Our novel heuristic algorithm, TFBSGroup, is able to quickly identify nearly exact matches for long and weak (l, d) motifs in DNA sequences under the ZOMOPS constraint. It is also capable of finding motifs in real applications. The source code for TFBSGroup can be obtained from http://bioinformatics.bioengr.uic.edu/TFBSGroup/.

2013-01-01

138

Surface resistance of grain-aligned YBa2Cu3Ox bulk: Evidence for two kinds of weak link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance Rs of grain-aligned YBa2Cu3Ox. Experiments were conducted on ab-plane- and ac-plane-oriented samples, with the dc magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the sample surface. We explain the nonlinear behavior of Rs at low field using a model with an array of Josephson weak links and the linear dependence on magnetic field at high field using an oscillatory-vortex-motion-loss model. The model allows a quantitative fit to the experimental data using the lower critical field of the grain, the entry field Hc1J of weak links, the junction decoupling parameter Hd, and the vortex viscosity as fitting parameters. Two different sets of parameters Hd and Hc1J were used to fit the data, suggesting that in grain-aligned YBa2Cu3Ox bulk material at least two kinds of weak link are responsible for low-field losses. An estimation of the Josephson-junction area was obtained from field-modulated microwave absorption. In addition, thermal-excitation and radiation-activation mechanisms for rf losses are compared.

Wosik, J.; Xie, L. M.; Chau, R.; Samaan, A.; Wolfe, J. C.; Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

1993-04-01

139

Addressing Key Challenges in Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its promise of enhancing the effectiveness of services, evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) appears to offer much to psychologists, patients, and policymakers. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the key challenges facing psychologists who wish to provide evidence-based treatment services, including how research evidence is used in EBPP, whether the results of the treatment research

John Hunsley

2007-01-01

140

Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

2012-01-01

141

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

142

The 400d Galaxy Cluster Survey weak lensing programme. III. Evidence for consistent WL and X-ray masses at z ? 0.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Scaling properties of galaxy cluster observables with cluster mass provide central insights into the processes shaping clusters. Calibrating proxies for cluster mass that are relatively cheap to observe will moreover be crucial to harvest the cosmological information available from the number and growth of clusters with upcoming surveys like eROSITA and Euclid. The recent Planck results led to suggestions that X-ray masses might be biased low by ~40%, more than previously considered. Aims: We aim to extend knowledge of the weak lensing - X-ray mass scaling towards lower masses (as low as 1 × 1014M?) in a sample representative of the z ~ 0.4-0.5 population. Thus, we extend the direct calibration of cluster mass estimates to higher redshifts. Methods: We investigate the scaling behaviour of MMT/Megacam weak lensing (WL) masses for 8 clusters at 0.39 ? z ? 0.80 as part of the 400d WL programme with hydrostatic Chandra X-ray masses as well as those based on the proxies, e.g. YX = TXMgas. Results: Overall, we find good agreement between WL and X-ray masses, with different mass bias estimators all consistent with zero. When subdividing the sample into a low-mass and a high-mass subsample, we find the high-mass subsample to show no significant mass bias while for the low-mass subsample, there is a bias towards overestimated X-ray masses at the ~2? level for some mass proxies. The overall scatter in the mass-mass scaling relations is surprisingly low. Investigating possible causes, we find that neither the greater range in WL than in X-ray masses nor the small scatter can be traced back to the parameter settings in the WL analysis. Conclusions: We do not find evidence for a strong (~40%) underestimate in the X-ray masses, as suggested to reconcile recent Planck cluster counts and cosmological constraints. For high-mass clusters, our measurements are consistent with other studies in the literature. The mass dependent bias, significant at ~2?, may hint at a physically different cluster population (less relaxed clusters with more substructure and mergers); or it may be due to small number statistics. Further studies of low-mass high-z lensing clusters will elucidate their mass scaling behaviour. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Israel, Holger; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Erben, Thomas; Massey, Richard J.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Schneider, Peter; Vikhlinin, Alexey

2014-04-01

143

Micellar acid-base potentiometric titrations of weak acidic and/or insoluble drugs.  

PubMed

The effect of various surfactants [the cationics cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and the nonionic polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)] on the solubility and ionization constant of some sparingly soluble weak acids of pharmaceutical interest was studied. Benzoic acid (and its 3-methyl-, 3-nitro-, and 4-tert-butyl-derivatives), acetylsalicylic acid, naproxen and iopanoic acid were chosen as model examples. Precise and accurate acid-base titrations in micellar systems were made feasible using a microcomputer-controlled titrator. The response curve, response time and potential drift of the glass electrode in the micellar systems were examined. The cationics CTAB and CPC were found to increase considerably the ionization constant of the weak acids (delta pKa ranged from -0.21 to -3.57), while the anionic SDS showed negligible effect and the nonionic Tween 80 generally decreased the ionization constants. The solubility of the acids in aqueous micellar and acidified micellar solutions was studied spectrophotometrically and it was found increased in all cases. Acetylsalicylic acid, naproxen, benzoic acid and iopanoic acid could be easily determined in raw material and some of them in pharmaceutical preparations by direct titration in CTAB-micellar system instead of using the traditional non-aqueous or back titrimetry. Precisions of 0.3-4.3% RSD and good correlation with the official tedious methods were obtained. The interference study of some excipients showed that a preliminary test should be carried out before the assay of formulations. PMID:8466957

Gerakis, A M; Koupparis, M A; Efstathiou, C E

1993-01-01

144

Evidence-Based Gallbladder Cancer Staging  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for gallbladder cancer (6th Edition) involved some major changes. Most notably, T2N0M0 tumors were moved from stage II to stage IB; T3N1M0 disease was moved from stage III to stage IIB; and T4NxM0 (x = any) tumors were moved from stage IVA to stage III. Methods: In order to determine if these changes were justified by data, an analysis of the 10,705 cases of gallbladder cancer collected between 1989 and 1996 in the NCDB was performed. All patients had >5 year follow-up. Results: The staging according to the 6th Edition provided no discrimination between stage III and IV. Five-year survivals for stage IIA, IIB, III, and IV (6th Edition) were 7%, 9%, 3%, 2% respectively. The data from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were used to derive a proposed new staging system that builds upon Edition 5 and had improved discrimination of stage groups over previous editions. Conclusions: Changes in staging systems should be justified by data. Multicenter databases, including the NCDB, represent important resources for verification of evidence-based staging systems.

Fong, Yuman; Wagman, Lawrence; Gonen, Mithat; Crawford, James; Reed, William; Swanson, Richard; Pan, Charlie; Ritchey, Jamie; Stewart, Andrew; Choti, Michael

2006-01-01

145

[Searching for evidence-based data].  

PubMed

The foundation of evidence-based medicine is critical analysis and synthesis of the best data available concerning a given health problem. These factual data are accessible because of the availability on the Internet of web tools specialized in research for scientific publications. A bibliographic database is a collection of bibliographic references describing the documents indexed. Such a reference includes at least the title, summary (or abstract), a set of keywords, and the type of publication. To conduct a strategically effective search, it is necessary to formulate the question - clinical, diagnostic, prognostic, or related to treatment or prevention - in a form understandable by the research engine. Moreover, it is necessary to choose the specific database or databases, which may have particular specificity, and to analyze the results rapidly to refine the strategy. The search for information is facilitated by the knowledge of the standardized terms commonly used to describe the desired information. These come from a specific thesaurus devoted to document indexing. The most frequently used is MeSH (Medical Subject Heading). The principal bibliographic database whose references include a set of describers from the MeSH thesaurus is Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), which has in turn become a subpart of a still more vast bibliography called PubMed, which indexes an additional 1.4 million references. Numerous other databases are maintained by national or international entities. These include the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the PASCAL and FRANCIS databases. PMID:19775689

Dufour, J-C; Mancini, J; Fieschi, M

2009-08-01

146

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

We describe the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and have arranged the manuscript as a simple algorithm which starts from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and concludes with the most important questions about maintenance treatment. In acutely ill patients the choice of drug is mainly based on pragmatic criteria. Among many strategies used for agitated patients, haloperidol plus promethazine is the best examined one. In case of persistent depression or negative symptoms treatment includes antidepressants, and some second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) have been found somewhat superior to first-generation antipsychotic drugs (FGAs) in these domains. If an antipsychotic is suspected to be ineffective, several factors need to be checked before action is taken. Few trials have addressed strategies such as switching the drug or increasing the dose in case of non-response. Clozapine remains the gold-standard for treatment-refractory patients, while none of the numerous augmentation strategies that have been examined by randomized controlled trials can be generally recommended. Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs effectively reduces relapse rates. Small, not definitive, studies have shown that withdrawing antipsychotics from patients who have been stable for up to 6 yr leads to more relapses than continuing medication. In effect, continuous treatment is more effective than intermittent strategies. The identification of optimum doses for relapse prevention with FGAs has proven difficult, and there is little randomized data on SGAs. Although the randomized evidence on a superiority of depot compared to oral treatment is not ideal, this approach suggests obvious advantages in assuring compliance. PMID:21208500

Leucht, Stefan; Heres, Stephan; Kissling, Werner; Davis, John M

2011-03-01

147

An iterative framework for EEG-based image search: robust retrieval with weak classifiers.  

PubMed

We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

Uš?umli?, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José Del R

2013-01-01

148

Calibration Technique for Superfluid 4He Weak-Link Cells Based on the Fountain Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of superfluid 4He weak-links require calibration constants which permit the determination of the pressure and temperature differences which drive Josephson oscillations. We describe a technique for calibrating 4He weak-link cells in which a heater is used to induce fountain pressures detected by the deflection of a diaphragm. The technique determines the diaphragm spring constant, the inner cell volume, and the thermal conductance of the inner cells walls. This information is used to convert the measured deflection of the diaphragm into the total chemical potential difference across the weak link.

Hoskinson, E.; Packard, R. E.

2006-09-01

149

Evidence based management of Bell's palsy.  

PubMed

Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is caused by the acute onset of lower motor neurone weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of untreated cases. In the remainder facial nerve function will be impaired in the long term. We summarise current published articles regarding early management strategies to maximise recovery of facial nerve function and minimise long-term sequelae in the condition. PMID:24685475

McCaul, James A; Cascarini, Luke; Godden, Daryl; Coombes, Darryl; Brennan, Peter A; Kerawala, Cyrus J

2014-05-01

150

Evidence-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms.  

PubMed

This article presents a new model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, for improving patient care. The model merges 2 extant paradigms currently used for quality improvement initiatives-evidence-based practice and practice or performance improvement. The literature expounds on the virtues of each of these approaches, yet no authors have moved beyond parallel play between them. The merged model, Evidence-Based Practice Improvement, may provide a more effective and practical approach to reach our quality goals. PMID:19680149

Levin, Rona F; Keefer, Jeffrey M; Marren, Joan; Vetter, MaryJo; Lauder, Bonnie; Sobolewski, Sally

2010-01-01

151

Density functional method including weak interactions: Dispersion coefficients based on the local response approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to calculate the atom-atom dispersion coefficients in a molecule is proposed for the use in density functional theory with dispersion (DFT-D) correction. The method is based on the local response approximation due to Dobson and Dinte [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1780 (1996)], with modified dielectric model recently proposed by Vydrov and van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104105 (2009)]. The local response model is used to calculate the distributed multipole polarizabilities of atoms in a molecule, from which the dispersion coefficients are obtained by an explicit frequency integral of the Casimir-Polder type. Thus obtained atomic polarizabilities are also used in the damping function for the short-range singularity. Unlike empirical DFT-D methods, the local response dispersion (LRD) method is able to calculate the dispersion energy from the ground-state electron density only. It is applicable to any geometry, free from physical constants such as van der Waals radii or atomic polarizabilities, and computationally very efficient. The LRD method combined with the long-range corrected DFT functional (LC-BOP) is applied to calculations of S22 weakly bound complex set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. Binding energies obtained by the LC-BOP+LRD agree remarkably well with ab initio references.

Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

2009-12-01

152

Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…

Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique

2011-01-01

153

Nurses' skill level and access to evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Integrating evidence-based practice into the culture of an acute care hospital requires assessment, planning, and intervention by nursing leadership. The authors discuss a statewide study that assessed the skill level of nurses in obtaining evidence for their nursing practice, using computers and databases, as well as evaluating the perceived availability of resources in their hospitals to access evidence. PMID:18997555

Cadmus, Edna; Van Wynen, Elizabeth A; Chamberlain, Barbara; Steingall, Patricia; Kilgallen, Mary Ellen; Holly, Cheryl; Gallagher-Ford, Lynn

2008-11-01

154

Application of evidence-based practice through a float project.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice must become a common, acceptable process for the bedside nurse. This paper demonstrates a process for engaging nurses in the use of evidence for direct practice. An example using the revision of a float policy is provided as a model for staff nurses to incorporate evidence in a mechanism to elicit change. PMID:18715345

Boswell, Carol; Gatson, Zassar; Baker, Diana; Vaughn, Gary; Lyons, Beverly; Chapman, Patty; Cannon, Sharon

2008-01-01

155

Application of photoionization models based on radiative transfer and the Helmholtz equations to studies of streamers in weak electric fields  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in development of photoionization models in air based on radiative transfer and Helmholtz equations open new perspectives for efficient solution of nonthermal gas discharge problems involving complex geometries. Many practical applications require accurate modeling of streamer discharges developing in weak electric fields, in which the photoionization process significantly contributes to discharge dynamics. This paper (1) reports original studies, which demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the recently proposed photoionization models for studies of streamers in weak electric fields, and (2) introduces efficient boundary conditions for the photoinization models based on radiative transfer theory.

Liu Ningyu; Celestin, Sebastien; Bourdon, Anne; Pasko, Victor P.; Segur, Pierre; Marode, Emmanuel [Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C, UPR CNRS 288, Grande voie des vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Universite de Toulouse, LAPLACE, CNRS, INPT, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, LPGP, UMR CNRS 8578, Plateau du moulon, 3 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2007-11-19

156

Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DDoESSA)0.5 from electron spin resonance measurements.  

PubMed

X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a conducting free-standing film of polyaniline plasticized and protonated with di-n-dodecyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid (DDoESSA). The magnetic field was applied parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film. At around 75 K a transition is observed from Pauli susceptibility to a localized state in which the spin 1/2 polarons behave as spin 1/2 dimers. A rough estimation of the intradimer and interdimer exchange constants is obtained. Below 5 K, ESR data reveal a weak ferromagnetism with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector mainly oriented in the plane of the film. The existence of a relatively well-defined n-fold axis along the chain direction in the crystalline regions confers a symmetry compatible with such analysis. PMID:23423800

Santana, V T; Nascimento, O R; Djurado, D; Travers, J P; Pron, A; Walmsley, L

2013-03-20

157

Basing PRFs on Constant-Query Weak PRFs: Minimizing Assumptions for Efficient Symmetric Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well known that all basic private-key cryptographic primitives can be built from one-way functions, finding\\u000a weak assumptions from which practical implementations of such primitives exist remains a challenging task. Towards this goal,\\u000a this paper introduces the notion of a constant-query weak PRF, a function with a secret key which is computationally indistinguishable from a truly random function

Ueli M. Maurer; Stefano Tessaro

2008-01-01

158

A study of AdaBoost with SVM based weak learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on designing an algorithm, named AdaBoostSVM, using SVM as weak learners for AdaBoost. To obtain a set of effective SVM weak learners, this algorithm adaptively adjusts the kernel parameter in SVM instead of using a fixed one. Compared with the existing AdaBoost methods, the AdaBoostSVM has advantages of easier model selection and better generalization performance.

Xuchun Li; Lei Wang; E. Sung

2005-01-01

159

Evidence-based therapy for cutaneous sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Although healthcare providers have arrived at a relatively comfortable zone of accepted clinical practice in the management of cutaneous sarcoidosis, virtually every treatment is based on minimal evidence-based data and relies almost exclusively on anecdotal information. Although it would be convenient to blame this state of affairs on the lack of certainty about disease aetiology, the unavoidable fact is that little has been executed, even in the realm of well designed comparative trials. Nonetheless, worldwide accepted standard therapies for sarcoidosis include the administration of corticosteroids, antimalarials and methotrexate. A stepwise approach to patient care is appropriate, and potent topical corticosteroids (e.g. clobetasol) or repeated intralesional injections of triamcinolone (3-10 mg/mL) may be all that is needed in mild skin-limited disease. In patients requiring systemic therapy for recalcitrant or deforming skin lesions (or for widespread disease), corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone 40-80 mg/day, tapered accordingly) used alone or in combination with antimalarials or methotrexate may be indicated. Antimalarials and methotrexate are considered second-line interventions and may be used as monotherapy for steroid-resistant sarcoidosis or in patients unable to tolerate steroids. Given the concern regarding ocular toxicity, the maximum dosages of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine should not exceed 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Methotrexate is given in weekly doses of 10-30 mg, with the caveat that haematological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and hepatic toxicities are possible. Despite universal acceptance as standard care, the aforementioned treatments often result in an incomplete clinical response or unacceptable adverse events. In such situations, more innovative treatment options may be used. Treatments that may well gain widespread future use include the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors infliximab and adalimumab. Experience is limited, but early reports are promising. Infliximab is administered via intravenous infusion at doses of 3-10 mg/kg at 0, 2 and 6 weeks and as indicated thereafter, whereas adalimumab is injected subcutaneously at doses of 40 mg either weekly or every 2 weeks. Because adalimumab is not approved for the management of sarcoidosis, the optimum dose administration interval is uncertain. However, it has been given in both weekly and every other week regimens. Isotretinoin, 0.5-2 mg/kg/day, has been used successfully in a handful of reported cases. However, the teratogenic potential of isotretinoin is often prohibitive considering that the primary demographic group likely to develop sarcoidosis is women of childbearing potential. Thalidomide at dosages of 50 to >400 mg/day has limited, albeit promising, supporting data. However, access is restricted in many countries because of a deserved pregnancy category X rating. Melatonin (20 mg/day) and allopurinol (100-300 mg/day) are not well studied in cutaneous sarcoidosis, and the clinical experience with tetracycline derivatives has been mixed. That said, there are compelling reports of therapeutic benefit with both doxycycline and minocycline. Because neither of these agents is associated with the severe toxicity of cytotoxic drugs, they may serve as effective therapy in some patients. Pentoxifylline (400 mg three times daily) has been of use in a small number of reported cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports on its use in patients with primarily cutaneous disease. Both ciclosporin and chlorambucil have been largely abandoned given their associated toxicity and disappointingly unreliable efficacy. Finally, laser therapy is a newer modality that may provide patients with a quick and non-invasive treatment option for cutaneous sarcoidosis. PMID:18578557

Doherty, Christy B; Rosen, Ted

2008-01-01

160

Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chiropractors must continue to learn, develop themselves professionally throughout their careers, and become self-directed and lifelong learners. Using an evidence-based approach increases the probability of optimal patient outcomes. But most chiropractors lack knowledge and interest in evidence-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to develop and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based training for chiropractic practitioners in a continuing

Ronald J Feise; Jaroslaw P Grod; Anne Taylor-Vaisey

2006-01-01

161

Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

Berg, Kris

2010-01-01

162

Ohio's Foray into Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio Educational Library Media Association (OELMA) has been working for many years to gather evidence in hopes of convincing their state government of the need for a certified library media specialist in every school. Its latest efforts began in 2002 when the board of OELMA applied for a grant to do a state study. Board members of OELMA, however,…

Findlay, Christine

2006-01-01

163

Evidence-based therapy for cutaneous sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of treatments for cutaneous sarcoidosis are extensions of the drugs tested for pulmonary sarcoidosis. There are some exceptions. These include drugs given topically and those with high concentrations in the skin. This review will examine the conventional treatments of cutaneous sarcoidosis and focus on the best available evidence to make recommendations on treatment.

Robert P. Baughman; Elyse E. Lower

2007-01-01

164

Evidence-based therapy for cutaneous sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Most of treatments for cutaneous sarcoidosis are extensions of the drugs tested for pulmonary sarcoidosis. There are some exceptions. These include drugs given topically and those with high concentrations in the skin. This review will examine the conventional treatments of cutaneous sarcoidosis and focus on the best available evidence to make recommendations on treatment. PMID:17560311

Baughman, Robert P; Lower, Elyse E

2007-01-01

165

Adrenaline, cardiac arrest, and evidence based medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the evidence supporting the clinical application of adrenaline in cardiopulmonary arrest, and summarize the receptor effects of catecholamines and the basic principles producing perfusion during CPR. Animal and human studies show that in cardiac arrest, adrenaline has positive haemodynamic effects, increasing systemic pressures, myocardial perfusion, and cerebrally directed flow. The problems extrapolating from animal to

T H Rainer; C E Robertson

1996-01-01

166

Accounting for Evidence: Managing Evidence for Goal Based Software Safety Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goal-based safety standards require an evidence-based approach from suppliers and the large volume of evidence for safety assurance that is generated by a software project needs to be effectively assessed and managed. A structured safety argument needs to be created and agreed with regulators and other stakeholders early in the project lifecycle so that project processes can be designed to produce the required evidence. This safety argument needs to be abstracted in that it should define the requirements for evidence without attempting to explicitly identify the concrete evidence generated. A means of traceability between abstract requirements for evidence and concrete realization needs to be provided: an SQL database which can be hyperlinked to the argument is an efficient means of managing both the status of evidence and the traceability to the argument. The safety case is completed once the evidence has been successfully generated and assessed by an evidence report in which the assessment of limitations in evidence and counter-evidence can be effectively managed.

Hamilton, Vivien

167

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastric Cancer in Korea: An Evidence-Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase.

Lee, Jun Haeng; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

168

Clinical practice guidelines for gastric cancer in Korea: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase. PMID:25061536

Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae G; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-06-01

169

Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

2010-01-01

170

Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice.

Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin

2010-01-01

171

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

172

Preparing Future Generations of Evidence-Based Endocrinologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much to recommend an increased emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) training in medical education. Evidence-based\\u000a practice has emerged as a national priority in efforts to improve health care quality (1). Physicians are encouraged to identify, appraise, and apply the best evidence in their decision making for individual patients.\\u000a However, this ideal remains far from realization. Physicians leave the

Michael L. Green

173

Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

2013-06-01

174

Sparse representation based latent components analysis for machinery weak fault detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak machinery fault detection is a difficult task because of two main reasons (1) At the early stage of fault development, signature of fault related component performs incompletely and is quite different from that at the apparent failure stage. In most instances, it seems almost identical with the normal operating state. (2) The fault feature is always submerged and distorted by relatively strong background noise and macro-structural vibrations even if the fault component already performs completely, especially when the structure of fault components and interference are close. To solve these problems, we should penetrate into the underlying structure of the signal. Sparse representation provides a class of algorithms for finding succinct representations of signal that capture higher-level features in the data. With the purpose of extracting incomplete or seriously overwhelmed fault components, a sparse representation based latent components decomposition method is proposed in this paper. As a special case of sparse representation, shift-invariant sparse coding algorithm provides an effective basis functions learning scheme for capturing the underlying structure of machinery fault signal by iteratively solving two convex optimization problems: an L1-regularized least squares problem and an L2-constrained least squares problem. Among these basis functions, fault feature can be probably contained and extracted if optimal latent component is filtered. The proposed scheme is applied to analyze vibration signals of both rolling bearings and gears. Experiment of accelerated lifetime test of bearings validates the proposed method's ability of detecting early fault. Besides, experiments of fault bearings and gears with heavy noise and interference show the approach can effectively distinguish subtle differences between defect and interference. All the experimental data are analyzed by wavelet shrinkage and basis pursuit de-noising (BPDN) method for comparison.

Tang, Haifeng; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming

2014-06-01

175

Weak evidence supports the short-term benefits of orthopaedic treatment for Class III malocclusion in children.  

PubMed

Data sourcesData sources The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline and Embase.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) of orthodontic treatment to correct prominent lower front teeth were included.Data extraction and synthesisStudy screening, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Meta-analysis was undertaken when studies of similar comparisons reported comparable outcome measures. A fixed-effect model was used. The l(2) statistic was used as a measure of statistical heterogeneity.ResultsSeven RCTs (339 patients) were included in this review. One study was assessed as at low risk of bias, three at high risk of bias and three at unclear risk. Four studies reported on the use of a facemask, two on the chin cup, one on the tandem traction bow appliance and one on mandibular headgear.One study reported on both the chin cup and mandibular headgear appliances. One study (n = 73, low quality evidence), comparing a facemask to no treatment, reported a mean difference (MD) in overjet of 4.10 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04 to 5.16; P value < 0.0001) favouring the facemask treatment.Three studies (n = 155, low quality evidence) reported ANB differences immediately after treatment with a facemask when compared to an untreated control. The pooled data showed a statistically significant MD in ANB in favour of the facemask of 3.93° (95% CI 3.46 to 4.39; P value < 0.0001). There was significant heterogeneity between these studies (I2 = 82%). This is likely to have been caused by the different populations studied and the different ages at the time of treatment.One study (n = 73, low quality evidence) reported outcomes of the use of the facemask compared to an untreated control at three years follow-up. This study showed that improvements in overjet and ANB were still present three years post-treatment. In this study, adverse effects were reported, but due to the low prevalence of temporomandibular (TMJ) signs and symptoms no analysis was undertaken.Two studies (n = 90, low quality evidence) compared the chin cup with an untreated control. Both studies found a statistically significant improvement in ANB, and one study also found an improvement in the Wits appraisal. Data from these two studies were not suitable for pooling.A single study of the tandem traction bow appliance compared to untreated control (n = 30, very low quality evidence) showed a statistically significant difference in both overjet and ANB favouring the intervention group. The remaining two studies did not report the primary outcome of this review.ConclusionsThere is some evidence that the use of a facemask to correct prominent lower front teeth in children is effective when compared to no treatment on a short-term basis. However, in view of the general poor quality of the included studies, these results should be viewed with caution. Further randomised controlled trials with long follow-up are required. PMID:24763172

Long, Hu; Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli

2014-03-01

176

Use of Strong- and Weak-Base Anion-Exchange Resins in the Purification of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for the removal of acid and sulphates from finely milled electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) by the use of a strong or weak-base anion-exchange resin in a one-step operation. The method has the advantage of eliminating the labor- an...

G. F. Lahoud

1987-01-01

177

Evidence-Based Practice and the Culture of Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires attention to the client context, including client culture. We propose that the developmental period of adolescence is characterized by a unique culture that has important implications for evidence-based practice. Specifically, this paper explores three features of adolescent culture (importance of technology, centrality of peers, and the ongoing challenge of identity formation and individuation) that may be especially

Timothy D. Nelson; Jennifer Mize Nelson

2010-01-01

178

Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

Sturmey, Peter

2009-01-01

179

Evidence-Based Treatment and Stuttering--Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…

Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.

2009-01-01

180

Evidence-Based Guidelines in Laboratory Medicine: Principles and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Guidelines are commonly used tools for supporting medical decisions. Formulating evidence- based recommendations has become a leading principle in guideline development. Aim: This narrative review integrates the most recent methods of evidence-based guideline development and adapts those to the field of laboratory medicine. Summary: We present a 10-step process and a list of criteria for the development of laboratory

Wytze P. Oosterhuis; David E. Bruns; Joseph Watine; Sverre Sandberg; Andrea R. Horvath

2004-01-01

181

Practicing Psychologists’ Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Psychological Association (APA) policy definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) states that practice based on evidence must consider the best available research, use clinical expertise, and consider client contextual variables (APA Presidential Task Force, 2006). The researchers qualitatively examined clinical and counseling psychologists’ attitudes toward EBPP using grounded theory. The study explored the extent to which the

Jennifer L. Wilson; Erin Armoutliev; Elena Yakunina; James L. Werth

2009-01-01

182

Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Conducting Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…

Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary

2004-01-01

183

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

184

A Model-based Way of Searching for Weak Planetary Dynamos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the upper limits to dynamo related fields at the weakly magnetized planets is subject to challenges produced by the typically stronger fields from the external plasma interaction. The induced fields are often expected to have zero time averages (at least in the solar wind) provided orbital sampling is long enough. However, there are many variations in these fields that complicate the process. In addition, it may be that any weak internal field signature is more identifiable at locations other than periapsis where ionospheric and body-related induced currents are strongest. We use BATS-R-US MHD models of the Venus-solar wind interaction with and without weak internal dipole fields to illustrate these issues, and then apply what we learn to Venus data sets from PVO and VEX observations.

Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Villarreal, M.; Zhang, T.-L.; Wei, H.

2013-09-01

185

[Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].  

PubMed

As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

2013-12-01

186

Finding the Common Core: Evidence-Based Practices, Clinically Relevant Evidence, and Core Mechanisms of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the quality of children’s mental health care can benefit from the adoption of evidence based and evidence informed\\u000a treatments. However, the promise of moving science into practice is hampered by three core elements that need to be addressed\\u000a in the current conversation among key stakeholders: (1) expanding our understanding of the clinical relevance of different\\u000a types of evidence, (2)

Thomas L. SextonSusan; Susan Douglas Kelley

2010-01-01

187

Ensuring that education, certification, and practice are evidence based.  

PubMed

The occupational therapy profession has put forth a vision for evidence-based practice. Although many practitioners express a commitment to the provision of services informed by evidence, the reality that tradition still determines much of our education, certification, and practice cannot be ignored. In this article, we highlight the disconnect between the profession's aspirations and actual practices using neurophysiological models as an example. We describe actions to actualize the shift from traditional interventions to evidence-based approaches. We challenge readers to become agents of change and facilitate a culture shift to a profession informed by evidence. It is our hope that this article will provoke critical discourse among educators, practitioners, authors, and editors about why a reluctance to let go of unsubstantiated traditions and a hesitancy to embrace scientific evidence exist. A shift to providing evidence-based occupational therapy will enable us to meet the objectives of the Centennial Vision. PMID:23597695

Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P; Gillen, Glen

2013-01-01

188

NCLEX-RN success: evidence-based strategies.  

PubMed

Evidence-based nursing requires that students think reflectively and use clinical inquiry to develop clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Likewise, nursing students need a strategy to be successful in passing the NCLEX-RN. The authors identify strategies based on nursing research to facilitate student success. While learning the evidence-based nursing process, the student must begin to think like a nurse while answering clinical practice questions. Using the skills taught for evidence-based nursing can be a powerful tool to approach the NCLEX-RN and succeed. PMID:22024676

Thomas, Marie H; Baker, Susan Scott

2011-01-01

189

Detection of weak moving targets based on 2-D range-Doppler FMCW radar Fourier processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a FMCW radar measurement scheme and a 2-D range-Doppler FMCW radar Fourier processing that is especially suited to detect very weak moving targets. A 2-D Fourier transform is applied to a larger set of consecutively measured FMCW radar beat signals. By this a phase coherent evaluation of a very long measuring time and a highly sensitive

Faiza Ali; Martin Vossiek

2010-01-01

190

The wave structure function in weak to strong fluctuations: an analytic model based on heuristic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rytov perturbation method can be used to derive analytic expressions governing statistical quantities of an optical wave propagating through the Earth's atmosphere. It is generally accepted that the validity of these expressions is restricted to the weak fluctuation regime, and that the wave structure function for plane and spherical waves obtained via the Rytov method is valid in all

Cynthia Y Young; Aaron J Masino; Fredrick E Thomas; Christopher J Subich

2004-01-01

191

Building a Performance-Based Assessment System To Diagnose Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief description of the development of the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTTS) program by F. G. Roswell and J. S. Chall. It also describes the editorial and statistical procedures that were used to validate the program for determining students' strengths and weaknesses in important areas…

Hennings, Sara S.; Hughes, Kay E.

192

Oligomers based on weak hydrogen bond networks: a rotational study of the tetramer of difluoromethane.  

PubMed

We report the rotational spectrum of one conformer of the tetramer of difluoromethane (CH2F2)4 (the first pure rotational spectrum of a tetramer of an asymmetric rotor), and describe the network of weak hydrogen bonds which connect the four subunits. PMID:24216607

Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo; Caminati, Walther

2014-01-01

193

Weak bases and ionophores rapidly and reversibly raise the ph of endocytic vesicles in cultured mouse fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that endocytic vesicles in BALB\\/c 3T3 cells have a pH of 5.0 (Tycko and Maxfield, Cell, 28:643-651). In this paper, a method for measuring the effect of various agents, including weak bases and ionophores, on the pH of endocytic vesicles is presented. The method is based on the increase in fluorescein fluorescence with 490-nm excitation as

FREDERICK R. MAXFIELD

1982-01-01

194

Evidence Based Dental Care: Integrating Clinical Expertise with Systematic Research  

PubMed Central

Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the “gold standard” in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21st century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines.

Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R.; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

195

From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based

Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

2010-01-01

196

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling 2: predicting the tissue distribution of acids, very weak bases, neutrals and zwitterions.  

PubMed

A key component of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models is the tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpu's). The predictability of Kpu values using mechanistically derived equations has been investigated for 7 very weak bases, 20 acids, 4 neutral drugs and 8 zwitterions in rat adipose, bone, brain, gut, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, skin, spleen and thymus. These equations incorporate expressions for dissolution in tissue water and, partitioning into neutral lipids and neutral phospholipids. Additionally, associations with acidic phospholipids were incorporated for zwitterions with a highly basic functionality, or extracellular proteins for the other compound classes. The affinity for these cellular constituents was determined from blood cell data or plasma protein binding, respectively. These equations assume drugs are passively distributed and that processes are nonsaturating. Resultant Kpu predictions were more accurate when compared to published equations, with 84% as opposed to 61% of the predicted values agreeing with experimental values to within a factor of 3. This improvement was largely due to the incorporation of distribution processes related to drug ionisation, an issue that is not addressed in earlier equations. Such advancements in parameter prediction will assist WBPBPK modelling, where time, cost and labour requirements greatly deter its application. PMID:16639716

Rodgers, Trudy; Rowland, Malcolm

2006-06-01

197

Evidence for scene-based motion correspondence.  

PubMed

To maintain stable object representations as our eyes or the objects themselves move, the visual system must determine how newly sampled information relates to existing object representations. To solve this correspondence problem, the visual system uses not only spatiotemporal information (e.g., the spatial and temporal proximity between elements), but also feature information (e.g., the similarity in size or luminance between elements). Here we asked whether motion correspondence relies solely on image-based feature information, or whether it is influenced by scene-based information (e.g., the perceived sizes of surfaces or the perceived illumination conditions). We manipulated scene-based information separately from image-based information in the Ternus display, an ambiguous apparent-motion display, and found that scene-based information influences how motion correspondence is resolved, indicating that theories of motion correspondence that are based on "scene-blind" mechanisms are insufficient. PMID:24452384

Hein, Elisabeth; Moore, Cathleen M

2014-04-01

198

Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak  

PubMed Central

We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted.

Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

2014-01-01

199

Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak.  

PubMed

We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: (i) human trials, (ii) ??3 weeks duration, (iii) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs and (iv) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons' diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

Kaiser, K A; Shikany, J M; Keating, K D; Allison, D B

2013-08-01

200

Intracellular pH and the distribution of weak acids and bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia.  

PubMed Central

1. The steady-state intracellular/extracellular concentration ratios (Ci/Co) of a number of radiolabelled weak bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia were measured. 2. Observed values for Ci/Co (mean +/- S.E. of mean) were [3H]nicotine, 6.17 +/- 0.12; [14C]morphine, 6.08 +/- 0.14 [3H]atropine, 7.10 +/- 0.16; [14C]trimethylamine, 6.73 +/- 0.13; [14C]procaine, 10.13 +/- 0.26. If Ci/Co were determined by the transmembrane pH gradient, the intracellular pH (pHi) appropriate to these concentration gradients lay between 6.4 and 6.6 at an extracellular pH (pHo) of 7.4. 3. the steady-state value of Ci/Co for the weak acid 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) was 0.87 +/- 0.007. The appropriate pHi was 7.31 +/- 0.003. 4. The difference between the values of pHi calculated from the distribution of the weak bases and of DMO could not be attributed to (i) experimental error, (ii) partial permeation of protonated base, (iii) intracellular binding or carrier-mediated transport of base, (iv) lipid uptake of base or (v) different pK'a inside and outside cells. 5. The difference between the measurements of pHi made with DMO and nicotine (pHDMO-pHnic) was reduced or abolished by uncoupling agents, which act as transmembrane proton carriers. This effect was not reproduced by respiratory inhibitors or by exposure to lactate. 6. pHDMO-pHnic was small (less than 0.1 units) in human erythrocytes, which contain no intracellular organelles, and was exaggerated (1.0 unit) in slices of lipid-depleted brown adipose tissue which contained an abundance of mitochondria. 7. It is concluded that the different values of pHi determined using weak acids and bases arise from the presence of membrane-bound intracellular compartments of differing pH, and that where the use of pH-sensitive micro-electrodes is impracticable, it is desirable to measure pHi with both a weak acid and a weak base unless these can be shown equal over a wide range of pHi values.

Brown, D A; Garthwaite, J

1979-01-01

201

Breast abscess: evidence based management recommendations.  

PubMed

Literature review was carried out and studies reporting on treatment of breast abscesses were critically appraised for quality and their level of evidence using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy guidelines, and key recommendations were summarized. Needle aspiration either with or without ultrasound guidance should be employed as first line treatment of breast abscesses. This approach has the potential benefits of: superior cosmesis, shorter healing time, and avoidance of general anaesthesia. Multiple aspiration sessions may be required for cure. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter placement may be considered as an alternative approach for treatment of larger abscesses (>3 cm). Surgical incision and drainage should be considered for first line therapy in large (>5 cm), multiloculated, or long standing abscesses, or if percutaneous drainage is unsuccessful. All patients should be treated concurrently with antibiotics. Patients with recurrent subareolar abscesses and fistulas should be referred for consideration of surgical treatment. PMID:24791941

Lam, Elaine; Chan, Tiffany; Wiseman, Sam M

2014-07-01

202

Alopecia areata: evidence-based treatments.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is a common condition causing nonscarring hair loss. It may be patchy, involve the entire scalp (alopecia totalis) or whole body (alopecia universalis). Patients may recover spontaneously but the disorder can follow a course of recurrent relapses or result in persistent hair loss. Alopecia areata can cause great psychological distress, and the most important aspect of management is counseling the patient about the unpredictable nature and course of the condition as well as the available effective treatments, with details of their side effects. Although many treatments have been shown to stimulate hair growth in alopecia areata, there are limited data on their long-term efficacy and impact on quality of life. We review the evidence for the following commonly used treatments: corticosteroids (topical, intralesional, and systemic), topical sensitizers (diphenylcyclopropenone), psoralen and ultraviolet A phototherapy (PUVA), minoxidil and dithranol. PMID:19341938

Garg, Seema; Messenger, Andrew G

2009-03-01

203

Vitamin D: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and seems to have some anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. In addition, recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. Low vitamin D levels are associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality, cancer incidence and mortality, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Although it is well known that the combination of vitamin D and calcium is necessary to maintain bone density as people age, vitamin D may also be an independent risk factor for falls among the elderly. New recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics [corrected] address the need for supplementation in breastfed newborns and many questions are raised regarding the role of maternal supplementation during lactation. Unfortunately, little evidence guides clinicians on when to screen for vitamin D deficiency or effective treatment options. PMID:19897699

Kulie, Teresa; Groff, Amy; Redmer, Jackie; Hounshell, Jennie; Schrager, Sarina

2009-01-01

204

The art of inconsistency: evidence-based practice my way.  

PubMed

Inconsistency of care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a common complaint amongst caregivers. This paper discusses evidence-based medicine and standards of care in relation to personal preference where care-giving choices are concerned. It is suggested that moral distress may be diminished by consistently applying evidence-based practice, adhering to standards of care and optimizing the team dynamic by engaging in consensus-based collaboration. PMID:19710655

Golec, L

2009-09-01

205

Evidence-based nutritional advice for patients affected by age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

This paper presents the evidence available in the literature on the role of nutrients in preventing the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its progression to more advanced stages. In our analysis we considered publications on vitamins B, C, E and D, carotenoids (i.e. lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene), ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and zinc published between 2003 and 2013. While the evidence supporting supplementation and higher dietary intake of nutrients for AMD prevention is weak to moderate, large and robust randomised controlled trials showed that the AREDS formula leads to a 25% reduction in progression to advanced AMD in individuals belonging to AREDS categories 3 and 4. After reviewing the current literature, which includes the AREDS2 study, we suggest an 'evidence-based formula'. PMID:24821294

Andreatta, Walter; El-Sherbiny, Samer

2014-01-01

206

EVIDENCE - BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

A push for the use of evidence?based medicine and evidence?based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence?based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision?making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well?being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence?based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

Lehecka, B.J.

2012-01-01

207

Dissemination of Evidence-Based Standards of Care  

PubMed Central

Standards of care pertain to crafting and implementing patient-centered treatment interventions. Standards of care must take into consideration the patient's gender, ethnicity, medical and dental history, insurance coverage (or socioeconomic level, if a private patient), and the timeliness of the targeted scientific evidence. This resolves into a process by which clinical decision-making about the optimal patient-centered treatment relies on the best available research evidence, and all other necessary inputs and factors to provide the best possible treatment. Standards of care must be evidence-based, and not merely based on the evidence – the dichotomy being critical in contemporary health services research and practice. Evidence-based standards of care must rest on the best available evidence that emerges from a concerted hypothesis-driven process of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Health information technology needs to become an every-day reality in health services research and practice to ensure evidence-based standards of care. Current trends indicate that user-friendly methodologies, for the dissemination of evidence-based standards of care, must be developed, tested and distributed. They should include approaches for the quantification and analysis of the textual content of systematic reviews and of their summaries in the form of critical reviews and lay-language summaries.

Barkhordarian, Andre; Hacker, Brett; Chiappelli, Francesco

2011-01-01

208

A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

2014-01-01

209

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, a consensus has emerged regarding a set of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia that address symptom management and psychosocial functioning. Yet, surveys suggest that the great majority of the population of individuals with schizophrenia do not receive evidence-based care. In this article, we review the empirical literature on implementation of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia patients. We first examine lessons learned from implementation studies in general medicine. We then summarize the implementation literature specific to schizophrenia, including medication practices, psychosocial interventions, information technology, and state- and federal-level interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future directions.

Drake, Robert E.; Bond, Gary R.; Essock, Susan M.

2009-01-01

210

Weak FEL Gain Detection with a Modulated Laser-Based Beam Heater  

SciTech Connect

For an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) such as the LCLS, the FEL gain signal is accompanied by spontaneous radiation with a significant power level. Detecting the weak FEL gain among the large spontaneous background in the early stage of the exponential growth or for a low quality electron beam is important in commissioning the FEL. In this paper, we describe a simple ''lock-in'' method of weak FEL gain detection, suggested by K. Robinson, accomplished by slowly modulating the laser power of a designated beam heater that controls the local energy spread of the electron beam. We present numerical modeling that shows the effectiveness of this method and discuss its implementation in the LCLS.

Emma, P.; Huang, Z.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

2005-05-25

211

Weak gratings in silicon-on-insulator for spectral filters based on volume holography.  

PubMed

We demonstrate integrated holographic grating filters, that can be designed toward any desired target spectrum. A straightforward design method transforms this target spectrum into a weak effective refractive index variation. The filters are implemented in high-contrast silicon-on-insulator by modulating the width of the shallow etched sides of a ridge waveguide. Measurements show that this is a promising approach to integrate flexible and versatile filters on photonic chips to enable more complex applications. PMID:23381446

Verbist, Marie; Van Thourhout, Dries; Bogaerts, Wim

2013-02-01

212

A Weak Formulation of the Boltzmann Equation Based on the Fourier Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present an alternative formulation of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation. Rewriting the weak form of the equation with shifted test functions and using Fourier techniques, it turns out that the transformed problem contains only a three-fold integral. Explicit formulas for the transformed collision kernel are presented in the case of VHS models for hard and soft potentials. For isotropic Maxwellian molecules, a classical result by Bobylev is recovered, too.

Kirsch, R.; Rjasanow, S.

2007-11-01

213

What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

Roberts, Margaret

2010-01-01

214

Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

Kowalski, Theodore

2009-01-01

215

Making the Case for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…

Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy

2010-01-01

216

An evidence-based approach to earlier initiation of dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to review evidence addressing the optimal time to initiate dialysis treatment. The database was derived from an evidence-based review of the medical literature and from the Canada-United States peritoneal dialysis study. The publications were divided into (1) those addressing the clinical impact of early versus late referral to a dialysis program; (2) those evaluating the association between

David N. Churchill

1997-01-01

217

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement (QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing provider behavior

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

218

[Building an evidence-based practice culture: incorporating evidence-based nursing in the clinical ladder system].  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice has become a dominant trend in the healthcare with the objective of providing efficient, high quality health care, and policy making. Traditional problem-solving methods may not adequately address consumer needs in the rapidly changing modern healthcare system. In order to make correct decisions, a systematic and scientific approach to the collection, assessment, and interpretation of clinical information is essential for the health care provider. Creating an evidence-based practice nursing culture is the most fundamental way for nurses to recognize the importance of evidence-based nursing and, subsequently, adapt to solving clinical problems. This paper elaborates the strategy for incorporating evidence-based nursing into the clinical ladder system used at the authors' affiliated medical center. Three strategies are introduced. These are: (1) including the EBN concept in newcomer in-service training; (2) adopting evidence-based nursing practice competence as a criterion in the clinical ladder system, with various evidence-based, ladder-related reports required for promotion; and (3) providing support to nurses through centralized and decentralized education as well as individual consultation. The proposed strategy is provided as a practical reference for educators and policy makers working to foster evidence-based practice nursing cultures. PMID:21455895

Kuo, Hsueh-Ming; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Lee, Hsiu-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Jen; Fan, Sheng-Hsin; Chang, Ying-Ju

2011-04-01

219

Evidence-based health promotion: an emerging field.  

PubMed

There is much debate around the use of evidence in health promotion practice. This article aims to sharpen our understanding of this matter by reviewing and analyzing the 26 case studies presented in this special issue. These case studies suggest that health promotion practitioners are using a wide range of research evidence in interventions for high-risk individuals, entire populations, and vulnerable groups according to all five strategies for action described in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. In nearly every case, practitioners had to mediate and adapt research evidence for their case. Eight key levers helped practitioners embed research evidence into practice: local and cultural relevance of the evidence, community capacity-building, sustained dialogue from the outset with all stakeholders, established academic-supported partnerships, communication that responds to organizational and political readiness, acknowledgement and awareness of gaps between evidence and practice, advocacy, and adequate earmarked resources. These case studies provide some evidence that there is an evidence-based health promotion, that this evidence base is broad, and that practitioners use different strategies to adapt it for their case. PMID:21721308

Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Jones, Catherine M; McQueen, David V; Potvin, Louise

2011-03-01

220

Evidence for Weak First-Order Nature of Lipid Bilayer Phase Transition from the Analysis of Pseudo-Critical Specific Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific heat of aqueous suspension of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine obtained by ac calorimetry is analyzed by the least-squares fit under certain assumptions about the functional form for critical phenomena. Based upon the theory on the critical or pseudo-critical behavior, a weak first-order phase transition is proposed from the fact that a most probable solution follows that pseudo-critical behavior takes place, i.e., ?{=}?'{=}0.5, the temperature difference between the spinodal points is as small as 0.24 K and the thermal hysteresis at the main transition is smaller than 0.2 K.

Hatta, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Shigeo; Akutsu, Yasuhiro

1984-02-01

221

Phase behaviour of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate with a weakly cationically charged acrylamide-based copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behaviour at constant polymer concentration of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a weakly charged\\u000a cationic polymer (PAM6) based on an acrylamide backbone, containing 6 mol% cationic sites, is presented. Upon increasing the\\u000a SDS concentration, the known strongly hydrophilic character of the acrylamide polymer turns gradually to moderately hydrophobic.\\u000a Thus, although at room temperature the aqueous

G. Mylonas; G. Bokias; G. Staikos

222

Unified theory of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions based on the vector-like group E(7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a vector-like theory based on the unifying (exceptional) group E(7). The model has six quarks, u and c of charge 2\\/3 and d,s,b,h of chage -1\\/3, as well as two (heavy) leptons of charge -1. These heavy leptons decay right-handedly into the usual antineutrinos and radiatively into the charged light leptons. The quark weak current contains uR -

P. Ramond

1976-01-01

223

Single-mode diode laser with a large frequency-scanning range based on weak grating feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-mode GaAlAs diode laser with over 90% output-coupling power and a large frequency-scanning range is reported. Based on grating feedback in the Littrow configuration, it is demonstrated that, with weak feedback (1.5 \\times 10-3 in this experiment), over a 7.5-GHz continuous tuning range can be achieved around tuning gaps of free-running operation. A frequency self-locking effect is also demonstrated in this system.

Jin, Shaozheng; Li, Yongqing; Xiao, Min

1996-03-01

224

An organizational cybernetics framework for achieving balance in evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence.  

PubMed

This article applies the systems science of organizational cybernetics to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the provision of social work services in a residential treatment center setting. It does so by systemically balancing EBP with practice-based evidence (PBE) with a focus on the organizational and information system infrastructures necessary to ensure successful implementation. This application is illustrated by discussing a residential treatment program that implemented evidence-based programming and evaluated the results; however, the systemic principles articulated can be applied to any human services organizational setting. PMID:24405136

Fitch, Dale

2014-01-01

225

Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals\\/trainees in an Australian university. METHODS: The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects

Maureen P McEvoy; Marie T Williams; Timothy S Olds

2010-01-01

226

Evidence-Based Public Health: Origins, Assumptions, and Cautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the origins and assumptions of evidence-based medicine as rooted in the philosophy of science called\\u000a positivism. The basic principles of the positivist approach to science, empiricism, exclusivity, universality, and autonomy\\u000a are explained and identified in reproductive and perinatal health outcomes related studies from the systematic reviews of\\u000a the Cochrane Library, the premier database on evidence-based medicine. A

Luis A. Avilés; Dani Filc

227

Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge and Utilization among Social Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the researchers examined the knowledge, skills, and use of Evidence-Based Practice in a sample of social workers from different practice settings. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a group of social work practitioners (N = 200). Participants in their 30s and 40s demonstrated the most knowledge and use of Evidence-Based Practice. In addition, a high

Natalie D. Pope; Latrice Rollins; Josphine Chaumba; Ed Risler

2011-01-01

228

Evidence-based werken in de jeugd-ggz  

Microsoft Academic Search

samenvatting  Middels een vragenlijst, interviews en expertmeeting onderzocht het Trimbos-instituut in welke mate managers en hulpverleners\\u000a uit de jeugd-ggz bekend zijn met evidence-based interventies en deze ook toepassen. Het werken met evidence-based interventies\\u000a gebeurt steeds meer en de respondenten vinden dit een positieve ontwikkeling. Knelpunten betreffende de implementatie, financiering,\\u000a databanken en kwaliteitsbewaking worden besproken. Aanbevelingen: 1) meer afstemming tussen de databanken

Ireen de Graaf; Debbie van der Linden; Simone Onrust

2011-01-01

229

Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Kalmar K, Langenbahn DM, Malec JF, Bergquist TF, Felicetti T, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Harrington DE, Herzog J, Kneipp S, Laatsch L, Morse PA. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for clinical practice. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1596-615. Objective: To establish evidence-based recommendations for the clinical practice of cognitive rehabilitation, derived from a methodical review of the scientific

Keith D. Cicerone; Cynthia Dahlberg; Kathleen Kalmar; Donna M. Langenbahn; James F. Malec; Thomas F. Bergquist; Thomas Felicetti; Joseph T. Giacino; J. Preston Harley; Douglas E. Harrington; Jean Herzog; Sally Kneipp; Linda Laatsch; Philip A. Morse

2000-01-01

230

Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.?METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth. Antibodies (anti-Ro [SS-A], anti-La [SS-B], rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody) were measured.?RESULTS—341 subjects were examined. Twenty four per cent had dry eye symptoms, 29% dry mouth symptoms, and 14% both. There was only a weak association between the presence of oral or ocular symptoms and their respective test results. Associations were strongest between dry mouth symptoms and positive test results, and in subjects under 55 years of age. There was no association between the presence of autoantibodies and either symptoms or signs of dry eyes or dry mouth.?CONCLUSION—Only weak associations were found between self reported symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective measures said to define Sjögrens syndrome in the general population. The clinical significance of these symptoms in the community needs reappraisal.?? Keywords: Sjögrens syndrome; Schirmer's test; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; xerostomia

Hay, E.; Thomas, E; Pal, B; Hajeer, A.; Chambers, H; Silman, A

1998-01-01

231

Overcoming Challenges to Using Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for School Mental Health Assistance at the University of Maryland recently completed a review of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs that can be used by school mental health clinicians. Based on the review, a school-based program operating in 22 Baltimore City schools has purchased and trained clinicians in a number of…

Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bruns, Eric; Weist, Mark; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Goldstein, Julie; Simpson, Yolanda

2005-01-01

232

A constructivist model for teaching evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine has reported that it takes roughly 17 years for evidence generated through research to move into clinical practice. Bridging that gap is an urgent need and will require educators to rethink how nurses are prepared for evidence-based practice. The constructivist theory for learning--in which it is assumed that students construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn--may provide a framework for a redesigned baccalaureate curriculum, one that supports evidence-based practice throughout a nursing student's education. PMID:21086866

Rolloff, Mary

2010-01-01

233

Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma Reactor Based on the Corona Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) is being used to treat or process goods and materials because it only activates the surface without modification of the bulk material. This work describes research into the synchronicity of corona discharges and some applications of APWIP. A reactor was built to generate corona discharges using an array of needles, the geometry of each needle being consistent with point-to-plane configuration. The interaction between corona discharges in the needle array was studied. The reactor was then used to decontaminate fresh produce inoculated with E. coli ATCC 1177 and to deposit films via plasma polymerization of acetylene.

Wemlinger, Erik

234

Evidence-based reproductive medicine: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based medicine has become the golden standard of good medical practice. I analysed meta-analyses and systematic reviews, the cornerstones of evidence-based medicine, pertaining to two important problems in in vitro fertilization: failed implantation and poor ovarian response to ovarian stimulation. Numerous interventions and procedures have been tried to facilitate implantation and to enhance the ovarian response to stimulation. Notwithstanding the fact that many clinical trials have been performed, very few procedures can as yet stand the critical test of evidence-based medicine. A plea is made for co-ordination between clinicians and reviewers and co-operation between infertility centres to combine their efforts to set up sufficiently powered clinical trials to arrive at more solid evidence for a number of interventions in in vitro fertilization programmes.

Dhont, M.

2013-01-01

235

Evidence based practice: are critical care nurses ready for it?  

PubMed

In the emergence of the evidence based practice movement, critical care nurses have struggled to identify scientific evidence on which to base their clinical practice. While the lack of critical care nursing research is a major concern, other important issues have significantly stalled the implementation of evidence even when it is available. A descriptive study of 274 critical care nurses was undertaken to examine nursing research activity in Victorian critical care units. The study aimed to identify critical care nurses' research skills, the barriers encountered in participation and implementation and the current availability of resources. Results revealed that 42 per cent of the nurses who participated in the study believed that they were not prepared adequately to evaluate research, and less than a third believed they were sufficiently skilled to conduct valid scientific studies. An association was found between nurses' ability to confidently perform research activities and higher academic qualifications. The study found that there is a lack of organisational support and management commitment for the development of evidence based nursing. In order to facilitate the implementation of evidence based practice, clinicians must be made aware of the available resources, be educated and mentored when carrying out and using clinical research, and be supported in professional initiatives that promote evidence based practice. It is argued that this will have positive implications for patient outcomes in the critical care environment. PMID:11899640

Bucknall, T; Copnell, B; Shannon, K; McKinley, D

2001-08-01

236

Toward an improved understanding of the precipitation behavior of weakly basic drugs from oral lipid-based formulations.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of lipid-based formulation (LBF) dispersion and digestion on the precipitation behavior of weakly basic drugs. Loratadine and carvedilol were formulated in a range of LBFs and drug solubilization was analyzed under simulated dispersive and digestive conditions (fasted state). The extent of supersaturation and drug precipitation as well as the solid-state properties and redissolution behavior of precipitated drugs were assessed. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that carvedilol precipitated in a crystalline form upon dispersion, but interestingly, this drug gave an amorphous precipitate during lipolysis. In contrast, loratadine precipitated as crystalline material during both formulation dispersion and digestion. No influence of the formulation composition on the type of precipitation was observed. These results suggested that in vitro conditions (dispersive versus digestive) largely influenced the solid-state properties of precipitating weak bases. Solid-state characterization of precipitated drugs under different experimental conditions should be routinely performed in formulation screening to better understand the biopharmaceutical behavior of LBFs. Hence, these findings are of high practical importance for the pharmaceutical development and in vitro assessment of LBFs using weakly basic drugs. PMID:24515977

Stillhart, Cordula; Dürr, Désirée; Kuentz, Martin

2014-04-01

237

Information Technology and Evidence-based Practices: A Commentary on “Evidence-Based Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congratulations to Rapp and his colleagues (2008) for a helpful explication of important factors in the implementation of evidence-based practices in Kansas. This article is the latest to appear from the National Evidence-based Practices Project (http:\\/\\/www.mentalhealthpractices.com). The steady flow of articles from that project will significantly expand the field’s empirical knowledge regarding the implementation of effective psychosocial interventions in mental

Robert E. Drake; Gary R. Bond

2008-01-01

238

High-sensitivity photovoltaic responses in manganite-based heterojunctions on Si substrates for weak light detection.  

PubMed

We have fabricated and characterized a weak light photodetector in a heterojunction composed of manganite La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 and n-type Si. High-sensitivity photoresponse properties were investigated. The responsivities of open-circuit photovoltage and short-circuit photocurrent reach ?1000 ?V/mJ and ?30 ?A/mJ, respectively, without any amplification bias under irradiation by 20-ps-wide and 355, 532, and 1064-nm-wavelength laser pulses in nanojoule to microjoule order. The present results demonstrate that the manganite-based heterojunction on Si substrate has potential applications in weak light detection from ultraviolet to near-infrared light. PMID:21673770

Zhao, S S; Ni, H; Zhao, K; Zhao, S Q; Kong, Y C; Wong, H K

2011-06-10

239

Predictions of high-frequency ground-motion in Taiwan based on weak motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a recent paper we use weak-motion waveforms to calibrate a model for the prediction of earthquake-induced ground-motion in Taiwan, in the 0.25-5.0 Hz frequency range, valid up to Mw 7.6. The excitation/attenuation model is given in terms of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation, Qs(f), geometrical spreading, g(r), a magnitude-dependent stress parameters ?? for the excitation terms, and a site term for each seismic station used in the study. A set of weak-motion data was gathered from about 170 aftershocks of the Chi-Chi earthquake, Mw 7.6, of 1999 September 20, (17:47 UTC), recorded by 10 broad-band seismic stations. The moment magnitudes of the registered aftershocks ranged from Mw 3.0 to 6.5, and the hypocentral distances from a few kilometres to about 250 km. A frequency-dependent crustal quality factor, Q(f) = 350f0.32, was obtained, to be coupled with the geometrical spreading function Earthquake-related excitation spectra were calibrated over our empirical results by using a magnitude-dependent Brune model with a stress drop value of ??= 8.0 ± 1.0 MPa for the largest event of Mw 6.5 in our data set and with a near surface attenuation parameter of ?= 0.05 s. Results on region-specific crustal attenuation and source scaling were used to generate stochastic simulations both for point-source and extended-fault ruptures through the computer codes: Stochastic Model SIMulation, SMSIM and Extended-Fault Model Simulation, EXSIM. The absolute peak ground accelerations (PGA), peak ground velocities (PGV) and 5 per cent-damped Spectral Accelerations (SA) at three different frequencies, 0.33 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 3.0 Hz for several magnitudes and distance ranges were predicted at large magnitudes, well beyond magnitude Mw 6.5, the upper limit for the events of our weak-motion data set. The performance of the stochastic model was then tested against the strong-motion data recorded during the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, and against several other empirical ground-motion models.

D'Amico, Sebastiano; Akinci, Aybige; Malagnini, Luca

2012-04-01

240

Fast Physical Random-Number Generation Based on Room-Temperature Chaotic Oscillations in Weakly Coupled Superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all-electronic physical random number generator at rates up to 80Gbit/s is presented, based on weakly coupled GaAs/Ga0.55Al0.45As superlattices operated at room temperature. It is based on large-amplitude, chaotic current oscillations characterized by a bandwidth of several hundred MHz and do not require external feedback or conversion to an electronic signal prior to digitization. The method is robust and insensitive to external perturbations and its fully electronic implementation suggests scalability and minimal postprocessing in comparison to existing optical implementations.

Li, Wen; Reidler, Igor; Aviad, Yaara; Huang, Yuyang; Song, Helong; Zhang, Yaohui; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kanter, Ido

2013-07-01

241

Canadian guidelines for the evidence-based treatment of tic disorders: pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

This article seeks to provide the practising clinician with guidance on the pharmacological management of tic disorders in children and adults. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the treatment of tic disorders. A multi-institutional group of 14 experts in psychiatry, child psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, and psychology engaged in a consensus meeting. The evidence was presented and discussed, and nominal group techniques were employed to arrive at consensus on recommendations. A strong recommendation is made when the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the risks and burdens, and can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation. With a weak recommendation, the benefits, risks, and burdens are more closely balanced, and the best action may differ depending on the circumstances. Based on these principles, weak recommendations were made for the use of pimozide, haloperidol, fluphenazine, metoclopramide (children only), risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, topiramate, baclofen (children only), botulinum toxin injections, tetrabenazine, and cannabinoids (adults only). Strong recommendations were made for the use of clonidine and guanfacine (children only). While the evidence supports the efficacy of many of the antipsychotics for the treatment of tics, the high rates of side effects associated with these medications resulted in only weak recommendations for these drugs. In situations where tics are not severe or disabling, the use of a medication with only a weak recommendation is not warranted. However, when tics are more distressing and interfering, the need for tic suppression to improve quality of life is stronger, and patients and clinicians may be more willing to accept the risks of pharmacotherapy. PMID:22397999

Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Gorman, Daniel; McKinlay, Duncan; Day, Lundy; Billinghurst, Lori; Carroll, Alan; Dion, Yves; Luscombe, Sandra; Steeves, Thomas; Sandor, Paul

2012-03-01

242

Super-rogue waves in simulations based on weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations.  

PubMed

The rogue wave solutions (rational multibreathers) of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) are tested in numerical simulations of weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. Only the lowest order solutions from 1 to 5 are considered. A higher accuracy of wave propagation in space is reached using the modified NLS equation, also known as the Dysthe equation. This numerical modeling allowed us to directly compare simulations with recent results of laboratory measurements in Chabchoub et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 056601 (2012)]. In order to achieve even higher physical accuracy, we employed fully nonlinear simulations of potential Euler equations. These simulations provided us with basic characteristics of long time evolution of rational solutions of the NLS equation in the case of near-breaking conditions. The analytic NLS solutions are found to describe the actual wave dynamics of steep waves reasonably well. PMID:23944540

Slunyaev, A; Pelinovsky, E; Sergeeva, A; Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

2013-07-01

243

Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

2013-04-01

244

Evidence-based assessment: no more pride or prejudice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice is an important force in healthcare today. Its impact on the practice of the advanced practice nurse (APN) is becoming more apparent with the development of practice guidelines and protocols. The phrase, "That's the way I've always done it," is being replaced by, "This practice is evidence based." The philosophy of supporting practice with scientific evidence is not new but has been revitalized and emphasized as protocols have been developed to "mold" practice to achieve successful outcomes. This revolution is being applied to all areas of healthcare practice. Assessment of the patient is usually the first contact the APN has with the patient. It is an important time to gather information from the patient interview, physical examination, laboratory data, and test interpretation. Scientific evidence, properly interpreted, is applied in this step of assessment. The APN will then use clinical judgment and the knowledge gained from graduate education to assist with the formulation of a diagnosis. The APN has a unique opportunity to promote an evidence-based practice model at the grass roots level and persuade the bedside nurse to integrate this process into his or her practice. Ultimately, patients will receive better care and outcomes will be improved using evidence-based assessment. PMID:15586152

Munro, Nancy

2004-01-01

245

Evidence-Based Practice and Policy: Choices Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choices about how to view evidence-based practice (EBP) are being made by educators, practitioners, agency administrators, and staff in a variety of organizations designed to promote integration of research and practice such as clearinghouses on EBP. Choices range from narrow views of EBP such as use of empirically based guidelines and treatment manuals to the broad philosophy and evolving process

Eileen Gambrill

2006-01-01

246

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

247

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

248

Multiple k-NN Classifiers Fusion Based on Evidence Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple classifiers fusion is a powerful solution to the difficult and complex classification problems, which can improve performance and generalization capability. This paper presents a multiple k-nearest neighbor classifiers fusion approach based on evidence theory. Independent k-NN classifiers are established based on heterogeneous features. The novel approach to generating mass functions of a given sample for each member classifiers are

Deqiang Han; Chongzhao Han; Yi Yang

2007-01-01

249

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology. Method Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of

Melissa A. Alderfer; Barbara H. Fiese; Jeffrey I. Gold; J. J. Cutuli; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Lutz Goldbeck; Christine T. Chambers; Mona Abad; Dante Spetter; Joan Patterson

2008-01-01

250

Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: The State Of The Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Routine practice fails to incorporate research evidence in a timely and reliable fashion. Many quality improvement,(QI) efforts aim to close these gaps between,clinical re- search and practice. However, in sharp contrast to the paradigm of evidence-based medi- cine, these efforts often proceed on the basis of intuition and anecdotal accounts of suc- cessful strategies for changing,provider behavior or achieving

Kaveh G. Shojania; Jeremy M. Grimshaw

2005-01-01

251

Evidence-based practice across the health professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice continues to be a growing influence in health education. It’s a powerful tool which can lead to more effective practice, promote communication and interdisciplinary healthcare, and improve the clinician’s knowledge and clinical reasoning skills. It’s the integration of clinical expertise and practice, with the best available research and evidence for the improvement of patient outcomes. The volume, diversity

Tammy Hoffman; Sally Bennett; Chris Del Mar

2009-01-01

252

How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?  

PubMed Central

Background All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of interest to chiropractors, there are still many areas such as diagnosis, prognosis, choice of treatment, and management that have not been subjected to extensive scrutiny. Discussion In this paper we argue that a simple system consisting of three questions will help clinicians deal with some of the complexities of clinical practice, in particular what to do when clear clinical evidence is lacking. Question 1 asks: are there objectively tested facts to support the concept? Question 2: are the concepts that form the basis for this clinical act or decision based on scientifically acceptable concepts? And question three; is the concept based on long-term and widely accepted experience? This method that we call the “Traffic Light System” can be applied to most clinical processes. Summary We explain how the Traffic Light System can be used as a simple framework to help chiropractors make clinical decisions in a simple and lucid manner. We do this by explaining the roles of biological plausibility and clinical experience and how they should be weighted in relation to scientific evidence in the clinical decision making process, and in particular how to proceed, when evidence is missing.

2013-01-01

253

Leapfrog and critical care: evidence- and reality-based intensive care for the 21st century.  

PubMed

In 2000, the Business Roundtable published its Leapfrog report, which contained suggestions for improving administration of critical care. The Leapfrog Group intends to influence health care policy by pressuring insurers and hospitals to implement its guidelines, and both internists and intensivists are likely to be affected if these recommendations are realized. This article outlines the Leapfrog standards for critical care and examines critically the evidence used to justify them. Aside from the guideline that all critically ill patients should be cared for by intensivists, Leapfrog's standards for critical care are based either on weak or no scientific evidence. Rather, most of the guidelines are grounded in common sense and rational extrapolation of the data; as such, they are a reasonable starting point for debate by physicians and policymakers about optimal methods of achieving intensivist-guided care of critically ill patients. PMID:14749164

Manthous, Constantine A

2004-02-01

254

Etiological treatment of chronic Chagas disease: neglected 'evidence' by evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

No randomized clinical trials regarding the etiological treatment of chronic Chagas disease can be found in the medical literature. However, other 'evidence' sustaining the use of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drugs for adult individuals with Chagas disease will be analyzed along with the limitations in evaluating the treatment efficacy. Today, the hypothesis of T. cruzi persistence in the target organs giving rise to the chronic inflammatory response is sustained. In addition, several experimental, pathological, nonrandomized clinical studies and studies based on the response or serological evolution (besides the clinical experience) demonstrate the role of T. cruzi in the pathogenesis of the chronic stage and the efficacy of etiological treatment to reduce the titers of antibodies and the progression of chronic Chagas heart disease. All of this supports the recommendation of treatment for every patient diagnosed with Chagas disease. The interpretation of this sum of evidence is not considered from the perspective of evidence-based medicine. PMID:17678432

Viotti, Rodolfo; Vigliano, Carlos

2007-08-01

255

Epidemiological evidence relating snus to health - an updated review based on recent publications  

PubMed Central

An earlier review summarized evidence relating use of snus (Swedish-type moist snuff) to health and to initiation and cessation of smoking. This update considers the effect recent publications on snus use and health have on the overall evidence. The additional evidence extends the list of neoplastic conditions unassociated with snus use (oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, lung) to include colorectal cancer and acoustic neuroma, and further undermines the weakly-based argument that snus use increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, although there is a report of poorer cancer survival in users. It remains undemonstrated that “snuff-dipper’s lesion” increases risk of oral cancer, and recent publications add to the evidence that snus use has no effect on periodontitis or dental caries. Although onset of acute myocardial infarction is not adversely associated with snus use, there is some evidence of an association with reduced survival. Whether this is a direct effect of snus use or a result of confounding by socioeconomic status or other factors requires further investigation, as does a report of an increased risk of heart failure in snus users. Even if some adverse health effects of snus use do exist, it remains clear that they are far less than those of smoking.

2013-01-01

256

Phase Behavior of a Weakly Interacting Polystyrene and Poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) System: Evidence for the Coexistence of UCST and LCST.  

PubMed

The phase behavior of a weakly interacting binary system composed of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PnHMA) was investigated by the turbidity measurement for the binary blend, and by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and depolarized light scattering for the block copolymers. For the binary dPS/PnHMA blend, a new phase diagram involving both the upper critical solution transition (UCST) and lower critical solution transition (LCST) was observed by the delicate control of molecular weights between dPS and PnHMA. Whereas for the block copolymers such as dPS-block-PnHMA and PS-block-PnHMA, an order-to-disorder transition (ODT) on heating was observed within the experimental temperature range depending on the molecular weight. This coexistence of both a UCST and LCST in the dPS/PnHMA blend consequently represents the experimental evidence that the corresponding (d)PS-b-PnHMAs possess not only ODT, but also lower disorder-to-order transition (LDOT) character driven by a compressibility difference, although the latter is hindered by thermal degradation. PMID:21706627

Ahn, Hyungju; Naidu, Sudhakar; Ryu, Du Yeol; Cho, Junhan

2009-03-19

257

The dynamics of stock exchange based on the formalism of weak continuous quantum measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of measurement in economic models and the possibility of their quantum-mechanical description are considered. It is revealed that the apparent paradox of such a description is associated with a priori requirement of conformity of the model to all the alternatives of free choice of the observer. The measurement of the state of a trader on a stock exchange is formally defined as his responses to the proposals of sale at a fixed price. It is shown that an analogue of Bell's inequalities for this measurement model is violated at the most general assumptions related to the strategy of the trader and requires a quantum-mechanical description of the dynamics of his condition. In the framework of the theory of weak continuous quantum measurements, the equation of stock price dynamics and the quantum-mechanical generalization of the F. Black and M. Scholes model for pricing options are obtained. The fundamental distinctions between the obtained model and the classical one are discussed.

Melnyk, S.; Tuluzov, I.

2010-07-01

258

Creating the evidence base for quality improvement collaboratives.  

PubMed

Intensive efforts are under way to improve health care quality and safety throughout the United States and abroad. Many of these efforts use the quality improvement collaborative method, an approach emphasizing collaborative learning and exchange of insights and support among a set of health care organizations. Unfortunately, the widespread acceptance and reliance on this approach are based not on solid evidence but on shared beliefs and anecdotal affirmations that may overstate the actual effectiveness of the method. More effective use of the collaborative method will require a commitment by users, researchers, and other stakeholders to rigorous, objective evaluation and the creation of a valid, useful knowledge and evidence base. Development of this evidence base will require improved conceptions of the nature of quality problems, quality improvement processes, and the types of research needed to elucidate these processes. Researchers, journal editors, and funding agencies must also cooperate to ensure that published evaluations are relevant, comprehensive, and cumulative. PMID:15172904

Mittman, Brian S

2004-06-01

259

Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.  

PubMed

The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice. PMID:16451489

Cobban, Sandra J

2004-11-01

260

The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities available…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

261

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. PMID:23198980

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

2013-01-01

262

An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and contains sections on definition and epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, natural history, staging and prognosis, treatment, and monitoring disease course. For the diagnosis and treatment sections, pragmatic GRADE evidence-based methodology was applied in a question-based format. For each diagnosis and treatment question, the committee graded the quality of the evidence available (high, moderate, low, or very low), and made a recommendation (yes or no, strong or weak). Recommendations were based on majority vote. It is emphasized that clinicians must spend adequate time with patients to discuss patients' values and preferences and decide on the appropriate course of action. PMID:21471066

Raghu, Ganesh; Collard, Harold R; Egan, Jim J; Martinez, Fernando J; Behr, Juergen; Brown, Kevin K; Colby, Thomas V; Cordier, Jean-François; Flaherty, Kevin R; Lasky, Joseph A; Lynch, David A; Ryu, Jay H; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Wells, Athol U; Ancochea, Julio; Bouros, Demosthenes; Carvalho, Carlos; Costabel, Ulrich; Ebina, Masahito; Hansell, David M; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Myers, Jeffrey; Müller, Nestor L; Nicholson, Andrew G; Richeldi, Luca; Selman, Moisés; Dudden, Rosalind F; Griss, Barbara S; Protzko, Shandra L; Schünemann, Holger J

2011-03-15

263

How to Make AdaBoost.M1 Work for Weak Base Classifiers by Changing Only One Line of the Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one has a multiclass classification problem and wants to boost a multiclass base classifier AdaBoost.M1 is a well known\\u000a and widely applicated boosting algorithm. However AdaBoost.M1 does not work, if the base classifier is too weak. We show,\\u000a that with a modification of only one line of AdaBoost.M1 one can make it usable for weak base classifiers, too. The

Günther Eibl; Karl Peter Pfeiffer

2002-01-01

264

A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.  

PubMed

Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. PMID:24211703

Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

2014-01-10

265

A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.  

PubMed

Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

2012-01-01

266

Weak Behavioral Equivalences for Verifying Secure and Performance-Aware Component-Based Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Component-based systems are characterized by several orthogonal requirements, ranging from security to quality of service, which may demand for the use of opposite strategies and interfering mechanisms. To achieve a balanced tradeoff among these aspects, we have previously proposed the use of a predictive methodology, which encompasses classical tools such as the noninterference approach to security analysis and standard performance evaluation techniques. The former tool, which is based on equivalence checking, is used to reveal functional dependencies among component behaviors, while the latter tool, which relies on reward-based numerical analysis, is used to study the quantitative impact of these dependencies on the system performance. In order to strengthen the relation between these two different analysis techniques we advocate the use of performance-aware notions of behavioral equivalence as a formal means for detecting functional and performance dependencies and then pinpointing the metrics at the base of a balanced tradeoff.

Aldini, Alessandro; Bernardo, Marco

267

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

268

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure.

Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O'Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

2008-01-01

269

Evidence-Based Practices and Implementation Science in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing a process for identifying evidence-based practices (EBPs) in special education has been a significant advance for the field because it has the potential for generating more effective educational programs and producing more positive outcomes for students with disabilities. However, the potential benefit of EBPs is bounded by the…

Cook, Bryan G.; Odom, Samuel L.

2013-01-01

270

Evidence-Based Practice among Speech-Language Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 240 speech-language pathologists responded to a questionnaire examining attitudes toward and use of research and evidence-based practice (EBP). Perceived barriers to EBP were also explored. Positive attitudes toward research and EBP were reported. Attitudes were predicted by exposure to research and EBP practice during graduate training…

Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Kennedy, Marianne

2005-01-01

271

Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63…

Mustian, April; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Test, David W.

2013-01-01

272

Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

2005-01-01

273

Psychosocial Factors and Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence-Based Treatment Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to develop evidence-based guidelines regarding psychosocial aspects of diabetes mellitus in an effort to help the clinician bridge the gap between research and practice. Recommendations address the following topics: patient education, behavioural medicine, and psychiatric disorders of particular relevance to diabetes: depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and dependence on alcohol and nicotine. The present

Frank Petrak; Stephan Herpertz; Christian Albus; Axel Hirsch; Bernhard Kulzer; Johannes Kruse

2005-01-01

274

Evaluating Sensor Reliability in Classification Problems Based on Evidence Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new framework for sensor reliability evaluation in classification problems based on evidence theory (or the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions). The evaluation is treated as a two-stage training process. First, the authors assess the static reliability from a training set by comparing the sensor classification readings with the actual values of data, which are both represented

Huawei Guo; Wenkang Shi; Yong Deng

2006-01-01

275

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

276

Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation: From Insight to Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on accountability and evidence-based practice, evaluation has become increasingly important in the contexts in which educational psychologists (EPs) practice. This paper describes a Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) system, derived from Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) which was developed to evaluate outcomes of a wide…

Dunsmuir, Sandra; Brown, Emma; Iyadurai, Suzi; Monsen, Jeremy

2009-01-01

277

Evidence-Based Practice in Stuttering: Some Questions to Consider  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent forum in "JFD" (28/3, 2003) evaluated the status of evidence-based practice in fluency disorders, and offered recommendations for improvement. This article re-evaluates the level of support available for some popular approaches to stuttering therapy and questions the relative value placed on some types of programs endorsed by the forum.…

Ratner, Nan Bernstein

2005-01-01

278

Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: Progress Not Perfection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This commentary is written in response to a companion paper by Nan Bernstein Ratner ("Evidence-Based Practice: An Examination of its Ramifications for the Practice of Speech-Language Pathology"). Method: The comments reflect my experience as Vice President for Research and Technology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association…

Kent, Ray D.

2006-01-01

279

Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

2007-01-01

280

Evidence-Based Youth Psychotherapy in the Mental Health Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why…

Weisz, John R.; Ugueto, Ana M.; Cheron, Daniel M.; Herren, Jenny

2013-01-01

281

An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities.

Hughes, Jeff

2012-01-01

282

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

283

Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: An evidence based proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

New studies of the treatment of neuropathic pain have increased the need for an updated review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to support an evidence based algorithm to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Available studies were identified using a MEDLINE and EMBASE search. One hundred and five studies were included. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH)

N. B. Finnerup; M. Otto; H. J. McQuay; T. S. Jensen; S. H. Sindrup

2005-01-01

284

Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered for recommendation if their efficacy was supported by at least one methodologically-sound, randomized clinical trial (RCT) demonstrating superiority to placebo or a relevant comparison

Robert H. Dworkin; Alec B. O’Connor; Miroslav Backonja; John T. Farrar; Nanna B. Finnerup; Troels S. Jensen; Eija A. Kalso; John D. Loeser; Christine Miaskowski; Turo J. Nurmikko; Russell K. Portenoy; Andrew S. C. Rice; Brett R. Stacey; Rolf-Detlef Treede; Dennis C. Turk; Mark S. Wallace

2007-01-01

285

Organizing mental health services: an evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims. Health policy makers and program developers seek evidence-based guidance on how to organize and finance mental health services. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) commissioned a conceptual framework for thinking about health care services as a medical technology. The following framework was developed, citing empirical research from mental health services research as the

Howard H. Goldman; Sten Thelander

2000-01-01

286

Evidence-based Practice for Medical Radiation Technologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent revisions to the competency profiles for the four Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists medical radiation technology (MRT) disciplines highlight the need for practitioners to understand and apply the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). Adoption of EBP is important if MRT is to be recognized and advance professionally.This review article will introduce the principles of EBP and use a

Cindy N. Murphy; Roberta L. Sharp

2009-01-01

287

Evidence-Based Interprofessional Practice: Learning and Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this journal article is to investigate evidence-based practice (EBP) or He Ritenga Whaimohio, as one of the seven principles outlined in the "Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Toolkit" (2011) that guides RTLB practice; and to critique the principle of EBP through practical reflection. (Contains 2 tables and 2…

Littek, Celeste

2013-01-01

288

Evidence-Based Practice for Conduct Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients exhibiting symptoms associated with conduct disorder present challenges in assessment and treatment. The difficulties are not only the complexities of correct identification and appropriate intervention, but also that the knowledge is rapidly growing. Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides a useful framework for dealing with these issues.…

Thomas, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

289

Marketing evidence-based practice: what a CROC™!  

PubMed

Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center. PMID:20880823

Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry

2010-10-01

290

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: A Regional Dissemination Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)

Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas

2003-01-01

291

Evaluating Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tactics adopted by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology have advantages in terms of literature coverage and providing data on multiple dimensions. Two suggestions to improve Task Force efforts are offered in terms of the specification of key outcomes and the use of effect sizes to gauge the impact and value of…

Durlak, Joseph A.

2002-01-01

292

Evidence-Based Parent Consultation with School-Related Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, 18 studies using parent consultation to effect a change in children's school-related behavior were evaluated according to guidelines set forth by the APA's Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. Results indicate that parent consultation is an effective method of intervention delivery for a variety of…

Guli, Laura A.

2005-01-01

293

Reflections on the Teaching of Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the process of evidence-based practice (EBP) gains a foothold in the curricula of schools of social work and the various helping professions, instructors have been encountering a unique set of challenges. On one hand, educators must develop new curricula to convey material that is often complex and is, even in its most advanced state, still in…

Shlonsky, Aron; Stern, Susan B.

2007-01-01

294

Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

2010-01-01

295

Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

Leimer, Christina

2012-01-01

296

Evidence-Based Diagnosis: Incorporating Diagnostic Instruments into Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to serve as a practical guide for practitioners interested in incorporating evidence-based diagnosis (EBD) instruments into their clinical practices to refine the diagnostic process. Three measures are used to illustrate this process, the DISC-IV (Shaffer et al., 2000), the Schedule for Affective Disorders and…

Doss, Amanda Jensen

2005-01-01

297

Governing welfare reform symbolically: evidence based or iconic policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of welfare reform in which the discursive negotiation of policy implementation at the local level was key to understanding the phenomenon of unintended consequences. Using policy give-aways or ‘freebies’ as a primary source of data, the article demonstrates how, despite the rhetoric of evidence based policy and practice, the meanings of policy

Pam Carter

2011-01-01

298

Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

Bates, Stacey L.

2005-01-01

299

Using Family Paradigms to Improve Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) describes clinical decision making using research, clinical experience, and client values. For family-centered practices, the client's family is integral to this process. This article proposes that using family paradigms, a family science framework, may help elicit and understand client/family values within…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Jones, Rebecca S.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.

2009-01-01

300

Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison

2009-01-01

301

Urticaria: an evidence-based update. Conference report.  

PubMed

Summary Evidence-based update meetings are held annually by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham. Topics are chosen by delegates at the previous year's conference and in the past have included blistering disorders, psoriasis, hair disorders and skin cancers. Once the topic is identified, a trials database search is undertaken with the aim of including speakers who are actively involved in trials that address the subject in question. This year, the eighth Evidence Based Update meeting focused on urticaria and took place in Loughborough University on 14 May 2009. The latest data on the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria, including cold and solar urticaria, and the impact of food intolerance on chronic urticaria, were presented by an international panel of renowned speakers, who sometimes expressed different viewpoints. The highlights of the meeting included an informal atmosphere, an international perspective, and a practical question and answer session. Over 70% of the delegates stated that they would be changing their clinical practice following on from the meeting. The evidence-based update meeting in 2010 will be devoted to eczema. PMID:20666769

Alexandroff, A B; Harman, K E

2010-08-01

302

An Evidence-Based Approach to Hamstring Strain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Hamstring strain injury is a common problem within sport. Despite research interest, knowledge of risks for and management of hamstring strain is limited, as evidenced by high injury rates. Objective: To present the current best evidence for hamstring strain injury risk factors and the management of hamstring strain injury. Methods: MEDLINE, AMED, SportDiscus, and AUSPORT databases were searched (key terms “hamstring” and “strain,” “injury,” “pull,” or “tear”) to identify relevant literature published between 1982 and 2007 in the English language. Studies of adult athlete populations (older than 18 years) pertaining to hamstring strain incidence, prevalence, and/or intervening management of hamstring strain injury were included. Articles were limited to full-text randomized, controlled studies or cohort studies. Twenty-four articles were included. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster Quantitative Review Guidelines instrument. Data pertaining to injury rates and return to sport outcomes were extracted. Each author undertook independent appraisal of a random selection of articles after establishing inter-rater agreement of appraisal. Results: Previous strain, older age, and ethnicity were consistently reported as significant risks for injury, as was competing in higher levels of competition. Associations with strength and flexibility were conflicting. Functional rehabilitation interventions had preventive effects and resulted in significantly earlier return to sport. Additionally, weak evidence existed for other interventions. Conclusion: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding most interventions for hamstring strain injury, while the effect of potentially modifiable risks is unclear. Further high-quality prospective studies into potential risks and management are required to provide a better framework within which to target interventions.

Prior, Mathew; Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen

2009-01-01

303

An evidence-based combining classifier for brain signal analysis.  

PubMed

Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, high dimensionality and noisy signals. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of brain signals and the impacts of mental states on brain function, the brain signals are associated with an inherent uncertainty. In this paper, an evidence-based combining classifiers method is proposed for brain signal analysis. This method exploits the power of combining classifiers for solving complex problems and the ability of evidence theory to model as well as to reduce the existing uncertainty. The proposed method models the uncertainty in the labels of training samples in each feature space by assigning soft and crisp labels to them. Then, some classifiers are employed to approximate the belief function corresponding to each feature space. By combining the evidence raised from each classifier through the evidence theory, more confident decisions about testing samples can be made. The obtained results by the proposed method compared to some other evidence-based and fixed rule combining methods on artificial and real datasets exhibit the ability of the proposed method in dealing with complex and uncertain classification problems. PMID:24392125

Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

2014-01-01

304

An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

2013-01-01

305

Evidence-based review of interventions for medically at-risk older drivers.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To conduct an evidence-based review of intervention studies of older drivers with medical conditions. METHOD. We used the American Occupational Therapy Association's classification criteria (Levels I-V, I = highest level of evidence) to identify driving interventions. We classified studies using letters to represent the strength of recommendations: A = strongly recommend the intervention; B = recommend intervention is provided routinely; C = weak evidence that the intervention can improve outcomes; D = recommend not to provide the intervention; I = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the intervention. RESULTS. For clients with stroke, we recommend a graded simulator intervention (A) and multimodal training in traffic theory knowledge and on-road interventions (B); we make no recommendation for or against Dynavision, Useful Field of View, or visual-perceptual interventions (I). For clients with visual deficits, we recommend educational intervention (A) and bioptic training (B); we make no recommendation for or against prism lenses (I). For clients with dementia, we recommend driving restriction interventions (C) and make no recommendation for or against use of compensatory driving strategies (I). CONCLUSION. Level I studies are needed to identify effective interventions for medically at-risk older drivers. PMID:25005514

Classen, Sherrilene; Monahan, Miriam; Auten, Beth; Yarney, Abraham

2014-01-01

306

Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis: I. Monoprotic weak acids and bases.  

PubMed

A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values. PMID:19168179

Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

2009-04-24

307

The relationship between fifth grade students' Understandings about Evidence-Based Explanations and their Abilities to Develop Evidence-Based Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' abilities to develop evidence-based explanations are related to their understandings about evidence-based explanations. A total of 97 fifth graders' understandings about evidence-based explanations and their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations were examined by two open-ended questionnaires and follow-up interviews. The Understandings about Evidence-Based Explanations (UEBE) and the Abilities to Develop Evidence-Based Explanations (ADEE) were developed by the researcher and content validity and face validity were established. Data analysis involved a systematic process consistent with analytic induction as well as a statistical analysis. The patterns from students' understandings about evidence-based explanations and abilities to develop evidence-based explanations were explored and the relationship between understandings and abilities were examined by Fisher's Exact test at the .05 level of significance. Results indicated that there was no relationship between students' understandings about evidence-based explanations and their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations (p>.05). The results of this study do not support the appealing assumption held by many science educators that students' inquiry skills reflect their understandings about scientific inquiry. Instead, the findings suggest that students' understandings about evidence-based explanations should be assessed separately and students' abilities to develop evidence-based explanations should not be inferred by their understandings about evidence-based explanations. Overall, students' understandings about evidence-based explanations were not well developed compared to their abilities to develop evidence-based explanations. Therefore, it is necessary for science educators to teach both understandings about evidence-based explanations and abilities to develop evidence-based explanations.

Ko, Eun Kyung

308

Lithium Therapy and Hyperparathyroidism: An Evidence-Based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prolonged therapeutic exposure to lithium compounds can have adverse consequences on calcium homeostasis. A unique form of\\u000a hyperparathyroidism appears to be causally linked to chronic lithium exposure. We provide a comprehensive review of relevant\\u000a literature using a structured, evidence-based approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Published data were identified from systematic electronic literature searches. References are assigned a level of evidence\\u000a according to a validated

Brian D. Saunders; Erika F. H. Saunders; Paul G. Gauger

2009-01-01

309

Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center.

Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

2008-01-01

310

NMR-Based Strategies to Elucidate Bioactive Conformations of Weakly Binding Ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key processes in molecular biology are regulated by interactions between biomolecules. Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, e.g., in signal transduction pathways, rely on the subtle interactions between atoms at the binding interface of the involved molecules. Because biomolecules often have many interacting partners, these interactions are not necessarily strong. The study of molecular recognition gives insight into the complex network of signaling in life and is the basis of structure-based drug design.

Blommers, Marcel J. J.; Strauss, Andre; Geiser, Martin; Ramage, Paul; Sparrer, Helmut; Jahnke, Wolfgang

311

The Determination of the pKaof Multiprotic, Weak Acids by Analyzing Potentiometric Acid Base Titration Data with Difference Plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the pKa determination of mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids with the help of difference (Bjerrum) plots, and the effect of strong acid base concentration errors, ligand weight errors, and nonlinear electrode response. Experimental examples are given for the titration of an acidic heterocycle, as well as glycine, ethylenediamine, and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (the last two after addition of excess HCl to ensure complete protonation) with standarized NaOH. The analysis procedure makes use of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and nonlinear least squares curve fitting of the experimental data to the theoretical Bjerrum function. In addition to providing pKa values for mono- and multiprotic acids, this approach has been found suitable for detecting small errors in parameters, such as strong acid and ligand concentration, and corrections can often become necessary to achieve the best fit. Difference plots allow the pKa values of monoprotic and multiprotic weak acids to be determined rapidly and with good precision.

Kraft, Arno

2003-05-01

312

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research.

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

313

Evidence-based behavioral interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism.  

PubMed

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat "lower order" RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for "higher order" behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Bodfish, James W

2012-06-01

314

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Intervention (EBI) movement has gained tremendous momentum in the past few years with developments in psychology, medicine (e.g., psychiatry), education, and prevention science. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the issues relating to the adoption of EBIs in practice and, specifically, the multiple roles…

Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Shernoff, Elisa Steele

2003-01-01

315

Strengths and limitations of evidence-based dermatology.  

PubMed

The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also limitations that can only improve with better primary studies and updated reviews such as those done by the Cochrane Collaboration. Most dermatologists are interested in integrating the best external evidence with the care of individual patients and have been practicing good EBD without realizing it. PMID:24700929

Williams, Hywel C

2014-03-01

316

Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a scientifically sound and clinically relevant evidence-based guideline for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1960 to August 2008 and classified the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for a therapeutic article, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. The basic question asked was: “What is the efficacy of a given treatment (pharmacologic: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids, others; and nonpharmacologic: electrical stimulation, magnetic field treatment, low-intensity laser treatment, Reiki massage, others) to reduce pain and improve physical function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with PDN?” Results and Recommendations: Pregabalin is established as effective and should be offered for relief of PDN (Level A). Venlafaxine, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, valproate, opioids (morphine sulfate, tramadol, and oxycodone controlled-release), and capsaicin are probably effective and should be considered for treatment of PDN (Level B). Other treatments have less robust evidence or the evidence is negative. Effective treatments for PDN are available, but many have side effects that limit their usefulness, and few studies have sufficient information on treatment effects on function and QOL.

Bril, V.; England, J.; Franklin, G.M.; Backonja, M.; Cohen, J.; Del Toro, D.; Feldman, E.; Iverson, D.J.; Perkins, B.; Russell, J.W.; Zochodne, D.

2011-01-01

317

Chasing equilibrium: measuring the intrinsic solubility of weak acids and bases.  

PubMed

A novel procedure is described for rapid (20-80 min) measurement of intrinsic solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes. In this procedure, a quantity of substance was first dissolved at a pH where it exists predominantly in its ionized form, and then a precipitate of the neutral (un-ionized) species was formed by changing the pH. Subsequently, the rate of change of pH due to precipitation or dissolution was monitored and strong acid and base titrant were added to adjust the pH to discover its equilibrium conditions, and the intrinsic solubility of the neutral form of the compound could then be determined. The procedure was applied to a variety of monoprotic and diprotic pharmaceutical compounds. The results were highly repeatable and had a good correlation to available published values. Data collected during the procedure provided good diagnostic information. Kinetic solubility data were also collected but provided a poor guide to the intrinsic solubility. PMID:15858976

Stuart, Martin; Box, Karl

2005-02-15

318

Biochemical differences in the mechanism of macrophage lysosomal exocytosis initiated by zymosan particles and weak bases.  

PubMed Central

By utilizing compounds with different inhibitory properties, discrete biochemical differences were found in the mechanism of selective lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages in response to stimulation with zymosan particles and methylamine. Pretreatment of macrophages with trypsin markedly impaired the capacity of the cells to respond to stimulation with zymosan particles, but had no effect on methylamine-stimulated lysosomal enzyme secretion. Similarly, the addition of phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride or EDTA to the incubation medium substantially inhibited zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion, whereas the methylamine-stimulated response was unaffected by these agents. The addition of 2-deoxyglucose to incubation media, however, strongly inhibited both zymosan- and methylamine-stimulated beta-galactosidase secretion. These findings are consistent with a mechanism for lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages, based on a receptor-dependent uptake of zymosan particles and a receptor-independent uptake of methylamine.

Riches, D W; Watkins, J L; Stanworth, D R

1983-01-01

319

Weak-lensing detection of intracluster filaments with ground-based data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the current standard model of cosmology, matter in the Universe arranges itself along a network of filamentary structure. These filaments connect the main nodes of this so-called "cosmic web", which are clusters of galaxies. Although its large-scale distribution is clearly characterized by numerical simulations, constraining the dark-matter content of the cosmic web in reality turns out to be difficult. The natural method of choice is gravitational lensing. However, the direct detection and mapping of the elusive filament signal is challenging and in this work we present two methods that are specifically tailored to achieve this task. A linear matched filter aims at detecting the smooth mass-component of filaments and is optimized to perform a shear decomposition that follows the anisotropic component of the lensing signal. Filaments clearly inherit this property due to their morphology. At the same time, the contamination arising from the central massive cluster is controlled in a natural way. The filament 1? detection is of about ? ~ 0.01 - 0.005 according to the filter's template width and length, enabling the detection of structures beyond reach with other approaches. The second, complementary method seeks to detect the clumpy component of filaments. The detection is determined by the number density of subclump identifications in an area enclosing the potential filament, as was found within the observed field with the filter approach. We tested both methods against mocked observations based on realistic N-body simulations of filamentary structure and proved the feasibility of detecting filaments with ground-based data.

Maturi, Matteo; Merten, Julian

2013-11-01

320

Evidence-based guideline update: Plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To reassess the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of neurologic disorders. Methods: We evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review for relevant articles from 1995 through September 2009. In addition, due to revision of the definitions of classification of evidence since the publication of the previous American Academy of Neurology assessment in 1996, the evidence cited in that manuscript was reviewed and reclassified. Results and Recommendations: Plasmapheresis is established as effective and should be offered in severe acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)/Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and in the short-term management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is established as ineffective and should not be offered for chronic or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (Class I studies, Level A). Plasmapheresis is probably effective and should be considered for mild AIDP/GBS, as second-line treatment of steroid-resistant exacerbations in relapsing forms of MS, and for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin A or immunoglobulin G gammopathy, based on at least one Class I or 2 Class II studies (Level B). Plasmapheresis is probably not effective and should not be considered for neuropathy associated with immunoglobulin M gammopathy, based on one Class I study (Level B). Plasmapheresis is possibly effective and may be considered for acute fulminant demyelinating CNS disease (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of plasmapheresis for myasthenia gravis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infection, and Sydenham chorea (Class III evidence, Level U).

Cortese, I.; Chaudhry, V.; So, Y.T.; Cantor, F.; Cornblath, D.R.; Rae-Grant, A.

2011-01-01

321

A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Telehospice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of telehealth technologies to overcome the geographic distances in the delivery of hospice care has been termed telehospice. Although telehospice research has been conducted over the last 10 years, little is known about the comprehensive findings within the field. The purpose of this systematic article was to focus on available research and answer the question, What is the state of the evidence related to telehospice services? The article was limited to studies that had been published in the English language and indexed between January 1, 2000 and March 23, 2010. Indexed databases included PubMed and PsycINFO and contained specified key words. Only research published in peer review journals and reporting empirical data, rather than opinion or editorials, were included. A two-part scoring framework was modified and applied to assess the methodological rigor and pertinence of each study. Scoring criteria allowed the evaluation of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Twenty-six studies were identified with the search strategy. Although limited in number and in strength, studies have evaluated the use of a variety of technologies, attitudes toward use by providers and consumers, clinical outcomes, barriers, readiness, and cost. A small evidence base for telehospice has emerged over the last 10 years. Although the evidence is of medium strength, its pertinence is strong. The evidence base could be strengthened with randomized trials and additional clinical-outcome-focused research in larger randomized samples and in qualitative studies with better-described samples.

Demiris, George; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Day, Tami; Novak, Hannah

2012-01-01

322

Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H?O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H?O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions. PMID:24038552

Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

2013-12-01

323

Ground-based methods reproduce space-flight experiments and show that weak vibrations trigger microtubule self-organisation.  

PubMed

The effect of weightlessness on physical and biological systems is frequently studied by experiments in space. However, on the ground, gravity effects may also be strongly attenuated using methods such as magnetic levitation and clinorotation. Under suitable conditions, in vitro preparations of microtubules, a major element of the cytoskeleton, self-organise by a process of reaction-diffusion: self-organisation is triggered by gravity and samples prepared in space do not self-organise. Here, we report experiments carried out with ground-based methods of clinorotation and magnetic levitation. The behaviour observed closely resembles that of the space-flight experiment and suggests that many space experiments could be carried out equally well on the ground. Using clinorotation, we find that weak vibrations also trigger microtubule self-organisation and have an effect similar to gravity. Thus, in some in vitro biological systems, vibrations are a countermeasure to weightlessness. PMID:16380203

Glade, Nicolas; Beaugnon, Eric; Tabony, James

2006-04-20

324

Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

2008-01-01

325

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Hecht, Debra B.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark J.

2009-01-01

326

Best evidence-based practices: a historic perspective.  

PubMed

Neonatologists, neonatal nurses, and others who care for critically ill newborns hope that the care they provide will improve the health and the neurodevelopmental outcome of these neonates. In this progressive era of neonatal medicine, we must pause to look backward even as we look forward, taking full advantage of the opportunity to reflect on our short history and to review several important events in neonatal medicine that have contributed in a meaningful way to the evolution of evidence-based neonatal care. Six interventions highlight why randomized controlled trials are necessary to understand the risks and benefits of our interventions with premature and critically ill infants. We hope this history of the evolving practice of evidence-based neonatal care will enable the reader to have a greater appreciation for the consideration of each and every intervention that we take on behalf of the infants in our care. PMID:12240454

Merenstein, Gerald B; Glicken, Anita D

2002-08-01

327

Family-centered, evidence-based phototherapy delivery.  

PubMed

Jaundice develops in most newborn infants and is one of the most common reasons infants are rehospitalized after birth. American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines strongly support the recommendation that clinicians promote and support breastfeeding. Recognizing that the disruptions associated with phototherapy interfere with breastfeeding, the challenge often faced by clinicians is how to provide effective phototherapy while supporting evidence-based practices, such as rooming-in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding. We report here on a case that reflects a common clinical scenario in newborn medicine in order to describe a technique for providing phototherapy while maintaining evidence-based practices. This approach will assist clinicians in providing best-practices and family-centered care. PMID:23669526

Szucs, Kinga A; Rosenman, Marc B

2013-06-01

328

Evidence-Based Staff Training: A Guide for Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees.

Parsons, Marsha B.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Reid, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

329

Evidence-based therapy relationships: research conclusions and clinical practices.  

PubMed

In this closing article of the special issue, we present the conclusions and recommendations of the interdivisional task force on evidence-based therapy relationships. The work was based on a series of meta-analyses conducted on the effectiveness of various relationship elements and methods of treatment adaptation. A panel of experts concluded that several relationship elements were demonstrably effective (alliance in individual psychotherapy, alliance in youth psychotherapy, alliance in family therapy, cohesion in group therapy, empathy, collecting client feedback) while others were probably effective (goal consensus, collaboration, positive regard). Three other relationship elements (congruence/genuineness, repairing alliance ruptures, and managing countertransference) were deemed promising but had insufficient evidence to conclude that they were effective. Multiple recommendations for practice, training, research, and policy are advanced. PMID:21401280

Norcross, John C; Wampold, Bruce E

2011-03-01

330

Evidence-Based Treatments for Children with Chronic Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the use of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in children with chronic illnesses presents a problematic but well-known dilemma. Many of the treatments for psychological distress in these children have historically been modified from better-known and validated treatments in children without chronic illness. In other words, what works in children who are not ill has been taken and modified

T. David Elkin; Laura Stoppelbein

331

The pros and cons of evidence-based surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been proposed as a new paradigm of practising medicine. However, an unproductive polarisation\\u000a between supporters and opponents can make its unbiased assessment difficult. This review gives an overview of the arguments\\u000a and discusses their surgeon-specific importance. Discussion: As EBM claims a position in the centre of medicine, it borders with other highly debated topics as,

Stefan Sauerland; Rolf Lefering; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer

1999-01-01

332

Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management.  

PubMed

Menière's disease (MD) is frequently over-diagnosed in both primary and secondary care. This is unfortunate given the significant medical and social implications of such a diagnosis. Difficulties may arise in differentiating the patient with true MD from those individuals with less clearly defined disorders of cochleo-vestibular function. In this review, we suggest a practical evidence based approach to assessment and management of the patient with MD. PMID:22257041

Syed, I; Aldren, C

2012-02-01

333

Implementing evidence-based practice: Walking the talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russworm and Larrabee’s (1999) six-step model for evidence-based practice (EBP) was used by 10 nursing teams to seek answers to clinical questions. These teams, primarily composed of staff nurses, participated in a health region-wide EBP program over 1 year. Overall, the model served as a useful mechanism for examining practice-derived questions. However, additional strategies needed to be incorporated by the

Norma E. Thurston; Kathryn M. King

2004-01-01

334

Evaluating Competency to Stand Trial with Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluations for competency to stand trial are distinguished from other areas of forensic consultation by their long history of standardized assessment beginning in the 1970s. As part of a special issue of the Journal on evidence- based forensic practice, this article examines three published competency measures: the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA), the Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial-Revised

Richard Rogers; Jill Johansson-Love

335

How Much of CAM Is Based on Research Evidence?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to provide a preliminary estimate of how much CAM is evidence-based. For this purpose, I calculated the percentage of 685 treatment/condition pairings evaluated in the “Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine” which are supported by sound data. The resulting figure was 7.4%. For a range of reasons, it might be a gross over-estimate. Further investigations into this subject are required to arrive at more representative figures.

Ernst, Edzard

2011-01-01

336

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AND POSITIVE EVIDENCE IN TASK-BASED INTERACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the ac- quisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Austra- lian tertiary institution. Five different types of

Noriko Iwashita

2003-01-01

337

Evidence-Based Approaches to Crime Prevention in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the present state of the evidence base on the effectiveness of crime prevention programmes\\u000a and practices in developing countries and to consider the prospects for its improvement. The paper summarises the findings\\u000a from a scoping review of the literature and develops some suggestions about how the void it finds might be filled.

Roger Bowles; Joseph Akpokodje; Emmanuel Tigere

2005-01-01

338

[Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health: evidence-based and pondering].  

PubMed

The correlation between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular health is always one of the hotspots. Many scholars have performed so many clinical researches all over the world, providing evidence-based medicine (EBM) reference for clarifying their correlation. In this paper, we raise ideas and expectation on the basis of a Meta-analysis about vegetarian diets and blood pressure (published on JAMA Internal Medicine in Feb 2014) in combination of main clinical research literature in this field in recent 20 years. PMID:25046943

Chen, Keji; Liu, Yue

2014-06-01

339

Barriers to achieving evidence-based stroke rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the perceived barriers to evidence-based practice by health professionals working within the field of stroke rehabilitation.Design: Focus groups were carried out to identify the perceived barriers; these were followed by a postal questionnaire that asked stroke rehabilitation professionals to rate their agreement with the perceived barriers.Subjects: One hundred and five stroke rehabilitation professionals participated in the focus

Alexandra S Pollock; Lynn Legg; Peter Langhorne; Cameron Sellars

2000-01-01

340

Protecting generalism: moving on from evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed Central

Quality of decision making in modern health care is defined with reference to evidence-based medicine. There are concerns that this approach is insufficient for, and may thus threaten the future of, generalist primary care. We urgently need to extend our account of quality of knowledge use and decision making in order to protect and develop the discipline. Interpretive medicine describes an alternative framework for use in generalist care. Priorities for clinical practice and research are identified.

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

341

Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective?To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology.?Method?Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.”?Results?Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above.?Conclusions?Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures.

Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joan

2008-01-01

342

Rural hospital web-based, evidence-based practice professional development: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

To provide quality patient care and achieve positive patient outcomes, it is widely recognized that organizations must develop a supportive environment that encourages individuals to practice from a research- and evidence-based framework. This article describes a Web-based professional educational program designed to teach principles of evidence-based practice to nurses in rural hospitals. Nurses working in staff development will find this useful for designing educational programs for staff in rural hospitals. PMID:23657035

Oman, Kathleen S; Fink, Regina M; Krugman, Mary; Goode, Colleen J; Traditi, Lisa K

2013-01-01

343

An evidence-based approach in the treatment of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease with diverse symptoms for which there is no curative or disease-modifying treatment available. Currently, tetrabenazine is the only drug approved for HD by a regulatory agency, and only for the treatment of chorea. In the current review, we present updated results from recent clinical trials and ongoing clinical research efforts to find effective and safe treatments for HD motor, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms. We used a systematic review approach that included data from well-designed randomised controlled trials. The authors conclude that there is weak evidence to support most of the treatment decisions in HD and thus clinicians may be guided only by expert opinion-based therapeutic recommendations. Ongoing research is considerable and is expected to have an impact in the management of HD in upcoming years. PMID:22177624

Mestre, T A; Ferreira, J J

2012-05-01

344

Utilization of evidence-based practice by registered occupational therapists.  

PubMed

Although the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is presently on the rise, there have been limited studies examining its use by occupational therapists within the US. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of EBP among registered occupational therapists in the occupational therapy intervention planning process. This descriptive study surveyed 500 members of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), of which 131 participants responded (26%). The results of the study supported the hypothesis that, within the sample studied, a minority of registered occupational therapists in the US utilize EBP in the intervention planning process. Other results included: (1) As level of academic education increased, the view of the importance of research to occupational therapy decreased. (2) As the years of practice increased, the use of research evidence in making clinical decisions decreased. As the occupational therapy profession moves towards utilization of EBP as a professional standard, it is imperative that the profession examines specific strategies to promote the adoption of such practice by its members, including the promotion of competency in evidence utilization, and the valuing of the established clinical reasoning skills of the practitioner while integrating research evidence into intervention planning to support professional practice. PMID:16398202

Cameron, Karen Ann V; Ballantyne, Scott; Kulbitsky, Autumnrose; Margolis-Gal, Michelle; Daugherty, Timothy; Ludwig, Ferol

2005-01-01

345

Integration of Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: A probabilistic decision support model such as the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes an immense amount of input data that necessitates a systematic, integrated approach for data collection, and management. As a result of this approach, IMM is able to forecasts medical events, resource utilization and crew health during space flight. METHODS: Inflight data is the most desirable input for the Integrated Medical Model. Non-attributable inflight data is collected from the Lifetime Surveillance for Astronaut Health study as well as the engineers, flight surgeons, and astronauts themselves. When inflight data is unavailable cohort studies, other models and Bayesian analyses are used, in addition to subject matters experts input on occasion. To determine the quality of evidence of a medical condition, the data source is categorized and assigned a level of evidence from 1-5; the highest level is one. The collected data reside and are managed in a relational SQL database with a web-based interface for data entry and review. The database is also capable of interfacing with outside applications which expands capabilities within the database itself. Via the public interface, customers can access a formatted Clinical Findings Form (CLiFF) that outlines the model input and evidence base for each medical condition. Changes to the database are tracked using a documented Configuration Management process. DISSCUSSION: This strategic approach provides a comprehensive data management plan for IMM. The IMM Database s structure and architecture has proven to support additional usages. As seen by the resources utilization across medical conditions analysis. In addition, the IMM Database s web-based interface provides a user-friendly format for customers to browse and download the clinical information for medical conditions. It is this type of functionality that will provide Exploratory Medicine Capabilities the evidence base for their medical condition list. CONCLUSION: The IMM Database in junction with the IMM is helping NASA aerospace program improve the health care and reduce risk for the astronauts crew. Both the database and model will continue to expand to meet customer needs through its multi-disciplinary evidence based approach to managing data. Future expansion could serve as a platform for a Space Medicine Wiki of medical conditions.

Saile, Lyn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; Kerstman, Eric; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei

2011-01-01

346

Cochrane Lecture 1997. What evidence do we need for evidence based medicine?  

PubMed Central

As presently understood, evidence based medicine aims to advance practice from its traditional unverifiable mix of art and science to rational use of measurable inputs and outputs. In practice, however, its advocates accept uncritically a desocialised definition of science, assume that major clinical decisions are taken at the level of secondary specialist rather than primary generalist care, and ignore the multiple nature of most clinical problems, as well as the complexity of social problems within which clinical problems arise and have to be solved. These reductionist assumptions derive from the use of evidence based medicine as a tool for managed care in a transactional model for consultations. If these assumptions persist, they will strengthen reification of disease and promote the episodic output of process regardless of health outcome. We need to work within a different paradigm based on development of patients as co-producers rather than consumers, promoting continuing output of health gain through shared decisions using all relevant evidence, within a broader, socialised definition of science. Adoption of this model would require a major social and cultural shift for health professionals. This shift has already begun, promoted by changes in public attitudes to professional authority, changes in the relation of professionals to managers, and pressures for improved effectiveness and efficiency which, contrary to received wisdom, seem more likely to endorse cooperative than transactional clinical production. Progress on these lines is resisted by rapidly growing and extremely powerful economic and political interests. Health professionals and strategists have yet to recognise and admit the existence of this choice.

Hart, J T

1997-01-01

347

Strengthening evidence-based decision-making: is it possible without improving health system stewardship?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Health systems worldwide have always suffered resource constraints. Therefore, making decisions informed by scientific evidence to optimize costs and prevent wastage of resources is both important and necessary. The current study was designed to identify barriers to evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) in Iran's health system. METHODS Participants were purposively selected. In-depth interviews with policy-makers and focus group discussions (FGDs) with researchers were used to collect data. Thirteen in-depth interviews and six FGDs were held. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS The barriers mentioned were categorized into decision-makers' characteristics, the decision-making environment and the research system, with each category consisting of further relevant themes and subthemes. Organizational values, criteria for selecting decision-makers, and the attitude toward EBDM were found to be important barriers to EBDM, and were related to stewardship. CONCLUSION There are various barriers to EBDM at different levels, and multi-dimensional solutions are required to strengthen the impact of scientific evidence on decision-making. Several recognized barriers to EBDM are rooted in health system stewardship, such as the weakness of inter-sectoral collaborations and ill-defined priorities. It appears that improvement of EBDM is secondary to the strengthening of health system stewardship. PMID:22027555

Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Ahghari, Sharareh

2012-09-01

348

An Evidence-Based Template for Implementation of Multidisciplinary Evidence-Based Practices in a Tertiary Hospital Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public demand for higher quality and lower cost, evolving pay-for-performance initiatives from payors, and the growing volume of quality “report cards” are driving health care organizations to develop evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines. Hospitals will be expected to provide the infrastructure and resources needed to support these care processes. Published best practices for implementing EBPs are rooted in organizational and behavioral

Mark R. Kresse; Maria A. Kuklinski; Joseph G. Cacchione

2007-01-01

349

Evidence-based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence  

PubMed Central

This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some kernels may produce longer lasting behavioral shifts. The analysis of kernels could contribute to an empirically based theory of behavioral influence, augment existing prevention or treatment efforts, facilitate the dissemination of effective prevention and treatment practices, clarify the active ingredients in existing interventions, and contribute to efficiently developing interventions that are more effective. Kernels involve one or more of the following mechanisms of behavior influence: reinforcement, altering antecedents, changing verbal relational responding, or changing physiological states directly. The paper describes 52 of these kernels, and details practical, theoretical, and research implications, including calling for a national database of kernels that influence human behavior.

Biglan, Anthony

2008-01-01

350

[Internet: an infrastructure of evidence-based medicine in neurology].  

PubMed

EBM is a cyclic process. Medical evidences are created in clinical trials, which are published in medical literatures. The medical literatures are converted to literature database, from which clinical practice guidelines are made. They are provided to the clinicians, from whom a new clinical research is born again. Information technology, especially the use of internet has deeply related to every process of EBM, which is shown above. In clinical trials, data are accumulated through internet and the process is controlled by a coordinator using internet. In Japan, University Hospital Medical Information System (UMIN) has successfully provided such a tool to the clinical researchers. For the literature search. IT is mandatory and clinical practice guidelines are created on the base of various secondary information database, which are edited using advanced information technology Clinical practice guidelines are provided to hospitals through internet and they reach to the clinicians using a function of hospital information system, especially electronic medical record. In recent days, IT is an indispensable tool for daily practice of evidence-based medicine. However, in Japan the evidence has not been accumulated in national level, and for the future, the creation of national database of medical data should be explored. PMID:12784699

Kaihara, Shigekoto

2002-11-01

351

Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib) by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS), and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

2010-01-01

352

Weak localization in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recently-developed theory of weak localization in monolayer and bilayer graphene. For high-density monolayer graphene and for any-density bilayers, the dominant factor affecting weak localization properties is trigonal warping of graphene bands, which reflects asymmetry of the carrier dispersion with respect to the center of the corresponding valley. The suppression of weak localization by trigonal warping is accompanied by a similar effect caused by random-bond disorder (due to bending of a graphene sheet) and by dislocation/antidislocation pairs. As a result, weak localization in graphene can be observed only in samples with sufficiently strong intervalley scattering, which is reflected by a characteristic form of negative magnetoresistance in graphene-based structures.

Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Kechedzhi, K.; McCann, E.; Altshuler, B. L.; Suzuura, H.; Ando, T.

2007-07-01

353

Practice-Based Evidence to Evidence-Based Practice: Building the National Radiation Oncology Registry  

PubMed Central

The National Radiation Oncology Registry (NROR), sponsored by the Radiation Oncology Institute and the American Society for Radiation Oncology, is designed to collect standardized information on cancer care delivery among patients treated with radiotherapy in the United States and will focus on patients with prostate cancer. Stakeholders were engaged through a forum that emphasized the need for patient-centered outcomes, minimal data burden, and maximal connectivity to existing registries and databases. An electronic infrastructure is under development to provide connectivity across radiation oncology and hospital information systems. The NROR Gateway features automatic abstraction as well as aggregation of treatment and outcome data. The prostate cancer data dictionary provides standardized elements in four domains: facility, physician, patient, and treatment. The pilot phase will consist of clinical centers chosen to provide a representative mix of radiation treatment modalities, facility types, population-based settings, and regional locations. The initial set of radiation practice metrics includes physician board certification and maintenance, ordering of staging scans, active surveillance discussion, dose prescriptions for low-risk/high-risk disease, radiation fields for low-risk/high-risk disease, image-guided radiation therapy use, androgen deprivation therapy use, post-brachytherapy implant computed tomography dosimetry, collection of toxicity assessments, and longitudinal patient follow-up. The NROR pilot study will provide the framework for expansion to a nationwide electronic registry for radiation oncology.

Efstathiou, Jason A.; Nassif, Deborah S.; McNutt, Todd R.; Bogardus, C. Bob; Bosch, Walter; Carlin, Jeffrey; Chen, Ronald C.; Chou, Henry; Eggert, Dave; Fraass, Benedick A.; Goldwein, Joel; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hotz, Ken; Hunt, Margie; Kessler, Marc; Lawton, Colleen A.F.; Mayo, Charles; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa; Potters, Louis; Rose, Christopher M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Sharp, Gregory; Tome, Wolfgang; Tran, Phuoc T.; Wall, Terry; Zietman, Anthony L.; Gabriel, Peter E.; Bekelman, Justin E.

2013-01-01

354

Minimally invasive treatment of Peyronie's disease: evidence-based progress.  

PubMed

Peyronie's disease (PD) is often physically and psychologically devastating for patients, and the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and sexual function without adding treatment-related morbidity. The potential for treatment-related morbidity after more invasive interventions, e.g. surgery, creates a need for effective minimally invasive treatments. We critically examined the available literature using levels of evidence to determine the reported support for each treatment. Most available minimally invasive treatments lack critical support for effectiveness due to the absence of randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) or non-significant results after RCTs. Iontophoresis, oral therapies (vitamin E, potassium para-aminobenzoate, tamoxifen, carnitine, and colchicine), extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and intralesional injection with verapamil or nicardipine have shown mixed or negative results. Treatments that have decreased penile curvature deformity in Level 1 or Level 2 evidence-based, placebo-controlled studies include intralesional injection with interferon ?-2b or collagenase clostridium histolyticum. PMID:24447536

Jordan, Gerald H; Carson, Culley C; Lipshultz, Larry I

2014-07-01

355

Comment on ``Size effects and charge-density-wave pinning in Nb1-xTixSe3: Evidence for weak pinning by a nonisoelectronic impurity''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DiCarlo et al. have recently published experimental data on the effects of Ti impurity doping on threshold field ET for the sliding charge-density-wave (CDW) conductor NbSe3 at 77 K. They claim these data show that nonisoelectronic Ti impurities pin the CDW weakly, with a pinning strength 40 times greater than isoelectronic Ta atoms, and that size effects at small thicknesses support their three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional crossover model of weak pinning. Here I criticize their analysis, and offer an alternative interpretation.

Tucker, J. R.

1993-03-01

356

Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

2011-01-01

357

Management of fibromyalgia syndrome - an interdisciplinary evidence-based guideline  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) of 1–2% in the general population associated with high disease-related costs and the conflicting data on treatment effectiveness had led to the development of evidence-based guidelines designed to provide patients and physicians guidance in selecting among the alternatives. Until now no evidence-based interdisciplinary (including patients) guideline for the management of FMS was available in Europe. Therefore a guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was developed by 13 German medical and psychological associations and two patient self-help organisations. The task was coordinated by two German scientific umbrella organisations, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany AWMF and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Pain Therapy DIVS. A systematic search of the literature including all controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of FMS was performed in the Cochrane Library (1993–12/2006), Medline (1980–12/2006), PsychInfo (1966–12/2006) and Scopus (1980–12/ 2006). Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford-Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Grading of the strengths of recommendations was done according to the German program for disease management guidelines. Standardized procedures were used to reach a consensus on recommendations. The guideline was reviewed and finally approved by the boards of the societies involved and published online by the AWMF on april 25, 2008: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004.htm. A short version of the guideline for patients is available as well: http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/041-004p.htm. The following procedures in the management of FMS were strongly recommended: information on diagnosis and therapeutic options and patient-centered communication, aerobic exercise, cognitive and operant behavioural therapy, multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homoeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients’ preferences.

Hauser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flugge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Kollner, Volker; Kuhn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbacher, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina

2008-01-01

358

DETECTION OF WEAK CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS AROUND THE DAZ WHITE DWARF WD 1124-293: EVIDENCE FOR THE ACCRETION OF MULTIPLE ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect

Single metal-polluted white dwarfs with no dusty disks are believed to be actively accreting metals from a circumstellar disk of gas caused by the destruction of asteroids perturbed by planetary systems. We report, for the first time, the detection of circumstellar Ca II gas in absorption around the DAZ WD 1124-293, which lacks an infrared excess. We constrain the gas to >7 R{sub WD} and <32000 AU, and estimate it to be at {approx}54 R{sub WD}, well within WD 1124-293's tidal disruption radius. This detection is based on several epochs of spectroscopy around the Ca II H and K lines ({lambda} = 3968 A, 3933 A) with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We confirm the circumstellar nature of the gas by observing nearby sightlines and finding no evidence for gas from the local interstellar medium. Through archival data we have measured the equivalent width of the two photospheric Ca lines over a period of 11 years. We see <5%-7% epoch-to-epoch variation in equivalent widths over this time period, and no evidence for long term trends. The presence of a circumstellar gas implies a near edge-on inclination to the system, thus we place limits to short period transiting planetary companions with R > R{sub Circled-Plus} using the Wide Angle Search for Planets survey. The presence of gas in orbit around WD 1124-293 implies that most DAZs could harbor planetary systems. Since 25%-30% of white dwarfs show metal line absorption, the dynamical process for perturbing small bodies must be robust.

Debes, J. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kilic, M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Faedi, F. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Shkolnik, E. L. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Weinberger, A. J.; Slesnick, C. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5249 Broad Branch RD, N.W., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-07-20

359

Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions  

PubMed Central

Background Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals/trainees in an Australian university. Methods The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects from five professional disciplines. One and 2-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests analysed differences based on prior exposure to EBP, stage of training, professional discipline, age and gender. Results There were significant differences between stages of training (p < 0.001) for all domains and between EBP exposure groups for all but one domain (Sympathy). Professional discipline groups differed for Relevance, Terminology, Practice (p < 0.001) and Confidence (p = 0.006). Males scored higher for Confidence (p = 0.002) and females for Sympathy (p = 0.04), older subjects (> 24 years) scored higher for all domains (p < 0.05). Age and exposure affected all domains (p < 0.02). Differences in stages of training largely explained age-related differences in Confidence and Practice (p ? 0.001) and exposure-related differences in Confidence, Practice and Sympathy (p ? 0.023). Conclusions Across five allied health professions, self-report EBP characteristics varied with EBP exposure, across stages of training, with profession and with age.

2010-01-01

360

Adolescent substance misuse: neurobiology and evidence-based interventions.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews empirical research on risk-factors for adolescent onset of substance use and misuse, with a particular focus on a recent body of literature aimed at understanding the link between early onset substance use, neuropsychological impairment and future addiction risk. The evidence suggests a causal pathway with some studies showing that adolescents might be more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of substances, which contributes to their heightened addiction vulnerability. While questions remain pertaining to the extent to which cognitive precursors to early onset substance use account for these impairments, the evidence from a few studies suggests that early substance misuse produces some cognitive or emotional processing impairment beyond these premorbid deficits. The possible interaction between premorbid deficits and the effects of substance use on cognitive development might also explain why early onset substance use so rapidly spirals into substance abuse and dependence and provides a strong rationale for preventing early onset substance use, particularly among those at risk. This chapter then reviews the different approaches to drug and alcohol prevention, the evidence-base for current programs and the essential intervention components that lead to beneficial outcomes and high implementation fidelity. PMID:22057622

Newton, Nicola C; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Conrod, Patricia J

2013-01-01

361

Evidence base for pre-employment medical screening  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper examines the evidence base for the use of pre-employment/pre-placement medical examinations. The use of pre?employment examinations is often driven more by cultural practices than evidence. There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness in preventing health-related occupational risks. Hypertension screening is highlighted as a common pre-employment practice for which there is no standardized criteria to use to determine fitness for work. There are inherent problems in screening for psychiatric disorders and substance abuse as well as potential for racial bias and other unintended negative effects. This paper questions the economic case for this practice and also expresses concerns about paternalism related to identified risk factors. Health assessments should only be included when appropriate to the task environment and the general use of pre-employment exams and drug screening should be eliminated. Generally, a health assessment by questionnaire should suffice. Occupational health providers should advise against the application of physical or mental standards that are not relevant to fulfilment of the essential job functions. Consensus development regarding best practice, as well as consideration for acquiring outcome data related to pre-employment practice, is recommended.

2009-01-01

362

Promoting health equity in cities through evidence-based action.  

PubMed

The impact of the urban setting on health and, in particular, health inequities has been widely documented. However, only a few countries have examined their inter- or intra-city health inequalities, and few do so regularly. Information that shows the gaps between cities or within the same city is a crucial requirement to trigger appropriate local actions to promote health equity. To generate relevant evidence and take appropriate actions to tackle health inequities, local authorities need a variety of tools. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of health systems performance, these tools should: (1) adopt a multi-sectorial approach; (2) link evidence to actions; (3) be simple and user-friendly; and (4) be operationally feasible and sustainable. In this paper we have illustrated the use of one such tool, The World Health Organization's Urban HEART, which guides users through a process to identify health inequities, focusing on health determinants and then developing actions based on the evidence generated. In a time of increasing financial constraints, there is a pressing need to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. Tools are needed to guide policy makers in their planning process to identify best-practice interventions that promote health equity in their cities. PMID:20811780

Kumaresan, Jacob; Prasad, Amit; Alwan, Ala; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

2010-09-01

363

Proton pump inhibitors in cirrhosis: Tradition or evidence based practice?  

PubMed Central

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support their use in cirrhosis and evidence of their efficacy in this condition is poor. Moreover there are convincing papers suggesting that acid secretion is reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. With regard to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, its prevalence in patients with cirrhosis is largely variable among different studies, and it seems that H pylori eradication does not prevent gastro-duodenal ulcer formation and bleeding. With regard to the prevention and treatment of oesophageal complications after banding or sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices, there is little evidence for a protective role of PPI. Moreover, due to liver metabolism of PPI, the dose of most available PPIs should be reduced in cirrhotics. In conclusion, the use of this class of drugs seems more habit related than evidence-based eventually leading to an increase in health costs.

Lodato, Francesca; Azzaroli, Francesco; Girolamo, Maria Di; Feletti, Valentina; Cecinato, Paolo; Lisotti, Andrea; Festi, Davide; Roda, Enrico; Mazzella, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

364

Implications of evidence-based practice for mental health nursing.  

PubMed

The introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) and the hierarchical approach to evidence it engenders within research and evaluation has aroused controversy in the mental health professions. The aim of this paper is to present a critique of EBP with a specific relationship to mental health nursing. It will be argued that in its current form, EBP presents a potential impediment to the facilitation of consumer participation in mental health services and to the recovery model. The need for the consumer voice and the importance of the lived experience of mental illness are not readily reconciled with a strong scientific paradigm that promotes detachment and objectivity. The importance of evidence in contemporary mental health care will also be acknowledged and discussed in light of the current climate of increased consumer knowledge, fiscal constraint, and extensive social criticism of mental health-care services. The current approach to EBP requires reconstruction to support the consumer-focused nature of mental health nursing, and to facilitate the implementation of a recovery model for mental health care. PMID:19490228

Fisher, Jacklin E; Happell, Brenda

2009-06-01

365

Evaluation and Integration of COTS in Evidence based Assurance Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COTS have increasingly been used by industrial practice as a means of maintaining low development costs of a product, whilst offering significant capability upgrades. COTS are multipurpose products driven by commonly used functionality. However, being general purpose products raises certain challenges regarding their ability to be certified. Previously used (process-based) standards stipulated a process that the product needed to adhere to. This involved production of a generic set of evidence known as the certification pack (CertPack). Being the product of a generic test process, the available (CertPack) COTS evidence may not be sufficient or suitable to support the developers' safety claims. The challenges raised by use of COTS in such assurance frameworks can have ramifications on a project both from a managerial and safety assurance perspective. The paper presents an analysis of the challenges from the use of CertPack and their impact on assurance and project management. Moreover a process is presented that assists de-risking the integration of evidence, as early as possible during system development or upgrade.

Despotou, George; Bennett, Mike; Kelly, Tim

366

Evidence-based practice: balloon catheter dilation in rhinology.  

PubMed

Balloon catheter dilation (BCD) is a treatment paradigm for surgical management of paranasal sinus inflammatory disease. There are few robust clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of balloon technology in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The available database largely comprises retrospective, uncontrolled studies with insufficiently characterized patient cohorts and a lack of comparator groups. Thus, the current evidence base is unable to elucidate the role and indications for BCD in the management of medically refractory CRS. Future studies should include selected control groups, preferably with randomization and validated outcome measures, to determine the efficacy of balloon technology compared with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:22980680

Batra, Pete S

2012-10-01

367

Evidence-based practice: A matrix for predicting phonological generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including the nature of error patterns, implicational universals, developmental norms, and stimulability. A case study of a child with a phonological disorder is presented to illustrate how the matrix may be utilized in evidence-based practice. The matrix serves as a demonstration of how the translation of research to practice may be accomplished.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; HULSE, LAUREN E.

2010-01-01

368

Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing  

PubMed Central

The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles.

Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C.; Allen, Margaret (Peg)

2014-01-01

369

Score-based likelihood ratios for handwriting evidence.  

PubMed

Score-based approaches for computing forensic likelihood ratios are becoming more prevalent in the forensic literature. When two items of evidential value are entangled via a scorefunction, several nuances arise when attempting to model the score behavior under the competing source-level propositions. Specific assumptions must be made in order to appropriately model the numerator and denominator probability distributions. This process is fairly straightforward for the numerator of the score-based likelihood ratio, entailing the generation of a database of scores obtained by pairing items of evidence from the same source. However, this process presents ambiguities for the denominator database generation - in particular, how best to generate a database of scores between two items of different sources. Many alternatives have appeared in the literature, three of which we will consider in detail. They differ in their approach to generating denominator databases, by pairing (1) the item of known source with randomly selected items from a relevant database; (2) the item of unknown source with randomly generated items from a relevant database; or (3) two randomly generated items. When the two items differ in type, perhaps one having higher information content, these three alternatives can produce very different denominator databases. While each of these alternatives has appeared in the literature, the decision of how to generate the denominator database is often made without calling attention to the subjective nature of this process. In this paper, we compare each of the three methods (and the resulting score-based likelihood ratios), which can be thought of as three distinct interpretations of the denominator proposition. Our goal in performing these comparisons is to illustrate the effect that subtle modifications of these propositions can have on inferences drawn from the evidence evaluation procedure. The study was performed using a data set composed of cursive writing samples from over 400 writers. We found that, when provided with the same two items of evidence, the three methods often would lead to differing conclusions (with rates of disagreement ranging from 0.005 to 0.48). Rates of misleading evidence and Tippet plots are both used to characterize the range of behavior for the methods over varying sized questioned documents. The appendix shows that the three score-based likelihood ratios are theoretically very different not only from each other, but also from the likelihood ratio, and as a consequence each display drastically different behavior. PMID:22297142

Hepler, Amanda B; Saunders, Christopher P; Davis, Linda J; Buscaglia, JoAnn

2012-06-10

370

NLM Evidence-based Information at Your Fingertips - NBNA  

SciTech Connect

The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.

Womble, R.

2010-08-06

371

Mapping evidence-based guidelines to standardized nursing terminologies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore how evidence-based practice recommendations for adults with depression were represented in two standardized nursing terminologies. A qualitative concept analysis was used to answer the research question. Concepts were extracted from the recommendations and matched to two standardized nursing terminologies through lexical and semantic concept mapping techniques. Study findings included variability in the lexical mapping to the standardized terminologies. The ability to map semantically was greater than lexical mapping, but the majority of these were partial matches. Findings also raised concerns about the potential for ambiguity of data retrieved when using standardized terminology. PMID:21825974

Dontje, Katherine; Coenen, Amy

2011-12-01

372

Developing an evidence-based list of journals for nursing.  

PubMed

The Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS) of the Medical Library Association created the 2012 NAHRS Selected List of Nursing Journals to assist librarians with collection development and to provide nurses and librarians with data on nursing and interdisciplinary journals to assist their decisions about where to submit articles for publication. This list is a continuation and expansion of a list initially known as the Key Nursing Journals list. It compares database coverage and full-text options for each title and includes an analysis of the number of evidence-based, research, and continuing education articles. PMID:24860267

Sherwill-Navarro, Pamela; Kennedy, Joy C; Allen, Margaret Peg

2014-04-01

373

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a painful syndrome that presents as recurrent episodes of right upper quadrant biliary pain, or recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. It is a disease process that has been a subject of controversy, in part because its natural history, disease course and treatment outcomes have not been clearly defined in large controlled studies with long-term follow-up. This review is aimed at clarifying the state-of-the-art with an evidence-based summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and modalities for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:24161134

Rehman, Abdul; Affronti, John; Rao, Satish

2013-11-01

374

Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

375

Clamping down on weak terminal base pairs: oligonucleotides with molecular caps as fidelity-enhancing elements at the 5'- and 3'-terminal residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The base-pairing fidelity of oligonucleotides depends on the identity of the nucleobases involved and the position of matched or mismatched base pairs in the duplex. Nucleobases forming weak base pairs, as well as a terminal position favor mispairing. We have searched for 5¢-appended acylamido caps that enhance the stability and base-pairing fidelity of oligonucleotides with a 5¢-terminal 2¢-deoxyadeno- sine residue

Sukunath Narayanan; Julia Gall; Clemens Richert

2004-01-01

376

Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic amines on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column.  

PubMed

Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography has been applied to investigate the separation behavior of five aliphatic amines (ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, pentylamine and hexylamine) on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column (Tosoh TSKgel DEAE-5PW). This system is consisted of analytes as a mobile phase and water as an injected sample. In the vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography, the elution order was as follows: ethylamine < propylamine < butylamine < pentylamine < hexylamine, depending on their hydrophobicity. The retention times of the amines were decreased with decreasing their concentrations in the mobile phase. The retention times and resolutions of the amines were increased by adding a basic compound (e.g., lithium hydroxide or heptylamine) and by increasing the pH of mobile phase (pH > 11). This was because the dissociations of amine samples in the mobile phase were suppressed and thus the hydrophobic adsorption effects were enhanced. The linearity of calibration graphs could be obtained from the peak areas of the amine samples injected to the 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM of amine mobile phase at pH 11 by heptylamine. The detection limits of aliphatic amines as injected samples were around 1 microM for five aliphatic amines at three different amine mobile phases. From these results, the retention behaviors of aliphatic amines on vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography were concluded to be governed by the hydrophobic adsorption effect. PMID:15250414

Mori, Masanobu; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Ding, Ming-Yu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

2004-06-11

377

pH-Dependent Drug-Drug Interactions for Weak Base Drugs: Potential Implications for New Drug Development.  

PubMed

Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated. PMID:24733008

Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

2014-08-01

378

Building an Evidence Base for Speech-Language Services in the Schools: Challenges and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists are faced with demands for evidence to support practice. Federal legislation requires high-quality evidence for decisions regarding school-based services as part of evidence-based practice. The purpose of this article is to discuss the limited scientific evidence for making appropriate decisions about speech-language…

Whitmire, Kathleen A.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Mele-McCarthy, Joan A.; Staskowski, Maureen

2014-01-01

379

[German hospital nurses' attitudes concerning evidence-based nursing practice].  

PubMed

The relevance of nurses' attitudes for establishing an evidence-based nursing practice (EBP) has been proven internationally. For German-speaking countries so far only few data are available. The present survey aims at assessing nurses' perceptions of relevant context factors for implementing an EBP. Therefore, 1384 nurses in 21 hospitals in Northern-Germany received a self-developed questionnaire based on established instruments in March and April 2012. 1023 (74 %) nurses responded. In principal, results show a positive attitude towards EBP. The majority of participants regards research as relevant for nursing practice. Support from superiors and colleagues is seen as important prerequisite. However, implementation remains a challenge. Nurses are not informed about recent research results. Original articles are hardly used. Only a minority is prepared to spend own money on congresses or to start academic nursing training in the near future. For the first time in German-speaking countries, the study provides meaningful data on nurses' attitudes towards EBP. Nurses confirm the value of research for their own practice. However, there is a lack of basic requirements to identify and implement relevant research findings as for example the use of recent scientific evidence. Nursing education in Germany should therefore focus more strongly on building competencies required for EBP, for example through properly designed academic nursing training. PMID:23732313

Köpke, Sascha; Koch, Frauke; Behncke, Anja; Balzer, Katrin

2013-06-01

380

Updated Evidence-Based Treatment Algorithm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled and controlled clinical trials with different compounds and procedures are reviewed to define the risk-benefit profiles for therapeutic options in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A grading system for the level of evidence of treatments based on the controlled clinical trials performed with each compound is used to propose an evidence-based treatment algorithm. The algorithm includes drugs approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of PAH and/or drugs available for other indications. The different treatments have been evaluated mainly in idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, and in PAH associated with the scleroderma spectrum of diseases or with anorexigen use. Extrapolation of these recommendations to other PAH subgroups should be done with caution. Oral anticoagulation is proposed for most patients; diuretic treatment and supplemental oxygen are indicated in cases of fluid retention and hypoxemia, respectively. High doses of calcium channel blockers are indicated only in the minority of patients who respond to acute vasoreactivity testing. Nonresponders to acute vasoreactivity testing, or responders who remain in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class III, should be considered candidates for treatment with either an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or an oral endothelin-receptor antagonist. Continuous intravenous administration of epoprostenol remains the treatment of choice in WHO functional class IV patients. Combination therapy is recommended for patients treated with PAH monotherapy who remain in New York Heart Association functional class III. Atrial septostomy and lung transplantation are indicated for refractory patients or where medical treatment is unavailable.

Barst, Robyn J.; Gibbs, J. Simon; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Hoeper, Marius M.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Sitbon, Olivier; Tapson, Victor; Galie, Nazzareno

2009-01-01

381

Evidence-Based Treatment of Delirium in Patients With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication seen in patients with cancer, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increased health care costs, prolonged hospital stays, and long-term cognitive decline are other well-recognized adverse outcomes of delirium. Improved recognition of delirium and early treatment are important in diminishing such morbidity. There has been an increasing number of studies published in the literature over the last 10 years regarding delirium treatment as well as prevention. Antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and alpha-2 agonists are the three groups of medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials in different patient populations. In patients with cancer, the evidence is most clearly supportive of short-term, low-dose use of antipsychotics for controlling the symptoms of delirium, with close monitoring for possible adverse effects, especially in older patients with multiple medical comorbidities. Nonpharmacologic interventions also appear to have a beneficial role in the treatment of patients with cancer who have or are at risk for delirium. This article presents evidence-based recommendations based on the results of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies of the treatment and prevention of delirium.

Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne

2012-01-01

382

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

383

Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines.

2010-01-01

384

Evidence-based treatment strategies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Recently updated guidelines have provided revised recommendations, based on the GRADE criteria, for the diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Cochrane reviews are also a highly respected and reliable source of evidence-based information that identify and analyse all available data of overall treatment effects from appropriate studies. A recent update of one Cochrane review failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. Another review of data from 15 randomised controlled studies of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified two trials of interferon-?-1b suitable for analysis. However, the pooled analysis revealed no treatment effect in terms of survival. A further meta-analysis of three phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested a significant increase in progression-free survival. The interpretation of recent international and national European guideline updates and treatment recommendations, available clinical data from published and ongoing trials investigating potential pharmacological agents, and the individual patient's preferences, must be considered in the clinical management of this disease. PMID:23728871

Behr, Jürgen

2013-06-01

385

Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine in Breast Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Complementary medicine is currently widely debated by the oncologic community, because the required scientific proof of safety and effectiveness for most of the therapeutic approaches ha s not yet been met with definite results. In the past years, basic research and clinical evaluation of defined complementary therapeutic concepts in oncology have been intensified in an attempt to integrate these procedures into evidence-based medicine. According to definition, scientifically-based therapies of complementary medicine cannot replace the well-studied conventional cancer-destructive therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy. Complementary approaches in oncology that are recommended as an addition to standard cancer-destructive therapies claim to optimize this therapy. A great body of data emerging from scientifically sound clinical trials prove that defined complementary procedures are beneficial for the patients.

Beuth, Josef

2009-01-01

386

Pediatric depression: is there evidence to improve evidence-based treatments?  

PubMed Central

Although there have been advances in our ability to treat child and adolescent depression, use of evidence-based treatments still results in many patients with residual symptoms. Advances in our understanding of cognitive, emotional, and ecological aspects of early-onset depression have the potential to lead to improvements in the assessment and treatment of depression. A search for endophenotypes, i.e., traits that are related to depression, mediate the familial transmission of depression, and are genetically determined, may help in understanding etiology and in personalizing treatment. However, advances in treatment may also come from the identification of biomarkers, i.e., modifiable neurocognitive, physiological, or biochemical indices that are correlated with, or mediate, treatment outcome. More effective treatments may emerge from being able to personalize interventions to the patient’s cognitive, emotional, and developmental profile.

Brent, David A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.

2014-01-01

387

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for the management of oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Mucositis, an inflammation of the mucous membranes, is a commonly occurring side effect of chemotherapy and radiation. Oral mucositis can cause significant clinical consequences, such as pain, malnutrition, and local and systemic infections. Nurses have a critical role in all aspects of managing mucositis, including assessing it, teaching oral care, administering pharmacologic interventions, and helping patients cope with symptom distress. Mucositis can have a negative impact on the overall treatment experience, especially when severe pain or infections occur. Many interventions for managing mucositis exist; however, some are based in tradition or expert opinion and have not been studied in large, randomized, controlled trials. In addition, a variety of assessment tools are available, which creates confusion and difficulties when comparing interventions across studies. This article reviews empirical evidence related to interventions for oral mucositis. Oral care and rinses, pharmacologic interventions, and other techniques are evaluated. Gaps in the literature and opportunities for research, education, and practice changes are discussed. PMID:18258584

Harris, Debra J; Eilers, June; Harriman, Amber; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Maxwell, Cathy

2008-02-01

388

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff retention in a children's services system. The study took place in the context

Gregory A. Aarons; David H. Sommerfeld; Debra B. Hecht; Jane F. Silovsky; Mark J. Chaffin

2009-01-01

389

A mathematical model for chemical–mechanical polishing based on formation and removal of weakly bonded molecular species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical model that describes the chemical–mechanical synergy and mechanism of material removal in chemical–mechanical polishing (CMP). The physical basis of the model is that chemical reactions convert strongly bonded surface atoms\\/molecules to weakly bonded molecular species while the mechanical action delivers the energy that is needed to break the weak molecular bonds, thereby removing the surface

Yongwu Zhao; L. Chang; S. H. Kim

2003-01-01

390

Longitudinal Teaching of Evidence-Based Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether longitudinal design and delivery of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) content was effective in increasing students’ knowledge, skills, and confidence as they progressed through a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. Three student cohorts were followed from 2005 to 2009 (n=367), as they learned about EBDM through lectures, actively researching case-based questions, and researching and writing answers to therapy-based questions generated in practice settings. Assessment. Longitudinal evaluations included repeated multiple-choice examinations, confidence surveys, and written answers to practice-based questions (clinical inquiries). Students’ knowledge and perception of EBDM principles increased over each of the 3 years. Students’ self-efficacy (10-items, p<0.0001) and perceived skills (7-items, p<0.0001) in applying EBDM skills to answer practice-based questions also increased. Graded clinical inquiries verified that students performed satisfactorily in the final 2 years of the program. Conclusions. This study demonstrated a successful integration of EBDM throughout the curriculum. EBDM can effectively be taught by repetition, use of real examples, and provision of feedback.

Martin, Beth A.; Kraus, Connie K.; Kim, Su-Young

2012-01-01

391

Study of atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma as surface compatibilization technique for improved plastic composites loaded with cellulose based fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained considerable interest from researchers recently for their unique prospective of engineering surfaces with plasma without the need of vacuum systems. They offer the advantage of low energy consumption, minimal capital cost and their simplicity as compared to conventional low pressure plasmas make them easy to upscale from laboratory to industry size. The present dissertation summarizes results of our attempt at applying atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) to the engineering of plastic composites filled with cellulose based substrates. An APWIP reactor was designed and built based on a multipoint-to-grounded ring and screen configurations. The carrier gas was argon and acetylene serves as the precursor molecule. The APWIP reactors showed capability of depositing plasma polymerized coating rich in carbon on substrates positioned within the electrode gap as well as downstream of the plasma discharge into the afterglow region. Our findings show that films grow by forming islands which for prolonged deposition time grow into thin films showing nodules, aggregates of nodules and microspheres. They also show chemical structure similar to films deposited from hydrocarbons with other conventional plasma techniques. The plasma polymerized deposits were used on substrates to modify their surface properties. Results show the surface of wood veneer and wood flour can be finely tuned from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. It was achieved by altering the topography of the surfaces along with their chemical composition. The wettability of wood veneer was investigated with contact angle measurements on capacitive drops and the capillary effect was utilized to assess surface properties of wood flour exposed to the discharges.

Lekobou, William Pimakouon

392

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made.

Mimura, C; Griffiths, P

2003-01-01

393

Scratching beneath 'The Scratching Case': systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the back door for evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

Endometrial scratching or injury was first suggested a decade ago as a simple intervention to improve endometrial receptivity in patients undergoing ART. More than a decade later, based on weak evidence some doctors have adopted this strategy, although there is not yet agreement about its real benefit. In this opinion paper, we analyze the methodological and plausibility problem beneath 'the Scratching Case'. This is also applicable to several other examples of spurious associations reported in the literature. In particular, we emphasize what should be done so as not to dilute evidence-based medicine by a vicious circle created by the over-exploitation of inadequate or insufficient data to compute incorrect or incomplete conclusions. PMID:24903203

Simón, Carlos; Bellver, José

2014-08-01

394

Anomalous Neutron Capture and Plastic Deformation of cu and pd Cathodes during Electrolysis in a Weak Thermalized Neutron Field:. Evidence of Nuclei-Lattice Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation in the hardened Cu and Pd cathodes has been established under combined action of electrolysis and a weak thermalized neutron field (WTNF) with a flux in the range of 180-400 n\\/s cm2. Experiments with these cathodes showed ~7.0% decrease in the 2224 keV n-D gamma peak accompanying thermalized neutron capture inside the PE cavity

A. G. Lipson; G. H. Miley

2006-01-01

395

Do short courses in evidence based medicine improve knowledge and skills? Validation of Berlin questionnaire and before and after study of courses in evidence based medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessed knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills

Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R

2002-01-01

396

Theoretical studies for Lewis acid-base interactions and C-H...O weak hydrogen bonding in various CO2 complexes.  

PubMed

Comprehension of the basic concepts for the design of CO2-philic molecules is important due to the possibility for "green" chemistry in supercritical CO2 of substitute solvent systems. Lewis acid-base interactions and C-H...O weak hydrogen bonding were suggested as two key factors in the solubility of CO2-philic molecules. To isolate the stabilization energy of weak hydrogen bonding from the overall binding energy, high-level quantum mechanical calculations were performed for the van der Waals complexes of CO2 with methane, methylacetate, dimethylether, acetaldehyde, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. Structures and energies were calculated at the MP2 level of theory using the 6-31+G(d) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets with basis set superposition error corrections. In addition, the single-point energies were calculated using recently developed multilevel methods. This study shows that the Lewis acid-base interaction has a significant impact on the complex stability compared to the C-H...O weak hydrogen bond. The additional stabilization energy of the cooperative weak hydrogen bond with alpha-proton of the carbonyl group was negligible on the enhancement of supercritical CO2 solubility. However, the stabilization energy was larger for the ether group, such that it may have an important role in increasing the supercritical CO2 solubility. Additional formation of cooperative weak hydrogen bonds may not further increase the solubility due to the stability reduction by steric hindrance. PMID:18220375

Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Yongho

2008-02-21

397

Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i) the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii) the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.

2011-01-01

398

77 FR 40634 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Pretrial Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evidence-Based Decision Making in Local Criminal Justice Systems AGENCY: National Institute...Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) in Local Criminal Justice Systems. Work under this cooperative...assessment and release practices among criminal justice stakeholders. DATES:...

2012-07-10

399

Detection of Planets in Extremely Weak Central Perturbation Microlensing Events via Next-generation Ground-based Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of <~ 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of <=2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of <~ 100 M E planets with separations of 0.2 AU <~ d <~ 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, >~ 1 M E planets in EWCP events with deviations <=2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim

2014-04-01

400

Evaluating sensor reliability in classification problems based on evidence theory.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new framework for sensor reliability evaluation in classification problems based on evidence theory (or the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions). The evaluation is treated as a two-stage training process. First, the authors assess the static reliability from a training set by comparing the sensor classification readings with the actual values of data, which are both represented by belief functions. Information content contained in the actual values of each target is extracted to determine its influence on the evaluation. Next, considering the ability of the sensor to understand a dynamic working environment, the dynamic reliability is evaluated by measuring the degree of consensus among a group of sensors. Finally, the authors discuss why and how to combine these two kinds of reliabilities. A significant improvement using the authors' method is observed in numerical simulations as compared with the recently proposed method. PMID:17036806

Guo, Huawei; Shi, Wenkang; Deng, Yong

2006-10-01

401

AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM: AN EVIDENCE-BASED REVIEW  

PubMed Central

We conducted an evidence-based review of information bout amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). The estimated incidence of AFE is 1:15,200 and 1:53,800 deliveries in North America and Europe, respectively. The case fatality rate and perinatal mortality associated with AFE are 13–30% and 9–44%, respectively. Risk factors associated with an increased risk of AFE include advanced maternal age, placental abnormalities, operative deliveries, eclampsia, polyhydramnios, cervical lacerations, and uterine rupture. The hemodynamic response in AFE is biphasic, with initial pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure, followed by left ventricular failure. Promising therapies include selective pulmonary vasodilators and recombinant activated facto Vlla. Important topics for future research are presented.

Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

2012-01-01

402

Common Processes in Evidence-Based Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify common processes described in the procedural manuals, and then compared the programs. Nineteen common processes were categorized as structural features, group management strategies, competence building, and addressing developmental challenges of adolescence. All programs shared the same structural features (goal-setting and session agendas), used an active engagement style of group management, and built cognitive competence. Programs varied in attention to developmental challenges, emphasis on behavioral and emotional competence, and group management methods. This qualitative analysis demonstrated that successful HIV programs contain processes not articulated in their developers’ theoretical models. By moving from the concrete specifics of branded interventions to identification of core, common processes, we are consistent with the progress of “common factors” research in psychotherapy.

Ingram, Barbara L.; Flannery, Diane; Elkavich, Amy

2014-01-01

403

Evidence-based medicine and the practicing clinician  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes of practicing general internists toward evidence-based medicine (EBM—defined as the process of systematically\\u000a finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions) and their perceived\\u000a barriers to its use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered mail questionnaire conducted between June and October 1997.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Canada.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were sent to all 521 physician members

Finlay A. McAlister; Ian Graham; Gerald W. Karr; Andreas Laupacis

1999-01-01

404

Using model-based evidence in the governance of pandemics.  

PubMed

Pandemic preparedness planning relies on techniques to extend epidemiological inference beyond the bounds of direct observation. Mathematical modelling and simulation techniques are used to predict the course of an outbreak or test various mitigation strategies in pre-pandemic preparedness planning. This reflects an increasing reliance on quantifiable objects and establishing regulatory and governing practices by developing numerical assessment methods. This process has been described in terms of techne; the emergence of technologies and practices of calculation in the context of governance. This article develops a narrative framework to study how modelling methods are used in the governance of pandemic outbreaks by analysing both pre-pandemic modelling practices and model-based evidence used in pandemic risk assessment at the European Disease Control Centre. It examines how the modelling methods form techne through which the efforts of governance are organised. It concludes with a critical reflection on the limits of modelling methods by studying how they accommodate uncertainties. PMID:23278437

Mansnerus, Erika

2013-02-01

405

A Bridge Too Far? Stepping Stones for Evidence Based Practice in an Academic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entering its second decade, evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP), the now-preferred term for evidence based librarianship, can count some notable successes. In particular, the initiation and growth of an international open access journal, the ongoing development of an International Conference series, and a proliferation of articles on the stages of the evidence based process attest to its ongoing

Andrew Booth

2009-01-01

406

Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper considers the validity of evidence-based practice in social work. It critically examines various underlying presuppositions and assumptions entailed in evidence- based practice and draws out their implications for social work. The paper is divided into three main parts. Following a consideration of the background to the develop- ment of evidence-based practice and a discussion of its key

Stephen A. Webb

2001-01-01

407

Towards evidence-based practice in language intervention for bilingual children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires that clinical decisions be based on evidence from rigorously controlled research studies. At this time, very few studies have directly examined the efficacy of clinical intervention methods for bilingual children. Clinical decisions for this population cannot, therefore, be based on the strongest forms of research evidence, but must be inferred from other sources. This article reviews the

Elin Thordardottir

2010-01-01

408

Evidence-Based Practice Empowers Early Childhood Professionals and Families. FPG Snapshot #33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice emerged as a result of the gap often seen between research and practice and gained momentum with the standards and accountability movement. Yet it originates in medicine. Healthcare professionals using evidence-based medicine determine a patient's treatment based on an assessment of evidence from the literature and current…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2006

2006-01-01

409

Weak bond screening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

410

Effectiveness of national evidence-based medicine competition in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Competition and education are intimately related and can be combined in many ways. The role of competition in medical education of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has not been investigated. In order to enhance the dissemination and implementation of EBM in Taiwan, EBM competitions have been established among healthcare professionals. This study was to evaluate the impact of competition in EBM learning. Methods The EBM competition used PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) queries to examine participants’ skills in framing an answerable question, literature search, critical appraisal and clinical application among interdisciplinary teams. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate EBM among participants in the years of 2009 and 2011. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire survey at three months prior to the competition and finished the same questionnaire right after the competition. Results Valid questionnaires were collected from 358 participants, included 162 physicians, 71 nurses, 101 pharmacists, and 24 other allied healthcare professionals. There were significant increases in participants’ knowledge of and skills in EBM (p?evidence-based retrieval databases, including the Cochrane Library (p?

2013-01-01

411

Evidence for a pairing anti-halo effect in the odd-even staggering in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a three-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of 30,31,32Ne and 14,15,16C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the pairing anti-halo effect. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for s and p waves using the HFB wave functions.

Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

2011-07-01

412

New evidence for chunk-based models in word segmentation.  

PubMed

There is large evidence that infants are able to exploit statistical cues to discover the words of their language. However, how they proceed to do so is the object of enduring debates. The prevalent position is that words are extracted from the prior computation of statistics, in particular the transitional probabilities between syllables. As an alternative, chunk-based models posit that the sensitivity to statistics results from other processes, whereby many potential chunks are considered as candidate words, then selected as a function of their relevance. These two classes of models have proven to be difficult to dissociate. We propose here a procedure, which leads to contrasted predictions regarding the influence of a first language, L1, on the segmentation of a second language, L2. Simulations run with PARSER (Perruchet & Vinter, 1998), a chunk-based model, predict that when the words of L1 become word-external transitions of L2, learning of L2 should be depleted until reaching below chance level, at least before extensive exposure to L2 reverses the effect. In the same condition, a transitional-probability based model predicts above-chance performance whatever the duration of exposure to L2. PARSER's predictions were confirmed by experimental data: Performance on a two-alternative forced choice test between words and part-words from L2 was significantly below chance even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities than words. PMID:24632521

Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

2014-06-01

413

Sensitivity Analyses for Sparse-Data Problems--Using Weakly Informative Bayesian Priors  

PubMed Central

Sparse-data problems are common, and approaches are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates based on sparse data. We propose a Bayesian approach that uses weakly informative priors to quantify sensitivity of parameters to sparse data. The weakly informative prior is based on accumulated evidence regarding the expected magnitude of relationships using relative measures of disease association. We illustrate the use of weakly informative priors with an example of the association of lifetime alcohol consumption and head and neck cancer. When data are sparse and the observed information is weak, a weakly informative prior will shrink parameter estimates toward the prior mean. Additionally, the example shows that when data are not sparse and the observed information is not weak, a weakly informative prior is not influential. Advancements in implementation of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation make this sensitivity analysis easily accessible to the practicing epidemiologist.

Hamra, Ghassan B.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Cole, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

414

Second-generation H1-antihistamines in chronic urticaria: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

The effects of urticaria are predominantly mediated by histamine release; therefore, H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Second-generation H1-antihistamines, compared with their first-generation counterparts, have demonstrated improved peripheral H1-receptor selectivity and decreased lipophilicity (which minimizes CNS adverse effects), and antiallergic properties in addition to being histamine inverse agonists. Evidence of clinical efficacy and tolerability of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US for the treatment of chronic urticaria (CU) was analyzed using the GRADE system to develop the strength of recommendations for particular therapies. The evidence for the safety and efficacy of the majority of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US is of high quality and leads to a strong recommendation for their use in CU. There is a limited amount of data of variable quality comparing the efficacy between various second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU leading to weak recommendations for using cetirizine over fexofenadine and levocetirizine over desloratadine. Limited data of variable quality exist for the efficacy of higher doses of second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU patients not responsive to standard doses. These limited data lead to a strong recommendation that higher than recommended doses of fexofenadine do not offer greater efficacy in control of CU and a weak recommendation that higher doses of levocetirizine and desloratadine are more effective in CU unresponsive to standard doses. More studies of higher quality are required to make any firm recommendations regarding second-generation H1-antihistamines in the treatment of physical urticarias. All second-generation H1-antihistamines appear to be very well tolerated in CU patients, with rare reports of adverse effects. Due to the relatively large gaps in the quantity and quality of evidence, particularly for choice of H1-antihistamines, use of higher doses, and use in physical urticarias, greater emphasis in management decisions should be based on the risk/benefit ratio and the patient's personal values and preferences (including cost) in clinical decision making. PMID:21967114

Kavosh, Eric R; Khan, David A

2011-12-01

415

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

2013-01-01

416

Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity: arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed the safety of physical activity (PA) for people with arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Sport Discus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 through March 2008) for relevant articles on PA and adverse events. A total of 111 articles met our inclusion criteria. The incidence for adverse events during PA was 3.4%-11% (0.06%-2.4% serious adverse events) and included increased joint pain, fracture, and back pain for those with arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain, respectively. Recommendations were based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation, which applies Levels of Evidence based on type of study ranging from high-quality randomized controlled trials (Level 1) to anecdotal evidence (Level 4) and Grades from A (strong) to C (weak). Our main recommendations are that (i) arthritic patients with highly progressed forms of disease should avoid heavy load-bearing activities, but should participate in non-weight-bearing activities (Level 2, Grade A); and (ii) patients with osteoporosis should avoid trunk flexion (Level 2, Grade A) and powerful twisting of the trunk (Level 3, Grade C); (iii) patients with acute low back pain can safely do preference-based PA (i.e., PA that does not induce pain), including low back extension and flexion (Level 2, Grade B); (iv) arthritic patients with stable disease without progressive joint damage and patients with stable osteoporosis or low back pain can safely perform a variety of progressive aerobic or resistance-training PAs (Level 2, Grades A and B). Overall, the adverse event incidence from reviewed studies was low. PA can safely be done by most individuals with musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:21800948

Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Cornish, Stephen M; Abeysekara, Saman; Charlesworth, Sarah

2011-07-01

417

Are the health messages in schoolbooks based on scientific evidence? A descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Most textbooks contains messages relating to health. This profuse information requires analysis with regards to the quality of such information. The objective was to identify the scientific evidence on which the health messages in textbooks are based. Methods The degree of evidence on which such messages are based was identified and the messages were subsequently classified into three categories: Messages with high, medium or low levels of evidence; Messages with an unknown level of evidence; and Messages with no known evidence. Results 844 messages were studied. Of this total, 61% were classified as messages with an unknown level of evidence. Less than 15% fell into the category where the level of evidence was known and less than 6% were classified as possessing high levels of evidence. More than 70% of the messages relating to "Balanced Diets and Malnutrition", "Food Hygiene", "Tobacco", "Sexual behaviour and AIDS" and "Rest and ergonomics" are based on an unknown level of evidence. "Oral health" registered the highest percentage of messages based on a high level of evidence (37.5%), followed by "Pregnancy and newly born infants" (35%). Of the total, 24.6% are not based on any known evidence. Two of the messages appeared to contravene known evidence. Conclusion Many of the messages included in school textbooks are not based on scientific evidence. Standards must be established to facilitate the production of texts that include messages that are based on the best available evidence and which can improve children's health more effectively.

2011-01-01

418

Resisting Weakness of the Will  

PubMed Central

I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

Levy, Neil

2012-01-01

419

Translating Evidence-Based Depression Management Services to Community-Based Primary Care Practices  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using treatment models for major depression in primary care settings. Nonetheless, translating these models into enduring changes in routine primary care has proved difficult. Various health system and organizational barriers prevent the integration of these models into primary care settings. This article discusses barriers to introducing and sustaining evidence-based depression management services in community-based primary care practices and suggests organizational and financial solutions based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Depression in Primary Care Program. It focuses on strategies to improve depression care in medical settings based on adaptations of the chronic care model and discusses the challenges of implementing evidence-based depression care given the structural, financial, and cultural separation between mental health and general medical care.

Kilbourne, Amy M; Schulberg, Herbert C; Post, Edward P; Rollman, Bruce L; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Pincus, Harold Alan

2004-01-01

420

Weak or absent evidence for the association of HLA-DR antigens with risk of thyroid carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

Inconsistent reports of associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and thyroid cancers exist. We conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Using random-effects modeling, subgroup analyses, meta-regression and prediction interval (PI) estimation, we combined the existing evidence from 13 studies (977 cases of thyroid cancer and 3735 controls). Only HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR11 were significantly associated; however, the evidence for HLA-DR11 came from only three studies while that for HLA-DR1 had large between-study heterogeneity. All the PIs estimated in the study straddled unity. Therefore, current evidence for the studied association is incomplete as well as uncertain. Attempts to include HLA-DR typing as a prognostic or therapeutic marker may be premature at this time. PMID:21812765

Kamdi, A S; Kandavalli, N B; Emusu, D; Jain, N; Mamtani, M; Porterfield, J R

2011-11-01

421

Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

2007-01-01

422

First estimate of axial-vector meson emitting weak nonleptonic decays of charm baryons based on the factorization scheme  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the weak nonleptonic decays of {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, {xi}{sub c}{sup +}, and {xi}{sub c}{sup 0} into the octet baryons (J{sup P}=1/2{sup +}) and axial-vector mesons (J{sup P}=1{sup +}) employing the factorization scheme and predict their branching ratios and asymmetry parameters.

Sharma, Arvind; Verma, R. C. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering and Management, Kapurthala-144601 (India); Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002 (India)

2009-02-01

423

Precipitation in the small intestine may play a more important role in the in vivo performance of poorly soluble weak bases in the fasted state: Case example nelfinavir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of biorelevant dissolution tests coupled with in silico simulation technology to forecast in vivo bioperformance of poorly water-soluble bases, using nelfinavir mesylate as a model compound.An in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for poorly water-soluble, weakly basic drugs was used to generate plasma profiles of nelfinavir by coupling dissolution

Yasushi Shono; Ekarat Jantratid; Jennifer B. Dressman

2011-01-01

424

The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Fidelity Monitoring on Staff Turnover: Evidence for a Protective Effect  

PubMed Central

Staff retention is an ongoing challenge in mental health and community-based service organizations. Little is known about the impact of evidence-based practice implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. The present study examined the effect of evidence-based practice implementation and ongoing fidelity monitoring on staff retention in a children’s services system. The study took place in the context of a statewide regionally randomized effectiveness trial of an evidence-based intervention designed to reduce child neglect. Twenty-one teams consisting of 153 home-based service providers were followed over a 29 month period. Survival analyses revealed greater staff retention in the condition where the evidence-based practice was implemented along with ongoing fidelity monitoring presented to staff as supportive consultation. These results should help to allay concerns about staff retention when implementing evidence-based practices where there is good values-innovation fit and when fidelity monitoring is designed as an aid and support to service providers in providing a high standard of care for children and families.

Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Hecht, Debra B.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark J.

2009-01-01

425

Evidence for rule-based processes in the inverse base-rate effect.  

PubMed

Three studies provide convergent evidence that the inverse base-rate effect (Medin & Edelson, 1988) is mediated by rule-based cognitive processes. Experiment 1 shows that, in contrast to adults, prior to the formal operational stage most children do not exhibit the inverse base-rate effect. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that an adult sample is a mix of participants relying on associative processes who categorize according to the base-rate and participants relying on rule-based processes who exhibit a strong inverse base-rate effect. The distribution of the effect is bimodal, and removing participants independently classified as prone to rule-based processing effectively eliminates the inverse base-rate effect. The implications for current explanations of the inverse base-rate effect are discussed. PMID:16194936

Winman, Anders; Wennerholm, Pia; Juslin, Peter; Shanks, David R

2005-07-01

426

What is the evidence for evidence-based treatments? A hard look at our soft underbelly.  

PubMed

In the rising quest for evidence-based interventions, recent research often does not give adequate attention to "nonspecific therapeutic factors," including the effects of attention, positive regard, and therapeutic alliance, as well as the effects of treatment dose, intensity and actual processes mediating therapeutic change. To determine the extent to which recent clinical trial designs fully this problem, the authors conducted a systematic review of Psych-Lit/Medline of all controlled child psychotherapy treatment studies from 1995 to 2004. A total of 52 studies were identified that met review criteria: two or more therapy conditions and random assignment of participants to intervention groups. Of the 52 studies, one group (n = 29) compared a presumably active treatment with 1 or more similarly intensive treatments (often an attention control group) presumably not containing the active therapeutic ingredients. Of these, 14 studies found evidence of consistent differences between the two groups, whereas 15 did not. An additional group of studies (n = 27) compared therapy groups with different levels of intensity and "dose" of the putatively active treatment; 13 of these found evidence of the effects of different levels of treatment dose/intensity on outcomes and 14 did not. Four studies met criteria for inclusion in both groups. Across both groups of studies, when positive effects were found, few studies systematically explored whether the presumed active therapeutic ingredients actually accounted for the degree of change, nor did they often address plausible alternative explanations, such as nonspecific therapeutic factors of positive expectancies, therapeutic alliance, or attention. Findings suggest that many child psychotherapy treatment studies have not inadequately controlled for nonspecific factors such as attention and treatment intensity and have failed to assess specific mediators of change. Specific recommendations for future studies are offered, specifically: 1. Initial specification in study design how investigators will test if the intervention is efficacious over and above the effects of positive expectancies, positive regard, or attention; 2. Planned (rather than post hoc) analyses to explore whether and how a given treatment's specific ingredients or the overall intensity of its "dose" are related to treatment outcomes; 3. More studies conducting head-to-head tests of different types but equally credible forms of treatment, with planned analyses testing different mechanisms of change 4. When positive effects of a treatment vs. a control are found, systematic elimination of specific, competing hypotheses of reasons for treatment efficacy (e.g., attention, therapeutic alliance, face validity of treatment and client's treatment expectations, changes in self-efficacy), and 5. When negative effects are reported, appropriate analyses to address alternative explanations (lack of power, floor or ceiling effects, mediator analyses to address possible fidelity or adherence problems, therapist effects, absence of main effects but possible subgroup/moderator effects, etc.). PMID:15832693

Jensen, Peter S; Weersing, Robin; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Goldman, Eliot

2005-03-01

427

Community?based parenting training: do adapted evidence?based programmes improve parent–infant interactions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence?based parenting programmes frequently undergo modifications when delivered in community mental health centres. Adaptations are made to the original curriculum due to clientele demographics, practitioner judgement and resource restrictions. It is thus important to evaluate whether adapted interventions successfully meet their expected goals once they are implemented in the community. The current pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment?focused

Yvonne Bohr; Brooke Halpert; Jessica Chan; Vicky Lishak; Linda Brightling

2010-01-01

428

Nonequilibrium Steady-State Differences in Partial Pressure of CO2 and in Concentration of Weak Acids and Bases between Blood and Tissue  

PubMed Central

Several investigators have demonstrated that under conditions where little or no gas exchange occurs across the alveolar capillary membrane the PCO2 is higher in the alveolus than in the mixed venous blood, whereas there are no PO2 differences. Gurtner et al. have explained the ?PCO2 by a model in which H+ dissociation of proteins due to an electrical field caused by a negatively charged capillary wall (Wien effect) sets up an intracapillary PCO2 difference between wall and bulk phase which is maintained by blood flow. The model is not specific for CO2 and predicts that weak acids should be concentrated in a manner similar to CO2 whereas weak bases should be relatively excluded from the alveolar space. Measurements of the steady-state distribution of the uncharged forms of the weak acids 5,5-dimethyloxyazoladinedione (DMO) and barbital and of the weak base tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) between mixed venous blood and a fluid-filled lobe of lung were made in living dogs. The results agree fairly well with the predicted values.

Gurtner, Gail H.

1972-01-01

429

The Ozone Trends Panel - CFCs and evidence-based policymaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My involvement with the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion started with my Ph.D studies, which predated the seminal paper of Rowland and Molina in 1974, and focussed on understanding how chlorine and bromine atoms and free radicals interacted with atmospheric constituents (e.g., ozone, oxygen atoms, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxide, methane, etc). My post-doctoral studies and work at the Jet Propulsion laboratory continued my gas-phase kinetic studies into reactions of both stratospheric and tropospheric importance, including understanding the rates of reactions between the hydroxyl radical and HCFCs. This work, along with the results of other laboratory studies, provided a major input to the theoretical modelling work which was projecting significant ozone losses from continued use of chlorofluorocarbons and halons. In 1980 I became the program manager for stratospheric ozone depletion at NASA and provided funding for some ground-breaking laboratory studies, field measurements and theoretical modelling, some in collaboration with NOAA, the fluorocarbon industry and international partners. Highlights included the Antarctic and Arctic aircraft campaigns, which demonstrated beyond doubt that chlorinated and brominated species were the cause of the significant losses of ozone in the polar spring, initiated through novel heterogeneous chemical reactions in the lower stratosphere - the most dramatic observation being the so-called Antarctic Ozone hole. These findings played a critical role in strengthening the Montreal Protocol. In 1980, after joining NASA, I initiated the first International Stratospheric Ozone Assessment, which provided much of the scientific evidence used to develop the 1985 Convention to protect stratospheric ozone. Subsequent international assessments provided the scientific basis for the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the following adjustments and amendments. Key among these assessments was the International Ozone Trends Panel where Sherry Rowland played a pivotal role by chairing the chapter which demonstrated, using ground-based Dobson measurements and satellite observations, significant ozone losses in mid- and high latitudes in both hemispheres, especially in winter. These findings that basically validated the models focussed the attention of Governments that it was not only polar ozone that was being depleted, but ozone over heavily inhabited areas. This provided a stimulus for even stronger regulations to protect the ozone layer. Another facet of my career was to be the technical advisor to the US Government as the Ozone Convention and Montreal Protocol were negotiated. It was a pleasure to see that Governments recognized the importance of world-class research and the international assessments, in developing the Montreal Protocol and the subsequent amendments and adjustments. It is possibly the best example to date of evidence-based policymaking at the global scale.

Watson, R.

2012-12-01

430

Evidence-based recommendations for negative pressure wound therapy: treatment variables (pressure levels, wound filler and contact layer)--steps towards an international consensus.  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming a commonplace treatment in many clinical settings. New devices and dressings are being introduced. Despite widespread adoption, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of NPWT use. To respond to these gaps, a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the use of NPWT. In a previous communication, we have reviewed the evidence base for the use of NPWT within trauma and reconstructive surgery. In this communication, we present results of the assessment of evidence relating to the different NPWT treatment variables: different wound fillers (principally foam and gauze); when to use a wound contact layer; different pressure settings; and the impact of NPWT on bacterial bioburden. Evidence-based recommendations were obtained by a systematic review of the literature, grading of evidence and drafting of the recommendations by a global expert panel. Evidence and recommendations were graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) classification system. In general, there is relatively weak evidence on which to base recommendations for any one NPWT treatment variable over another. Overall, 14 recommendations were developed: five for the choice of wound filler and wound contact layer, four for choice of pressure setting and five for use of NPWT in infected wounds. With respect to bioburden, evidence suggests that reduction of bacteria in wounds is not a major mode of action of NPWT. PMID:21868296

Birke-Sorensen, H; Malmsjo, M; Rome, P; Hudson, D; Krug, E; Berg, L; Bruhin, A; Caravaggi, C; Chariker, M; Depoorter, M; Dowsett, C; Dunn, R; Duteille, F; Ferreira, F; Francos Martínez, J M; Grudzien, G; Ichioka, S; Ingemansson, R; Jeffery, S; Lee, C; Vig, S; Runkel, N; Martin, R; Smith, J

2011-09-01

431

From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of\\u000a the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available\\u000a pharmacogenetic information and its implementation in daily clinical practice. Method Literature review. Results A mechanism based approach may be helpful to personalize medicine for

Bob WilffertJesse; Jesse Swen; Hans Mulder; Daan Touw; Anke-Hilse Maitland-Van der Zee; Vera Deneer

2011-01-01

432

From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of\\u000a the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available\\u000a pharmacogenetic information and its implementation in daily clinical practice. Method Literature review. Results A mechanism based approach may be helpful to personalize medicine for

Bob WilffertJesse; Jesse Swen; Hans Mulder; Daan Touw; Anke-Hilse Maitland-Van der Zee; Vera Deneer

433

Evidence-Based Practice, Person-in-Environment, and Clinical Social Work: Issues of Practical Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a movement that has gained recent momentum in social work following the tradition of evidence-based medicine (EBM). Use of EBP as a guiding philosophy of clinical social work practice has been debated among academics, researchers, and clinicians for more than a decade. An area of complexity within EBP involves selecting the best available evidence while accounting

Beverly M. Simmons

2012-01-01

434

Evidence-based Radiology: A New Approach to the Practice of Radiology1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Top ABSTRACT In this review, the principles of evidence-based health care and their application to radiology are discussed. Evidence-based health care involves the more formal integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and explicit acknowledgment of patient values in clinical decision making, as compared with conventional practice. Recently, many health care disciplines have adopted the principles and practice

Harald O. Stolberg

435

Student Knowledge, Attitudes, and Use of Evidence-Based Concepts Following an Educational Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: While evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts are being taught in health profession education programs, models of instruction and effectiveness of these models are not evident in athletic training. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Teaching Model (EBTM) in increasing student knowledge, attitudes, and use of…

Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Turocy, Paula S.; Pribesh, Shana; Hankemeier, Dorice

2011-01-01

436

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Sign Language: An Evidence-Based Decision-Making Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) refers to clinical decisions as a result of the careful integration of research evidence and student needs. Legal mandates such as No Child Left Behind require teachers to employ evidence-based practices in their classrooms, yet teachers receive little guidance regarding how to determine which practices are…

Spencer, Trina D.; Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Sandra L.

2008-01-01

437

Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An International Consensus Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As evidence-based practices become increasingly advocated for and used in the human services field it is important to integrate issues raised by three perspectives on evidence: empirical-analytical, phenomenological-existential, and post-structural. This article presents and discusses an evidence-based conceptual model and measurement framework…

Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gomez, Laura E.

2011-01-01

438

Utilizing evidence-based research and practice to support the infusion alliance.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to clinical practice that integrates the use of best evidence in combination with a clinician's expertise, along with patient preferences and values, to formulate a plan of care. EBP can validate and promote an infusion alliance. A review is presented of what constitutes evidence, how to access evidence, the importance of critique appraisal, incorporation of evidence through integration, and the need for perpetuation with contribution to EBP. PMID:20841981

Adams, Jeanette S

2010-01-01

439

State Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice for Youths, Part I: Responses to the State of the Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need for the development of a policy research base regarding state implementation pf evidence-based practice (EBP) is emphasized. Efforts are made on how to make use of EBP in everyday clinical practice as a means of improving outcomes in six states.

Burns, Eric J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

2008-01-01

440

75 FR 21349 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evidence-Based Decisionmaking in Local Criminal Justice Systems AGENCY: National Institute...Evidence-Based Decisionmaking in Local Criminal Justice Systems project. The purpose...evidence-Based decisionmaking in local criminal justice systems. The goal of the...

2010-04-23

441

Management of cutaneous warts: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Cutaneous warts are benign epidermal proliferations caused by human papillomavirus infection. Treatment aims to cure the patient's physical and psychological discomfort, and to prevent the spread of infection by contact with other body areas or with other individuals. Among the available medical and destructive therapeutic options for cutaneous warts, none is uniformly effective or virucidal. Moreover, in most cases the safety and efficacy of these treatment options has not been assessed in randomized controlled trials, so that the reproducibility of many of the listed treatments is difficult to evaluate and a possible placebo effect cannot be ruled out. This article provides indications for the management of patients with cutaneous warts through an evidence-based approach, considering a first-, second-, and third-line therapy fo