Lerner, David E.; Porter, J. R.
1974-01-01
. 1528, 456 (2013); 10.1063/1.4803644 Exact Green function for a Dirac particle in a weak gravitational plane wave field. Alternative path integral approach J. Math. Phys. 53, 072303 (2012); 10.1063/1.4736720 Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect due...
Casimir effect in a weak gravitational field and the spacetime index of refraction
B. Nazari; M. Nouri-Zonoz
2010-10-07
In a recent paper [arXiv:0904.2904] using a conjecture it is shown how one can calculate the effect of a weak stationary gravitational field on vacuum energy in the context of Casimir effect in an external gravitational field treated in 1+3 formulation of spacetime decomposition.. In this article, employing quntum field theory in curved spacetime, we explicitly calculate the effect of a weak static gravitational field on virtual massless scalar particles in a Casimir apparatus. It is shown that, as expected from the proposed conjecture, both the frequency and renormalized energy of the virtual scalar field are affected by the gravitational field through its index of refraction. This could be taken as a strong evidence in favour of the proposed conjecture. Generalizations to weak {\\it stationary} spacetimes and virtual photons are also discussed.
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
Perlick, Volker
2014-01-14
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat’s principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almosallami, Azzam
2011-03-01
In this paper we derived the relativistic Quantized force, where the force given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper we defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the energy held by a body, and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently we introduce in section one Newton's second law as it is relativistic quantized, and in section two we introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation. At the end we shall generalize the Schwartzschild metric to describe the weak and strong gravitational field.
Andrei Lebed
2012-05-14
It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.
The generation of gravitational waves. 1. Weak-field sources: A plug-in-and-grind formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.; Kovacs, S. J.
1974-01-01
A plug-in-and-grind formalism is derived for calculating the gravitational waves emitted by any system with weak internal gravitational fields. If the internal fields have negligible influence on the system's motions, then the formalism reduces to standard linearized theory. Whether or not gravity affects the motions, if the motions are slow and internal stresses are weak, then the new formalism reduces to the standard quadrupole-moment formalism. In the general case the new formalism expresses the radiation in terms of a retarded Green's function for slightly curved spacetime, and then breaks the Green's-function integral into five easily understood pieces: direct radiation, produced directly by the motions of the sources; whump radiation, produced by the the gravitational stresses of the source; transition radiation, produced by a time-changing time delay (Shapiro effect) in the propagation of the nonradiative, 1/r field of the source; focussing radiation produced when one portion of the source focusses, in a time-dependent way, the nonradiative field of another portion of the source, and tail radiation, produced by backscatter of the nonradiative field in regions of focussing.
Schreck, M
2015-01-01
The current article shall contribute to understanding the classical analogue of the minimal photon sector in the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME). It is supposed to complement all studies performed on classical point-particle equivalents of SME fermions. The classical analogue of a photon is not a massive particle being described by a usual equation of motion, but a geometric ray underlying the eikonal equation. The first part of the paper will set up the necessary tools to understand this correspondence for interesting cases of the minimal SME photon sector. In conventional optics the eikonal equation follows from an action principle, which is demonstrated to work in most (but not all) Lorentz-violating cases as well. The integrands of the action functional correspond to Finsler structures, which establishes the connection to Finsler geometry. The second part of the article treats Lorentz-violating light rays in a weak gravitational background by implementing the principle of minimal coupling...
M. Schreck
2015-08-02
The current article shall contribute to understanding the classical analogue of the minimal photon sector in the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME). It is supposed to complement all studies performed on classical point-particle equivalents of SME fermions. The classical analogue of a photon is not a massive particle being described by a usual equation of motion, but a geometric ray underlying the eikonal equation. The first part of the paper will set up the necessary tools to understand this correspondence for interesting cases of the minimal SME photon sector. In conventional optics the eikonal equation follows from an action principle, which is demonstrated to work in most (but not all) Lorentz-violating cases as well. The integrands of the action functional correspond to Finsler structures, which establishes the connection to Finsler geometry. The second part of the article treats Lorentz-violating light rays in a weak gravitational background by implementing the principle of minimal coupling. Thereby it is shown how Lorentz violation in the photon sector can be constrained by measurements of light bending at massive bodies such as the Sun. The phenomenological studies are based on the currently running ESA mission GAIA and the planned NASA/ESA mission LATOR. The final part of the paper discusses certain aspects of explicit Lorentz violation in gravity based on the setting of Finsler geometry.
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Rosa, Luigi; Esposito, Giampiero
2008-07-15
This paper studies two perfectly conducting parallel plates in the weak gravitational field on the surface of the Earth. Since the appropriate line element, to first order in the constant gravity acceleration g, is precisely of the Rindler type, we can exploit the formalism for studying Feynman Green functions in Rindler spacetime. Our analysis does not reduce the electromagnetic potential to the transverse part before quantization. It is instead fully covariant and well suited for obtaining all components of the regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor to arbitrary order in the gravity acceleration g. The general structure of the calculation is therefore elucidated, and the components of the Maxwell energy-momentum tensor are evaluated up to second order in g, improving a previous analysis by the authors and correcting their old first-order formula for the Casimir energy.
Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing
Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan
2008-06-15
Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowland, David R.
2015-06-01
Galaxy rotation curves are generally analyzed theoretically using Newtonian physics; however, two groups of authors have claimed that for self-gravitating dusts, general relativity (GR) makes significantly different predictions to Newtonian physics, even in the weak field, low velocity limit. One group has even gone so far as to claim that nonlinear general relativistic effects can explain flat galactic rotation curves without the need for cold dark matter. These claims seem to contradict the well-known fact that the weak field, low velocity, low pressure correspondence limit of GR is Newtonian gravity, as evidenced by solar system tests. Both groups of authors claim that their conclusions do not contradict this fact, with Cooperstock and Tieu arguing that the reason is that for the solar system, we have test particles orbiting a central gravitating body, whereas for a galaxy, each star is both an orbiting body and a contributor to the net gravitational field, and this supposedly makes a difference due to nonlinear general relativistic effects. Given the significance of these claims for analyses of the flat galactic rotation curve problem, this article compares the predictions of GR and Newtonian gravity for three cases of self-gravitating dusts for which the exact general relativistic solutions are known. These investigations reveal that GR and Newtonian gravity are in excellent agreement in the appropriate limits, thus supporting the conventional use of Newtonian physics to analyze galactic rotation curves. These analyses also reveal some sources of error in the referred to works.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyen, G.; Drakova, D.
2015-08-01
We construct a world model consisting of a matter field living in 4 dimensional spacetime and a gravitational field living in 11 dimensional spacetime. The seven hidden dimensions are compactified within a radius estimated by reproducing the particle-wave characteristics of diffraction experiments. In the presence of matter fields the gravitational field develops localized modes with elementary excitations called gravonons which are induced by the sources (massive particles). The final world model treated here contains only gravonons and a scalar matter field. The gravonons are localized in the environment of the massive particles which generate them. The solution of the Schrödinger equation for the world model yields matter fields which are localized in the 4 dimensional subspace. The localization has the following properties: (i) There is a chooser mechanism for the selection of the localization site. (ii) The chooser selects one site on the basis of minor energy differences and differences in the gravonon structure between the sites, which at present cannot be controlled experimentally and therefore let the choice appear statistical. (iii) The changes from one localization site to a neighbouring one take place in a telegraph-signal like manner. (iv) The times at which telegraph like jumps occur depend on subtleties of the gravonon structure which at present cannot be controlled experimentally and therefore let the telegraph-like jumps appear statistical. (v) The fact that the dynamical law acts in the configuration space of fields living in 11 dimensional spacetime lets the events observed in 4 dimensional spacetime appear non-local. In this way the phenomenology of CQM is obtained without the need of introducing the process of collapse and a probabilistic interpretation of the wave function. Operators defining observables need not be introduced. All experimental findings are explained in a deterministic way as a consequence of the time development of the wave function in configuration space according to Schrödinger's equation without the need of introducing a probabilistic interpretation.
Gerold Doyen; Deiana Drakova
2014-08-12
We construct a world model consisting of a matter field living in 4 dimensional spacetime and a gravitational field living in 11 dimensional spacetime. The seven hidden dimensions are compactified within a radius estimated by reproducing the particle - wave characteristic of diffraction experiments. In the presence of matter fields the gravitational field develops localized modes with elementary excitations called gravonons which are induced by the sources (massive particles). The final world model treated here contains only gravonons and a scalar matter field. The solution of the Schroedinger equation for the world model yields matter fields which are localized in the 4 dimensional subspace. The localization has the following properties: (i) There is a chooser mechanism for the selection of the localization site. (ii) The chooser selects one site on the basis of minor energy differences and differences in the gravonon structure between the sites, which appear statistical. (iii) The changes from one localization site to a neighbouring one take place in a telegraph-signal like manner. (iv) The times at which telegraph like jumps occur dependent on subtleties of the gravonon structure which appear statistical. (v) The fact that the dynamical law acts in the configuration space of fields living in 11 dimensional spacetime lets the events observed in 4 dimensional spacetime appear non-local. In this way the phenomenology of Copenhagen quantum mechanics is obtained without the need of introducing the process of collapse and a probabilistic interpretation of the wave function. Operators defining observables need not be introduced. All experimental findings are explained in a deterministic way as a consequence of the time development of the wave function in configuration space according to Schroedinger's equation.
Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon
Wu Xiaoning; Huang Chaoguang; Sun Jiarui
2008-06-15
Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.
Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaoning; Huang, Chao-Guang; Sun, Jia-Rui
2008-06-01
Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.
Weak gravitational lensing with DEIMOS
Melchior, Peter; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Bartelmann, Matthias
2010-01-01
We introduce a novel method for weak-lensing measurements, which is based on a mathematically exact deconvolution of the moments of the apparent brightness distribution of galaxies from the telescope's PSF. No assumptions on the shape of the galaxy or the PSF are made. The (de)convolution equations are exact for unweighted moments only, while in practice a compact weight function needs to be applied to the noisy images to ensure that the moment measurement yields significant results. We employ a Gaussian weight function, whose centroid and ellipticity are iteratively adjusted to match the corresponding quantities of the source. The change of the moments caused by the application of the weight function can then be corrected by considering higher-order weighted moments of the same source. Because of the form of the deconvolution equations, even an incomplete weighting correction leads to an excellent shear estimation if galaxies and PSF are measured with a weight function of identical size. We demonstrate the a...
Baryons, neutrinos, feedback and weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2015-06-01
The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OverWhelmingly Large hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for z < 1.5, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than 2 per cent for scales k < 10 h Mpc-1 and better than 5 per cent for 10 < k < 100 h Mpc-1. Equipped with this precise tool, this paper presents the first constraint on baryonic feedback models using gravitational lensing data, from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). In this analysis, we show that the effect of neutrino mass on the mass power spectrum is degenerate with the baryonic feedback at small angular scales and cannot be ignored. Assuming a cosmology precision fixed by WMAP9, we find that a universe with massless neutrinos is rejected by the CFHTLenS lensing data with 85-98 per cent confidence, depending on the baryon feedback model. Some combinations of feedback and non-zero neutrino masses are also disfavoured by the data, although it is not yet possible to isolate a unique neutrino mass and feedback model. Our study shows that ongoing weak gravitational lensing surveys (KiDS, HSC and DES) will offer a unique opportunity to probe the physics of baryons at galactic scales, in addition to the expected constraints on the total neutrino mass.
Field Theory of Gravitation: Desire and Reality
Yurij V. Baryshev
1999-12-01
A retrospective analysis of the field theory of gravitation, describing gravitational field in the same way as other fields of matter in the flat space-time, is done. The field approach could be called "quantum gravidynamics" to distinguish it from the "geometrodynamics" or general relativity. The basic propositions and main conclusions of the field approach are discussed with reference to classical works of Birkhoff, Moshinsky, Thirring, Kalman, Feynman, Weinberg, Deser. In the case of weak fields both "gravidynamics" and "geometrodynamics" give the same predictions for classical relativistic effects. However, in the case of strong field, and taking into account quantum nature of the gravitational interaction, they are profoundly different. Contents of the paper: 1) Introduction; 2) Two ways in gravity theory: 2.1.Hypotheses of Poincar\\'e and Einstein, 2.2. Gravity as a geometry of space, 2.3. Gravitation as a material field in flat space-time; 3) Classical theory of tensor field: 3.1.Works of Birkhoff and Moshinsky, 3.2.Works of Thirring and Kalman, 3.3.Thirring and Deser about identity of GR and FTG; 4) Quantum theory of tensor field; 5) Modern problems in field theory of gravitation: 5.1.Multicomponent nature of tensor field, 5.2.Choice of energy-momentum tensor of gravitational field, 5.3.Absence of black holes in FTG, 5.4.Astrophysical tests of FTG; 6) Conclusions.
Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data
Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2005-12-14
We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.
The general theory of secondary weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarkson, Chris
2015-09-01
Weak gravitational lensing is normally assumed to have only two principle effects: a magnification of a source and a distortion of the sources shape in the form of a shear. However, further distortions are actually present owing to changes in the gravitational field across the scale of the ray bundle of light propagating to us, resulting in the familiar arcs in lensed images. This is normally called the flexion, and is approximated by Taylor expanding the shear and magnification across the image plane. However, the physical origin of this effect arises from higher-order corrections in the geodesic deviation equation governing the gravitational force between neighbouring geodesics— so involves derivatives of the Riemann tensor. We show that integrating the second-order geodesic deviation equation results in a `Hessian map' for gravitational lensing, which is a higher-order addition to the Jacobi map. We derive the general form of the Hessian map in an arbitrary spacetime paying particular attention to the separate effects of local Ricci versus non-local Weyl curvature. We then specialise to the case of a perturbed FLRW model, and give the general form of the Hessian for the first time. This has a host of new contributions which could in principle be used as tests for modified gravity.
The antimatter gravitational field
Piero Chiarelli
2015-11-11
In this work the author derives the Galilean limit of the gravitational field of antimatter by using the equations of the quantum gravity obtained by using the hydrodynamic approach. The result shows that, even if the antimatter mass is positive, it generates a curvature of the 4-d space that is negative respect to that one of the matter. The work shows that this characteristic is the consequence of the backward propagation in time of the wave function of antimatter generated by its negative energy values. The work discusses the compatibility of the CPT symmetry with the matter-antimatter repulsive behavior.
The antimatter gravitational field
Chiarelli, Piero
2015-01-01
In this work the author derives the Galilean limit of the gravitational field of antimatter by using the hydrodynamic quantum gravity equations that comprehend the antiparticle impulse-energy tensor. The result shows that, even the antimatter mass is a positive valued quantity, its presence gives a negative 4-d space curvature respect to that one of the matter as a consequence of the backward propagation in time of the antimatter wave function. The result leads to the consequence that the null space curvature of photons undergoing to electron-positron couples generation (or annihilation) does not change during the process. A laboratory experiment to validate the theory output is also proposed .
Simulating weak gravitational lensing for cosmology
Kiessling, Alina Anne
2011-11-23
This thesis will present a new cosmic shear analysis pipeline SUNGLASS (Simulated UNiverses for Gravitational Lensing Analysis and Shear Surveys). SUNGLASS is a pipeline that rapidly generates simulated universes for ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ? 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength ?) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to ?2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ? 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ? 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further falling and till reach the equilibrium of stable spatial charge distribution, which is just the cause of the geomagnetic field and the geo-electric field (the observational value on the earth surface is about 120 V/m downward equivalent to 500000 Coulomb negative charges in the earth surface). All celestial bodies are gravitation sources and attract the molecules and ions in space to its circumference by the gravitation of own and other celestial bodies, e.g., all planets in the solar system have their own atmospheres. Therefore, the origin mechanism of geo-electric and geomagnetic fields caused by gravitation is very universal, at least it is appli-cable to all the planets in the solar system. For planets, the joint result of the gravitations of the planets and the sun makes the negative charges and dipolar charges distributed in the surfaces of the celestial bodies. The quicker the rotation is, the larger the angular momentum U is, then larger the accompanying current and magnetic moment P, it accord a experiential law found by subsistent observational data of all celestial bodies in solar system: P = -G 1/2 U cos ? / c (1), ? is the angle between the net ? 0 flux direction (mark by CMB) and the rotational axis of celestial body (Chen Shao-Guang, Chinese Science Bulletin, 26,233,1981). Uranian and Neptunian P predicted with Eq.(1) in 1981 are about -3.4•1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.9•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (use new rotate speed measured by Voyager 2). The P measured by Voyager 2 in 1986 and 1989 are about -1.9 •1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.5•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (the contribution of quadrupole P is converted into the contribution of dipole P alone). The neutron star pos-sesses much high density and rotational speed because of the conservation of the mass and the angular momentum during the course of the formation, then has strong gravity and largerU. From Eq.(1) there is a larger P and extremely strong surface magnetic field in neutron star. The origin mechanism of basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies will affect directly all fields refer
Chirality transitions in gravitational fields
Casini, H.; Montemayor, R. )
1994-12-15
The chirality transitions induced by gravitational fields on Dirac particles are studied within the framework of field theory in curved spaces. To have these transitions both a non-null mass for the particle and an angular momentum for the source of the gravitational field are necessary. The results of this analysis are applied to some simple examples, and an upper bound for the corresponding amplitude is estimated.
Gravitational Interaction of Higgs Boson and Weak Boson Scattering
Zhong-Zhi Xianyu; Jing Ren; Hong-Jian He
2013-11-04
With the LHC discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs-like boson, we study gravitational interaction of the Higgs boson via the unique dimension-4 operator involving Higgs doublet and scalar curvature, $\\,\\xi H^\\dag H R\\,$, with nonminimal coupling $\\,\\xi\\,$. This Higgs portal term can be transformed away in Einstein frame and induces gauge-invariant effective interactions in the Higgs sector. We study the weak boson scattering in Einstein frame, and explicitly demonstrate the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem in the presence of $\\,\\xi\\,$ coupling. With these, we derive unitarity bound on the Higgs gravitational coupling $\\,\\xi\\,$ in Einstein frame, which is stronger than that inferred from the current LHC Higgs measurements. We further study $\\xi$-dependent weak boson scattering cross sections at TeV scale, and propose a new LHC probe of the Higgs-gravity coupling $\\,\\xi\\,$ via weak boson scattering experiments.
Caution: Strong Gravitational Field Present
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reif, Marc
2014-01-01
I came up with a new way to introduce the concept of a constant gravitational field near the surface of the Earth. I made "g-field detectors" (see Fig. 1 ) and suspended them by strings from the ceiling in a regular spacing. The detectors are cardstock arrows with a hole punched out of them and the letter "g" in the center.
Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.
Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-21
By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field. PMID:24702338
Weak Gravitational Lensing from Regular Bardeen Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffarnejad, Hossein; niad, Hassan
2015-09-01
In this article we study weak gravitational lensing of regular Bardeen black hole which has scalar charge g and mass m. We investigate the angular position and magnification of non-relativistic images in two cases depending on the presence or absence of photon sphere. Defining dimensionless charge parameter q=g/2m we seek to disappear photon sphere in the case of |q|>{24?5}/{125} for which the space time metric encounters strongly with naked singularities. We specify the basic parameters of lensing in terms of scalar charge by using the perturbative method and found that the parity of images is different in two cases: (a) The strongly naked singularities is present in the space time. (b) singularity of space time is weak or is eliminated (the black hole lens).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krot, Alexander M.
2002-01-01
the framework of this model bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. The consistency of the statistical model with the Einstein general relativity3,4,5 has been shown. In the work6, which is a continuation of the paper2, it was investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression (contraction) of a spheroidal body close to an unstable meñhanical equilibrium state (a low mass flow), therefore the process of the gravitational contraction appears slowly developing in time (the case of unobservable velocities of particles composing a spheroidal body). For this case in the work7 it has been shown that the strength and potential of the gravitational field of a slowly contracting spheroidal body satisfy a differential equation of the second order of the parabolic type for the case of unobservable velocities of particles. Therefore gravitational waves of a soliton type are propagated in a weakly gravitating spheroidal body if values of velocities are unobservable. body. In the connection with the above-given statements, in the present paper the following assumptions are used: 1.The spheroidal body under consideration is homogeneous in its chemical structure, i.e. it consists of identical particles with the mass m0. 2.The spheroidal body is not subjected to influence of external fields and bodies. 3.The spheroidal body is isothermal and has temperature close to the absolute zero. 4.The concentration gradient is not too large in the sense that interphase boundaries are absent inside the spheroidal body. 5. In view of low values of the temperature the heat conduction and viscosity processes are not important, which allows to describe the rotation of the spheroidal body as a whole, while movement of flows of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body is modeled by means of a motion of an ideal medium (the case of observable velocities of particles). 6.Since the process of the gravitational compression (contraction) of the spheroidal body is weak and viscosity is absent, we regard the motion of the continuous medium to be non-turbulent. modeled by means of an ideal liquid. It is determined the connection of this equation with an equation of motion of a particle in a noninertial frame of reference. A gravimagnetic field is introduced in this paper. It is obtained the scalar and vector potentials as well as the Lagrange function of a particle moving in a gravitational and gravimagnetic fields. It is derived the equations of hyperbolic type for the gravitational field of a weakly gravitating spheroidal body under observable values of velocities of particles composing it. 1. A.M.Krot, Achievements in Modern Radioelectronics, special issue "Cosmic Radiophysics", no.8, pp.66- 2. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 13th Symp."AeroSense", Orlando, Florida, April 5-9,1999, vol.3710,pp.1248-1259. 3. L.D.Landau and E.M.Lifshitz, Classical Theory of Fields, Addison-Wesley, 1951. 4. S.Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1972. 5. C.W.Misner, K.S.Thorne, and J.A.Wheeler, Gravitation, W.H.Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973. 6. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 14th Symp."AeroSense",Orlando,Florida,April 24-28,2000,vol.4038,pp.1318-1329. 7. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 15th Symp."AeroSense",Orlando,Florida,April 16-20,2001,vol.4394,pp.1271-1282.
Primordial magnetic seed field amplification by gravitational waves
Betschart, Gerold; Zunckel, Caroline; Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Marklund, Mattias
2005-12-15
Using second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory, a self-consistent framework describing the nonlinear coupling between gravitational waves and a large-scale homogeneous magnetic field is presented. It is shown how this coupling may be used to amplify seed magnetic fields to strengths needed to support the galactic dynamo. In situations where the gravitational wave background is described by an 'almost' Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology we find that the magnitude of the original magnetic field is amplified by an amount proportional to the magnitude of the gravitational wave induced shear anisotropy and the square of the field's initial comoving scale. We apply this mechanism to the case where the seed field and gravitational wave background are produced during inflation and find that the magnitude of the gravitational boost depends significantly on the manner in which the estimate of the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation is calculated. Assuming a seed field of 10{sup -34} G spanning a comoving scale of about 10 kpc today, the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation must be at least as large as 10{sup -40} in order to obtain a generated magnetic field of the same order of magnitude as the original seed. Moreover, contrasting the weak-field approximation to our gauge-invariant approach, we find that while both methods agree in the limit of high conductivity, their corresponding solutions are otherwise only compatible in the limit of infinitely long-wavelength gravitational waves.
Bacterial Growth in Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Samina
2015-03-01
We study the growth of bacteria in a weak magnetic field. Computational analysis of experimental data shows that the growth rate of bacteria is affected by the magnetic field. The effect of magnetic field depends on the strength and type of magnetic field. It also depends on the type of bacteria. We mainly study gram positive and gram negative bacteria of rod type as well as spherical bacteria. Preliminary results show that the weak magnetic field enhances the growth of rod shape gram negative bacteria. Gram positive bacteria can be even killed in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs in weakly lithified sediment
Hampton, M.A.
2002-01-01
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs eroded into weakly lithified sediment at several sites in California involves episodic stress-release fracturing and cantilevered block falls. The principal variables that influence the gravitational stability are tensional stresses generated during the release of horizontal confining stress and weakening of the sediment with increased saturation levels. Individual failures typically comprise less than a cubic meter of sediment, but large areas of a cliff face can be affected by sustained instability over a period of several days. Typically, only the outer meter or so of sediment is removed during a failure episode. In-place sediment saturation levels vary over time and space, generally being higher during the rainy season but moderate to high year-round. Laboratory direct-shear tests show that sediment cohesion decreases abruptly with increasing saturation level; the decrease is similar for all tested sediment if the cohesion is normalized by the maximum, dry-sediment cohesion. Large failures that extend over most or all of the height of the sea cliff are uncommon, but a few large wedge-shaped failures sometimes occur, as does separation of large blocks at sea cliff-gully intersections.
Helmut Kling
2015-05-24
A mass distribution is analyzed in terms of classical gravitational field theory. Newton's law of gravitation is consistently applied on the assumption that the equivalence of energy and mass according to Einstein's theory of relativity is valid for gravitational fields as well. Different from standard approaches the gravitational field, via its associated field energy, is handled as a source of gravitation by itself. Starting from these principles a gravitational self-shielding phenomenon is derived as a common characteristic of all mass/energy distributions. Moreover, it is demonstrated that even in the absence of any stimulating mass the existence of independent static gravitational fields is fully consistent with Newton's law of gravitation as long as the equivalence of energy and mass is respected. From a distance such gravitational fields appear as negative masses.
Thermal Effective Lagrangian of Static Gravitational Fields
F T Brandt; J B Siqueira
2012-03-08
We compute the effective Lagrangian of static gravitational fields interacting with thermal fields. Our approach employs the usual imaginary time formalism as well as the equivalence between the static and space-time independent external gravitational fields. This allows to obtain a closed form expression for the thermal effective Lagrangian in $d$ space-time dimensions.
Comprehensive Two-Point Analyses of Weak Gravitational Lensing Surveys
Gary M. Bernstein
2008-08-25
We present a framework for analyzing weak gravitational lensing survey data, including lensing and source-density observables, plus spectroscopic redshift calibration data. All two-point observables are predicted in terms of parameters of a perturbed Robertson-Walker metric, making the framework independent of the models for gravity, dark energy, or galaxy properties. For Gaussian fluctuations the 2-point model determines the survey likelihood function and allows Fisher-matrix forecasting. The framework includes nuisance terms for the major systematic errors: shear measurement errors, magnification bias and redshift calibration errors, intrinsic galaxy alignments, and inaccurate theoretical predictions. We propose flexible parameterizations of the many nuisance parameters related to galaxy bias and intrinsic alignment. For the first time we can integrate many different observables and systematic errors into a single analysis. As a first application of this framework, we demonstrate that: uncertainties in power-spectrum theory cause very minor degradation to cosmological information content; nearly all useful information (excepting baryon oscillations) is extracted with ~3 bins per decade of angular scale; and the rate at which galaxy bias varies with redshift substantially influences the strength of cosmological inference. The framework will permit careful study of the interplay between numerous observables, systematic errors, and spectroscopic calibration data for large weak-lensing surveys.
LIGHT ON DARK MATTER WITH WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING 1 Light on Dark Matter
Starck, Jean-Luc
LIGHT ON DARK MATTER WITH WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING 1 Light on Dark Matter with Weak Gravitational reviews statistical methods re- cently developed to reconstruct and analyze dark matter mass maps from decades showing that the visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe, the rest being dark
Improving PSF modelling for weak gravitational lensing using new methods in model selection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowe, Barnaby
2010-05-01
A simple theoretical framework for the description and interpretation of spatially correlated modelling residuals is presented, and the resulting tools are found to provide a useful aid to model selection in the context of weak gravitational lensing. The description is focused upon the specific problem of modelling the spatial variation of a telescope point spread function (PSF) across the instrument field of view, a crucial stage in lensing data analysis, but the technique may be used to rank competing models wherever data are described empirically. As such it may, with further development, provide useful extra information when used in combination with existing model selection techniques such as the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, or the Bayesian evidence. Two independent diagnostic correlation functions are described, and the interpretation of these functions is demonstrated by using a simulated PSF anisotropy field. The efficacy of these diagnostic functions as an aid to the correct choice of empirical model is then demonstrated by analysing results for a suite of Monte Carlo simulations of random PSF fields with varying degrees of spatial structure, and it is shown how the diagnostic functions can be related to requirements for precision cosmic shear measurement. The limitations of the technique, and opportunities for improvements and applications to fields other than weak gravitational lensing, are discussed.
Mars gravitational field estimation error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, H. R.; Daniels, E. F.
1972-01-01
The error covariance matrices associated with a weighted least-squares differential correction process have been analyzed for accuracy in determining the gravitational coefficients through degree and order five in the Mars gravitational potential junction. The results are presented in terms of standard deviations for the assumed estimated parameters. The covariance matrices were calculated by assuming Doppler tracking data from a Mars orbiter, a priori statistics for the estimated parameters, and model error uncertainties for tracking-station locations, the Mars ephemeris, the astronomical unit, the Mars gravitational constant (G sub M), and the gravitational coefficients of degrees six and seven. Model errors were treated by using the concept of consider parameters.
Boehringer, Hans
H. BÃ¶hringer LMU Lecture: Observational Cosmology II (Â§ 8) SS 2010 1 Lecture 8: Weak Gravitational Large-Scale Structure #12;H. BÃ¶hringer LMU Lecture: Observational Cosmology II (Â§ 8) SS 2010 2 Weak) SS 2010 3 Weak Lensing Basics II ( ) = 1 d2 ( ) ln( - ) ( ) = with the Poisson Equation 2
Electron-Lattice Systems in Weak Gravitation: The Schiff Dessler Problem
Timir Datta; Michael Wescott; Ming Yin
2009-08-19
The behavior of composite matter in external fields can be very revealing. The quantum mechanical problem of a material object (test mass) placed in a uniform (weak) gravitational field, g, was considered by many authors starting with Schiff [Phys. Rev. 151, 1067 (1966)]. Depending on the theoretical treatment opposing results of gravity induced (electric) field have been reported. In the Schiff model [L.I. Schiff, PRB, 1, 4649 (1970)] the field is predicted to be oriented anti-parallel (with reference to g). On the other hand it is found to be parallel in the elastic lattice model [A. J. Dessler et al, Phys.Rev, 168, 737, (1968); Edward Teller, PNAS, 74, 2664 (1977)]. Surprisingly, modern researchers have largely overlooked this interesting contradiction. Here an experimental test is suggested. We also reason that advanced density functional type calculations can provide valuable guidance.
Electron-Lattice Systems in Weak Gravitation: The Schiff Dessler Problem
Datta, Timir; Yin, Ming
2009-01-01
The behavior of composite matter in external fields can be very reveling. The quantum mechanical problem of a material object (test mass) placed in a uniform (weak) gravitational field, g, was considered by many authors starting with Schiff [Phys. Rev. 151, 1067 (1966)]. Depending on the theoretical treatment opposing results of gravity induced (electric) field have been reported. In the Schiff model [L.I. Schiff, PRB, 1, 4649 (1970)] the field is predicted to be oriented anti-parallel (with reference to g). On the other hand it is found to be parallel in the elastic lattice model [A. J. Dessler et al, Phys.Rev, 168, 737, (1968); Edward Teller, PNAS, 74, 2664 (1977)]. Surprisingly, modern researchers have largely overlooked this interesting contradiction. Here an experimental test is suggested. We also reason that advanced density functional type calculations can provide valuable guidance.
Electromagnetic Effects in Superconductors in Gravitational Field
B. J. Ahmedov; V. G. Kagramanova
2006-08-03
The general relativistic modifications to the resistive state in superconductors of second type in the presence of a stationary gravitational field are studied. Some superconducting devices that can measure the gravitational field by its red-shift effect on the frequency of radiation are suggested. It has been shown that by varying the orientation of a superconductor with respect to the earth gravitational field, a corresponding varying contribution to AC Josephson frequency would be added by gravity. A magnetic flux (being proportional to angular velocity of rotation $\\Omega$) through a rotating hollow superconducting cylinder with the radial gradient of temperature $\
String pair production in a time-dependent gravitational field
Tolley, Andrew J.; Wesley, Daniel H.
2005-12-15
We study the pair creation of point particles and strings in a time-dependent, weak gravitational field. We find that, for massive string states, there are surprising and significant differences between the string and point-particle results. Central to our approach is the fact that a weakly curved spacetime can be represented by a coherent state of gravitons, and therefore we employ standard techniques in string perturbation theory. String and point-particle pairs are created through tree-level interactions between the background gravitons. In particular, we focus on the production of excited string states and perform explicit calculations of the production of a set of string states of arbitrary excitation level. The differences between the string and point-particle results may contain important lessons for the pair production of strings in the strong gravitational fields of interest in cosmology and black hole physics.
Weak Gravity Conjecture for Noncommutative Field Theory
Qing-Guo Huang; Jian-Huang She
2006-11-20
We investigate the weak gravity bounds on the U(1) gauge theory and scalar field theories in various dimensional noncommutative space. Many results are obtained, such as the upper bound on the noncommutative scale $g_{YM}M_p$ for four dimensional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory. We also discuss the weak gravity bounds on their commutative counterparts. For example, our result on 4 dimensional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory reduces in certain limit to its commutative counterpart suggested by Arkani-Hamed et.al at least at tree-level.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field
Wung-Hong Huang
2014-11-11
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Weak gravitational lensing systematic errors in the dark energy survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plazas, Andres Alejandro
Dark energy is one of the most important unsolved problems in modern Physics, and weak gravitational lensing (WL) by mass structures along the line of sight ("cosmic shear") is a promising technique to learn more about its nature. However, WL is subject to numerous systematic errors which induce biases in measured cosmological parameters and prevent the development of its full potential. In this thesis, we advance the understanding of WL systematics in the context of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We develop a testing suite to assess the performance of the shapelet-based DES WL measurement pipeline. We determine that the measurement bias of the parameters of our Point Spread Function (PSF) model scales as (S/N )-2, implying that a PSF S/N > 75 is needed to satisfy DES requirements. PSF anisotropy suppression also satisfies the requirements for source galaxies with S/N ? 45. For low-noise, marginally-resolved exponential galaxies, the shear calibration errors are up to about 0.06% (for shear values ? 0.075). Galaxies with S/N ? 75 present about 1% errors, sufficient for first-year DES data. However, more work is needed to satisfy full-area DES requirements, especially in the high-noise regime. We then implement tests to validate the high accuracy of the map between pixel coordinates and sky coordinates (astrometric solution), which is crucial to detect the required number of galaxies for WL in stacked images. We also study the effect of atmospheric dispersion on cosmic shear experiments such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the four griz bands. For DES (LSST), we find systematics in the g and r (g, r, and i) bands that are larger than required. We find that a simple linear correction in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r ( i) band for DES (LSST). More complex corrections will likely reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. However, g-band dispersion effects remain large enough for induced systematics to dominate the statistical error of both surveys, so cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.
Galilean-invariant scalar fields can strengthen gravitational lensing.
Wyman, Mark
2011-05-20
The mystery of dark energy suggests that there is new gravitational physics on long length scales. Yet light degrees of freedom in gravity are strictly limited by Solar System observations. We can resolve this apparent contradiction by adding a Galilean-invariant scalar field to gravity. Called Galileons, these scalars have strong self-interactions near overdensities, like the Solar System, that suppress their dynamical effect. These nonlinearities are weak on cosmological scales, permitting new physics to operate. In this Letter, we point out that a massive-gravity-inspired coupling of Galileons to stress energy can enhance gravitational lensing. Because the enhancement appears at a fixed scaled location for dark matter halos of a wide range of masses, stacked cluster analysis of weak lensing data should be able to detect or constrain this effect. PMID:21668215
A weak combined magnetic field changes root gravitropism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyum, E. L.; Bogatina, N. I.; Kalinina, Ja. M.; Sheykina, N. V.
Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell. The polar arrangement of organelles is maintained by means of the cytoskeleton. On the Kholodny-Went's, theory the root bending is provided by the polar movement of auxin from a root cap to the elongation zone. It is also known that gravistimulation initiates a rapid Ca2+ redistribution in a root apex. Calcium ions modify an activity of many cytoskeletal proteins and clustering of calcium channels may be directed by actin microfilaments. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence with regard to the participation of cytoskeletal elements and calcium ions in these processes is therefore substantial but still circumstantial and requires new experimental data. Roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector. It was first shown by us that roots change the direction of a gravitropic reaction under gravistimulation in the weak combined magnetic field with a frequency of 32 Hz. 2-3-day old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in moist chambers, which are placed in ?-metal shields. Inside ? -metal shields, combined magnetic fields have been created. Experiments were performed in darkness at temperature 20±10C. Measurements of the magnitude of magnetic fields were carried out with a flux-gate magnetometer. Cress roots reveal negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the opposite direction to a gravitational vector, during 2 h of gravistimulation and then roots begin to grow more or less parallel to the Earth's surface, i.e. they reveal plagiotropism. Since such combined magnetic field is adjusted to the cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions, these observations demonstrate the participation of calcium ions in root gravitropism. Cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions is the formal frequency of ion rotation in the static magnetic field. Simultaneous applying the altering magnetic field with the same frequency can provoke auto-oscillation in the system and consequently change the rate and/or the direction of Ca2+ ion flow in a root under gravistimulation. The data of light, electron, and confocal laser microscopy and kinetics of a gravitropic reaction, which have been obtained on such the new original model, are discussed in the light of current concepts of root gravitropism.
The Equivalence of Time and Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruk?i?a, Ilija
The relationship between energy, time and space is still not solved in an appropriate manner. According to Newton's concept of time and space, both have to be taken as absolute. If we follow Leibniz and his arguments, space and time are relative. Since Einstein's theory of relativity we know at least that energy, time and space are deeply related. Albert Einstein originally predicted that time is nothing absolute but something relative, time changes and can change. Especially, time and gravitational field are related somehow even in detail if we still don't know how. According to the gravitational time dilation, the lower the gravitational potential, the more slowly time passes and vice versa. Somehow, it appears to be that the behaviour of time is directly linked to the behaviour of the gravitational field. The aim of this publication is to work out the interior logic between time and gravitational field and to make the proof that time is equivalent to the gravitational field and vice versa.
Spin-2 particles in gravitational fields
Papini, G.
2007-02-15
We give a solution of the wave equation for massless, or massive spin-2 particles propagating in a gravitational background. The solution is covariant, gauge-invariant and exact to first order in the background gravitational field. The background contribution is confined to a phase factor from which geometrical and physical optics can be derived. The phase also describes Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling and, in general, the spin-gravity interaction.
Spin-2 particles in gravitational fields
G. Papini
2007-02-01
We give a solution of the wave equation for massless, or massive spin-2 particles propagating in a gravitational background. The solution is covariant, gauge-invariant and exact to first order in the background gravitational field. The background contribution is confined to a phase factor from which geometrical and physical optics can be derived. The phase also describes Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling and, in general, the spin-gravity interaction.
a Physical Interpretation of Gravitational Field Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padmanabhan, T.
2010-06-01
It is possible to provide a thermodynamic interpretation for the field equations in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. This insight, in turn, leads us to the possibility of deriving the gravitational field equations from another variational principle without using the metric as a dynamical variable. I review this approach and discuss its implications.
Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com
2014-06-01
We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ?H{sup †}HR, with H the Higgs doublet and R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ? on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ? coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ?-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1?30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.
The gravitational field and brain function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Dai; Lan, Jing-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Ging; Wu, Wen-Can; Xue, Xin-Min
The frontal cortex is recognized as the highest adaptive control center of the human brain. The principle of the ``frontalization'' of human brain function offers new possibilities for brain research in space. There is evolutionary and experimental evidence indicating the validity of the principle, including it's role in nervous response to gravitational stimulation. The gravitational field is considered here as one of the more constant and comprehensive factors acting on brain evolution, which has undergone some successive crucial steps: ``encephalization'', ``corticalization'', ``lateralization'' and ``frontalization''. The dominating effects of electrical responses from the frontal cortex have been discovered 1) in experiments under gravitational stimulus; and 2) in processes potentially relating to gravitational adaptation, such as memory and learning, sensory information processing, motor programing, and brain state control. A brain research experiment during space flight is suggested to test the role of the frontal cortex in space adaptation and it's potentiality in brain control.
Light clocks in strong gravitational fields
Raffaele Punzi; Frederic P. Schuller; Mattias N. R. Wohlfarth
2009-02-11
We argue that the time measured by a light clock operating with photons rather than classical light requires a refinement of the standard clock postulate in general relativity. In the presence of a gravitational field, already the one-loop quantum corrections to classical Maxwell theory affect light propagation and the construction of observers' frames of reference. Carefully taking into account these kinematic effects, a concise geometric expression for the time shown by a light clock is obtained. This result has far-reaching implications for physics in strong gravitational fields.
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Shinji Tsujikawa; Takashi Tamaki; Reza Tavakol
2009-04-03
We study the field profile of a scalar field $\\phi$ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential $\\Phi_c$ at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials $V(\\phi)=M^{4+n} \\phi^{-n}$ by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential $\\Phi_c$ is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for $\\Phi_c \\lesssim O(0.1)$.
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp
2009-05-15
We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}
Gravitational fields as generalized string models
Francisco J. Hernandez; Francisco Nettel; Hernando Quevedo
2008-09-25
We show that Einstein's main equations for stationary axisymmetric fields in vacuum are equivalent to the motion equations for bosonic strings moving on a special nonflat background. This new representation is based on the analysis of generalized harmonic maps in which the metric of the target space explicitly depends on the parametrization of the base space. It is shown that this representation is valid for any gravitational field which possesses two commuting Killing vector fields. We introduce the concept of dimensional extension which allows us to consider this type of gravitational fields as strings embedded in D-dimensional nonflat backgrounds, even in the limiting case where the Killing vector fields are hypersurface orthogonal.
Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.
Dai, Liang
2014-01-31
When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection. PMID:24580435
Gravitational radiation from preheating with many fields
Jr, John T. Giblin; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier E-mail: larry@gravity.phys.uwm.edu
2010-08-01
Parametric resonances provide a mechanism by which particles can be created just after inflation. Thus far, attention has focused on a single or many inflaton fields coupled to a single scalar field. However, generically we expect the inflaton to couple to many other relativistic degrees of freedom present in the early universe. Using simulations in an expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime, in this paper we show how preheating is affected by the addition of multiple fields coupled to the inflaton. We focus our attention on gravitational wave production — an important potential observational signature of the preheating stage. We find that preheating and its gravitational wave signature is robust to the coupling of the inflaton to more matter fields.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Wormholes, Emergent Gauge Fields, and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Daniel Harlow
2015-12-04
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.
Gravitational Lensing by Kerr-Sen Dilaton-Axion Black Hole in the Weak Deflection Limit
Gyulchev, G. N.; Yazadjiev, S. S.
2010-11-25
We investigate analytically gravitational lensing by charged, stationary, axially symmetric Kerr-Sen dilaton-axion black hole in the weak deflection limit. Approximate solutions to the lightlike equations of motion are present up to and including third-order terms in M/b, a/b and r{sub {alpha}}/b, where M is the black hole mass, a is the angular momentum, r{sub {alpha}}= Q{sup 2}/M,Q being the charge and b is the impact parameter of the light ray. We compute the positions of the two weak field images up to post-Newtonian order. The shift of the critical curves as a function of the lens angular momentum is found, and it is shown that they decrease slightly with the increase of the charge. The lensing observables are compared to these characteristics for particular cases as Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes as well as the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole.
Graphene transparency in weak magnetic fields
David Valenzuela; Saúl Hernández-Ortiz; Marcelo Loewe; Alfredo Raya
2014-10-20
We carry out an explicit calculation of the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy model of monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic field of intensity $B$ perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time representation up to order $(eB)^2$, where $e$ is the unit charge, we find an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is radiated with monochromatic light of frequency $\\omega$ along the external field direction, from the modified Maxwell's equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light and the angle of polarization rotation in terms of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_{xx}$) and transverse ($\\sigma_{xy}$) conductivities. Corrections to these quantities, both calculated and measured, are of order $(eB)^2/\\omega^4$. Our findings generalize and complement previously known results reported in literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from the experimental and theoretical points of view, with and without external magnetic fields.
Constraining modified gravitational theories by weak lensing with Euclid
Martinelli, Matteo; Calabrese, Erminia; De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Scaramella, Roberto
2011-01-15
Future proposed satellite missions such as Euclid can offer the opportunity to test general relativity on cosmic scales through mapping of the galaxy weak-lensing signal. In this paper we forecast the ability of these experiments to constrain modified gravity scenarios such as those predicted by scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. We find that Euclid will improve constraints expected from the Planck satellite on these modified theories of gravity by 2 orders of magnitude. We discuss parameter degeneracies and the possible biases introduced by modifications to gravity.
Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field
Fukushima, Toshio
2014-06-01
As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ?. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4? fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| ? 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.
Effect of quantum statistics on the gravitational weak equivalence principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, S. V.; Majumdar, A. S.; Home, D.
2015-11-01
We study the effect of quantum statistics on the arrival time distribution of quantum particles computed through the probability current density. It is shown that symmetrization or asymmetrization of the wave function affects the arrival time distribution for even freely propagating particles. In order to investigate the effect of statistics on the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics (WEQ), we then compute the mean arrival time for wavepackets in free fall. The violation of WEQ through the effect of statistics on the mass dependence of the mean arrival time is clearly exhibited. We finally evaluate the effect of spin on the violation of WEQ using a different approach by including an explicit spin-dependence in the probability current distribution, and compare it with the approach using particle statistics. Our results show WEQ re-emerges smoothly in the limit of large mass.
Jia-An Lu; Chao-Guang Huang
2013-01-24
Weak field approximate solutions in the Lambda-->0 limit of a model of de Sitter gravity have been presented in the static and spherically symmetric case. Although the model looks different from general relativity, among those solutions, there still exist the weak Schwarzschild fields with the smooth connection to regular internal solutions obeying the Newtonian gravitational law. The existence of such solutions would determine the value of the coupling constant, which is different from that of the previous literature. Moreover, there also exist solutions that could deduce the galactic rotation curves without invoking dark matter.
Gravitational descendants in symplectic field theory
Oliver Fabert
2010-03-25
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we compute the corresponding sequences of Poisson-commuting functions when the contact manifold is the unit cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold.
On the statistics of the gravitational field
A. Del Popolo
2001-10-26
In this paper we extend Chandrasekhar and von Neumann's analysis of the statistics of the gravitational field to systems in which particles (e.g. stars, galaxies) are not homogeneously distributed. We derive a distribution function W(F,d F/dt) giving the joint probability that a test particle is subject to a force F and an associated rate of change of F given by d F/dt. We calculate the first moment of d F/dt to study the effects of inhomogenity on dynamical friction.
Theory of microemulsions in a gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeng, J. F.; Miller, Clarence A.
1989-01-01
A theory of microemulsions developed previously is extended to include the effect of a gravitational field. It predicts variation with position of drop size, drop volume fraction, and area per molecule in the surfactant films within a microemulsion phase. Variation in volume fraction is greatest and occurs in such a way that oil content increases with increasing elevation, as has been found experimentally. Large composition variations are predicted within a middle phase microemulsion near optimal conditions because inversion from the water-continuous to the oil-continuous arrangement occurs with increasing elevation. Generally speaking, gravity reduces solubilization within microemulsions and promotes separation of excess phases.
W. D. Flanders; G. S. Japaridze
2001-11-06
Analyzing two simple experimental situations we show that from Newton's law of gravitation and Special Relativity it follows that the motion of particle in an external gravitational field can be described in terms of effective spatial fields which satisfy Maxwell-like system of equations and propagate with the speed of light. The description is adequate in a linear approximation in gravitational field and in a first order in v^2/c^2.
Coincident-Frequency Entangled Photons in a Homogenous Gravitational Field - A Thought Experiment
Clovis Jacinto de Matos
2010-11-24
Assuming that the Principle of energy conservation holds for coincident-frequency entangled photons propagating in a homogeneous gravitational field. It is argued that in this physical context, either Quantum entanglement or the weak equivalence principle are broken by the photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahalom, Asher
2011-11-01
In this study, stability conditions of self-gravitating disc models are obtained. The self-gravitating disc models under study include known models such as the Maclaurin disc and the infinite, self-gravitating, rotating sheet. These models also include a new class of analytically solvable models denoted by 'generalized Maclaurin discs'. These self-gravitating, finite discs are differentially rotating with adiabatic index ? > 2 and have the property that the derivatives of densities go smoothly to zero at the boundary. Stability conditions of the various models are obtained through the 'weak energy principle' introduced by Katz, Inagaki & Yahalom. It is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are obtained when we have only pair coupling in the gyroscopic terms of the perturbed Lagrangian; otherwise, the 'weak energy principle' gives only sufficient conditions. All perturbations considered are in the same plane as the configurations. For differentially rotating discs, we consider only radial perturbations. The limits of stability are identical with those given by a dynamical analysis when available, and with the results of the strong energy principle analysis when given. Thus, although the 'weak energy' method is mathematically more simple than the 'strong energy' method of Katz et al., since it does not involve solving second-order partial differential equations, it is by no means less effective. Additional results also derived through the 'weak energy principle' include stability conditions for the 2D Rayleigh flows and Toomre's local criterion for the stability of rotating discs. Among the most interesting results is an exact extension of Toomre's criterion to the global stability of generalized Maclaurin discs, whereby a necessary condition for local stability becomes a sufficient condition for global stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng
2012-06-01
We formulate the equations of equilibrium of neutron stars taking into account strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions within the framework of general relativity. The nuclear interactions are described by the exchange of the ?, ?, and ? virtual mesons. The equilibrium conditions are given by our recently developed theoretical framework based on the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations along with the constancy of the general relativistic Fermi energies of particles, the "Klein potentials", throughout the configuration. The equations are solved numerically in the case of zero temperatures and for selected parameterizations of the nuclear models. The solutions lead to a new structure of the star: a positively charged core at supranuclear densities surrounded by an electronic distribution of thickness ˜?/(mec)˜102?/(m?c) of opposite charge, as well as a neutral crust at lower densities. Inside the core there is a Coulomb potential well of depth ˜m?c2/e. The constancy of the Klein potentials in the transition from the core to the crust, imposes the presence of an overcritical electric field ˜(Ec, the critical field being Ec=me2c3/(e?). The electron chemical potential and the density decrease, in the boundary interface, until values ?ecrust
Symmetries in tetrad theories. [of gravitational fields and general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinea, F. J.
1988-01-01
The isometry conditions for gravitational fields are given directly at the tetrad level, rather than in terms of the metric. As an illustration, an analysis of the curvature collineations and Killing fields for a twisting type-N vacuum gravitational field is made.
Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields
Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang
2015-01-01
How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 ?T; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 ?T), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
Nemanja Kaloper; Matthew Kleban; Albion Lawrence; Martin S. Sloth
2015-12-05
Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the {\\it physical} Planck scale to be $M^2_{pl} \\gtrsim N {\\cal M}_{UV}^2$, where ${\\cal M}_{UV}$ is the cutoff for the QFT coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong coupling scale for the axion dynamics, we show that it is {\\it not} in general the cutoff of 4d semiclassical gravity. After renormalizing the two point function of the inflaton, we note that it is also controlled by scales much below the cutoff. We revisit $N$-flation and KKLT-type compactifications in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it.
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
Nemanja Kaloper; Matthew Kleban; Albion Lawrence; Martin S. Sloth
2015-11-16
Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the {\\it physical} Planck scale to be $M^2_{pl} \\gtrsim N {\\cal M}_{UV}^2$, where ${\\cal M}_{UV}$ is the cutoff for the QFT coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong coupling scale for the axion dynamics, we show that it is {\\it not} in general the cutoff of 4d semiclassical gravity. After renormalizing the two point function of the inflaton, we note that it is also controlled by scales much below the cutoff. We revisit $N$-flation and KKLT-type compactifications in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it.
Gravitational Descendants in Symplectic Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabert, Oliver
2011-02-01
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown using the ideas in Okounkov and Pandharipande (Ann Math 163(2):517-560, 2006) that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we follow the ideas in Cieliebak and Latschev (
Cosmic electromagnetic fields due to perturbations in the gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mongwane, Bishop; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Osano, Bob
2012-10-01
We use nonlinear gauge-invariant perturbation theory to study the interaction of an inflation produced seed magnetic field with density and gravitational wave perturbations in an almost Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We compare the effects of this coupling under the assumptions of poor conductivity, perfect conductivity and the case where the electric field is sourced via the coupling of velocity perturbations to the seed field in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime, thus generalizing, improving on and correcting previous results. We solve our equations for long wavelength limits and numerically integrate the resulting equations to generate power spectra for the electromagnetic field variables, showing where the modes cross the horizon. We find that the interaction can seed electric fields with nonzero curl and that the curl of the electric field dominates the power spectrum on small scales, in agreement with previous arguments.
David Tsiklauri
1999-04-01
Linear stability of an isothermal, pressure-bounded, self-gravitating gas slab which is gravitationally coupled with the background weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is investigated. Analytic dispersion relations describing such a configuration are derived. Two novel, distinct oscillatory modes are found. Astrophysical implications of the results are discussed.
Vacuum polarization in gravitational and electromagnetic fields around a superconducting string
Mankiewicz, L. ); Misiak, M.
1989-09-15
We have calculated the polarization current induced in the physical vacuum around a superconducting cosmic string taking into account the gravitational field of the string. The current can be calculated as an expansion in powers of the inverse of the electron mass. In the region far from the string, where it is justified to keep only the lowest term of this expansion, the polarization current turns out to screen the original current in the string, but the effect is very weak. A direct calculation of terms due to the presence of the gravitational field shows that they are dominated, for realistic string parameters, by the purely electromagnetic contribution.
Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter
Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.
2010-12-15
The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.
A Relativistic Gravitational Model Based on an Atom's Behavior in a Gravitational Field
Yehea I. Ismail
2001-05-23
A simple general relativity theory for objects moving in gravitational fields is developed based on studying the behavior of an atom in a gravitational field. The theory is applied to calculate the satellite time dilation, light deflection by the sun, and Mercury's precession with an error of less than 1%. The approach to the new theory introduced here is radically different from the geometric approach used by Einstein's general relativity. The theory is field based where the potential energy of a system of masses can be easily calculated and the force can be found as the gradient of the potential field in analogy to the Newtonian mechanics. The resulting field equations become the traditional Newton's equations when week gravitational effects are present. The theory complies with all the known experimental results such as the gravitational time dilation and faster light speeds higher in the gravitational field. The special relativity theory of an object moving without experiencing gravitational fields can be derived directly from the gravitational field equations introduced here. The theory introduced here has crucial differences to Einstein's general relativity theory. For example, the gravitational field cannot accelerate an object to higher than the speed of light and the event horizon of a black hole (where light cannot escape) has to be of zero radius, essentially meaning that light can escape any object unless the object has infinite density. Another primary consequence of this study is that the principle of equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass has only limited validity and a new definition of gravitational mass is given here.
A. N. Ivanov; M. Wellenzohn
2015-09-14
We analyse a non-relativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky (Phys. Rev. D69, 105009 (2004)), and apply the Foldy--Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and non-minimal couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-09-01
We analyze a nonrelativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)], and apply the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and nonminimal couplings.
Ivanov, A N
2015-01-01
We analyse a non-relativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky (Phys. Rev. D69, 105009 (2004)), and apply the Foldy--Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and non-minimal couplings.
Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy
Kaloper, Nemanja; Lawrence, Albion; Sloth, Martin S
2015-01-01
Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the {\\it physical} Planck scale to be $M^2_{pl} \\gtrsim N {\\cal M}_{UV}^2$, where ${\\cal M}_{UV}$ is the cutoff for the QFT coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitt...
Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-11-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with an arbitrary potential of the form V(|?|2). We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrodinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c ? +?.
Gravitational consequences of modern field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
1989-01-01
Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.
Statistical characterization of weak scattering fields with inverse methods
Gerstoft, Peter
Statistical characterization of weak scattering fields with inverse methods Angeliki Xenaki, Peter to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross the acoustic return to the characteristics of known sediments in remote sediment classification [3][5]. Hence
Electrical charges in gravitational fields, and Einstein's equivalence principle
Gerold Gründler
2015-10-12
According to Larmor's formula, accelerated electric charges radiate electromagnetic waves. Hence charges should radiate, if they are in free fall in gravitational fields, and they should not radiate if they are supported at rest in gravitational fields. But according to Einstein's equivalence principle, charges in free fall should not radiate, while charges supported at rest in gravitational fields should radiate. In this article we point out indirect experimental evidence, indicating that the equivalence principle is correct, while the traditional interpretation of Larmor's formula must be amended.
WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AS A PROBE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN DARK MATTER HALOS
Shirasaki, Masato
2015-02-01
We propose a novel method to select satellite galaxies in outer regions of galaxy groups or clusters using weak gravitational lensing. The method is based on the theoretical expectation that the tangential shear pattern around satellite galaxies would appear with negative values at an offset distance from the center of the main halo. We can thus locate the satellite galaxies statistically with an offset distance of several lensing smoothing scales by using the standard reconstruction of surface mass density maps from weak lensing observation. We test the idea using high-resolution cosmological simulations. We show that subhalos separated from the center of the host halo are successfully located even without assuming the position of the center. For a number of such subhalos, the characteristic mass and offset length can be also estimated on a statistical basis. We perform a Fisher analysis to show how well upcoming weak lensing surveys can constrain the mass density profile of satellite galaxies. In the case of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope with a sky coverage of 20,000 deg{sup 2}, the mass of the member galaxies in the outer region of galaxy clusters can be constrained with an accuracy of ?0.1 dex for galaxy clusters with mass 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ?} at z = 0.15. Finally we explore the detectability of tidal stripping features for subhalos having a wide range of masses of 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ?}.
Substructure in the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters from weak lensing flexion measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rexroth, Markus
2015-08-01
Flexion is the second order weak gravitational lensing effect which is responsible for the arclike appearance of lensed sources. Its strong signal in the intermediate regime and the orthogonality to the shear field make flexion an ideal complement to today's strong and weak lensing measurements. Furthermore, its high sensitivity to local density peaks makes it a great tool for detecting substructure and increasing the resolution of mass maps. The strength of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters and the high quality of the data make these objects a prime target for flexion measurements. We present an automated measurement pipeline and substructure constraints from its application to the clusters MACSJ0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744.
Gravitational lensing by stable C-field wormhole
F. Rahaman; M. Kalam; S. Chakraborty
2007-06-04
It has been recently shown that Hoyle-Narlikar's C-field theory admits wormhole geometry. We derive the deflection angle of light rays caused by C-field wormhole in the strong field limit approach of gravitational lensing theory. The linearized stability of C-field wormhole under spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is also explored.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, L
2015-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic p...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhodes, Jason
The nature of dark energy, thought to be driving the accelerating expansion of the Universe, is one of the most compelling mysteries in all of science. Determining the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1% accuracy is currently a leading goal for many planned cosmological surveys and numerical simulations of structure formation are required to make predictions and help mitigate systematics for upcoming surveys such as NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), ESA’s Euclid and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We propose to: 1) Enhance our weak lensing simulation pipeline, SUNGLASS, to include galaxy intrinsic alignments 2) Develop and test intrinsic alignment mitigation techniques 3) Generate high precision covariance matrices and determine the precision required to measure the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1% 4) Develop a covariance emulator Our SUNGLASS pipeline (Simulated UNiverses for Gravitational Lensing Analysis and Shear Surveys; Kiessling et al. 2011a) is able to produce Monte Carlo suites of numerical simulations and rapidly generates mock weak lensing galaxy shear catalogues. We propose to enhance the SUNGLASS pipeline to include realistic galaxy properties using the Galacticus software (Benson 2012). With the realistic galaxy properties made available from Galacticus, we will be able to place realistic intrinsic alignment (IA) signals, where galaxy shapes are correlated due to their physical proximity, into the mock catalogues. Using the SUNGLASS/Galacticus catalogues, we propose to reduce the degrees of freedom in a plausible IA model and find optimal methods of controlling IA through removal techniques and modeling. It is currently unknown how accurate a covariance matrix needs to be in order to measure the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1%. We will directly generate the matrices with 10^4 independent N-body realizations for a LCDM cosmology to test how errors propagate through the non-linear modes and compare results with Gaussian estimates. We will also determine how accurate the inverse covariance matrix needs to be to measure dark energy to 1%. Future missions will require cosmology dependent covariance matrices, so we will need simulations at up to 10^4 points in parameter space. The ~10^8 simulations needed (10^4 realizations at up to 10^4 points in parameter space) would take a prohibitively large amount of time and computing resources. To reduce the number of realizations required in the future, while sampling the plausible parameter space, we will develop and test an emulator that does not compromise on the accuracy of the inverse covariance matrix. The developments and investigations proposed here are absolutely essential for the success of future telescope missions in determining the dark energy equation-of-state to an accuracy of 1%. The SUNGLASS pipeline is uniquely placed to tackle all of these problems in a rapid and computationally efficient way and the developments proposed will result in a pipeline that is able to drive a cosmology telescope mission from the development phase all the way through to accurate data analysis.
Galaxy-QSO Correlation induced by Weak Gravitational Lensing arising from Large-Scale Structure
Antonio C. C. Guimaraes; Carsten van de Bruck; Robert H. Brandenberger
2001-07-25
Observational evidence shows that gravitational lensing induces an angular correlation between the distribution of galaxies and much more distant QSOs. We use weak gravitational lensing theory to calculate this angular correlation, updating previous calculations and presenting new results exploring the dependence of the correlation on the large-scale structure. We study the dependence of the predictions on a variety of cosmological models, such as cold dark matter models, mixed dark matter models, and models based on quintessence. We also study the dependence on the assumptions made about the nature of the primordial fluctuation spectrum: adiabatic, isocurvature and power spectra motivated by the cosmic string scenario are investigated. Special attention is paid to the issue of galaxy biasing, which is fully incorporated. We show that different mass power spectra imply distinct predictions for the angular correlation, and therefore the angular correlation provides an extra source of information about cosmological parameters and mechanisms of structure formation. We compare our results with observational data and discuss their potential uses. In particular, it is suggested that the observational determination of the galaxy-QSO correlation may be used to give an independent measurement of the mass power spectrum.
Neutron interference in the gravitational field of a ring laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Robert D.; Mallett, Ronald L.
2015-07-01
The neutron split-beam interferometer has proven to be particularly useful in measuring Newtonian gravitational effects such as those studied by Colella, Overhauser, and Werner (COW). The development of the ring laser has led to numerous applications in many areas of physics including a recent general relativistic prediction of frame dragging in the gravitational field produced by the electromagnetic radiation in a ring laser. This paper introduces a new general technique based on a canonical transformation of the Dirac equation for the gravitational field of a general linearized spacetime. Using this technique it is shown that there is a phase shift in the interference of two neutron beams due to the frame-dragging nature of the gravitational field of a ring laser.
NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2014-01-01
In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.
Why are living things sensitive to weak magnetic fields?
Liboff, Abraham R
2014-09-01
There is evidence for robust interactions of weak ELF magnetic fields with biological systems. Quite apart from the difficulties attending a proper physical basis for such interactions, an equally daunting question asks why these should even occur, given the apparent lack of comparable signals in the long-term electromagnetic environment. We suggest that the biological basis is likely to be found in the weak (?50?nT) daily swing in the geomagnetic field that results from the solar tidal force on free electrons in the upper atmosphere, a remarkably constant effect exactly in phase with the solar diurnal change. Because this magnetic change is locked into the solar-derived everyday diurnal response in living things, one can argue that it acts as a surrogate for the solar variation, and therefore plays a role in chronobiological processes. This implies that weak magnetic field interactions may have a chronodisruptive basis, homologous to the more familiar effects on the biological clock arising from sleep deprivation, phase-shift employment and light at night. It is conceivable that the widespread sensitivity of biological systems to weak ELF magnetic fields is vestigially derived from this diurnal geomagnetic effect. PMID:23915203
Constraining Horava-Lifshitz gravity by weak and strong gravitational lensing
Horvath, Zsolt; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Keresztes, Zoltan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2011-10-15
We discuss gravitational lensing in the Kehagias-Sfetsos space-time emerging in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. In weak lensing, we show that there are three regimes, depending on the value of {lambda}=1/{omega}d{sup 2}, where {omega} is the Horava-Lifshitz parameter and d characterizes the lensing geometry. When {lambda} is close to zero, light deflection typically produces two images, as in Schwarzschild lensing. For very large {lambda}, the space-time approaches flatness, therefore there is only one undeflected image. In the intermediate range of {lambda}, only the upper focused image is produced due to the existence of a maximal deflection angle {delta}{sub max}, a feature inexistent in the Schwarzschild weak lensing. We also discuss the location of Einstein rings, and determine the range of the Horava-Lifshitz parameter compatible with present-day lensing observations. Finally, we analyze in the strong lensing regime the first two relativistic Einstein rings and determine the constraints on the parameter range to be imposed by forthcoming experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic
2015-07-01
Numerical N-body simulations play a central role in the assessment of weak gravitational lensing statistics, residual systematics and error analysis. In this paper, we investigate and quantify the impact of finite simulation volume on weak lensing two- and four-point statistics. These finite support (FS) effects are modelled for several estimators, simulation box sizes and source redshifts, and validated against a new large suite of 500 N-body simulations. The comparison reveals that our theoretical model is accurate to better than 5 per cent for the shear correlation function ?+(?) and its error. We find that the most important quantities for FS modelling are the ratio between the measured angle ? and the angular size of the simulation box at the source redshift, ?box(zs), or the multipole equivalent ?/?box(zs). When this ratio reaches 0.1, independently of the source redshift, the shear correlation function ?+ is suppressed by 5, 10, 20 and 25 per cent for Lbox = 1000, 500, 250 and 147 h-1 Mpc, respectively. The same effect is observed in ?-(?), but at much larger angles. This has important consequences for cosmological analyses using N-body simulations and should not be overlooked. We propose simple semi-analytic correction strategies that account for shape noise and survey masks, generalizable to any weak lensing estimator. From the same simulation suite, we revisit the existing non-Gaussian covariance matrix calibration of the shear correlation function, and propose a new one based on the 9-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe)+baryon acoustic oscillations+supernova cosmology. Our calibration matrix is accurate at 20 per cent down to the arcminute scale, for source redshifts in the range 0 < z < 3, even for the far off-diagonal elements. We propose, for the first time, a parametrization for the full ?- covariance matrix, also 20 per cent accurate for most elements.
Magnetic field-aligned plasma currents in gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, O. E.; Leer, E.; Pécseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.
2015-03-01
Analytical models are presented for currents along vertical magnetic field lines due to slow bulk electron motion in plasmas subject to a gravitational force. It is demonstrated that a general feature of this problem is a singularity in the plasma pressure force that develops at some finite altitude when a plasma that is initially in static equilibrium is set into slow motion. Classical fluid models thus do not allow general steady-state solutions for field-aligned currents. General solutions have to be non-stationary, varying on time scales of many periods of a plasma equivalent to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Except for very special choices of parameters, a steady-state solution exists only in an average sense. The conditions at large altitudes turn out to be extremely sensitive to even small changes in parameters at low altitudes. Low frequency fluctuations detected at large altitudes in the polar regions need not be caused by local low frequency instabilities, but merely reflect small fluctuations in conditions at low altitudes.
General relativity, gravitational energy and spin-two field
Leszek M. Soko?owski
2007-01-29
In my lectures I will deal with three seemingly unrelated problems: i) to what extent is general relativity exceptional among metric gravity theories? ii) is it possible to define gravitational energy density applying field-theory approach to gravity? and iii) can a consistent theory of a gravitationally interacting spin-two field be developed at all? The connecting link to them is the concept of a fundamental spin-2 field. A linear spin-2 field encounters insurmountable inconsistencies when coupled to gravity. After discussing the inconsistencies of any coupling of the linear spin-2 field to gravity, I exhibit the origin of the fact that a gauge invariant field has the variational metric stress tensor which is gauge dependent. I give a general theorem explaining under what conditions a symmetry of a field Lagrangian becomes also the symmetry of the stress tensor. It is a conclusion of the theorem that any attempt to define gravitational energy density in the framework of a field theory of gravity must fail. Finally I make a very brief introduction to basic concepts of how a certain kind of a necessarily nonlinear spin-2 field arises in a natural way from vacuum higher derivative gravity theories. This specific spin-2 field consistently interacts gravitationally.
PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS
Krumholz, Mark R.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.
2013-04-10
The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.
Lorentz covariant theory of light propagation in gravitational fields of arbitrary-moving bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Schäfer, Gerhard
1999-12-01
The Lorentz covariant theory of the propagation of light in the (weak) gravitational fields of N-body systems consisting of arbitrarily moving pointlike bodies with constant masses ma (a=1,2,...,N) is constructed. The theory is based on the Liénard-Wiechert representation of the metric tensor which describes a retarded type solution of the gravitational field equations. A new approach for integrating the equations of motion of light particles (photons) depending on the retarded time argument is invented. Its application in the first post-Minkowskian approximation, which is linear with respect to the universal gravitational constant G makes it evident that the equations of light propagation admit to be integrated straightforwardly by quadratures. Explicit expressions for the trajectory of a light ray and its tangent vector are obtained in algebraically closed form in terms of functionals of retarded time. General expressions for the relativistic time delay, the angle of light deflection, and the gravitational shift of electromagnetic frequency are derived in the form of instantaneous functions of retarded time. They generalize previously known results for the case of static or uniformly moving bodies. The most important applications of the theory to relativistic astrophysics and astrometry are given. They include a discussion of the velocity-dependent terms in the gravitational lens equation, the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsars, gravitational Doppler shift, and a precise theoretical formulation of the general relativistic algorithms of data processing of radio and optical astrometric measurements made in the nonstationary gravitational field of the solar system. Finally, proposals for future theoretical work being important for astrophysical applications are formulated.
Quantum gravitational optics in the field of a gravitomagnetic monopole
N. Ahmadi; S. Khoeini-Moghaddam; M. Nouri-Zonoz
2006-12-26
Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which {\\it effectively} modify the classical picture of light rays as the null geodesics of spacetime. After a short introduction on the main aspects of the quantum gravitational optics, as a nontrivial example, we study this effect in the background of NUT space characterizing the spacetime of a spherical mass endowed with a gravitomagnetic monopole charge, the so called NUT factor.
Topological quantization of gravitational fields as generalized harmonic maps
Francisco Nettel
2015-02-03
We apply the topological quantization method to some gravitational fields which can be represented as generalized harmonic maps. This representation extends the well-known concept of harmonic maps and allows us to describe some solutions to the Einstein field equations as generalized strings, where the base space for the generalized harmonic map is a two-dimensional manifold. The results obtained here point to an incompatibility of the classical description of the gravitational field and its symmetries with a discretization of the parameters that enter in its description.
Equilibrium of self-gravitating tori in spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trova, A.; Karas, V.; Slaný, P.; Ková?, J.
2015-12-01
We investigate a new model for equilibria of self-gravitating fluid tori with electric charge that are embedded in gravitational potential and a dipolar magnetic field produced by the central mass. We find that the shape and the vertical structure of the massive torus are influenced by effects of self-gravity which were neglected in our previous work tep{slany13}. We show the impact of self-gravity on the morphology of figures of equilibrium, depending on the rotation of the fluid and the strength of the magnetic field.
Contributions of Spherical Harmonics to Magnetic and Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roithmayr, Carlos M.
2004-01-01
Gravitational forces are of cardinal importance in the dynamics of spacecraft; magnetic attractions sometime play a significant role also, as was the case with the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and as is now true for the first segment of Space Station Freedom. Both satellites depend on gravitational moment and a device known as a magnetic damper to stabilize their orientation. Magnetic fields are mathematically similar to gravitational fields in one important respect: each can be regarded as a gradient of a potential function that, in turn, can be described as an infinite series of spherical harmonics. Consequently, the two fields can be computed, in part, with quantities that need only be evaluated once, resulting in a savings of time when both fields are needed. The objective of this material is to present magnetic field and gravitational force expressions, and point out the terms that belong to both this is accomplished in Section 1 and 2. Section 3 contains the deductive reasoning with which one obtains the expressions of interest. Finally, examples in Section 4 show these equations can be used to reproduce others that arise in connection with special cases such as the magnetic field produced by a tilted dipole, and gravitational force exerted by an oblate spheroid. The mathematics are discussed in the context of terrestrial fields; however, by substituting appropriate constants, the results can be made applicable to fields belonging to other celestial bodies. The expressions presented here share the characteristics of algorithms set forth for computing gravitational force. In particular, computation is performed speedily by means of recursion formulae, and the expressions do not suffer from the shortcoming of a singularity when evaluated at points that lie on the polar axis.
The MOG weak field approximation and observational test of galaxy rotation curves
J. W. Moffat; S. Rahvar
2013-09-19
As an alternative to dark matter models, MOdified Gravity (MOG) theory can compensate for dark matter by a covariant modification of Einstein gravity. The theory introduces two additional scalar fields and one vector field. The aim is to explain the dynamics of astronomical systems based only on their baryonic matter. The effect of the vector field in the theory resembles a Lorentz force where each mass has a charge proportional to the inertial mass. In this work, we obtain the weak field approximation of MOG by perturbing the metric and the fields around Minkowski space-time. We derive an effective gravitational potential which yields the Newtonian attractive force plus a repulsive Yukawa force. This potential, in addition to the Newtonian gravitational constant, $G_N$, has two additional constant parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$. We use the THINGS catalog of galaxies and fix the two parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ of the theory to be $\\alpha =8.89 \\pm 0.34$ and $\\mu =0.04 \\pm 0.004 {\\rm kpc}^{-1}$. We then apply the effective potential with the fixed universal parameters to the Ursa-Major catalog of galaxies and obtain good fits to galaxy rotation curve data with an average value of $\\bar{\\chi^2} = 1.07 $. In the fitting process, only the stellar mass-to-light ratio $(M/L)$ of the galaxies is a free parameter. As predictions of MOG, our derived $M/L$ is shown to be correlated with the color of galaxies, and we fit the Tully-Fisher relation for galaxies. As an alternative to dark matter, introducing an effective weak field potential for MOG opens a new window to the astrophysical applications of the theory.
Weak-Field Gravity of Circular Cosmic Strings
Shane J. Hughes; Des J. Mc Manus; Michel A. Vandyck
1992-11-09
A weak-field solution of Einstein's equations is constructed. It is generated by a circular cosmic string externally supported against collapse. The solution exhibits a conical singularity, and the corresponding deficit angle is the same as for a straight string of the same linear energy density. This confirms the deficit-angle assumption made in the Frolov-Israel-Unruh derivation of the metric describing a string loop at a moment of time symmetry.
Weak-Field Gravity of Revolving Circular Cosmic Strings
Des J. Mc Manus; Michel A. Vandyck
1992-12-10
A weak-field solution of Einstein's equations is constructed. It is generated by a circular cosmic string revolving in its plane about the centre of the circle. (The revolution is introduced to prevent the string from collapsing.) This solution exhibits a conical singularity, and the corresponding deficit angle is the same as for a straight string of the same linear energy density, irrespective of the angular velocity of the string.
Gravitational Fields with 2-Dimensional Killing Leaves and the Gravitational Interaction of Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilasi, Gaetano
Gravitational fields invariant for a non Abelian Lie algebra generating a 2-dimensional distribution, are explicitly described. When the orthogonal distribution is integrable and the metric is not degenerate along the orbits, these solutions are parameterized either by solutions of a transcendental equation (the tortoise equation), or by solutions of Darboux equation. Metrics, corresponding to solutions of the tortoise equation, are characterized as those that admit a 3-dimensional Lie algebra of Killing fields with 2-dimensional leaves. It is shown that the remaining metrics represent nonlinear gravitational waves obeying to two nonlinearsuperposition laws. The energy and the polarization of this family of waves are explicitly evaluated; it is shown that they have spin-1 and their possible sources are also described. Old results by Tolman, Ehrenfest, Podolsky and Wheeler on the gravitational interaction of photons are naturally reinterpreted.
Field theory on R× S 3 topology. VI: Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Malin, S.
1987-04-01
We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between them are pointed out. The problem of motion is discussed, and the equations of motion of a rigid body are developed and given explicitly. One result which is worth emphazing is that while general relativity theory yields Newton's law of motion in the lowest approximation, our theory gives Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body in its lowest approximation.
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Effects of very weak magnetic fields on radical pair reformation.
Adair, R K
1999-01-01
We can expect that biological responses to very weak ELF electromagnetic fields will be masked by thermal noise. However, the spin of electrons bound to biologically important molecules is not strongly coupled to the thermal bath, and the effects of the precession of those spins by external magnetic fields is not bounded by thermal noise. Hence, the known role of spin orientation in the recombination of radical pairs (RP) may constitute a mechanism for the biological effects of very weak fields. That recombination will generally take place only if the valence electrons in the two radicals are in a singlet state and the effect of the magnetic field is manifest through differential spin precessions that affect the occupation of that state. Because the spin relaxation times are of the order of microseconds, any effects must be largely independent of frequency up to values of a few megahertz. Using exact calculations on an appropriately general model system, we show that one can expect small, but significant, modifications of the recombination rate by a 50 microT field only under a narrow range of circumstances: the cage time during which the two elements are together must be exceptionally long--of the order of 50 ns or longer; the hyperfine field of either radical must not be so great as to generate a precession period greater than the cage containment time; and the characteristic recombination time of the radical pair in the singlet state must be about equal to the containment time. Thus, even under such singularly favorable conditions, fields as small as 5 microT (50 milligauss) cannot change the recombination rate by as much as 1%. Hence, we conclude that environmental magnetic fields much weaker than the earth's field cannot be expected to affect biology significantly by modifying radical pair recombination probabilities. PMID:10230939
Nbody Simulations and Weak Gravitational Lensing using new HPC-Grid resources: the PI2S2 project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becciani, U.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Costa, A.; Comparato, M.
2008-08-01
We present the main project of the new grid infrastructure and the researches, that have been already started in Sicily and will be completed by next year. The PI2S2 project of the COMETA consortium is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research and will be completed in 2009. Funds are from the European Union Structural Funds for Objective 1 regions. The project, together with a similar project called Trinacria GRID Virtual Laboratory (Trigrid VL), aims to create in Sicily a computational grid for e-science and e-commerce applications with the main goal of increasing the technological innovation of local enterprises and their competition on the global market. PI2S2 project aims to build and develop an e-Infrastructure in Sicily, based on the grid paradigm, mainly for research activity using the grid environment and High Performance Computer systems. As an example we present the first results of a new grid version of FLY a tree Nbody code developed by INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, already published in the CPC program Library, that will be used in the Weak Gravitational Lensing field.
Scalar field as a time variable during gravitational evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Lewandowski, Jerzy
2015-09-01
Using a scalar field as an intrinsic "clock" while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems has been successfully pursued in various researches on the border between classical and quantum gravity. The objective of our research was to check explicitly whether the scalar field can serve as a time variable during dynamical evolution of the matter-geometry system, especially in regions of high curvature, which are essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. For this purpose, we analyzed a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting scalar field within the framework of general relativity. The obtained results indicated that the hypersurfaces of constant scalar field are spacelike in dynamical regions nearby the singularities formed during the investigated process. The scalar field values change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
L. Acedo; M. M. Tung
2015-05-27
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic permeability. Moreover, the energy density of the wave remains proportional to its frequency in agreement with Planck's postulate.
Quark deconfinement and gluon condensate in a weak magnetic field
Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2015-01-01
We study QCD finite energy sum rules (FESR) for the axial-vector current correlator in the presence of a magnetic field, in the weak field limit and at zero temperature. We find that the perturbative QCD as well as the hadronic contribution to the sum rules get explicit magnetic field-dependent corrections and that these in turn induce a magnetic field dependence on the deconfinement phenomenological parameter s_0 and on the gluon condensate. The leading corrections turn out to be quadratic in the field strength. We find from the dimension d=2 first FESR that the magnetic field dependence of s_0 is proportional to the absolute value of the light-quark condensate. Hence, it increases with increasing field strength. This implies that the parameters describing chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement behave similarly as functions of the magnetic filed. Thus, at zero temperature the magnetic field is a catalysing agent of both chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. From the dimension d=4 second FESR we ob...
Lorentz transformations in the presence of a uniform gravitational field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broucke, R.
1971-01-01
This article describes a Lorentz-like transformation between a fixed frame and an inertial frame that is free falling due to the presence of a uniform gravitation field. The application to the clock paradox problem and some connections with similar works are also discussed.
Torsionally-gravitating charged matter fields and quanta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca
2015-10-01
In the present article we shall consider the torsional completion of a gravitational background that is filled with electrodynamically interacting material fields, taken to be of fermionic type, eventually deriving properties like the impossibility of singularities and the possibility of confinement, both necessary for a correct quantum description.
The Gravitational Field of a Twisted Skyrmion String
Miftachul Hadi; Malcolm Anderson; Andri Husein
2015-07-13
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, mkz, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
Jet Deflection by Very Weak Guide Fields during Magnetic Reconnection
Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Che, H.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.
2011-09-23
Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended ''outer electron diffusion regions.'' New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H{sup +} plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath.
The emergence of weakly twisted magnetic fields in the sun
Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.
2013-11-20
We have studied the emergence of a weakly twisted magnetic flux tube from the upper convection zone into the solar atmosphere. It is found that the rising magnetized plasma does not undergo the classical, single ?-shaped loop emergence, but it becomes unstable in two places, forming two magnetic lobes that are anchored in small-scale bipolar structures at the photosphere, between the two main flux concentrations. The two magnetic lobes rise and expand into the corona, forming an overall undulating magnetic flux system. The dynamical interaction of the lobes results in the triggering of high-speed and hot jets and the formation of successive cool and hot loops that coexist in the emerging flux region. Although the initial emerging field is weakly twisted, a highly twisted magnetic flux rope is formed at the low atmosphere, due to shearing and reconnection. The new flux rope (hereafter post-emergence flux rope) does not erupt. It remains confined by the overlying field. Although there is no ejective eruption of the post-emergence rope, it is found that a considerable amount of axial and azimuthal flux is transferred into the solar atmosphere during the emergence of the magnetic field.
BPS Dyon in a Weak Electromagnetic Field: Equations of Motion and Radiation Fields
Dongsu Bak; Choonkyu Lee
1994-02-09
Dynamics of a BPS dyon in a weak, constant, electromagnetic field is studied through a perturbative analysis of appropriate non-linear field equations. The full Lorentz force law for a BPS dyon is established. Also derived are the radiation fields accompanying the motion.
Strong field gravitational lensing in stringy black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, En-Kun; Duan, Peng-Fei
2015-06-01
In this paper, we studied the strong gravitational lensing due to the stringy black hole using the strong field limit approach. Modeling the supermassive object at the galactic center as stringy black hole, the numerical values of the strong field limit coefficients and the observables were estimated. Moreover, by measuring the observables, one can get the strong field limit coefficients to reconstruct the full expansion of the deflection angle for the strong field gravitational lensing in stringy black hole. Comparing our results with that of Schwarzschild black hole, it is easy to find that all the values in stringy black hole diverge from those of Schwarzschild spacetime under the influence of the parameter ?, which gives us an alternative way to distinguish the stringy black hole from the Schwarzschild black hole. In our model, with the parameter ? increasing, the angular position ? ? increases and the relative magnitudes decreases.
Differentiation of optical isomers through enhanced weak-field interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronowitz, S.
1980-01-01
The influence of weak field interaction terms due to the cooperative effects which arise from a macroscopic assemblage of interacting sites is studied. Differential adsorption of optical isomers onto an achiral surface is predicted to occur if the surface was continuous and sufficiently large. However, the quantity of discontinuous crystal surfaces did not enhance the percentage of differentiation and thus the procedure of using large quantities of small particles was not a viable technique for obtaining a detectable differentiation of optical isomers on an achiral surface.
Tail terms in gravitational radiation reaction via effective field theory
S. Foffa; R. Sturani
2012-12-24
Gravitational radiation reaction affects the dynamics of gravitationally bound binary systems. Here we focus on the leading "tail" term which modifies binary dynamics at fourth post-Newtonian order, as first computed by Blanchet and Damour. We re-produce this result using effective field theory techniques in the framework of the Lagrangian formalism suitably extended to include dissipation effects. We recover the known logarithmic tail term, consistently with the recent interpretation of the logarithmic tail term in the mass parameter as a renormalization group effect of the Bondi mass of the system.
Physical decomposition of the gauge and gravitational fields
Xiang-Song Chen; Ben-Chao Zhu
2011-01-19
Physical decomposition of the non-Abelian gauge field has recently solved the two-decade-lasting problem of a meaningful gluon spin. Here we extend this approach to gravity and attack the century-lasting problem of a meaningful gravitational energy. The metric is unambiguously separated into a pure geometric term which contributes null curvature tensor, and a physical term which represents the true gravitational effect and always vanishes in a flat space-time. By this decomposition the conventional pseudo-tensors of the gravitational stress-energy are easily rescued to produce definite physical result. Our decomposition applies to any symmetric tensor, and has interesting relation to the transverse-traceless (TT) decomposition discussed by Arnowitt, Deser and Misner, and by York.
Effects of Electromagnetic Field on Gravitational Collapse
M. Sharif; G. Abbas
2009-05-16
In this paper, the effect of electromagnetic field has been investigated on the spherically symmetric collapse with the perfect fluid in the presence of positive cosmological constant. Junction conditions between the static exterior and non-static interior spherically symmetric spacetimes are discussed. We study the apparent horizons and their physical significance. It is found that electromagnetic field reduces the bound of cosmological constant by reducing the pressure and hence collapsing process is faster as compared to the perfect fluid case. This work gives the generalization of the perfect fluid case to the charged perfect fluid. Results for the perfect fluid case are recovered.
Gravitational constant in multiple field gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abedi, Habib; Abbassi, Amir M.
2015-05-01
In the present study, we consider general form of the Lagrangian f(R, phiI, X) , that is a function of the Ricci scalar, multiple scalar fields and non-canonical kinetic terms. We obtain the effective Newton's constant deep inside the Hubble radius. We use Jordan and Einstein frames, and study the conservation of energy-momentum tensor.
Effective field theory of weakly coupled inflationary models
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sypsas, Spyros E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl E-mail: spyridon.sypsas@kcl.ac.uk
2013-04-01
The application of Effective Field Theory (EFT) methods to inflation has taken a central role in our current understanding of the very early universe. The EFT perspective has been particularly useful in analyzing the self-interactions determining the evolution of co-moving curvature perturbations (Goldstone boson modes) and their influence on low-energy observables. However, the standard EFT formalism, to lowest order in spacetime differential operators, does not provide the most general parametrization of a theory that remains weakly coupled throughout the entire low-energy regime. Here we study the EFT formulation by including spacetime differential operators implying a scale dependence of the Goldstone boson self-interactions and its dispersion relation. These operators are shown to arise naturally from the low-energy interaction of the Goldstone boson with heavy fields that have been integrated out. We find that the EFT then stays weakly coupled all the way up to the cutoff scale at which ultraviolet degrees of freedom become operative. This opens up a regime of new physics where the dispersion relation is dominated by a quadratic dependence on the momentum ? ? p{sup 2}. In addition, provided that modes crossed the Hubble scale within this energy range, the predictions of inflationary observables — including non-Gaussian signatures — are significantly affected by the new scales characterizing it.
Optimal weak lensing tomography for CFHTLenS
Grocutt, Emma Liana
2012-11-28
Weak gravitational lensing is a powerful astronomical tool for constraining cosmological parameters that is entering its prime. Lensing occurs because gravitational fields deflect light rays and measuring this deflection ...
Diffusion of relativistic gas mixtures in gravitational fields
Gilberto M. Kremer
2013-03-26
A mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric is studied on the basis of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields. A BGK-type model equation of the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is used in order to compute the non-equilibrium distribution functions by the Chapman-Enskog method. The main focus of this work is to obtain Fick's law without the thermal-diffusion cross-effect. Fick's law has four contributions, two of them are the usual terms proportional to the gradients of concentration and pressure. The other two are of the same nature as those which appears in Fourier's law in the presence of gravitational fields and are related with an acceleration and gravitational potential gradient, but unlike Fourier's law these two last terms are of non-relativistic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the coefficients of diffusion depend on the gravitational potential and they become larger than those in the absence of it.
Weak scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Zhisong
This dissertation encompasses several studies relating to the theory of weak potential scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random, wide-sense statistically stationary fields from various types of deterministic or random linear media. The proposed theory is largely based on the first Born approximation for potential scattering and on the angular spectrum representation of fields. The main focus of the scalar counterpart of the theory is made on calculation of the second-order statistics of scattered light fields in cases when the scattering medium consists of several types of discrete particles with deterministic or random potentials. It is shown that the knowledge of the correlation properties for the particles of the same and different types, described with the newly introduced pair-scattering matrix, is crucial for determining the spectral and coherence states of the scattered radiation. The approach based on the pair-scattering matrix is then used for solving an inverse problem of determining the location of an "alien" particle within the scattering collection of "normal" particles, from several measurements of the spectral density of scattered light. Weak scalar scattering of light from a particulate medium in the presence of optical turbulence existing between the scattering centers is then approached using the combination of the Born's theory for treating the light interaction with discrete particles and the Rytov's theory for light propagation in extended turbulent medium. It is demonstrated how the statistics of scattered radiation depend on scattering potentials of particles and the power spectra of the refractive index fluctuations of turbulence. This theory is of utmost importance for applications involving atmospheric and oceanic light transmission. The second part of the dissertation includes the theoretical procedure developed for predicting the second-order statistics of the electromagnetic random fields, such as polarization and linear momentum, scattered from static media. The spatial distribution of these properties of scattered fields is shown to be substantially dependent on the correlation and polarization properties of incident fields and on the statistics of the refractive index distribution within the scatterers. Further, an example is considered which illustrates the usefulness of the electromagnetic scattering theory of random fields in the case when the scattering medium is a thin bio-tissue layer with the prescribed power spectrum of the refractive index fluctuations. The polarization state of the scattered light is shown to be influenced by correlation and polarization states of the illumination as well as by the particle size distribution of the tissue slice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, J.
1984-11-01
Gravitational wave is produced whenever massive bodies accelerate under gravitational or nongravitational driving forces. The equations of Einstein's general theory of relativity have solutions in the weak field approximations which are very similar to those of electrodynamics. Analogies may be made between gravitational radiation and the electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charges although care has to be taken to recognize the limitations of such analogies. Because of the weakness of the Einstein's qravitational constant, the rate of energy radiated is normally very small. It is very desirable to be able to generate dynamic Newtonian gravitational field with sufficient intensity to be detected in the small laboratory. Experimental techniques used in generation and detection of dynamic Newtonian gravitational fields are reviewed and their application to Morse code communication in very near zone, as one approach to the gravitational wave technology.
The MOG Weak Field approximation II. Observational test of Chandra X-ray Clusters
J. W. Moffat; S. Rahvar
2014-06-07
We apply the weak field approximation limit of the covariant Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity (STVG) theory, so-called MOdified gravity (MOG), to the dynamics of clusters of galaxies by using only baryonic matter. The MOG effective gravitational potential in the weak field approximation is composed of an attractive Newtonian term and a repulsive Yukawa term with two parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$. The numerical values of these parameters have been obtained by fitting the predicted rotation curves of galaxies to observational data, yielding the best fit result: $\\alpha = 8.89 \\pm 0.34$ and $\\mu= 0.042\\pm 0.004$ kpc$^{-1}$~\\cite{rah13}. We extend the observational test of this theory to clusters of galaxies, using data for the ionized gas and the temperature profile of nearby clusters obtained by the Chandra X-ray telescope. Using the MOG virial theorem for clusters, we compare the mass profiles of clusters from observation and theory for eleven clusters. The theoretical mass profiles for the inner parts of clusters exceed the observational data. However, the observational data for the inner parts of clusters (i.e., $rMOG as a theory of modified gravity is compatible with the observational data from the the solar system to Mega parsec scales without invoking dark matter.
Gravitational wave in Lorentz violating gravity
Xin Li; Zhe Chang
2012-04-01
By making use of the weak gravitational field approximation, we obtain a linearized solution of the gravitational vacuum field equation in an anisotropic spacetime. The plane-wave solution and dispersion relation of gravitational wave is presented explicitly. There is possibility that the speed of gravitational wave is larger than the speed of light and the casuality still holds. We show that the energy-momentum of gravitational wave in the ansiotropic spacetime is still well defined and conserved.
Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurière, Michel; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-François; Wade, Gregg A.
2014-08-01
Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux hosts a close-in exoplanet, we suggest that the magnetic dipole of Pollux can be associated with two temperature and macroturbulent velocity spots which could be sufficient to produce the RV variations. We finally investigate the scenarii of the origin of the magnetic field which could explain the observed properties of Pollux.
New Symbolic Tools for Differential Geometry, Gravitation, and Field Theory
Anderson, I M
2011-01-01
DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors and other tensorial invariants, algebraic classification of curvature, and symmetry reduction of field equations.
Parkinsonian micrographia reversed by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk, R
1995-03-01
Micrographia is one of the characteristic clinical signs of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is linked to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. It has been reported recently that external application of weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range and of low frequency produced dramatic improvements in motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients indicating that a specific range of electromagnetic energy increases, among others, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the present communication, I present two fully mediated Parkinsonian patients who, prior to the application of EMFs, drew lilliputian sized figures reflecting the micrographia of the disease. In both patients a series of treatments with pT EMFs produced, in addition to improvement in motor symptoms, a dramatic increase in the size of their drawings with reversal of their micrographia. Since both patients were maintained on dopaminergic medications prior to and during treatment with EMFs it is suggested that Parkinsonian micrographia is related also to abnormalities of nondopaminergic systems which are affected by weak EMFs. This report corroborates previous observations demonstrating the powerful antiParkinsonian effect of pT range EMFs and highlights the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in Parkinsonism. PMID:7775074
Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.
2013-12-01
Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.
Improved routing strategy based on gravitational field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hai-Quan; Guo, Jin
2015-10-01
Routing and path selection are crucial for many communication and logistic applications. We study the interaction between nodes and packets and establish a simple model for describing the attraction of the node to the packet in transmission process by using the gravitational field theory, considering the real and potential congestion of the nodes. On the basis of this model, we propose a gravitational field routing strategy that considers the attractions of all of the nodes on the travel path to the packet. In order to illustrate the efficiency of proposed routing algorithm, we introduce the order parameter to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from a free flow phase to a congested phase, and study the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulations show that, compared with the shortest path routing strategy, the gravitational field routing strategy considerably enhances the throughput of the network and balances the traffic load, and nearly all of the nodes are used efficiently. Project supported by the Technology and Development Research Project of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X007-D) and the Key Program of Technology and Development Research Foundation of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X003-A).
Thomas Peters; Dominik R. G. Schleicher; Ralf S. Klessen; Robi Banerjee; Christoph Federrath; Rowan J. Smith; Sharanya Sur
2012-09-26
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k rho^Gamma, with both sub-isothermal exponents Gamma 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For Gamma > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For Gamma < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
Defect Mass in Gravitational Field and Red Shift of Atomic and Nuclear Radiation Spectra
Kh. M. Beshtoev
2000-04-19
It is shown, that radiation spectrum of atoms (or nuclei) in the gravitational field has a red shift since the effective mass of radiating electrons (or nucleons) changes in this field. This red shift is equal to the red shift of radiation spectrum in the gravitational field measured in existence experiments. The same shift must arise when the photon (or $ \\gamma $ quantum) is passing through the gravitational field if it participates in gravitational interactions (photon has no rest mass). The absence of the double effect in the experiments, probably, means that photons (or $ \\gamma $ quanta) are passing through the gravitational field without interactions.
Split octonion reformulation of generalized linear gravitational field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanyal, B. C.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we describe the properties of split octonions and their connection with the 2 × 2 Zorn vector matrix containing both scalar and vector components. Starting with a brief description of gravito-dyons, we reformulate the generalized linear gravitational field equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonion. We express the generalized gravito-Heavisidian (GH) potentials, fields, and various wave equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions variables. Accordingly, we demonstrate the work-energy theorem of classical mechanics reproducing the continuity equation for the case of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions. Further, we discuss the split octonionic form of linear momentum conservation law for gravito-dyons in the case of linear gravitational theory. We have summarized the various split octonion equations for the case of the generalized GH-field of gravito-dyons and the generalized electromagnetic field of dyons. The unified fields of dyons and gravito-dyons have been demonstrated and corresponding field equations are discussed in unique and consistent manner in terms of split octonions.
The Gravitational Field of a Radiating Electromagnetic Dipole
Tim Adamo; Ezra T Newman
2008-07-22
We begin with the time-dependent electric and magnetic dipole solution of Maxwell's equations in Minkowski space. This Maxwell field is then used to determine the behavior of the gravitational field (the Weyl tensor) as a second-order perturbation off of the Minkowski background. From the Weyl tensor we go on and find the spin-coefficients and the full metric in this approximation. The physical meaning of many of the relations is discussed. In particular we can identify the conservation law of angular momentum that contains an angular momentum flux term.
Spacetime deployments parametrized by gravitational and electromagnetic fields
Jacques L. Rubin; Thierry Grandou
2004-10-07
On the basis of a "Punctual" Equivalence Principle of the general relativity context, we consider spacetimes with measurements of conformally invariant physical properties. Then, applying the Pfaff theory for PDE to a particular conformally equivariant system of differential equations, we make explicit the dependence of any kind of function describing a "spacetime deployment", on n(n+1) parametrizing functions, denoting by n the spacetime dimension. These functions, appearing in a linear differential Spencer sequence and determining gauge fields of spacetime deformations relatively to a "substrat spacetime", can be consistently ascribed to unified electromagnetic and gravitational fields, at any spacetime dimensions n greater or equal to 4.
Gravitational field of twisted Baby Skyrmion strings and loops
Eugen Simanek
2010-01-28
We consider the gravitational field of infinite straight and stationary twisted Baby Skyrmion cosmic string. Using the approximate solution of Einstein equations, it is shown that the internal phase rotation (twist) along the string axis is responsible for a long-range gravitational acceleration resembling that of massive cylindrical shell. We also study the stability and gravitational field of circular loops. When the loop radius becomes comparable with the string width, the rigidity energy tends to stabilize small loops against radial collapse. The nucleon scale-toroidal knot with Hopf charge Q=1 is found to decay very rapidly on the scale of the age of the universe due to low energy cost to flux lines crossings. Such knot is therefore excluded from the dark matter scenario of Spergel and Steinhardt. However, the Q = 0 loop, stabilized by rigidity, could be a candidate for this scenario. In contrast, the electroweak strings are prevented from intercommuting due to much larger energy cost to intersection. This makes them a possible candidate for the solid dark matter scenario of Bucher and Spergel.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C
2015-01-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underly...
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Hong Qin; J. W. Burby; Ronald C. Davidson
2015-04-17
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609
Apparatus and method for producing an artificial gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccanna, Jason (inventor)
1993-01-01
An apparatus and method is disclosed for producing an artificial gravitational field in a spacecraft by rotating the same around a spin axis. The centrifugal force thereby created acts as an artificial gravitational force. The apparatus includes an engine which produces a drive force offset from the spin axis to drive the spacecraft towards a destination. The engine is also used as a counterbalance for a crew cabin for rotation of the spacecraft. Mass of the spacecraft, which may include either the engine or crew cabin, is shifted such that the centrifugal force acting on that mass is no longer directed through the center of mass of the craft. This off-center centrifugal force creates a moment that counterbalances the moment produced by the off-center drive force to eliminate unwanted rotation which would otherwise be precipitated by the offset drive force.
Gravitational lenses and lens candidates identified from the COSMOS field
Neal Jackson
2008-06-23
A complete manual search has been carried out of the list of 285423 objects, nearly all of them galaxies, identified in the COSMOS field that are brighter than I=25. Two certain and one highly probable new gravitational lenses are found, in addition to the lenses and candidate lens systems previously found by Faure et al. (2008). A further list of 112 candidate lens systems is presented. Few of these are likely to be true gravitational lens systems, most being star-forming rings or pairs of companion galaxies. It is possible to examine of order 10^6 objects by eye in a reasonable time, although reliable detection of lenses by such methods is likely to be possible only with high-resolution data. The loss of completeness involved in a rapid search is estimated as up to a factor of 2, depending on the morphology of the lens candidate.
Hubble Frontier Fields : ``A New Era for Gravitational Lensing''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauzac, Mathilde; Eckert, Dominique; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Limousin, Marceau; Atek, Hakim; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Rexroth, Markus
2015-08-01
The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) initiative constitutes the largest commitment ever of HST time to the exploration of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters.I will present the new gravitational lensing pictures of the first HFF complex clusters. We have demonstrated that we are now able to `weight’ these clusters' cores down to the percent level precision (recently published works), serving our quest for the high-redshift Universe.However, while the depth of these dataset makes these clusters amazing Cosmic Telescopes, it also enables us to get an unprecedented understanding of the cluster physics.Therefore, presenting the case of MACSJ0416 and Abell 2744, I will demonstrate the importance of such high-quality data to analyse the merging/dynamical history of the cluster itself while comparing dark matter, light and gas distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng
2015-10-01
The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus.
Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng
2015-10-01
The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus. PMID:26520987
Two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in magnetic and gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löwen, H.; Horn, T.; Neuhaus, T.; ten Hagen, B.
2013-11-01
This mini-review is concerned with two-dimensional colloidal mixtures exposed to various kinds of external fields. By a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles which give rise to repulsive interactions leading to complex crystalline alloys in the composition-asymmetry diagram. A quench in the magnetic field induces complex crystal nucleation scenarios. If exposed to a gravitational field, these mixtures exhibit a brazil-nut effect and show a boundary layering which is explained in terms of a depletion bubble picture. The latter persists for time-dependent gravity ("colloidal shaking"). Finally, we summarize crystallization effects when the second species is frozen in a disordered matrix which provides obstacles for the crystallizing component.
Two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in magnetic and gravitational fields
Hartmut Löwen; Tobias Horn; Tim Neuhaus; Borge ten Hagen
2013-10-30
This mini-review is concerned with two-dimensional colloidal mixtures exposed to various kinds of external fields. By a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles which give rise to repulsive interactions leading to complex crystalline alloys in the composition-asymmetry diagram. A quench in the magnetic field induces complex crystal nucleation scenarios. If exposed to a gravitational field, these mixtures exhibit a brazil--nut effect and show a boundary layering which is explained in terms of a depletion bubble picture. The latter persists for time-dependent gravity ("colloidal shaking"). Finally, we summarize crystallization effects when the second species is frozen in a disordered matrix which provides obstacles for the crystallizing component.
Analog of electric and magnetic fields in stationary gravitational systems
Embacher, F.
1984-08-01
Newtonian and Machian aspects of the stationary gravitational field are brought into formal analogy with a stationry electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic vector potential equals (up to a factor) the timelike Killing vector field. The current density is given by the contraction of the Killing vector with the Ricci tensor. A coordinate-dependent split in electric and magnetic field vectors is given, and some results of classical electrodynamics are used to illustrate the analogy. In the linearized theory, the usual Maxwell equations are obtained. The analogy also holds from the point of view of particle motion. The geodesic equation is brought into a special form that exhibits an analog to the Lorentz force. Two examples (which have played an important role in the theoretical discovery of Machian effects) are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eby, P. B.
1978-01-01
The construction of a clock based on the beta decay process is proposed to test for any violations by the weak interaction of the strong equivalence principle bu determining whether the weak interaction coupling constant beta is spatially constant or whether it is a function of gravitational potential (U). The clock can be constructed by simply counting the beta disintegrations of some suitable source. The total number of counts are to be taken a measure of elapsed time. The accuracy of the clock is limited by the statistical fluctuations in the number of counts, N, which is equal to the square root of N. Increasing N gives a corresponding increase in accuracy. A source based on the electron capture process can be used so as to avoid low energy electron discrimination problems. Solid state and gaseous detectors are being considered. While the accuracy of this type of beta decay clock is much less than clocks based on the electromagnetic interaction, there is a corresponding lack of knowledge of the behavior of beta as a function of gravitational potential. No predictions from nonmetric theories as to variations in beta are available as yet, but they may occur at the U/sg C level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jee, Myungkook James
2006-06-01
Clusters of galaxies, the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, are useful tracers of cosmic evolution, and particularly detailed studies of still-forming clusters at high-redshifts can considerably enhance our understanding of the structure formation. We use two powerful methods that have become recently available for the study of these distant clusters: spaced- based gravitational weak-lensing and high-resolution X-ray observations. Detailed analyses of five high-redshift (0.8 < z < 1.3) clusters are presented based on the deep Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Chandra X-ray images. We show that, when the instrumental characteristics are properly understood, the newly installed ACS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) can detect subtle shape distortions of background galaxies down to the limiting magnitudes of the observations, which enables the mapping of the cluster dark matter in unprecedented high-resolution. The cluster masses derived from this HST /ACS weak-lensing study have been compared with those from the re-analyses of the archival Chandra X-ray data. We find that there are interesting offsets between the cluster galaxy, intracluster medium (ICM), and dark matter centroids, and possible scenarios are discussed. If the offset is confirmed to be uniquitous in other clusters, the explanation may necessitate major refinements in our current understanding of the nature of dark matter, as well as the cluster galaxy dynamics. CL0848+4452, the highest-redshift ( z = 1.27) cluster yet detected in weak-lensing, has a significant discrepancy between the weak- lensing and X-ray masses. If this trend is found to be severe and common also for other X-ray weak clusters at redshifts beyond the unity, the conventional X-ray determination of cluster mass functions, often inferred from their immediate X-ray properties such as the X-ray luminosity and temperature via the so-called mass-luminosity (M-L) and mass-temperature (M-T) relations, will become highly unstable in this redshift regime. Therefore, the relatively unbiased weak-lensing measurements of the cluster mass properties can be used to adequately calibrate the scaling relations in future high-redshift cluster investigations.
Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit
Wiltshire, David L.
2008-10-15
The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z < or approx. 0.25 the scale is found to coincide with the empirical acceleration scale of modified Newtonian dynamics. At larger redshifts the scale varies in a manner which is likely to be important for understanding dynamics of galaxy clusters, and structure formation. Although the relative deceleration, typically of order 10{sup -10} ms{sup -2}, is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Susana
Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters on the Macrocosmic level, and that allows the formation of fundamental particles on the Microcosmic level. The strings are described by a function named Symbiosis (?), which depends on four energetic contributions: (1) Radiation Energy (2) Plasma Energy (3) Conducted Flux Energy and (4) Mass Energy. There is an intimate relation between them, and depending on the value they have at a certain moment and at a certain time, the string dynamics and its geometry are settled. That means that symbiosis describes the strings state in any point of the geometer - energy field. ? = F [Er(?), Ep(?), Ef(?), Em(?)] (1) This work is an attempt to achieve the unification of the forces of nature, based on the existence of a four dimension Universe.
Field Methods for Characterizing Weak Rock for Engineering
to a wide range of material types. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of recent research of shale and weak rock units, three increasingly site-specific tools are presented. First is a map showing durability, and slake index are given. INTRODUCTION Throughout this paper, the term ``weak rock'' is used
The Wigner rotation for photons in an arbitrary gravitational field
P. M. Alsing; G. J. Stephenson Jr
2009-02-09
We investigate the Wigner rotation for photons, which governs the change in the polarization of the photon as it propagates through an arbitrary gravitational field. We give explicit examples in Schwarzschild spacetime, and compare with the corresponding flat spacetime results, which by the equivalence principle, holds locally at each spacetime point. We discuss the implications of the Wigner rotation for entangled photon states in curved spacetime, and lastly develop a sufficient condition for special (Fermi-Walker) frames in which the observer would detect no Wigner rotation.
Dynamics of extended spinning masses in a gravitational field
Mashhoon, Bahram; Singh, Dinesh
2006-12-15
We develop a first-order approximation method for the influence of spin on the motion of extended spinning test masses in a gravitational field. This approach is illustrated for approximately circular equatorial motion in the exterior Kerr spacetime. In this case, the analytic results for the first-order approximation are compared to the numerical integration of the exact system and the limitations of the first-order results are pointed out. Furthermore, we employ our analytic results to illustrate the gravitomagnetic clock effect for spinning particles.
5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Following the philosophy that the International School on Field Theory and Gravitation must be held each three years in different Brazilian Universities and, if possible, in different brazilian states, the next meeting will take place at Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, Cuiabá city on April, 20-24/2009 very close to the beautiful Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães area. The goal of the meeting is to promote a greater integration among many physicists from the local university, UFMT, Co-organizing institutions in Brasil and foreign countries such as Canada, USA, Italy, China, England, Swiss, Spain, Brazil and others; to stimulate the organization of scientific events in our physics Institute and thus contributing to local research activities; to exhibit different fields of physics and to stimulate new lines of theoretical research and technological developments in the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT. Finally, we make efforts to promote the development of advanced studies, taking it to the present core of research in a strong process of affirmation of new lines of theoretical studies in our Physics Institute. To this, we invite colleagues, collaborators, researchers, students, and friends to attend this fifth edition of International School on Field Theory and gravitation-2009.
The Gravitational Fields of the Galilean Satellites -- Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Robert A.
2013-10-01
One of the major scientific results from the Galileo mission to the Jovian system was the determination of the gravitational fields of the Galilean satellites. Schubert et al. summarize those results in chapter 13 of Jupiter: The planet, satellites and magnetosphere (Bagenal, Dowling, and McKinnon, eds., Cambridge U. Press, 2004). As a part of our recent update of the ephemerides of the Galilean satellites, we redetermined the satellite gravitational fields from the Galileo data. Our reprocessing of the data included, for the first time, calibrations for the effects of Io's plasma torus. We also removed some close encounter data at Europa and Callisto which was corrupted by the encountered satellite ionosphere. In fitting the data we employed a data whitening algorithm, developed for Cassini gravity science data processing, which takes into account the effect of the solar plasma on the Doppler data. Our new results confirm the previous ones for Io and Europa; the Io torus has a negligible effect on the fit to the Io encounter data. However, for Ganymede we found that the data whitening removes the data signature which was previous attributed to mass anomalies (Palguta et al. 2006, Icarus 180), and for Callisto we found that removing the ionosphere corruption significantly reduced the J2. Our overall conclusion is that a quadrupole field in hydrostatic equilibrium is sufficient to fit the data for all four satellites.
Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyavskaya, N.
In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.
Far fields, from electrodynamics to gravitation, and the dark matter problem
Galgani, Luigi
Far fields, from electrodynamics to gravitation, and the dark matter problem A. Carati1 , S. The main idea is that the missing gravitational action may be due to the external far galaxies of electrodynamics and those of gravitation theory, in order to understand the dominant role of the far galaxies. 1
Effects of the Interaction of a Rotating Ideal Liquid with a Vortical Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krechet, V. G.; Oshurko, V. B.; Rodichev, S. V.
2015-07-01
Stationary configurations of self-gravitating, rotating liquids with barotropic equation of state are considered within the framework of GTR. It is shown that such a rotating self-gravitating continuous medium can induce the formation of a vortical gravitational field, which can lead to the appearance of a geometry of spacetime with nontrivial topology, for example wormholes.
Observational Evidence for Small-Scale Mixture of Weak and Strong Fields in the Quiet Sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socas-Navarro, H.; Lites, B. W.
2004-11-01
Three different maps of the quiet Sun, observed with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) and the Diffraction-Limited Stokes Polarimeter (DLSP), show evidence of strong (~=1700 G) and weak (<500 G) fields coexisting within the resolution element at both network and internetwork locations. The angular resolution of the observations is of 1" (ASP) and 0.6" (DLSP). Even at the higher DLSP resolution, a significant fraction of the network magnetic patches harbor a mixture of strong and weak fields. Internetwork elements that exhibit kG fields when analyzed with a single-component atmosphere are also shown to harbor considerable amounts of weak fields. Only those patches for which a single-component analysis yields weak fields do not show this mixture of field strengths. Finally, there is a larger fractional area of weak fields in the convective upflows than in the downflows.
Einstein's first gravitational field equation 101 years latter
Juan Betancort-Rijo; Felipe Jimenez Ibarra
2014-01-10
We review and strengthen the arguments given by Einstein to derive his first gravitational field equation for static fields and show that, although it was ultimately rejected, it follows from General Relativity (GR) for negligible pressure. Using this equation and considerations folowing directly from the equivalence principle (EP), we show how Schwarzschild metric and other vacum metrics can be obtained immediately. With this results and some basic principles, we obtain the metric in the general spherically symmetric case and the corresponding hydrostatic equilibrium equation. For this metrics we obtain the motion equations in a simple and exact manner that clearly shows the three sources of difference (implied by various aspects of the EP) with respect to the Newtonian case and use them to study the classical tests of GR. We comment on the origin of the problems of Einstein first theory of gravity and discuss how, by removing it the theory could be made consistent and extended to include rotations, we also comments on various conceptual issues of GR as the origin of the gravitational effect of pressure.
Variations in Gravitational Field, Tidal Force, Electromagnetic Waves and Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasser, Valentino
2010-12-01
This paper is the report on an experiment carried out between the month of December 2009 and the month of April 2010 between the Venetian Lagoon and the Northern Apennines in Italy, to check on a potential relationship between earthquakes and variations in the local gravitational field, the effect on the tide exercised by the interaction between the moon and the Sun, the appearance of anomalous light effects in the atmosphere ("Earth lights"), and the emission of radio waves caused by stresses in the Earth's crust. The cases studied show that there is indeed some concomitance between the periodic rising and falling of the sea level and the terrestrial tide effect, due to the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun on the Earth. In fact, changes in the local force of gravity coincided with the cycle of high and low tides and, in certain cases, with a variation in the electromagnetic field that preceded the occurrence of a seismic event by just a few hours. The o! bservations in the article are limited to the magnitude range discussed in the paper.
Gravitation field algorithm and its application in gene cluster
2010-01-01
Background Searching optima is one of the most challenging tasks in clustering genes from available experimental data or given functions. SA, GA, PSO and other similar efficient global optimization methods are used by biotechnologists. All these algorithms are based on the imitation of natural phenomena. Results This paper proposes a novel searching optimization algorithm called Gravitation Field Algorithm (GFA) which is derived from the famous astronomy theory Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM) of planetary formation. GFA simulates the Gravitation field and outperforms GA and SA in some multimodal functions optimization problem. And GFA also can be used in the forms of unimodal functions. GFA clusters the dataset well from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Conclusions The mathematical proof demonstrates that GFA could be convergent in the global optimum by probability 1 in three conditions for one independent variable mass functions. In addition to these results, the fundamental optimization concept in this paper is used to analyze how SA and GA affect the global search and the inherent defects in SA and GA. Some results and source code (in Matlab) are publicly available at http://ccst.jlu.edu.cn/CSBG/GFA. PMID:20854683
Linet, Bernard
2015-01-01
We present a complete analysis of the light rays within the linearized, weak-field approximation of a Schwarzschild-like metric describing the gravitational field of an isolated, spherically symmetric body. We prove in this context the existence of two time transfer functions and we obtain these functions in an exact closed-form. We are led to distinguish two regimes. In the first regime, the two time transfer functions correspond to rays which are confined in regions of spacetime where the weak-field approximation is valid. Such a regime occurs in gravitational lensing configurations with double images of a given source. We find the general expressions of the angular separation and the difference in light travel time between the two images. In the second regime, there exists only one time transfer function corresponding to a light ray remaining in a region of weak field. Performing a Taylor expansion of this function with respect to the gravitational constant, we obtain the Shapiro time delay completed by a ...
Bernard Linet; Pierre Teyssandier
2015-11-13
We present a complete analysis of the light rays within the linearized, weak-field approximation of a Schwarzschild-like metric describing the gravitational field of an isolated, spherically symmetric body. We prove in this context the existence of two time transfer functions and we obtain these functions in an exact closed-form. We are led to distinguish two regimes. In the first regime, the two time transfer functions correspond to rays which are confined in regions of spacetime where the weak-field approximation is valid. Such a regime occurs in gravitational lensing configurations with double images of a given source. We find the general expressions of the angular separation and the difference in light travel time between the two images. In the second regime, there exists only one time transfer function corresponding to a light ray remaining in a region of weak field. Performing a Taylor expansion of this function with respect to the gravitational constant, we obtain the Shapiro time delay completed by a series of so-called "enhanced terms". The enhanced terms beyond the third order are new.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leauthaud, Alexie; J. Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca; L. Coil, Alison; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason
2015-01-01
Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter haloes in which they reside is key to constraining how black hole fuelling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modelling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to the fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies, irrespective of nuclear activity. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z < 1 from the COSMOS field, we report the first measurements of weak gravitational lensing from an X-ray-selected sample. Comparing this signal to predictions from the global SHMR, we find that, contrary to previous results, most X-ray AGN do not live in medium size groups - nearly half reside in relatively low mass haloes with M200b ˜ 1012.5 M?. The AGN occupation function is well described by the same form derived for all galaxies but with a lower normalization - the fraction of haloes with AGN in our sample is a few per cent. The number of AGN satellite galaxies scales as a power law with host halo mass with a power-law index ? = 1. By highlighting the relatively `normal' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy haloes, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fuelling modes for luminous quasars compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.
Rocha, Jorge V.; Cardoso, Vitor
2011-05-15
We analyze the gravitational perturbations induced by particles falling into a three dimensional, asymptotically AdS black hole geometry. More specifically, we solve the linearized perturbation equations obtained from the geodesic motion of a ringlike distribution of test particles in the BTZ background. This setup ensures that the U(1) symmetry of the background is preserved. The nonasymptotic flatness of the background raises difficulties in attributing the significance of energy and angular momentum to the conserved quantities of the test particles. This issue is well known but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been addressed in the literature. We confirm that the naive expressions for energy and angular momentum are the correct definitions. Finally, we put an asymptotically AdS version of the weak cosmic censorship to a test: by attempting to overspin the BTZ black hole with test particles it is found that the black hole cannot be spun-up past its extremal limit.
Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion
A. N. Ivanov; M. Wellenzohn
2015-04-22
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. (Phys. Rev. D79, 044028 (2009)), A.-Ch. Davis et al. (Phys. Rev. D80, 064016 (2009), and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-04-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? —obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]—can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Rowan J.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya
2012-12-01
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k{rho}{sup {Gamma}}, with both sub-isothermal exponents {Gamma} < 1 and super-isothermal exponents {Gamma} > 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For {Gamma} > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For {Gamma} < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
Roald Sosnovskiy
2009-01-16
The cause of an infringement in GR of a gravitational field energy conservation law is investigated . The equation of a gravitational field not contradicting to the energy conservation law is suggested. This equation satisfy to the Einstein,s requirement of equivalence of all energy kinds as sources of a gravitational field. This equation is solved in paper for cosmic objects. It is showed, that results for some objects - for black holes and gravitating strings-essentialy differ from such for Einstein,s equation, have the symple meaning and do not contradictions.
Geodesics in the field of a rotating deformed gravitational source
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Abutalip, Marzhan; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Suleymanova, Sharara
2015-01-01
We investigate equatorial geodesics in the gravitational field of a rotating and deformed source described by the approximate Hartle-Thorne metric. In the case of massive particles, we derive within the same approximation analytic expressions for the orbital angular velocity, the specific angular momentum and energy, and the radii of marginally stable and marginally bound circular orbits. Moreover, we calculate the orbital angular velocity and the radius of lightlike circular geodesics. We study numerically the frame dragging effect and the influence of the quadrupolar deformation of the source on the motion of test particles. We show that the effects originating from the rotation can be balanced by the effects due to the oblateness of the source.
Geodesics in the field of a rotating deformed gravitational source
Kuantay Boshkayev; Hernando Quevedo; Marzhan Abutalip; Zhanerke Kalymova; Sharara Suleymanova
2015-10-07
We investigate equatorial geodesics in the gravitational field of a rotating and deformed source described by the approximate Hartle-Thorne metric. In the case of massive particles, we derive within the same approximation analytic expressions for the orbital angular velocity, the specific angular momentum and energy, and the radii of marginally stable and marginally bound circular orbits. Moreover, we calculate the orbital angular velocity and the radius of lightlike circular geodesics. We study numerically the frame dragging effect and the influence of the quadrupolar deformation of the source on the motion of test particles. We show that the effects originating from the rotation can be balanced by the effects due to the oblateness of the source.
On holographic thermalization and gravitational collapse of tachyonic scalar fields
Bin Wu
2013-03-24
In this paper we study the thermalization of a spatially homogeneous system in a strongly coupled CFT. The non-equilibrium initial state is created by switching on a relevant perturbation in the CFT vacuum during Delta t >= t >= -Delta t. Via AdS/CFT, the thermalization process corresponds to the gravitational collapse of a tachyonic scalar field (m^2 = -3) in the Poincare patch of AdS_5. In the limit Delta t = 1/T, we also obtain double-collapse solutions but with a non-equilibrium intermediate state at t = 0. In all the cases our results show that the system thermalizes in a typical time t_T ~ O(1)/T. Besides, a conserved energy-moment current in the bulk is found, which helps understand the qualitative difference of the collapse process in the Poincare patch from that in global AdS[9, 10].
Comment on 'Primordial magnetic seed field amplification by gravitational waves'
Tsagas, Christos G.
2007-04-15
We consider the amplification of cosmological magnetic fields by gravitational waves as it was recently presented by Betschart et al. That study confined to infinitely conductive environments, arguing that on spatially flat Friedmann backgrounds the gravito-magnetic interaction proceeds always as if the Universe were a perfect conductor. We explain why this claim is not correct and then reexamine the Maxwell-Weyl coupling at the limit of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. We find that the scales of the main results of Betschart et al. were not properly assessed and that the incorrect scale assessment has compromised both the physical and the numerical results of the paper. This comment aims to clarify these issues on the one hand, while on the other it takes a closer look at the gauge invariance and the nonlinearity of the formalism proposed by Betschart et al.
CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS
Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z.; Karas, V.
2013-03-01
A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.
Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion
Ivanov, A N
2015-01-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage e...
The scaling of weak field phase-only control in Markovian dynamics
Am-Shallem, Morag; Kosloff, Ronnie
2014-07-28
We consider population transfer in open quantum systems, which are described by quantum dynamical semigroups (QDS). Using second order perturbation theory of the Lindblad equation, we show that it depends on a weak external field only through the field's autocorrelation function, which is phase independent. Therefore, for leading order in perturbation, QDS cannot support dependence of the population transfer on the phase properties of weak fields. We examine an example of weak-field phase-dependent population transfer, and show that the phase-dependence comes from the next order in the perturbation.
Gravitational collapse with tachyon field and barotropic fluid
Yaser Tavakoli; João Marto; Amir Hadi Ziaie; Paulo Vargas Moniz
2013-01-21
A particular class of space-time, with a tachyon field, \\phi, and a barotropic fluid constituting the matter content, is considered herein as a model for gravitational collapse. For simplicity, the tachyon potential is assumed to be of inverse square form i.e., V(\\phi) \\sim \\phi^{-2}. Our purpose, by making use of the specific kinematical features of the tachyon, which are rather different from a standard scalar field, is to establish the several types of asymptotic behavior that our matter content induces. Employing a dynamical system analysis, complemented by a thorough numerical study, we find classical solutions corresponding to a naked singularity or a black hole formation. In particular, there is a subset where the fluid and tachyon participate in an interesting tracking behaviour, depending sensitively on the initial conditions for the energy densities of the tachyon field and barotropic fluid. Two other classes of solutions are present, corresponding respectively, to either a tachyon or a barotropic fluid regime. Which of these emerges as dominant, will depend on the choice of the barotropic parameter, \\gamma. Furthermore, these collapsing scenarios both have as final state the formation of a black hole.
Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness
Helled, Ravit; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-01-01
The alignment of Saturn's magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10h 39m 22.4s. When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10h 47m 6s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn's measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn's rotation period is thought to be between 10h 32m and 10h 47m, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10h 32m 45s +- 46s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn's measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the co...
Prabir Rudra; Ritabrata Biswas; Ujjal Debnath
2012-04-03
In this work the collapsing process of a spherically symmetric star, made of dust cloud, in the background of dark energy is studied for two different gravity theories separately, i.e., DGP Brane gravity and Loop Quantum gravity. Two types of dark energy fluids, namely, Modified Chaplygin gas and Generalised Cosmic Chaplygin gas are considered for each model. Graphs are drawn to characterize the nature and the probable outcome of gravitational collapse. A comparative study is done between the collapsing process in the two different gravity theories. It is found that in case of dark matter, there is a great possibility of collapse and consequent formation of Black hole. In case of dark energy possibility of collapse is far lesser compared to the other cases, due to the large negative pressure of dark energy component. There is an increase in mass of the cloud in case of dark matter collapse due to matter accumulation. The mass decreases considerably in case of dark energy due to dark energy accretion on the cloud. In case of collapse with a combination of dark energy and dark matter, it is found that in the absence of interaction there is a far better possibility of formation of black hole in DGP brane model compared to Loop quantum cosmology model.
Atmospheric Gravitational Torque Variations Based on Various Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rowlands, David; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Advancements in the study of the Earth's variable rate of rotation and the motion of its rotation axis have given impetus to the analysis of the torques between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth. The output from global general circulation models of the atmosphere (pressure, surface stress) is being used as input to the torque computations. Gravitational torque between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth is an important component of the torque budget. Computation of the gravitational torque involves the adoption of a gravitational model from a wide variety available. The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain to what extent this choice might influence the results of gravitational torque computations.
Electron velocity distribution in a weakly ionized plasma with an external electric field
Lebowitz, Joel
Electron velocity distribution in a weakly ionized plasma with an external electric field A. V(v) of the electron component of a weakly ionized plasma is investigated in a spatially homogeneous external electric with a priori specified temperatures while the electron-electron interactions are given by a Landau
Taylor, James E.; Massey, Richard J.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki; George, Matthew R.; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Kitching, Thomas D.; Capak, Peter; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jullo, Eric; Koekemoer, Anton M.
2012-04-20
Gravitational lensing can provide pure geometric tests of the structure of spacetime, for instance by determining empirically the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. This geometric test has been demonstrated several times using massive clusters which produce a large lensing signal. In this case, matter at a single redshift dominates the lensing signal, so the analysis is straightforward. It is less clear how weaker signals from multiple sources at different redshifts can be stacked to demonstrate the geometric dependence. We introduce a simple measure of relative shear which for flat cosmologies separates the effect of lens and source positions into multiplicative terms, allowing signals from many different source-lens pairs to be combined. Applying this technique to a sample of groups and low-mass clusters in the COSMOS survey, we detect a clear variation of shear with distance behind the lens. This represents the first detection of the geometric effect using weak lensing by multiple, low-mass groups. The variation of distance with redshift is measured with sufficient precision to constrain the equation of state of the universe under the assumption of flatness, equivalent to a detection of a dark energy component {Omega}{sub X} at greater than 99% confidence for an equation-of-state parameter -2.5 {<=} w {<=} -0.1. For the case w = -1, we find a value for the cosmological constant density parameter {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.85{sup +0.044}{sub -}0{sub .19} (68% CL) and detect cosmic acceleration (q{sub 0} < 0) at the 98% CL. We consider the systematic uncertainties associated with this technique and discuss the prospects for applying it in forthcoming weak-lensing surveys.
Gravitational field models for the earth (GEM 1 and 2)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Andson, M. L.; Brownd, J. E.; Richardson, J. A.
1972-01-01
Two models of the earth's gravitational field have been computed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The first, Goddard Earth Model 1 (GEM 1), has been derived from satellite tracking data. The second, Goddard Earth Model 2 (GEM 2), has been derived from a combination of satellite tracking and surface gravimetric data. The geopotential models are represented in spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 16 for the combined solution and complete to degree and order 12 for the satellite solution. Both solutions include zonal terms to degree 21 and related satellite resonant coefficients to degree 22. The satellite data consisted primarily of optical data processed on 300 weekly orbital arcs for 25 close earth satellites. Surface gravity data were employed in the form of 5 deg x 5 deg mean free-air gravity anomalies providing about 70% world coverage. Station locations were obtained for 46 tracking sites by combining electronic, laser, and additional optical tracking data with the above satellite data. Analysis of the radial positions of these stations and a value of mean gravity on the geoid indicated a mean equatorial radius for the earth of about 6378145 meters. Results of geopotential tests on satellite data not used in the solution show that better agreement was obtained with the GEM 1 and GEM 2 models than with the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth 2 model.
Improved Gravitation Field Algorithm and Its Application in Hierarchical Clustering
Zheng, Ming; Sun, Ying; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Background Gravitation field algorithm (GFA) is a new optimization algorithm which is based on an imitation of natural phenomena. GFA can do well both for searching global minimum and multi-minima in computational biology. But GFA needs to be improved for increasing efficiency, and modified for applying to some discrete data problems in system biology. Method An improved GFA called IGFA was proposed in this paper. Two parts were improved in IGFA. The first one is the rule of random division, which is a reasonable strategy and makes running time shorter. The other one is rotation factor, which can improve the accuracy of IGFA. And to apply IGFA to the hierarchical clustering, the initial part and the movement operator were modified. Results Two kinds of experiments were used to test IGFA. And IGFA was applied to hierarchical clustering. The global minimum experiment was used with IGFA, GFA, GA (genetic algorithm) and SA (simulated annealing). Multi-minima experiment was used with IGFA and GFA. The two experiments results were compared with each other and proved the efficiency of IGFA. IGFA is better than GFA both in accuracy and running time. For the hierarchical clustering, IGFA is used to optimize the smallest distance of genes pairs, and the results were compared with GA and SA, singular-linkage clustering, UPGMA. The efficiency of IGFA is proved. PMID:23173043
Monopoles for gravitation and for higher spin fields
Bunster, Claudio; Portugues, Ruben; Cnockaert, Sandrine; Henneaux, Marc
2006-05-15
We consider massless higher spin gauge theories with both electric and magnetic sources, with a special emphasis on the spin two case. We write the equations of motion at the linear level (with conserved external sources) and introduce Dirac strings so as to derive the equations from a variational principle. We then derive a quantization condition that generalizes the familiar Dirac quantization condition, and which involves the conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries for higher spins. Next we discuss briefly how the result extends to the nonlinear theory. This is done in the context of gravitation, where the Taub-NUT solution provides the exact solution of the field equations with both types of sources. We rederive, in analogy with electromagnetism, the quantization condition from the quantization of the angular momentum. We also observe that the Taub-NUT metric is asymptotically flat at spatial infinity in the sense of Regge and Teitelboim (including their parity conditions). It follows, in particular, that one can consistently consider in the variational principle configurations with different electric and magnetic masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de La Fuente, Alberto; Shimizu, Kenji; NiñO, Yarko; Imberger, JöRg
2010-12-01
The energy transfer in a large deep lake, from the largest wind-excited basin-scale waves down to solitary-type waves, was investigated through a combination of inviscid nonlinear modal analysis and numerical simulations on the basis of weakly nonhydrostatic equations for internal gravitational waves. Data from four thermistor chains deployed in Lake Constance in 2003 revealed a Kelvin wave as the dominant primary basin-scale wave that transferred its energy, through nonlinear energy cascade, to waves with smaller spatial scales. The simulation results showed that the Kelvin wave excited higher azimuthal Kelvin wave modes whose phases were locked to the parent Kelvin wave to build a steepened wave front associated with the tail of solitary-type waves and large flow velocity in the wake of the steepened wave front. It is shown that it is the nonlinear and nonhydrostatic inviscid evolution of basin-scale waves that shifts the flow conditions from a basinwide coherent linear flow to a flow dominated by strong currents in localized regions where damping and mixing mechanisms may act efficiently.
Chiral Imprint of a Cosmic Gauge Field on Primordial Gravitational Waves
Jannis Bielefeld; Robert R. Caldwell
2014-12-18
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left- or right-circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Chiral imprint of a cosmic gauge field on primordial gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R.
2015-06-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left or right circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Contact angle hysteresis generated by the residual gravitational field of the Space Shuttle
Ward, Charles A.
Contact angle hysteresis generated by the residual gravitational field of the Space Shuttle C. A to determine the value of the gravitational intensity. In an experiment conducted on a Space Shuttle flight inferred from the measured contact angles agrees with that reported from the NASA electronic Space
Weak Lensing PSF Correction of Wide-field CCD Mosaic Images (SULI Paper)
Cevallos, Marissa; /Caltech /SLAC
2006-01-04
Gravitational lensing provides some of the most compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter. Dark matter on galaxy cluster scales can be mapped due to its weak gravitational lensing effect: a cluster mass distribution can be inferred from the net distortion of many thousands of faint background galaxies that it induces. Because atmospheric aberration and defects in the detector distort the apparent shape of celestial objects, it is of great importance to characterize accurately the point spread function (PSF) across an image. In this research, the PSF is studied in images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), whose camera is divided into 12 CCD chips. Traditional weak lensing methodology involves averaging the PSF across the entire image: in this work we investigate the effects of measuring the PSF in each chip independently. This chip-by-chip analysis was found to reduce the strength of the correlation between star and galaxy shapes, and predicted more strongly the presence of known galaxy clusters in mass maps. These results suggest correcting the CFHT PSF on an individual chip basis significantly improves the accuracy of detecting weak lensing.
Sandyk, R
1993-01-01
Treatment with picoTesla magnetic fields recently has been reported to attenuate symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms by which weak magnetic fields ameliorate Parkinsonian symptoms are unknown. There is evidence that the pineal gland is a "magnetosensor" in the brain since in experimental animals exposure to external magnetic fields alters the firing rate of pineal cells and induces inhibition of melatonin secretion. Hence, the clinical effects of weak magnetic fields in PD likewise may involve the mediation of the pineal gland. Animal data indicate that the pineal gland is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and that exogenous administration of melatonin induces an hyperglycemic effect. To investigate the hypothesis that the pineal gland mediates the therapeutic properties of weak magnetic fields in PD, I studied the effects of orally administered melatonin (3.0 mg) followed by a 6 minute application of low intensity external weak magnetic fields (7.5 picoTesla) on blood glucose levels in two Parkinsonian patients. In both patients melatonin challenge produced a moderate hyperglycemic effect which was reversed by subsequent stimulation with weak magnetic fields. These findings support the hypothesis that weak magnetic fields inhibit melatonin secretion and that the antiParkinsonian properties of weak magnetic fields are mediated partially via the inhibition of melatonin secretion. Furthermore, these data suggest that melatonin receptor antagonists could be beneficial as an adjunctive treatment in PD and highlight the importance of the pineal-hypothalamic axis in the pathophysiology of the disease as well as in the mechanisms of action of antiParkinsonian drugs. PMID:8063518
Stark deceleration of CaF molecules in strong- and weak-field seeking states.
Wall, T E; Kanem, J F; Dyne, J M; Hudson, J J; Sauer, B E; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R
2011-11-14
We report the Stark deceleration of CaF molecules in the strong-field seeking ground state and in a weak-field seeking component of a rotationally-excited state. We use two types of decelerator, a conventional Stark decelerator for the weak-field seekers and an alternating gradient decelerator for the strong-field seekers, and we compare their relative merits. We also consider the application of laser cooling to increase the phase-space density of decelerated molecules. PMID:21776450
The fluctuating gravitational field in inhomogeneous and clustered self-gravitating systems
A. Del Popolo
2001-05-21
In this paper I extend the results of Ahmad & Cohen (1973), regarding the study of the probability distribution of the stochastic force in homogeneous gravitational systems, to inhomogeneous gravitational ones. To this aim, I study the stochastic force distribution using N-body realizations of Plummer's spherically symmetric models. I find that the stochastic force distribution obtained for the evolved system is in good agreement with Kandrup's (1980) theory of stochastic force in inhomogeneous systems. Correlation effects that arise during the evolution of the system of particles are well described by Antonuccio-Delogu & Atrio-Barandela's (1992) theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voorhies, Coerte V.
2004-01-01
As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.
The Effect of Weak Combined Magnetic Field on Root Gravitropism and a Role of Ca2+ Ions Therein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyum, Elizabeth; Bogatina, Nina; Kondrachuk, A.
At present, magnetic fields of different types are widely used to study gravity sensing in plants. For instance, magnetic levitation of amyloplasts caused by high gradient magnetic field enables us to alter the effective gravity sensed by plant cells. For the first time we showed that a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), that is the sum of collinear permanent and alternating magnetic fields ( 0.5 gauss, 0-100 Hz), changes a cress and pea root positive gravitropic reaction on a negative one. This effect has the form of resonance and occurs at the frequency of cyclotron resonance of calcium ions. What is especially interesting is that under gravistimulation in the CMF, the displacement of amylopasts in the root cap statocytes is directed to the upper wall of a cell, i.e. in the direction opposite to the gravitational vector. The displacement of amyloplasts, which contain the abundance of free Ca2+ ions in the stroma, is accompanied by Ca2+ redistribution in the same direction, and increasing in the cytosol around amyloplasts near ten times in the CMF in comparison with the state magnetic field. Earlier, we also observed the Ca2+ accumulation in the upper site of a root curvature in the elongation zone in the CMF unlike a positive gravitropic reaction. Thus, it should be stressed that a root is bending in the same direction in which amyloplasts are displacing: downwards when gravitropism is positive and upwards when gravitropism is negative. The obtained data confirm the amyloplast statolithic function and give another striking demonstration of a leading role of Ca2+ ions in root gravitropism. But these data bring the question: what forces can promote amyloplast displacement against gravity? The possible explanation of the effect found is discussed. It is based on the ion cyclotron resonance in biosystems proposed by Liboff.. The original approach based on the use of a weak CMF may be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of plant gravisensing
Impurity-Assisted Tunneling Magnetoresistance under a Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Txoperena, Oihana; Song, Yang; Qing, Lan; Gobbi, Marco; Hueso, Luis E.; Dery, Hanan; Casanova, Fèlix
2014-10-01
Injection of spins into semiconductors is essential for the integration of the spin functionality into conventional electronics. Insulating layers are often inserted between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors for obtaining an efficient spin injection, and it is therefore crucial to distinguish between signatures of electrical spin injection and impurity-driven effects in the tunnel barrier. Here we demonstrate an impurity-assisted tunneling magnetoresistance effect in nonmagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic tunnel barriers. In both cases, the effect reflects on-off switching of the tunneling current through impurity channels by the external magnetic field. The reported effect is universal for any impurity-assisted tunneling process and provides an alternative interpretation to a widely used technique that employs the same ferromagnetic electrode to inject and detect spin accumulation.
Alexander L. Dmitriev
2009-03-25
On the basis of the field concept of gravitation and gravitational analogue of the Faradays induction law the difference of inertial mass of a body at its accelerated movement in horizontal and vertical directions relative to the Earth is shown. For an illustration of such a distinction the results of comparison of a motion of balance mechanical watch at horizontal and vertical orientations of balance axis are given. The expediency of statement of precision mechanical experiments with measurement of anisotropy of the inertial mass is noted, allowing to estimate the validity of the field approach in the description of gravitation.
Reversing the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number
Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.
2009-01-01
the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number Qingqing Sun,1,* M. Al-Amri,2 and M. Suhail Zubairy1 1Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA 2The National...- ment ?1?, is only part of the story. There is another type of quantum measurement called weak measurement ?2?, in which the outcome is not precise or sharp but nevertheless reveals some information about the system. Since this weak measurement does...
Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves
G. Voyatzis; L. Vlahos; S. Ichtiaroglou; D. Papadopoulos
2005-12-07
The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.
On the gravitational potential and field anomalies due to thin mass layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ockendon, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.
1977-01-01
The gravitational potential and field anomalies for thin mass layers are derived using the technique of matched asymptotic expansions. An inner solution is obtained using an expansion in powers of the thickness and it is shown that the outer solution is given by a surface distribution of mass sources and dipoles. Coefficients are evaluated by matching the inner expansion of the outer solution with the outer expansion of the inner solution. The leading term in the inner expansion for the normal gravitational field gives the Bouguer formula. The leading term in the expansion for the gravitational potential gives an expression for the perturbation to the geoid. The predictions given by this term are compared with measurements by satellite altimetry. The second-order terms in the expansion for the gravitational field are required to predict the gravity anomaly at a continental margin. The results are compared with observations.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The…
Spin polarization induced by an electric field in the presence of weak localization effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerci, Daniele; Borge, Juan; Raimondi, Roberto
2016-01-01
We evaluate the spin polarization (Edelstein or inverse spin galvanic effect) and the spin Hall current induced by an applied electric field by including the weak localization corrections for a two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the weak localization effects yield logarithmic corrections to both the spin polarization conductivity relating the spin polarization and the electric field and to the spin Hall angle relating the spin and charge currents. The renormalization of both the spin polarization conductivity and the spin Hall angle combine to produce a zero correction to the total spin Hall conductivity as required by an exact identity. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the effect are given.
Weak Solutions of the Cohomological Equation on ? 2 {mathbb {R}}(2) for Regular Vector Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Leo, Roberto
2015-12-01
In a recent article (De Leo, R., Ann. Glob. Anal. Geom., 39, 3, 231-248 2011), we studied the global solvability of the so-called cohomological equation L ? f = g in , where ? is a regular vector field on the plane and L ? the corresponding Lie derivative operator. In a joint article with T. Gramchev and A. Kirilov (2011), we studied the existence of global weak solutions of the cohomological equation for planar vector fields depending only on one coordinate. Here we generalize the results of both articles by providing explicit conditions for the existence of global weak solutions to the cohomological equation when ? is intrinsically Hamiltonian or of finite type.
Weak Solutions to Fokker-Planck Equations and Mean Field Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porretta, Alessio
2015-04-01
We deal with systems of PDEs, arising in mean field games theory, where viscous Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equations are coupled in a forward-backward structure. We consider the case of local coupling, when the running cost depends on the pointwise value of the distribution density of the agents, in which case the smoothness of solutions is mostly unknown. We develop a complete weak theory, proving that those systems are well-posed in the class of weak solutions for monotone couplings under general growth conditions, and for superlinear convex Hamiltonians. As a key tool, we prove new results for Fokker-Planck equations under minimal assumptions on the drift, through a characterization of weak and renormalized solutions. The results obtained give new perspectives even for the case of uncoupled equations as far as the uniqueness of weak solutions is concerned.
Physics of Gravitational Interaction: Geometry of Space or Quantum Field in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baryshev, Yurij
2006-03-01
Thirring-Feynman's tensor field approach to gravitation opens new understanding on the physics of gravitational interaction and stimulates novel experiments on the nature of gravity. According to Field Gravity, the universal gravity force is caused by exchange of gravitons - the quanta of gravity field. Energy of this field is well-defined and excludes the singularity. All classical relativistic effects are the same as in General Relativity. The intrinsic scalar (spin 0) part of gravity field corresponds to ``antigravity'' and only together with the pure tensor (spin 2) part gives the usual Newtonian force. Laboratory and astrophysical experiments which may test the predictions of FG, will be performed in near future. In particular, observations at gravity observatories with bar and interferometric detectors, like Explorer, Nautilus, LIGO and VIRGO, will check the predicted scalar gravitational waves from supernova explosions. New types of cosmological models in Minkowski space are possible too.
Overconnections and the energy-tensors of gauge and gravitational fields
Canarutto, Daniel
2015-01-01
A geometric construction for obtaining a prolongation of a connection to a connection of a bundle of connections is presented. This determines a natural extension of the notion of canonical energy-tensor which suits gauge and gravitational fields, and shares the main properties of the energy-tensor of a matter field in the jet space formulation of Lagrangian field theory, in particular with regards to symmetries of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form. Accordingly, the joint energy-tensor for interacting matter and gauge fields turns out to be a natural geometric object, whose definition needs no auxuliary structures. Various topics related to energy-tensors, symmetries and the Einstein equations in a theory with interacting matter, gauge and gravitational fields can be viewed under a clarifying light. Finally, the symmetry determined by the "Komar super potential" is expressed as a symmetry of the gravitational Poincar\\'e-Cartan form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-07-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a ? |? |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c ?+?. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Conductivity of molten sodium chloride in an arbitrarily weak dc electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delhommelle, Jerome; Cummings, Peter T.; Petravic, Janka
2005-09-01
We use nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD) simulations to characterize the response of a fluid subjected to an electric field. We focus on the response for very weak fields. Fields accessible by conventional NEMD methods are typically of the order of 109Vm-1, i.e., several orders of magnitude larger than those typically used in experiments. Using the transient time-correlation function, we show how NEMD simulations can be extended to study systems subjected to a realistic dc electric field. We then apply this approach to study the response of molten sodium chloride for a wide range of dc electric fields.
Conductivity of molten sodium chloride in an arbitrarily weak dc electric field.
Delhommelle, Jerome; Cummings, Peter T; Petravic, Janka
2005-09-15
We use nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD) simulations to characterize the response of a fluid subjected to an electric field. We focus on the response for very weak fields. Fields accessible by conventional NEMD methods are typically of the order of 10(9) V m(-1), i.e., several orders of magnitude larger than those typically used in experiments. Using the transient time-correlation function, we show how NEMD simulations can be extended to study systems subjected to a realistic dc electric field. We then apply this approach to study the response of molten sodium chloride for a wide range of dc electric fields. PMID:16392571
Weak magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson's disease with the "on-off" phenomenon.
Sandyk, R
1992-09-01
Application of external weak magnetic fields recently has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of a 62-year-old patient with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by levodopa-induced fluctuations in motor response ("on-off"). I report an additional case of a 67-year-old man with idiopathic PD and levodopa-related motor fluctuations who likewise experienced marked and sustained improvement in Parkinsonian symptoms and amelioration of "on-off" symptoms following the application of external weak magnetic fields. Based on these observations it is concluded that artificial weak magnetic fields may be beneficial for the treatment of PD complicated by levodopa-related "on-off" phenomenon. Furthermore, since in experimental animals external magnetic fields alter the secretion of melatonin, which in turn has been shown to regulate striatal and mesolimbic dopamine-mediated behaviors, it is proposed that the antiParkinsonian effects of weak magnetic fields are mediated via the pineal gland. PMID:1304575
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around collapsing stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.; Mewes, Vassilios
2015-10-01
Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological time scales. Scalar fields thus cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One hypothesized formation scenario of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs) with masses of ˜105 M? . Any such scalar field configurations must survive the gravitational collapse of a SMS in order to be a viable model of physical reality. To check for the postcollapse survival of these configurations and to follow the dynamics of the black hole-scalar field system we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index ? =4 /3 which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes after the collapse of the stars.
Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field
Kolosnitsyn, N I
2015-01-01
Brief review of principal ideas in respect of the high frequency gravitational radiation generated and detected in the laboratory condition is presented. Interaction of electro-magnetic and gravitational waves into a strong magnetic field is considered as a more promising variant of the laboratory GW-Hertz experiment. The formulae of the direct and inverse Gertsenshtein-Zeldovich effect are derived. Numerical estimates are given and a discussion of a possibility of observation of these effects in a lab is carried out.
Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field
N. I. Kolosnitsyn; V. N. Rudenko
2015-04-24
Brief review of principal ideas in respect of the high frequency gravitational radiation generated and detected in the laboratory condition is presented. Interaction of electro-magnetic and gravitational waves into a strong magnetic field is considered as a more promising variant of the laboratory GW-Hertz experiment. The formulae of the direct and inverse Gertsenshtein-Zeldovich effect are derived. Numerical estimates are given and a discussion of a possibility of observation of these effects in a lab is carried out.
Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields
Kirschvink, J.L.; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A.; Diaz-Ricci, J.C.; Kirschvink, S.J. )
1992-01-01
Due to the apparent lack of a biophysical mechanism, the question of whether weak, low-frequency magnetic fields are able to influence living organisms has long been one of the most controversial subjects in any field of science. However, two developments during the past decade have changed this perception dramatically, the first being the discovery that many organisms, including humans, biochemically precipitate the ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). In the magnetotactic bacteria, the geomagnetic response is based on either biogenic magnetite or greigite (Fe3S4), and reasonably good evidence exists that this is also the case in higher animals such as the honey bee. Second, the development of simple behavioral conditioning experiments for training honey bees to discriminate magnetic fields demonstrates conclusively that at least one terrestrial animal is capable of detecting earth-strength magnetic fields through a sensory process. In turn, the existence of this ability implies the presence of specialized receptors which interact at the cellular level with weak magnetic fields in a fashion exceeding thermal noise. A simple calculation shows that magnetosomes moving in response to earth-strength ELF fields are capable of opening trans-membrane ion channels, in a fashion similar to those predicted by ionic resonance models. Hence, the presence of trace levels of biogenic magnetite in virtually all human tissues examined suggests that similar biophysical processes may explain a variety of weak field ELF bioeffects. 61 refs.
Dynamo Models Incorporating Iron "Snow Zones" Consistent with Mercury's Weak Observed Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilim, R.; Stanley, S.; Hauck, S. A.
2009-12-01
The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER probes have revealed that Mercury possesses a field of internal origin, with a dipole moment between 230 and 290 nT-Rm3 (Rm is the mean radius of Mercury). The field is dominated by an axial dipole, and is approximately 100 times weaker than expected. Although it is likely caused by a planetary dynamo, a field as weak as Mercury's is difficult to produce with an Earth-like dynamo. This disparity in field strengths implies that the core dynamics of Mercury differ markedly from Earth's, and that an exotic internal field partitioning should be expected. Recent experimental work by Chen et al. (2008) indicates that convection in Mercury's outer core may be compositionally driven at multiple points by an iron precipitate, or "snow". Using the Kuang-Bloxham numerical dynamo model, we find that models which include a snow state midway through the convecting region can produce weak fields on the same order as those observed for Mercury. We present the observable features of our model and discuss the mechanism responsible for generating these weak fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wo?oszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.
2012-01-01
Influence of the weak electric field on the electronic structure of the Fibonacci superlattice is considered. The electric field produces a nonlinear dynamics of the energy spectrum of the aperiodic superlattice. Mechanism of the nonlinearity is explained in terms of energy levels anticrossings. The multifractal formalism is applied to investigate the effect of weak electric field on the statistical properties of electronic eigenfunctions. It is shown that the applied electric field does not remove the multifractal character of the electronic eigenfunctions, and that the singularity spectrum remains non-parabolic, however with a modified shape. Changes of the distances between energy levels of neighbouring eigenstates lead to the changes of the inverse participation ratio of the corresponding eigenfunctions in the weak electric field. It is demonstrated, that the local minima of the inverse participation ratio in the vicinity of the anticrossings correspond to discontinuity of the first derivative of the difference between marginal values of the singularity strength. Analysis of the generalized dimension as a function of the electric field shows that the electric field correlates spatial fluctuations of the neighbouring electronic eigenfunction amplitudes in the vicinity of anticrossings, and the nonlinear character of the scaling exponent confirms multifractality of the corresponding electronic eigenfunctions.
Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Penetration in ICP and Weakly-Magnetized ICP Discharges
Chen, Francis F.
is performed using a multi-turn loop antenna wrapped around a cylindrical squat bell jar (Fig. 1), rather than#12;Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Penetration in ICP and Weakly-Magnetized ICP Discharges the more complicated "stove-top" antenna configuration. An RF-compensated Langmuir probe and a Bz-dot probe
Behavioral responses to weak electric fields and a lanthanide metal in two shark species
Kajiura, Stephen
Behavioral responses to weak electric fields and a lanthanide metal in two shark species Laura K Keywords: Bycatch Deterrent Elasmobranch Electroreception The unintentional catch of sharks on hooks to repel sharks from baited hooks by applying various lanthanide metals and alloys to stimulate
Form factor of a quantum graph in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, Taro; Saito, Keiji
2003-05-01
Using the periodic orbit theory, we evaluate the form factor of a quantum graph to which a very weak magnetic field is applied. The first correction to the diagonal approximation describing the transition between the universality classes is shown to be in agreement with Pandey and Mehta's formula of parametric random matrix theory.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin
2010-04-15
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masalovich, S.
2014-11-01
An extraordinary focusing property of a parabolic mirror for ultracold neutrons in the presence of the gravitational field was first reported by Steyerl and co-authors. It was shown that all neutrons emitted from the focus of the mirror will be reflected back upon the same focus passing a point of return in the gravitational field in between. The present note offers a complementary geometric proof of this feature and discusses its application to many-mirror systems. The results can also be applied to electrons and ions in an electric field.
Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolá?, Ivan; Krtouš, Pavel
2015-06-01
We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so-called Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.
Magnetic fields and fluctuations in weakly Mn doped ZnGeP{sub 2}
Mengyan, P. W.; Lichti, R. L.; Baker, B. B.; Celebi, Y. G.; Catak, E.; Carroll, B. R.; Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G.
2014-02-21
We report on our measurements of local and bulk magnetic features in weakly Mn doped ZnGeP{sub 2}. Utilizing muon spin rotation and relaxation measurements, we identify local ferromagnetic order and fluctuations in the local fields as sampled by an implanted muon (?{sup +}). We also report on field induced ferromagnetism occurring above the claimed paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub c} = 312 K)
Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, Difficulties and Prospects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradamante, F.; Viennot, L.
2007-01-01
This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9-11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of "mapping" two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and…
Lichnerowicz-type theorems for self-gravitating systems with nonlinear electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Li-Ming; Peng, Yuxuan; Xu, Jianfei
2014-07-01
We consider a self-gravitating system containing a globally timelike Killing vector and a nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetic field and scalar fields. We prove that under certain boundary conditions (asymptotically flat/anti-de Sitter) there cannot be any nontrivial field configurations in the spacetime. To explore nontrivial solutions, one should break any of the conditions we imposed. The case with another type of nonlinear electromagnetic field is also analyzed, and similar conclusions have been obtained under certain conditions.
Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van
2012-02-01
Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.
Stuchlík, Zden?k
2015-01-01
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study dynamics of charged test particles in vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes od the charged particle dynamics provides mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is larg...
On the Residual Symmetries of the Gravitational Field
Eloy Ayón-Beato; Gerardo Velázquez-Rodríguez
2015-12-06
We develop a geometric criterion that unambiguously characterizes the residual symmetries of a gravitational ansatz. It also provides a systematic and effective procedure for finding all the residual symmetries of any gravitational ansatz. We apply the criterion to several examples starting with the Collinson ansatz for circular stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. We reproduce the residual symmetries already known for this ansatz including the corresponding infinite generators spanning two copies of the Witt algebra. We also consider the noncircular generalization of this ansatz and show how the noncircular contributions break the conformal invariance and enhance the standard translations symmetries of the circular Killing vectors to supertranslations depending on the direction along which the circularity is lost. As another application of the method, the well-known relation defining conjugate gravitational potentials introduced by Chandrasekhar, that makes possible the derivation of the Kerr black hole from a trivial solution of the Ernst equations, is deduced as a special point of the general residual symmetry of the Papapetrou ansatz. In this derivation we emphasise how the election of Weyl coordinates, which determines the Papapetrou ansatz, breaks also the conformal freedom of the stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. Additionally, we study AdS waves for any dimension generalizing the residual symmetries already known for lower dimensions and exhibiting a very complex infinite-dimensional Lie algebra containing three families: two of them span the semidirect sum of the Witt algebra and scalar supertranslations and the third generates vector supertranslations. Despite this complexity we manage to comprehend the true meaning of the infinite connected group as the precise diffeomorphisms subgroup allowing to locally deform the AdS background into AdS waves.
Escape of gravitational radiation from the field of massive bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, Richard H.; Pullin, Jorge; Kundu, Prasun K.
1993-01-01
We consider a compact source of gravitational waves of frequency omega in or near a massive spherically symmetric distribution of matter or a black hole. Recent calculations have led to apparently contradictory results for the influence of the massive body on the propagation of the waves. We show here that the results are in fact consistent and in agreement with the 'standard' viewpoint in which the high-frequency compact source produces the radiation as if in a flat background, and the background curvature affects the propagation of these waves.
A. A. Abdujabbarov; B. J. Ahmedov; V. G. Kagramanova
2008-03-11
The exact solution for the electromagnetic field occuring when the Kerr-Taub-NUT compact object is immersed (i) in an originally uniform magnetic field aligned along the axis of axial symmetry (ii) in dipolar magnetic field generated by current loop has been investigated. Effective potential of motion of charged test particle around Kerr-Taub-NUT gravitational source immersed in magnetic field with different values of external magnetic field and NUT parameter has been also investigated. In both cases presence of NUT parameter and magnetic field shifts stable circular orbits in the direction of the central gravitating object. Finally we find analytical solutions of Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating magnetized NUT star. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with monopolar configuration model for the stellar magnetic field.
Gravitation and electromagnetism in theory of a unified four-vector field
Alexander A. Chernitskii
2006-09-28
A four-vector field in flat space-time, satisfying a gauge-invariant set of second-order differential equations, is considered as a unified field. The model variational principle corresponds to the general covariance idea and gives rise to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics. Thus the four-vector field is considered as an electromagnetic potential. It is suggested that space-localized (particle) solutions of the nonlinear field model correspond to material particles. Electromagnetic and gravitational interactions between field particles appear naturally when a many-particle solution is investigated with the help of a perturbation method. The electromagnetic interaction appears in the first order in the small field of distant particles. In the second order, there is an effective Riemannian space induced by the field of distant particles. This Riemannian space can be connected with gravitation.
Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozza, V.; Postiglione, A.
2015-06-01
The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as 1/rq has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.
Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity
V. Bozza; A. Postiglione
2015-05-29
The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as $1/r^q$ has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.
A Test to Verify the Speed Change of Light in the Gravitational Field of the Earth
Mei Xiaochun
2006-12-03
Based on the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equation of gravitational field, it is proved that the speed of light speed would change and isotropy of light speed would be violated in gravitational field with spherical symmetry. On the surface of the earth, the speed of light vertical to the surface is 0.2m/s less than that parallel to the surface. It is suggested to use the method of the Michelson Morley interference to verify the change of light speed and the violation of isotropy in the gravitational field of the earth. In the proposed experiment, one arm of interferometer is vertical to the earth surface while another is parallel to the surface. When two arms are turned over 90 degree, the shift of about 0.07 interference stripe would be caused which can be observed directly. So this experiment can be considered as a new verification for general relativity in the gravitational field with spherical symmetry. If the experiment shows that gravitation would change the speed of light and violate the isotropy of light speed, the result would cause great effects on foundational physics, astrophysics and cosmolo
Stationary Bound States of Dirac Particles in the Schwarzschild Gravitational Field
Vronsky, M A; Kolesnikov, N S; Neznamov, V P; Popov, E Yu; Safronov, I I
2013-01-01
Nondecaying bound states of elementary spin-half particles are validated and calculated numerically for the Schwarzschild gravitational field using a self-conjugate Hamiltonian with a flat scalar product for any value of the gravitational coupling constant. Gilbert condition g_{00}>0 leads to a boundary condition such that components of the vector of current density of Dirac particles are zero near the "event horizon". At small values of the coupling constant, the energy spectrum is close to the hydrogen-like spectrum. Based on the results of this study, we can assume that there exists a new type of collapsars, for which the Hawking radiation mechanism is not present. From the standpoint of cosmology, if the value of the gravitational coupling constant is small, alphanonradiating relict collapsars can manifest itself only through gravitation. Thus, they are good candidates for the role of "dark matter" carriers. In the wide range of admissible masses, there can exist collapsars of a...
Exact deflection of a Neutral-Tachyon in the Kerr's Gravitational field
G. V. Kraniotis
2011-10-06
We solve in closed analytic form space-like geodesic equations in the Kerr gravitational field. Such geodesic equations describe the motion of neutral tachyons (faster than light particles) in the Kerr spacetime. More specifically we derive the closed form solution for the deflection angle of a neutral tachyon on an equatorial orbit in Kerr spacetime. The solution is expressed elegantly in terms of Lauricella's hypergeometric function F_{D}.We applied our results to three cases: first, for the calculation of the deflection angle of a neutral tachyon on an equatorial trajectory in the gravitational field of a Kerr black hole. Subsequently, we applied our exact solutions to compute the deflection angle of equatorial spacelike geodesics in the gravitational fields of Sun and Earth assuming the Kerr spacetime geometry.
Ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: ? UMa and ? Leo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Böhm, T.; Wade, G.
2014-12-01
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A (Petit et al. 2011). This signal was interpreted as a Zeeman signature related to a sub-gauss longitudinal magnetic field, constituting the first detection of a surface magnetic field in an Am star. We present here ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two other bright Am stars, ? UMa and ? Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. The line profiles of the two stars display circularly-polarized signatures similar in shape to the observations gathered for Sirius A. These new detections suggest that very weak magnetic fields may be present in the photospheres of a significant fraction of intermediate-mass stars, although the strongly asymmetric Zeeman signatures measured so far in Am stars (featuring a prominent positive lobe and no detected negative lobe) are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect.
Dust acoustic shock wave in electronegative dusty plasma: Roles of weak magnetic field
Ghosh, Samiran; Ehsan, Z.; Murtaza, G.
2008-02-15
The effects of nonsteady dust charge variations and weak magnetic field on small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave in electronegative dusty plasma are investigated. The dynamics of the nonlinear wave are governed by a Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation that possesses dispersive shock wave. The weak magnetic field is responsible for the dispersive term, whereas nonsteady dust charge variation is responsible for dissipative term, i.e., the Burger term. The coefficient of dissipative term depends only on the obliqueness of the magnetic field. It is found that for parallel propagation the dynamics of the nonlinear wave are governed by the Burger equation that possesses monotonic shock wave. The relevances of the findings to cometary dusty plasma, e.g., Comet Halley are briefly discussed.
Lifetime and decay of unstable particles in strong gravitational fields
Fregolente, Douglas; Saa, Alberto
2008-05-15
We consider here the decay of unstable particles in geodesic circular motion around compact objects. For the neutron, in particular, strong and weak decay are calculated by means of a semiclassical approach. Noticeable effects are expected to occur as one approaches the photonic circular orbit of realistic black holes. We argue that, in such a limit, the quasithermal spectrum inherent to extremely relativistic observers in circular motion plays a role similar to the Unruh radiation for uniformly accelerated observers.
Lifetime and decay of unstable particles in strong gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fregolente, Douglas; Saa, Alberto
2008-05-01
We consider here the decay of unstable particles in geodesic circular motion around compact objects. For the neutron, in particular, strong and weak decay are calculated by means of a semiclassical approach. Noticeable effects are expected to occur as one approaches the photonic circular orbit of realistic black holes. We argue that, in such a limit, the quasithermal spectrum inherent to extremely relativistic observers in circular motion plays a role similar to the Unruh radiation for uniformly accelerated observers.
Reduced Description of Stellar Dynamics by Moments of Gravitational Field (GF)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stupka, A. A.
2008-12-01
Because of absence of time derivatives from scalar potential as a generalized coordinates of gravitational field (GF) in action of nonrelativistic gravitating system, application of the Hamilton method for description of GF mechanics is impossible. In the present paper a transformation of the generalized coordinates of GF, that is based on continuity equation and minimal action principle, is proposed. A potential vector is introduced, that is similar to fixing of Hamilton gauge of the electromagnetic field. This transformation gives us the possibility to calculate Hamilton function (HF), removes mathematical troubles of the Jeans theory (Jeans swindle) and allows us to construct kinetic theory of GF using statistical mechanics methods.
Universal scaling and echoing in gravitational collapse of a complex scalar field
Hirschmann, E W; Hirschmann, Eric W; Eardley, Douglas M
1995-01-01
This paper studies gravitational collapse of a complex scalar field at the threshold for black hole formation, assuming that the collapse is spherically symmetric and continuously self-similar. A new solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field equations is derived, after a small amount of numerical work with ordinary differential equations. The universal scaling and echoing behavior discovered by Choptuik in spherically symmetrical gravitational collapse appear in a somewhat different form. Properties of the endstate of the collapse are derived: The collapse leaves behind an irregular outgoing pulse of scalar radiation, with exactly flat spacetime within it.
Detection of a weak magnetic field via cavity-enhanced Faraday rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Keyu; Zhao, Nan; Twamley, Jason; EQuS Collaboration
2015-10-01
We study the sensitive detection of a weak static magnetic field via Faraday rotation induced by an ensemble of spins in a bimodal degenerate microwave cavity. We determine the limit of the resolution for the sensitivity of the magnetometry achieved using either single-photon or multiphoton inputs. For the case of a microwave cavity containing an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond, we obtain a magnetometry sensitivity exceeding 5.2 n T /?{Hz } utilizing a single-photon probe field, while for a multiphoton input we achieve a subfemtotesla sensitivity using a coherent-probe microwave field with power of Pin=1 n W .
Weak field approximation in a model of de Sitter gravity: Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions
Jia-An Lu; Chao-Guang Huang
2013-05-29
The weak field approximation in a model of de Sitter gravity is investigated in the static and spherically symmetric case, under the assumption that the vacuum spacetime without perturbations from matter fields is a torsion-free de Sitter spacetime. It is shown on one hand that any solution should be singular at the center of the matter field, if the exterior is described by a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime and is smoothly connected to the interior. On the other, all the regular solutions are obtained, which might be used to explain the galactic rotation curves without involving dark matter.
Relativistic weak lensing from a fully non-linear cosmological density field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D. B.; Bruni, M.; Wands, D.
2015-09-01
In this paper we examine cosmological weak lensing on non-linear scales and show that there are Newtonian and relativistic contributions and that the latter can also be extracted from standard Newtonian simulations. We use the post-Friedmann formalism, a post-Newtonian type framework for cosmology, to derive the full weak-lensing deflection angle valid on non-linear scales for any metric theory of gravity. We show that the only contributing term that is quadratic in the first order deflection is the expected Born correction and lens-lens coupling term. We use this deflection angle to analyse the vector and tensor contributions to the E- and B- mode cosmic shear power spectra. In our approach, once the gravitational theory has been specified, the metric components are related to the matter content in a well-defined manner. Specifying General Relativity, we write down a complete set of equations for a GR+?CDM universe for computing all of the possible lensing terms from Newtonian N-body simulations. We illustrate this with the vector potential and show that, in a GR+?CDM universe, its contribution to the E-mode is negligible with respect to that of the conventional Newtonian scalar potential, even on non-linear scales. Thus, under the standard assumption that Newtonian N-body simulations give a good approximation of the matter dynamics, we show that the standard ray tracing approach gives a good description for a ?CDM cosmology.
Strong Gravitational Lens Candidates in the GOODS ACS Fields
C. D. Fassnacht; L. A. Moustakas; S. Casertano; H. C. Ferguson; R. A. Lucas; Y. Park
2003-09-02
We present results from a systematic search for strong gravitational lenses in the GOODS ACS data. The search technique involves creating a sample of likely lensing galaxies, which we define as massive early-type galaxies in a redshift range 0.3 < z <1.3. The target galaxies are selected by color and magnitude, giving a sample of 1092 galaxies. For each galaxy in the sample, we subtract a smooth description of the galaxy light from the z_{850}-band data. The residuals are examined, along with true-color images created from the B_{435}V_{606}i_{775} data, for morphologies indicative of strong lensing. We present our six most promising lens candidates, as well as our full list of candidates.
Electromgnetic-gravitational cross-sections in external elctromagnetic fields
Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan A. Tran
1994-10-03
The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condesor and the magnetic field of the selenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario.
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around collapsing stars
Nicolas Sanchis-Gual; Juan Carlos Degollado; Pedro J. Montero; José A. Font; Vassilios Mewes
2015-11-04
Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological timescales. With this requirement, scalar fields cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBH). One hypothesis for the formation of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMS) with masses of $\\sim10^5 \\rm {M_{\\odot}}$. Therefore, a constraint for the existence of quasi-bound states of scalar fields is their survival to such dynamic events. To answer this question we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index $\\Gamma=4/3$ which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around non-rotating black holes after the collapse of the stars.
MagnetoSperm: A microrobot that navigates using weak magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Islam S. M.; Dijkslag, Herman C.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak
2014-06-01
In this work, a propulsion system similar in motion to a sperm-cell is investigated. This system consists of a structure resembling a sperm-cell with a magnetic head and a flexible tail of 42 ?m and 280 ?m in length, respectively. The thickness, length, and width of this structure are 5.2 ?m, 322 ?m, and 42 ?m, respectively. The magnetic head includes a 200 nm-thick cobalt-nickel layer. The cobalt-nickel layer provides a dipole moment and allows the flexible structure to align along oscillating weak (less than 5 mT) magnetic field lines, and hence generates a propulsion thrust force that overcomes the drag force. The frequency response of this system shows that the propulsion mechanism allows for swimming at an average speed of 158 ± 32 ?m/s at alternating weak magnetic field of 45 Hz. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate controlled steering of the flexible structure towards reference positions.
[Effects of weak magnetic fields on different phases of planarian regeneration].
Tiras, Kh P; Petrova, O N; Miakisheva, S N; Popova, S S; Aslanidi, K B
2015-01-01
We analyzed the effects of weak combined magnetic fields, tuned to the cyclotron resonance condition for calcium ions, obtained in different phases of planarian regeneration. We showed that the result of regeneration in 72 hours after decapitation depends on the length of exposure, and the time between decapitation and initiation of a half-hour exposure. The experimental dependence can be explained by a multiplicity of enzymatic targets activated in different phases of the regeneration process. PMID:25868354
S. -Y. Wang
2006-06-20
In a recent article, Ayala et al. [Phys. Rev. D 73, 105009 (2006)] have studied the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in strongly coupled QED in the presence of weak magnetic fields. We argue that the results and conclusions of the article are not reliable as they are subject to gauge dependent artifacts resulting from an inconsistent truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations.
Detection of a weak magnetic field via cavity enhanced Faraday rotation
Keyu Xia; Nan Zhao; Jason Twamley
2015-07-01
We study the sensitive detection of a weak static magnetic field via Faraday rotation induced by an ensemble of spins in a bimodal degenerate microwave cavity. We determine the limit of the resolution for the sensitivity of the magnetometry achieved using either single-photon or multiphoton inputs. For the case of a microwave cavity containing an ensemble of Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond, we obtain a magnetometry sensitivity exceeding $0.5~\\text{\
Spectral form factor for chaotic dynamics in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Nagao, Taro
2006-04-01
Using semiclassical periodic orbit theory for a chaotic system in a weak magnetic field, we obtain the form factor predicted by Pandey and Mehta's two matrix model up to the third order. The third order contribution has a peculiar term which exists only in the intermediate crossover domain between the GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble) and the GUE (Gaussian unitary ensemble) universality classes. The exact expression is obtained by taking account of the contribution from encounter regions where orbit loops are connected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panteleev, Ivan; Mubassarova, Virginia; Damaskinskaya, Ekaterina; Naimark, Oleg; Bogomolov, Leonid
2015-10-01
The influence of the weak electric field on a process of damage accumulation and main crack formation is investigated on a base of the acoustic emission data obtained during a uniaxial quasistatic compression of granite samples. It is shown that continuous external impact leads to a change in deformation and fracture processes. This, in turn, leads to a change of acoustic emission parameters and stages of acoustic emission.
Dmitriy Palatnik
2002-10-24
In this note one suggests a possibility of direct observation of the $\\theta$-parameter, introduced in the Born--Infeld theory of electroweak and gravitational fields, developed in quant-ph/0202024. Namely, one may treat $\\theta$ as a universal constant, responsible for correction to the Coulomb and Newton laws, allowing direct interaction between electrical charges and masses.
Variations of the gravitational field as a motive power for rhythmics of biochemical processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troshichev, O. A.; Gorshkov, E. S.; Shapovalov, S. N.; Sokolovskii, V. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Vorobeitchikov, V. M.
2004-01-01
Variations of the gravitational field affected by the Sun and the Moon while the Earth's moving along the orbit seem to be a powerful source of many rhythmical processes typical of biochemical processes. Studies carried out in AARI revealed the obvious relationships between the dynamics of some biochemical reactions and ?D- function describing the regular variations of the gravitational field under combined influence of the Sun and the Moon. The following of them are examined as examples: the rate of the unithiol oxidation in vitro, concentration of the thiol compounds in human urine, some hematological indicators (rate of the erythrocytes sedimentation, hemoglobin content). Compatibility of run of the biochemical indicators and ?D-function is indicative of essential influence of the regular variations of the gravitational field on rhythmics of the biochemical processes. As this takes place, the solar activity acts like to the instability factor. Balance of the solar activity effects and the varying gravitational field effect alter in time depending on location in the solar activity cycle.
Mathematical modeling of the gravitational field of a twisted Skyrmion string
Hadi, Miftachul; Husein, Andri
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model without a twist and the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, $mkz$, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
Mathematical modeling of the gravitational field of a twisted Skyrmion string
Miftachul Hadi; Malcolm Anderson; Andri Husein
2015-05-22
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model without a twist and the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, $mkz$, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
High order well-balanced WENO scheme for the gas dynamics equations under gravitational fields
Xing, Yulong
High order well-balanced WENO scheme for the gas dynamics equations under gravitational fields high order well-balanced finite difference WENO schemes to this system, which can preserve for smooth and discontinuous solutions. Keywords: Euler equations; well-balanced; WENO scheme; finite
Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate
2007-01-01
Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…
Reply to 'Comment on 'Primordial magnetic seed field amplification by gravitational waves''
Betschart, Gerold; Zunckel, Caroline; Dunsby, Peter K S; Marklund, Mattias
2007-04-15
Here we respond to the comment by Tsagas on our earlier paper. We show that the results in that comment are flawed and cannot be used for drawing conclusions about the nature of magnetic field amplification by gravitational waves and give further support that the results of our earlier paper are correct.
Time evolution and decay of an excited atom in a weak electric field
Wang, J.B.
1996-07-01
A Mathematica notebook for describing the time evolution and decay of the hydrogen {ital n}=2 states in the presence of a weak external electric field is presented. The work involves (1) solving a set of differential equations coupled by the Hamiltonian of the external electric field and (2) deriving a set of formulas for a complete description of the polarization state of the emitted photons. It is demonstrated how problems with such complexity can be treated with ease and in an error-free manner by using symbolic software such as Mathematica. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Updated gravitational-wave upper limits on the internal magnetic field strength of recycled pulsars
Alpha Mastrano; Andrew Melatos
2011-12-07
Recent calculations of the hydromagnetic deformation of a stratified, non-barotropic neutron star are generalized to describe objects with superconducting interiors, whose magnetic permeability \\mu is much smaller than the vacuum value \\mu_0. It is found that the star remains oblate if the poloidal magnetic field energy is \\gtrsim 40% of total magnetic field energy, that the toroidal field is confined to a torus which shrinks as \\mu decreases, and that the deformation is much larger (by a factor \\sim \\mu_0/\\mu) than in a non-superconducting object. The results are applied to the latest direct and indirect upper limits on gravitational-wave emission from Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and radio pulse timing (spin-down) observations of 81 millisecond pulsars, to show how one can use these observations to infer the internal field strength. It is found that the indirect spin-down limits already imply astrophysically interesting constraints on the poloidal-toroidal field ratio and diamagnetic shielding factor (by which accretion reduces the observable external magnetic field, e.g. by burial). These constraints will improve following gravitational-wave detections, with implications for accretion-driven magnetic field evolution in recycled pulsars and the hydromagnetic stability of these objects' interiors.
Effects of the Electromagnetic Field on Five-dimensional Gravitational Collapse
M. Sharif; G. Abbas
2010-01-29
This paper investigates the five-dimensional(5D) spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with positive cosmological constant in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The junction conditions between the 5D non-static interior and the static exterior spacetimes are derived using the Israel criteria modified by Santos. We use the energy conditions to discuss solution to the field equations of the interior spacetime with a charged perfect fluid for the marginally bound and the non-marginally bound cases. We found that the range of apparent horizon was larger than that for 4D gravitational collapse with an electromagnetic field. This analysis gives the irreducible and the reducible extensions of 4D perfect fluid collapse with an electromagnetic field and 5D perfect fluid collapse, respectively. Moreover, for the later case, the results can be recovered under some restrictions.
Abele, H.; Jenke, T.; Leeb, H.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2010-03-15
We propose to apply Ramsey's method of separated oscillating fields to the spectroscopy of the quantum states in the gravity potential above a horizontal mirror. This method allows a precise measurement of quantum mechanical phaseshifts of a Schroedinger wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the Earth. Measurements with ultracold neutrons will offer a sensitivity to Newton's law or hypothetical short-ranged interactions, which is about 21 orders of magnitude below the energy scale of electromagnetism.
Detecting the presence of weak magnetic fields using nitrogen-vacancy centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhry, Adam Zaman
2015-06-01
We show how nitrogen-vacancy centers can be used to detect the presence of weak magnetic fields, that is, to find out whether a magnetic field, about which we may not have complete information, is actually present or not. The solution to this problem comes from quantum state discrimination theory. The effect of decoherence is taken into account to optimize the time over which the nitrogen-vacancy center is allowed to interact with the magnetic field before making a measurement. We also find the optimum measurement that should be performed. We then show how multiple measurements reduce the error in detecting the magnetic field. Finally, a major limitation of the measurement process, namely, limited photon detection efficiency, is taken into account. Our proposals should be implementable with current experimental technology.
Next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling in an effective field theory approach
Levi, Michele
2010-11-15
We use an effective field theory (EFT) approach to calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) gravitational spin-orbit interaction between two spinning compact objects. The NLO spin-orbit interaction provides the most computationally complex sector of the NLO spin effects, previously derived within the EFT approach. In particular, it requires the inclusion of nonstationary cubic self-gravitational interaction, as well as the implementation of a spin supplementary condition (SSC) at higher orders. The EFT calculation is carried out in terms of the nonrelativistic gravitational field parametrization, making the calculation more efficient with no need to rely on automated computations, and illustrating the coupling hierarchy of the different gravitational field components to the spin and mass sources. Finally, we show explicitly how to relate the EFT derived spin results to the canonical results obtained with the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) Hamiltonian formalism. This is done using noncanonical transformations, required due to the implementation of covariant SSC, as well as canonical transformations at the level of the Hamiltonian, with no need to resort to the equations of motion or the Dirac brackets.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport
Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport
Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez
2011-07-06
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
Charge rotating black string in gravitating nonlinear electromagnetic fields
Seyed Hossein Hendi; Ahmad Sheykhi
2014-05-24
We construct a new class of charged rotating black string solutions coupled to a nonlinear electromagnetic field in the background of anti-de Sitter spaces. We consider two types of nonlinear electromagnetic field namely, logarithmic and exponential forms. We investigate the geometric effects of nonlinearity parameter and find that for large $r$, these solutions recover the rotating back string solutions of Einstein-Maxwell theory. We calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the rotating black string. We also analyze thermodynamics of the spacetime and verify the validity of the first law of thermodynamics for the obtained solutions.
Gravitational field models for study of Earth mantle dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The tectonic forces or stresses due to the small scale mantle flow under the South American plate are detected and determined by utilizing the harmonics of the geopotential field model. The high degree harmonics are assumed to describe the small scale mantle convection patterns. The input data used in the derivation of this model is made up of 840,000 optical, electronic, and laser observations and 1,656 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air anomalies. Although there remain some statistically questionable aspects of the high degree harmonics, it seems appropriate now to explore their implications for the tectonic forces or stress field under the crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahav, Ofer; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto J.
1996-07-01
Preface; Part I. Galactic Structure: 1. Dynamics of triaxial systems P. T. de Zeeuw; 2. The mass of the galactic halo D. N. C. Lin; 3. Negative specific heat in clusters of atoms R. M. Lynden-Bell; 4. Dynamical evolution of globular clusters J. P. Ostriker; 5. Disc stability J. C. B. Papaloizou; 6. Protostellar discs J. E. Pringle; 7. Dynamics of warped galaxies S. D. Tremaine; Part II. Quasars, Galaxy Formation and Evolution: 8. Jets and cooling flows J. J. Binney; 9. Galactic nuclei M. J. Rees; 10. Optical quasar surveys M. Schmidt; 11. Violent relaxation in hierarchical clustering S. D. M. White; Part III. Cosmology: 12. Observational tests of general relativity R. D. Blandford; 13. A reconsideration of the peculiar velocity field within the local supercluster D. Burnstein; 14. Cosmology with the APM G. P. Efstathiou; 15. Geometric algebra, spacetime physics and gravitation S. F. Gull; 16. Weak gravitational lensing N. Kaiser; 17. Energy in general relativity J. Katz; 18. Gravitational dynamics in an expanding universe T. Padmanabhan; 19. Dynamics of the relative motions of the galaxies in and near the local group P. J. E. Peebles; 20. Inertia D. Lynden-Bell; Epilogue V. C. Rubin; Appendices Donald Lynden-Bell and D. J. D. Earn.
Dynamical stability of a self-gravitating rotating cylinder in a helical magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luyten, P. J.
1989-03-01
The effect of a helical magnetic field on the oscillations and the stability of a homogeneous self-gravitating rotating cylinder is investigated. The axial field has a tendency to stabilize long wave numbers and to destabilize small wave numbers so that maximum instability occurs for a finite wave number. If the toroidal and the axial component of the field have the same sign, the instability associated with the toroidal field can be removed by the rotation or by the axial field. Rotational instability is reduced but cannot be removed by the field. If the components of the field have the opposite sign, rotational instability is increased. The maximum growth rate of the magnetic instability is reduced by a small axial field and tends to a finite value for large axial fields.
Quantum interference control of an isolated resonance lifetime in the weak-field limit.
García-Vela, A
2015-10-28
Resonance states play an important role in a large variety of physical and chemical processes. Thus, controlling the resonance behavior, and particularly a key property like the resonance lifetime, opens up the possibility of controlling those resonance mediated processes. While such a resonance control is possible by applying strong-field approaches, the development of flexible weak-field control schemes that do not alter significantly the system dynamics still remains a challenge. In this work, one such control scheme within the weak-field regime is proposed for the first time in order to modify the lifetime of an isolated resonance state. The basis of the scheme suggested is quantum interference between two pathways induced by laser fields, that pump wave packet amplitude to the target resonance under control. The simulations reported here show that the scheme allows for both enhancement and quenching of the resonance survival lifetime, being particularly flexible to achieve large lifetime enhancements. Control effects on the resonance lifetime take place only while the pulse is operating. In addition, the conditions required to generate the two interfering quantum pathways are found to be rather easy to meet for general systems, which makes the experimental implementation straightforward and implies the wide applicability of the control scheme. PMID:26459753
Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes: An effective field theory derivation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, Peter
2015-09-01
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in nonvacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the nonvacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in nonvacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and nongravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for nonvacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014)] and Linz, Friedmann, and Wiseman [Combined gravitational and electromagnetic self-force on charged particles in electrovac spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084031 (2014)]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014) to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in a scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals that depend on the past history of the particle.
Gravitational lensing in the strong field limit for Kar's metric
Carlos A. Benavides; Alejandro Cardenas-Avendano; Alexis Larranaga
2015-10-19
In this paper we calculate the strong field limit deflection angle for a light ray passing near a scalar charged spherically symmetric object, described by a metric which comes from the low-energy limit of heterotic string theory. Then, we compare the expansion parameters of our results with those obtained in the Einstein's canonical frame, obtained by a conformal transformation, and we show that, at least at first order, the results do not agree.
Weak Field Black Hole Formation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes
Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Shiraz Minwalla
2009-08-07
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the thermalization of a strongly coupled conformal field theory that is forced out of its vacuum by a source that couples to a marginal operator. The source is taken to be of small amplitude and finite duration, but is otherwise an arbitrary function of time. When the field theory lives on $R^{d-1,1}$, the source sets up a translationally invariant wave in the dual gravitational description. This wave propagates radially inwards in $AdS_{d+1}$ space and collapses to form a black brane. Outside its horizon the bulk spacetime for this collapse process may systematically be constructed in an expansion in the amplitude of the source function, and takes the Vaidya form at leading order in the source amplitude. This solution is dual to a remarkably rapid and intriguingly scale dependent thermalization process in the field theory. When the field theory lives on a sphere the resultant wave either slowly scatters into a thermal gas (dual to a glueball type phase in the boundary theory) or rapidly collapses into a black hole (dual to a plasma type phase in the field theory) depending on the time scale and amplitude of the source function. The transition between these two behaviors is sharp and can be tuned to the Choptuik scaling solution in $R^{d,1}$.
Locality of Gravitational Systems from Entanglement of Conformal Field Theories.
Lin, Jennifer; Marcolli, Matilde; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan
2015-06-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi formula relates the entanglement entropy in a conformal field theory to the area of a minimal surface in its holographic dual. We show that this relation can be inverted for any state in the conformal field theory to compute the bulk stress-energy tensor near the boundary of the bulk spacetime, reconstructing the local data in the bulk from the entanglement on the boundary. We also show that positivity, monotonicity, and convexity of the relative entropy for small spherical domains between the reduced density matrices of any state and of the ground state of the conformal field theory are guaranteed by positivity conditions on the bulk matter energy density. As positivity and monotonicity of the relative entropy are general properties of quantum systems, this can be interpreted as a derivation of bulk energy conditions in any holographic system for which the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription applies. We discuss an information theoretical interpretation of the convexity in terms of the Fisher metric. PMID:26196612
Gravitational radiation from collapsing magnetized dust
Hajime Sotani; Shijun Yoshida; Kostas D. Kokkotas
2007-02-15
In this article we study the influence of magnetic fields on the axial gravitational waves emitted during the collapse of a homogeneous dust sphere. We found that while the energy emitted depends weakly on the initial matter perturbations it has strong dependence on the strength and the distribution of the magnetic field perturbations. The gravitational wave output of such a collapse can be up to an order of magnitude larger or smaller calling for detailed numerical 3D studies of collapsing magnetized configurations.
Gravitational radiation from collapsing magnetized dust
Sotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Shijun; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2007-04-15
In this article we study the influence of magnetic fields on the axial gravitational waves emitted during the collapse of a homogeneous dust sphere. We found that while the energy emitted depends weakly on the initial matter perturbations it has strong dependence on the strength and the distribution of the magnetic field perturbations. The gravitational wave output of such a collapse can be up to an order of magnitude larger or smaller calling for detailed numerical 3D studies of collapsing magnetized configurations.
Gravitational Field Equations and Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang
2012-07-11
The main objective of this article is to derive a new set of gravitational field equations and to establish a new unified theory for dark energy and dark matter. The new gravitational field equations with scalar potential $\\varphi$ are derived using the Einstein-Hilbert functional, and the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is a natural outcome of the divergence-free constraint of the variational elements. Gravitation is now described by the Riemannian metric $g_{ij}$, the scalar potential $\\varphi$ and their interactions, unified by the new gravitational field equations. Associated with the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is the scalar potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi=\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} g^{ij}D_iD_j \\varphi$, which represents a new type of energy caused by the non-uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The negative part of this potential energy density produces attraction, and the positive part produces repelling force. This potential energy density is conserved with mean zero: $\\int_M \\Phi dM=0$. The sum of this new potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi$ and the coupling energy between the energy-momentum tensor $T_{ij}$ and the scalar potential field $\\varphi$ gives rise to a new unified theory for dark matter and dark energy: The negative part of this sum represents the dark matter, which produces attraction, and the positive part represents the dark energy, which drives the acceleration of expanding galaxies. In addition, the scalar curvature of space-time obeys $R=\\frac{8\\pi G}{c^4} T + \\Phi$. Furthermore, the new field equations resolve a few difficulties encountered by the classical Einstein field equations.
Recovery of the Cosmological Peculiar Velocity from the Density Field in the Weakly Nonlinear Regime
Michal Chodorowski; Ewa Lokas; Agnieszka Pollo; Adi Nusser
1998-08-14
Using third-order perturbation theory, we derive a relation between the mean divergence of the peculiar velocity given density and the density itself. Our calculations assume Gaussian initial conditions and are valid for Gaussian filtering of the evolved density and velocity fields. The mean velocity divergence turns out to be a third-order polynomial in the density contrast. We test the power spectrum dependence of the coefficients of the polynomial for scale-free and standard CDM spectra and find it rather weak. Over scales larger than about 5 megaparsecs, the scatter in the relation is small compared to that introduced by random errors in the observed density and velocity fields. The relation can be useful for recovering the peculiar velocity from the associated density field, and also for non-linear analyses of the anisotropies of structure in redshift surveys.
Computer study of convection of weakly ionized plasma in a nonuniform magnetic field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiau, J. N.
1972-01-01
A weakly ionized plasma in a strong and nonuniform magnetic field exhibits an instability analogous to the flute instability in a fully ionized plasma. The instability sets in at a critical magnetic field. To study the final state of the plasma after the onset of the instability, the plasma equations are integrated numerically assuming a certain initial spectrum of small disturbances. In the regime studied, numerical results indicate a final steadily oscillating state consisting of a single finite amplitude mode together with a time-independent modification of the original equilibrium. These results agree with the analytic results obtained by Simon in the slightly supercritical regime. As the magnetic field is increased further, the wavelength of the final oscillation becomes nonunique. There exists a subinterval in the unstable wave band. Final stable oscillation with a wavelength in this subinterval can be established if the initial disturbance has a sufficiently strong component at the particular wavelength.
Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Nakonieczny, ?ukasz
2015-11-01
Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.
Cartographic generalization of urban street networks based on gravitational field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gang; Li, Yongshu; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jiawei
2014-05-01
The automatic generalization of urban street networks is a constant and important aspect of geographical information science. Previous studies show that the dual graph for street-street relationships more accurately reflects the overall morphological properties and importance of streets than do other methods. In this study, we construct a dual graph to represent street-street relationship and propose an approach to generalize street networks based on gravitational field theory. We retain the global structural properties and topological connectivity of an original street network and borrow from gravitational field theory to define the gravitational force between nodes. The concept of multi-order neighbors is introduced and the gravitational force is taken as the measure of the importance contribution between nodes. The importance of a node is defined as the result of the interaction between a given node and its multi-order neighbors. Degree distribution is used to evaluate the level of maintaining the global structure and topological characteristics of a street network and to illustrate the efficiency of the suggested method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can be used in generalizing street networks and retaining their density characteristics, connectivity and global structure.
Robust ground state and artificial gauge in DQW exciton condensates under weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakio?lu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet
2014-08-01
An exciton condensate is a vast playground in studying a number of symmetries that are of high interest in the recent developments in topological condensed matter physics. In double quantum wells (DQWs) they pose highly nonconventional properties due to the pairing of non-identical fermions with a spin dependent order parameter. Here, we demonstrate a new feature in these systems: the robustness of the ground state to weak external magnetic field and the appearance of the artificial spinor gauge fields beyond a critical field strength where negative energy pair-breaking quasi particle excitations, i.e. de-excitation pockets (DX-pockets), are created in certain k regions. The DX-pockets are the Kramers symmetry broken analogs of the negative energy pockets examined in the 1960s by Sarma. They respect a disk or a shell-topology in k-space or a mixture between them depending on the magnetic field strength and the electron-hole density mismatch. The Berry connection between the artificial spinor gauge field and the TKNN number is made. This field describes a collection of pure spin vortices in real space when the magnetic field has only inplane components.
Blake, Chris; Heymans, Catherine; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Nakajima, Reiko; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo
2015-01-01
The unknown nature of dark energy motivates continued cosmological tests of large-scale gravitational physics. We present a new consistency check based on the relative amplitude of non-relativistic galaxy peculiar motions, measured via redshift-space distortion, and the relativistic deflection of light by those same galaxies traced by galaxy-galaxy lensing. We take advantage of the latest generation of deep, overlapping imaging and spectroscopic datasets, combining the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We quantify the results using the "gravitational slip" statistic E_G, which we estimate as 0.48 +/- 0.10 at z=0.32 and 0.30 +/- 0.07 at z=0.57, the latter constituting the highest redshift at which this quantity has been determined. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of General Relativity, for a perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker ...
Evolution of peaks in weakly nonlinear density field and dark halo profiles
Ewa L. Lokas
1997-08-05
Using the two-point Edgeworth series up to second order we construct the weakly nonlinear conditional probability distribution function for the density field around an overdense region. This requires calculating the two-point analogues of the skewness parameter $S_{3}$. We test the dependence of the two-point skewness on distance from the peak for scale-free power spectra and Gaussian smoothing. The statistical features of such conditional distribution are given as the values obtained within linear theory corrected by the terms that arise due to weakly nonlinear evolution. The expected density around the peak is found to be always below the linear prediction while its rms fluctuation is always larger than in the linear case. We apply these results to the spherical model of collapse as developed by Hoffman & Shaham (1985) and find that in general the effect of weakly nonlinear interactions is to decrease the scale from which a peak gathers mass and therefore also the mass itself. In the case of open universe this results in steepening of the final profile of the virialized protoobject.
Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.
1996-12-31
The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.
Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation.
Renziehausen, Klaus; Hader, Kilian; Jakubetz, Werner; Engel, Volker
2013-05-10
Although the absolute or carrier envelope phase (CEP) of a laser pulse is usually assumed to be effective for ultrashort and/or ultrastrong pulses only, it is demonstrated that these limitations can eventually be removed. Therefore, the excitation of a model positively charged homonuclear diatomic molecule, in which four electronic states are coupled by the laser field, is studied. In an initial step, nuclear wave packets in two dissociative states are prepared. Upon reaching the fragment channel, a weak pulse interacts with the system and prepares CEP-dependent asymmetries associated with electron density localized on one or the other fragmentation product. PMID:23436555
Dislocation scatterings in p-type Si1-x Ge x under weak electric field.
Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun
2015-12-11
We present a theoretical model which describes hole mobility degradation by charged dislocations in p-type Si1-x Ge x . The complete analytical expression of the dislocation mobility is calculated from the momentum relaxation time of hole carriers under weak electric field. The obtained dislocation mobility shows a T (3/2)/? relation and is proportional to the germanium density x. We also suggest a criterion for negating scatterings by dislocations in terms of the controllable parameters such as acceptor dopant density, dislocation density, temperature, and Ge density x, etc. PMID:26567870
Shear Viscosity in Weakly Coupled N-Component Scalar Field Theories
Jiunn-Wei Chen; Mei Huang; Chang-Tse Hsieh; Han-Hsin Lin
2010-11-18
The rich phenomena of the shear viscosity (eta) to entropy density (s) ratio, eta/s, in weakly coupled N-component scalar field theories are studied. eta/s can have a "double dip" behavior due to resonances and the phase transition. If an explicit goldstone mass term is added, then eta/s can either decrease monotonically in temperature or, as seen in many other systems, reach a minimum at the phase transition. We also show how to go beyond the original variational approach to make the Boltzmann equation computation of eta systematic.
Dislocation scatterings in p-type Si1?x Ge x under weak electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun
2015-12-01
We present a theoretical model which describes hole mobility degradation by charged dislocations in p-type Si1?x Ge x . The complete analytical expression of the dislocation mobility is calculated from the momentum relaxation time of hole carriers under weak electric field. The obtained dislocation mobility shows a T 3/2/? relation and is proportional to the germanium density x. We also suggest a criterion for negating scatterings by dislocations in terms of the controllable parameters such as acceptor dopant density, dislocation density, temperature, and Ge density x, etc.
Thick branes from self-gravitating scalar fields
Novikov, Oleg O.; Andrianov, Vladimir A.; Andrianov, Alexander A.
2014-07-23
The formation of a domain wall ('thick brane') induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin brane defect is considered in noncompact five-dimensional space-time with warped AdS type geometry. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with softly broken O(2) symmetry and minimal coupling to gravity. The nonperturbative effects in the invariant mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are investigated for different values of the tension of the thin brane defect. Especially interesting is the case of the thin brane with negative tension when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortaggio, Marcello
2004-03-01
We investigate the ultrarelativistic boost of a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an external electromagnetic field, described by an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations found by Ernst (the “Schwarzschild-Melvin” metric). Following the classical method of Aichelburg and Sexl, the gravitational field generated by a black hole moving “with the speed of light” and the transformed electromagnetic field are determined. The corresponding exact solution describes an impulsive gravitational wave propagating in the static, cylindrically symmetric, electrovac universe of Melvin, and for a vanishing electromagnetic field it reduces to the well known Aichelburg-Sexl pp?wave. In the boosting process, the original Petrov type I of the Schwarzschild-Melvin solution simplifies to type II on the impulse, and to type D elsewhere. The geometry of the wave front is studied, in particular its nonconstant Gauss curvature. In addition, a more general class of impulsive waves in the Melvin universe is constructed by means of a six-dimensional embedding formalism adapted to the background. A coordinate system is also presented in which all the impulsive metrics take a continuous form. Finally, it is shown that these solutions are a limiting case of a family of exact gravitational waves with an arbitrary profile. This family is identified with a solution previously found by Garfinkle and Melvin. We thus complement their analysis, in particular demonstrating that such spacetimes are of type II and belong to the Kundt class.
M. Sharif; M. Azam
2013-05-31
In this paper, we discuss the effects of electromagnetic field on the dynamical instability of a spherically symmetric expansionfree gravitational collapse. Darmois junction conditions are formulated by matching interior spherically symmetric spacetime to exterior Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m spacetime. We investigate the role of different terms in the dynamical equation at Newtonian and post Newtonian regimes by using perturbation scheme. It is concluded that instability range depends upon pressure anisotropy, radial profile of energy density and electromagnetic field, but not on the adiabatic index $\\Gamma$. In particular, the electromagnetic field reduces the unstable region.
Gravitational and electromagnetic fields near a de Sitter-like infinity.
Krtous, Pavel; Podolský, Jirí; Bicák, Jirí
2003-08-01
We present a characterization of general gravitational and electromagnetic fields near de Sitter-like conformal infinity which supplements the standard peeling behavior. This is based on an explicit evaluation of the dependence of the radiative component of the fields on the null direction from which infinity is approached. It is shown that the directional pattern of radiation has a universal character that is determined by the algebraic (Petrov) type of the spacetime. Specifically, the radiation field vanishes along directions opposite to principal null directions. PMID:12935062
Equation of Motion of a Spinning Test Particle in Gravitational Field
Wu, N
2006-01-01
Based on the coupling between the spin of a particle and gravitoelectromagnetic field, the equation of motion of a spinning test particle in gravitational field is deduced. From this equation of motion, it is found that the motion of a spinning particle deviates from the geodesic trajectory, and this deviation originates from the coupling between the spin of the particle and gravitoelectromagnetic field, which is also the origin of Lense-Thirring effects. In post-Newtonian approximations, this equation gives out the same results as those of Papapetrou equation. Effect of the deviation of geodesic trajectory is detectable.
T. N. LaRosa; C. L. Brogan; S. N. Shore; T. J. Lazio; N. E. Kassim; M. E. Nord
2005-06-24
New low-frequency 74 and 330 MHz observations of the Galactic center (GC) region reveal the presence of a large-scale ($6\\arcdeg\\times 2\\arcdeg$) diffuse source of nonthermal synchrotron emission. A minimum energy analysis of this emission yields a total energy of $\\sim (\\phi^{4/7}f^{3/7})\\times 10^{52}$ ergs and a magnetic field strength of $\\sim 6(\\phi/f)^{2/7}$ \\muG (where $\\phi$ is the proton to electron energy ratio and $f$ is the filling factor of the synchrotron emitting gas). The equipartition particle energy density is $1.2(\\phi/f)^{2/7}$ \\evcm, a value consistent with cosmic-ray data. However, the derived magnetic field is several orders of magnitude below the 1 mG field commonly invoked for the GC. With this field the source can be maintained with the SN rate inferred from the GC star formation. Furthermore, a strong magnetic field implies an abnormally low GC cosmic-ray energy density. We conclude that the mean magnetic field in the GC region must be weak, of order 10 \\muG (at least on size scales $\\ga 125\\arcsec$).
Turner, E.L.
1988-07-01
For several years astronomers have devoted considerable effort to finding and studying a class of celestial phenomena whose very existence depends on rare cosmic accidents. These are gravitational-lens events, which occur when two or more objects at different distances from the earth happen to lie along the same line of sight and so coincide in the sky. The radiation from the more distant object, typically a quasar, is bent by the gravitational field of the foreground object. The bending creates a cosmic mirage: distorted or multiple images of the background object. Such phenomena may reveal many otherwise undetectable features of the image source, of the foreground object and of the space lying between them. Such observations could help to resolve several fundamental questions in cosmology. In the past decade theoretical and observational research on gravitational lenses has grown rapidly and steadily. At this writing at least 17 candidate lens systems have been discussed in the literature. Of the 17 lens candidates reported so far in professional literature, only five are considered to have been reliably established by subsequent observations. Another three are generally regarded as weak or speculative cases with less than 50 percent chance of actually being lens systems. In the remaining nine cases the evidence is mixed or is sparse enough so that the final judgment could swing either way. As might be concluded, little of the scientific promise of gravitational lenses has yet been realized. The work has not yielded a clear value for the proportionality constant or any of the other fundamental cosmological parameter. 7 figs.
Fast Gravitational Field Model Using Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Younes, A.; Macomber, B.; Woollands, R.; Probe, A.; Bai, X.; Junkins, J.
2013-09-01
Recent research has addressed the issue that high degree and order gravity expansions involve tens of thousands of terms in a theoretically infinite order spherical harmonic expansion (some gravity models extend to degree and order 200 with over 30,000 terms) which in principle must be computed at every integration step to obtain the acceleration consistent with the gravity model. We propose to evaluate these gravity model interpolation models and use them in conjunction with the modified Picard path approximation methods. It was decided to consider analogous orthogonal approximation methods to interpolate, an FEM model, high (degree, order) gravity fields, by replacing the global spherical harmonic series by a family of locally precise orthogonal polynomial approximations for efficient computation. Our preliminary results showed that time to compute the state of the art (degree and order 200) spherical harmonic gravity is reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude while maintaining > 9 digits of accuracy. Most of the gain is due to adopting the orthogonal FEM approach, but radial adaptation of the approximation degree gains an additional order of magnitude speedup. The efficient data base storage/access of the local coefficients is studied, which utilizes porting the algorithm to the NVIDIA GPU. This paper will address the accuracy and efficiency in both a C++ serial PC architecture as well as a PC/GPU architecture. The Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Gravity Model (AOFEGM) is expected to have broad potential for speeding the trajectory propagation algorithms; for example, used in conjunction with orthogonal Finite Element Model (FEM) gravity approximations, the Chebyshev-Picard path approximation enables truly revolutionary speedups in orbit propagation without accuracy loss.
Electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential particle in weak fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tricoli, Vincenzo; Orsini, Gabriele
2015-10-01
The electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential (?) particle in weak fields is investigated. In this large-? regime, Debye-layer kinetics determines O(1) perturbations to the electric- and concentration fields in the surrounding electroneutral solution. Taking these effects into account, the expressions of the slip-flow coefficient and the effective surface boundary-conditions for the electric- and concentration fields are derived. For binary and symmetric electrolyte where only one ion species carries the current in the electroneutral domain, the far-field salt gradient as related to the electric field is determined. The electrodiffusiophoretic mobility is obtained for three particle geometries: sphere, cylinder and spheroid arbitrarily oriented with respect to the externally applied field. Strong departure from Smoluchowskian behavior is found. If co-ion is the current carrier, the mobility is independent of ?, regardless of the body shape. Also, the hydrodynamic flow-field is irrotational. If counter-ion is the current carrier, the problem formulated in terms of a properly-defined scalar field (?), which embodies both the electric potential (?) and the salt concentration, becomes formally identical to the one addressed in our previous work, concerning the small-? regime, with negligible salt gradients. Then, all the results obtained in that study are extended and applied even to the large-? regime considered here, provided the new expressions now derived for the surface boundary conditions and the slip-flow coefficient are employed and ? is used in place of ?. The present results are discussed also in comparison with the classical studies of Dukhin et al and O’Brien et al concerning electrophoresis of highly charged particles with no salt gradient at infinity, and with recent studies of electrodiffusiophoresis, which, however, neglected the fields perturbations caused by Debye-layer kinetics. It is found that the effects addressed and incorporated in the present study determine remarkably different mobility-versus-? behaviour as compared to those previous theories.
Electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential particle in weak fields.
Tricoli, Vincenzo; Orsini, Gabriele
2015-10-21
The electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential (?) particle in weak fields is investigated. In this large-? regime, Debye-layer kinetics determines O(1) perturbations to the electric- and concentration fields in the surrounding electroneutral solution. Taking these effects into account, the expressions of the slip-flow coefficient and the effective surface boundary-conditions for the electric- and concentration fields are derived. For binary and symmetric electrolyte where only one ion species carries the current in the electroneutral domain, the far-field salt gradient as related to the electric field is determined. The electrodiffusiophoretic mobility is obtained for three particle geometries: sphere, cylinder and spheroid arbitrarily oriented with respect to the externally applied field. Strong departure from Smoluchowskian behavior is found. If co-ion is the current carrier, the mobility is independent of ?, regardless of the body shape. Also, the hydrodynamic flow-field is irrotational. If counter-ion is the current carrier, the problem formulated in terms of a properly-defined scalar field (?), which embodies both the electric potential (?) and the salt concentration, becomes formally identical to the one addressed in our previous work, concerning the small-? regime, with negligible salt gradients. Then, all the results obtained in that study are extended and applied even to the large-? regime considered here, provided the new expressions now derived for the surface boundary conditions and the slip-flow coefficient are employed and ? is used in place of ?. The present results are discussed also in comparison with the classical studies of Dukhin et al and O'Brien et al concerning electrophoresis of highly charged particles with no salt gradient at infinity, and with recent studies of electrodiffusiophoresis, which, however, neglected the fields perturbations caused by Debye-layer kinetics. It is found that the effects addressed and incorporated in the present study determine remarkably different mobility-versus-? behaviour as compared to those previous theories. PMID:26414651
Energy-momentum complex of gravitational field in the Palatini formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novotný, Jan
1993-06-01
It is shown that Murphy's energy-momentum complex of the gravitational field, derived from the Hilbert Lagrangian by use of the Palatini formalism, is identical to the complex derived from the same Lagrangian in a standard way by Mitskievic. The explicitly tensorial formulation of conservation laws in general relativity is eflectively used and some properties of the complex in question are discussed in connection with Murphy's article.
Dynamics of a gravitational field within a wave front and thermodynamics of black holes
Czuchry, Ewa; Jezierski, Jacek; Kijowski, Jerzy
2004-12-15
Hamiltonian dynamics of a gravitational field contained in a spacetime region with boundary S being a null-like hypersurface (a wave front) is discussed. A complete Hamiltonian formula for the dynamics (with no surface integrals neglected) is derived. A quasilocal proof of the first law of black holes thermodynamics is obtained as a consequence, in the case when S is a nonexpanding horizon. The zeroth law and Penrose inequalities are discussed from this point of view.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Moral, A.; Azanza, María J.
2015-03-01
A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate ("frequency"), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD-CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD-CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B0 ?0.2-15 mT) AC-MF of frequency fM=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation.
Spectral response of magnetically trapped Bose gases to weak microwave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Federsel, P.; Rogulj, C.; Menold, T.; Fortágh, J.; Günther, A.
2015-09-01
Microwave fields can be used to drive local spin transitions in quantum gases and for outcoupling of cold atomic beams from magnetic traps. In this paper, we derive an analytic theory for the outcoupling rate as a response to weak microwave fields of varying frequency and power. The theory holds for thermal clouds and Bose-Einstein condensates. It allows for calculating transition rates in arbitrary magnetic trap geometries and includes the effect of gravity. We verify our theory by measuring the flux of outcoupled atoms at the single-particle level. The derived spectral response is important for magnetic noise spectroscopy with quantum gases, and for probing quantum gas dynamics with single atom detectors in real time.
Control of Optical Transitions with Magnetic Fields in Weakly Bound Molecules.
McGuyer, B H; McDonald, M; Iwata, G Z; Skomorowski, W; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2015-07-31
In weakly bound diatomic molecules, energy levels are closely spaced and thus more susceptible to mixing by magnetic fields than in the constituent atoms. We use this effect to control the strengths of forbidden optical transitions in (88)Sr2 over 5 orders of magnitude with modest fields by taking advantage of the intercombination-line threshold. The physics behind this remarkable tunability is accurately explained with both a simple model and quantum chemistry calculations, and suggests new possibilities for molecular clocks. We show how mixed quantization in an optical lattice can simplify molecular spectroscopy. Furthermore, our observation of formerly inaccessible f-parity excited states offers an avenue for improving theoretical models of divalent-atom dimers. PMID:26274416
Control of Optical Transitions with Magnetic Fields in Weakly Bound Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGuyer, B. H.; McDonald, M.; Iwata, G. Z.; Skomorowski, W.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.
2015-07-01
In weakly bound diatomic molecules, energy levels are closely spaced and thus more susceptible to mixing by magnetic fields than in the constituent atoms. We use this effect to control the strengths of forbidden optical transitions in 88Sr2 over 5 orders of magnitude with modest fields by taking advantage of the intercombination-line threshold. The physics behind this remarkable tunability is accurately explained with both a simple model and quantum chemistry calculations, and suggests new possibilities for molecular clocks. We show how mixed quantization in an optical lattice can simplify molecular spectroscopy. Furthermore, our observation of formerly inaccessible f -parity excited states offers an avenue for improving theoretical models of divalent-atom dimers.
Stationary Bound States of Dirac Particles in the Schwarzschild Gravitational Field
M. A. Vronsky; M. V. Gorbatenko; N. S. Kolesnikov; V. P. Neznamov; E. Yu. Popov; I. I. Safronov
2013-07-10
Nondecaying bound states of elementary spin-half particles are validated and calculated numerically for the Schwarzschild gravitational field using a self-conjugate Hamiltonian with a flat scalar product for any value of the gravitational coupling constant. Hilbert condition g_{00}>0 leads to a boundary condition such that components of the vector of current density of Dirac particles are zero near the "event horizon". At small values of the coupling constant, the energy spectrum is close to the hydrogen-like spectrum. Based on the results of this study, we can assume that there exists a new type of collapsars, for which the Hawking radiation mechanism is not present. From the standpoint of cosmology, if the value of the gravitational coupling constant is small, alphanonradiating relict collapsars can manifest itself only through gravitation. Thus, they are good candidates for the role of "dark matter" carriers. In the wide range of admissible masses, there can exist collapsars of a new type with the masses of hypothesized WIMP particles, which are treated as representatives of "dark matter" in numerous scenarios of the expansion of the universe. The results of this study can lead to revisiting some concepts of the standard cosmological model related to the evolution of the universe and interaction of collapsars with surrounding matter.
Nonlocal effective gravitational field equations and the running of Newton's constant G
Hamber, H.W.; Williams, R.M.
2005-08-15
Nonperturbative studies of quantum gravity have recently suggested the possibility that the strength of gravitational interactions might slowly increase with distance. Here a set of generally covariant effective field equations are proposed, which are intended to incorporate the gravitational, vacuum-polarization induced, running of Newton's constant G. One attractive feature of this approach is that, from an underlying quantum gravity perspective, the resulting long-distance (or large time) effective gravitational action inherits only one adjustable parameter {xi}, having the units of a length, arising from dimensional transmutation in the gravitational sector. Assuming the above scenario to be correct, some simple predictions for the long-distance corrections to the classical standard model Robertson-Walker metric are worked out in detail, with the results formulated as much as possible in a model-independent framework. It is found that the theory, even in the limit of vanishing renormalized cosmological constant, generally predicts an accelerated power-law expansion at later times t{approx}{xi}{approx}1/H.
Fregolente, Douglas; Matsas, George E. A.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.
2006-08-15
We investigate the possible decay of protons in geodesic circular motion around neutral compact objects. Weak and strong decay rates and the associated emitted powers are calculated using a semiclassical approach. Our results are discussed with respect to distinct ones in the literature, which consider the decay of accelerated protons in electromagnetic fields. A number of consistency checks are presented along the paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsybul'nik, V. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.
2013-10-01
The gain coefficient for a weak electromagnetic field in the scattering of electrons by ions in an elliptically polarized light wave is theoretically studied in the general relativistic case. A simple analytical expression for the field amplification constant in a logarithmic approach is obtained. It is shown that the gain coefficient for ultrarelativistic electron energies depends on the energy as a cubic power of energy and can be significantly large. This effect results in an increase of the gain coefficient up to quantities of order ? ˜ (1-10) cm-1 for electron energies Ei ˜ (10-20) GeV. The obtained results may be experimentally verified, for example, by the scientific facilities at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR; Darmstadt, Germany).
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick
2005-12-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284
Zden?k Stuchlík; Martin Kološ
2015-11-09
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study dynamics of charged test particles in vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes od the charged particle dynamics provides mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that strong acceleration of ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets.
Unified quantum jump superoperator for optical fields from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit
Haeyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka
2010-06-15
We derive a generalized quantum jump superoperator that can be used in the quantum trajectory description of single photon detectors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. Our model describes an optical single-mode cavity field coupled to a reservoir through a two-state quantum system and includes three physical parameters: the coupling of the field to the two-state system, the coupling of the two-state system to the reservoir, and the cavity loss rate. In this setup, the two-state system can act as a photodetector or as an energy-adding mechanism. In the first case, we assume that the reservoir acts as a damping mechanism for an ideal cavity and derive reduced field operators describing the photon detection events. Our model coincides with the commonly known quantum trajectory based photon counting models at the weak- and strong-coupling limits and is, furthermore, also applicable between their validity regimes. In the second case, we assume that the reservoir injects energy into a lossy cavity through the two-state system. Again we derive the reduced field operators describing photon creation events into the lossy cavity. We show that this setup can act as an LED or as a laser depending on the strength of the injection. We also investigate how the setup operates at the close proximity of the lasing threshold.
Synchronization dynamics induced on pairs of neurons under applied weak alternating magnetic fields.
Azanza, María J; del Moral, A; Calvo, A C; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Junquera, C
2013-12-01
Pairs of Helix aspersa neurons show an alternating magnetic field dependent frequency synchronization (AMFS) when exposed to a weak (amplitude B0 between 0.2 and 150 Gauss (G)) alternating magnetic field (AMF) of extremely low frequency (ELF, fM = 50 Hz). We have compared the AMFS patterns of discharge with: i) the synaptic activity promoted by glutamate and acetylcholine; ii) the activity induced by caffeine; iii) the bioelectric activity induced on neurons interconnected by electric synapses. AMFS activity reveals several specific features: i) a tight coincidence in time of the pattern and frequency, f, of discharge; ii) it is induced in the time interval of field application; iii) it is dependent on the intensity of the sinusoidal applied magnetic field; iv) elicited biphasic responses (excitation followed by inhibition) run in parallel for the pair of neurons; and v) some neuron pairs either spontaneously or AMF synchronized can be desynchronized under applied higher AMF. Our electron microscopy studies reveal gap-like junctions confirming our immunocytochemistry results about expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) in 4.7% of Helix neurons. AMF and carbenoxolone did not induce any significant effect on spontaneous synchronization through electric synapses. PMID:24012769
Resolution of partial cataplexy in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk, R
1996-02-01
Cataplexy, an ancillary symptom of narcolepsy, involves the sudden loss of muscle tone without altered consciousness usually brought on by sudden excitement or emotional influence and extreme exertions (Guilleminault et al., 1974; Parks et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1992; 1993; Scrima, 1981; Baker, 1985). Attacks of generalized cataplexy produce complete atonic, areflexic partial or complete paralysis of striated muscles commonly involving the leg muscles resulting in collapse of the knees and falling while milder forms often termed partial cataplexy may manifest by sagging of the face, eyelid, or jaw, dysarthria, blurred vision, drooping of the head, weakness of an arm or leg, buckling at the knees, or simply a momentary sensation of weakness that is imperceptible to observers (Guilleminault, 1976; Aldrich, 1993). The duration of cataplexy is usually a few seconds, although severe episodes can last several minutes and rarely several hours or days in the case of "status cataplecticus" (Parkes et al., 1974; Guilleminault, 1976; Billiard & Cadilhac, 1985; Aldrich, 1992; 1993). This report concerns a 51 year old man with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis who exhibited daily episodes of partial cataplexy which resolved within 3 weeks after he received treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields. PMID:8707478
Ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: ? UMa and ? Leo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C.; Ariste, A. López; Wade, G. A.
2015-10-01
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently detected in the spectral lines of the Am star Sirius A. With a prominent positive lobe, the shape of the phase-averaged Stokes V line profile is atypical of stellar Zeeman signatures, casting doubts on its magnetic origin. We report here on ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two more bright Am stars: ? Uma and ? Leo. Stokes V line signatures are detected in both objects, with a shape and amplitude similar to the one observed on Sirius A. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Stokes V line profiles depend on various line parameters (Landé factor, wavelength, depth) as expected from a Zeeman signature, confirming that extremely weak magnetic fields are likely present in a large fraction of Am stars. We suggest that the strong asymmetry of the polarized signatures, systematically observed so far in Am stars and never reported in strongly magnetic Ap stars, bears unique information about the structure and dynamics of the thin surface convective shell of Am stars.
Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: towards a self-gravitating quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noui, Karim
2007-01-01
In a companion paper, we have emphasized the role of the Drinfeld double DSU(2) in the context of three-dimensional Riemannian loop quantum gravity coupled to massive spinless point particles. We make use of this result to propose a model for a self-gravitating quantum field theory (massive spinless non-causal scalar field) in three-dimensional Riemannian space. We start by constructing the Fock space of the free self-gravitating field: the vacuum is the unique DSU(2) invariant state, one-particle states correspond to DSU(2) unitary irreducible simple representations and any multi-particles states are obtained as the symmetrized tensor product between simple representations. The associated quantum field is defined by the usual requirement of covariance under DSU(2). Then, we introduce a DSU(2)-invariant self-interacting potential (the obtained model is a group field theory) and explicitly compute the lowest order terms (in the self-interaction coupling constant ?) of the propagator and of the three-point function. Finally, we compute the lowest order quantum gravity corrections (in the Newton constant G) to the propagator and to the three-point function.
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, O.; Girdiuk, A.
2015-08-01
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4~mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
Titov, O
2015-01-01
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
Hydrodynamical wind on vertically self-gravitating ADAFs in the presence of toroidal magnetic field
Ghasemnezhad, Maryam
2015-01-01
We present the effect of a hydrodynamical wind on the structure and the surface temperature of a vertically self-gravitating magnetized ADAFs using self-similar solutions. Also a model for an axisymmetric, steady-state, vertically self-gravitating hot accretion flow threaded by a toroidal magnetic field has been formulated. The model is based on $\\alpha-$prescription for turbulence viscosity. It is found that the thickness and radial velocity of the disc are reduced significantly as wind gets stronger. In particular, the solutions indicated that the wind and advection have the same effects on the structure of the disc. We also find that in the optically thin ADAF becomes hotter by including the wind parameter and the self-gravity parameter.
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
O. Titov; A. Girdiuk
2015-11-02
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
Agathos, M.
The direct detection of gravitational waves with upcoming second-generation gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will allow us to probe the genuinely strong-field dynamics of general ...
Application of a weak magnetic field to improve microbial fuel cell performance.
Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sun, Min; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping
2015-12-01
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as a promising technology for wastewater treatment with concomitant energy production but the performance is usually limited by low microbial activities. This has spurred intensive research interest for microbial enhancement. This study demonstrated an interesting stimulation effect of a static magnetic field (MF) on sludge-inoculated MFCs and explored into the mechanisms. The implementation of a 100-mT MF accelerated the reactor startup and led to increased electricity generation. Under the MF exposure, the activation loss of the MFC was decreased, but there was no increased secretion of redox mediators. Thus, the MF effect was mainly due to enhanced bioelectrochemical activities of anodic microorganisms, which are likely attributed to the oxidative stress and magnetohydrodynamic effects under an MF exposure. This work implies that weak MF may be applied as a simple and effective approach to stimulate microbial activities for various bioelectrochemical energy production and decontamination applications. PMID:26410373
García-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels E
2015-03-01
The possibility of quantum interference control of the final state distributions of photodissociation fragments by means of pure phase modulation of the pump laser pulse in the weak-field regime is demonstrated theoretically for the first time. The specific application involves realistic wave packet calculations of the transient vibrational populations of the Br2(B, v(f)) fragment produced upon predissociation of the Ne-Br2(B) complex, which is excited to a superposition of resonance states using pulses with different linear chirps. Transient phase effects on the fragment populations are found to persist for long times (about 200 ps) after the pulse is over due to interference between overlapping resonances in Ne-Br2(B). PMID:26262659
Sound speed of scalar field dark energy: Weak effects and large uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergijenko, Olga; Novosyadlyj, Bohdan
2015-04-01
The possibility of a reconstruction of the Lagrangian for the scalar field dark energy with constant effective sound speed cs is analyzed. It is found that such a reconstruction can be made with accuracy up to an arbitrary constant. The value of cs is estimated together with other dark energy parameters (?d e , w0, and ca2) and main cosmological ones on the basis of data including Planck-2013 results on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, baryon acoustic oscillation distance ratios from recent galaxy surveys, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, magnitude-redshift relations for distant SNe Ia from SNLS3 and Union2.1 compilations, and the Hubble Space Telescope determination of the Hubble constant. It is shown that no value of cs from the range [0,1] is preferred by the used data because of the very weak influence of dark energy perturbations on the large scale structure formation and CMB temperature fluctuations.
Bhardwaj, S; Mkhitaryan, V V; Gruzberg, I A
2014-06-01
We consider a recently proposed network model of the integer quantum Hall (IQH) effect in a weak magnetic field. Using a supersymmetry approach, we reformulate the network model in terms of a superspin ladder. A subsequent analysis of the superspin ladder and the corresponding supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model allows us to establish the phase diagram of the network model, and the form of the critical line of the weak-field IQH transition. Our results confirm the universality of the IQH transition, which is described by the same sigma model in strong and weak magnetic fields. We apply the suspersymmetry method to several related network models that were introduced in the literature to describe the quantum Hall effect in graphene, the spin-degenerate Landau levels, and localization of electrons in a random magnetic field.
Modification of the classical Heisenberg helimagnet by weak uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field
Zaliznyak, I.A.; Zhitomirsky, M.E.
1995-09-01
A classical ground state of the isotropic Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian on a primitive Bravais lattice is known to be a single-Q plane helix. Additional uniaxial anisotropy and external magnetic field can greatly distort this structure by generating higher-order (at the wave vectors nQ) Fourier harmonics in the spatial spin configuration. These features are not captured within the usual formalism based on the Luttinger-Tisza theorem, when the classical ground state energy is minimized under the {open_quotes}weak{close_quotes} condition on the lengths of the spins. We discuss why the correct solution is lost in that approach and present another microscopic treatment of the problem. For easy-axis and easy-plane quadratic uniaxial anisotropy it allows one to find the classical ground state for general Q and for any orientation of the magnetic field considering the effect of anisotropy (but not the field) as a perturbation of the exchange structure. As a result, the classical ground state energy, the uniform magnetization, and the magnetic Bragg peak intensities that are measured in the experiments are calculated. 21 refs., 1 fig.
The magnetic field and spectral variability of the He-weak star HR 2949
Shultz, M; Folsom, C P; Wade, G A; Townsend, R H D; Sikora, J; Grunhut, J; Stahl, O
2015-01-01
We analyze a high resolution spectropolarimetric dataset collected for the He-weak B3p IV star HR 2949. The Zeeman effect is visible in the circularly polarized component of numerous spectral lines. The longitudinal magnetic field varies between approximately $-650$ and $+150$ G. The polar strength of the surface magnetic dipole is calculated to be 2.4$^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ kG. The star has strong overabundances of Fe-peak elements, along with extremely strong overabundances of rare-earth elements; however, He, Al, and S are underabundant. This implies that HR 2949 is a chemically peculiar star. Variability is seen in all photospheric lines, likely due to abundance patches as seen in many Ap/Bp stars. Longitudinal magnetic field variations measured from different spectral lines yield different results, likely a consequence of uneven sampling of the photospheric magnetic field by the abundance patches. Analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data for both HR 2949 and its companion star, HR 2948, suggests a revisio...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luyten, P. J.
1988-02-01
The oscillations and stability of a homogeneous self-gravitating rotating cylinder in a toroidal magnetic field are investigated. It is assumed that the field is proportional to the distance to the axis of the cylinder. We show the existence of four infinite discreta spectra of magnetic (or rotational) modes. Rotation stabilizes the magnetic m = 1 instability. The magnetic field decreases the growth rate of rotational instability and reduces the interval of unstable wavenumbers. If m = 1, instability always occurs with the exception of the equipartition state. If m> 1, the instability can be suppressed by a sufficiently large magnetic field. Resistivity decreases the growth rate of magnetic instability, but increases the growth rate of rotational instability. For zero wavenumber perturbations secular instability occurs due to the action of resistivity before a neutral point is attained where a second secular instabiliity initiates due to the action of resistivity
Gravitational self-force in non-vacuum spacetimes: an effective field theory derivation
Peter Zimmerman
2015-07-13
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in non-vacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic-censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the non-vacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in non-vacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and non-gravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for non-vacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] and Linz, Friedmann, Wiseman [2]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in an scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals that depend on the past history of the particle.
Weakly perturbed Schwarzschild lens in the strong deflection limit
Bozza, V.; Sereno, M.
2006-05-15
We investigate the strong deflection limit of gravitational lensing by a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in an external gravitational field. The study of this model, analogous to the Chang and Refsdal lens in the weak deflection limit, is important to evaluate the gravitational perturbations on the relativistic images that appear in proximity of supermassive black holes hosted in galactic centers. By a simple dimensional argument, we prove that the tidal effect on the light ray propagation mainly occurs in the weak field region far away from the black hole and that the external perturbation can be treated as a weak field quadrupole term. We provide a description of relativistic critical curves and caustics and discuss the inversion of the lens mapping. Relativistic caustics are shifted and acquire a finite diamond shape. Sources inside the caustics produce four sequences of relativistic images. On the other hand, retro-lensing caustics are only shifted while remaining pointlike to the lowest order.
Quasi-stationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around black holes
Nicolas Sanchis-Gual; Juan Carlos Degollado; Pedro J. Montero; José A. Font
2015-07-30
Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasi-stationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological timescales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such type of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical non-rotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar fields configurations around non-rotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A byproduct of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasi-bound states.
Barany, Sandor
2015-08-01
A review on the effects of adsorbed non-ionic polymers and polyelectrolytes on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles is given. The variety of changes in the electrical double layer (EDL) structure and, in particular, electrokinetic potential in weak electric fields as a result of polymer adsorption is discussed. Examples on the dependence of zeta potential of particles on the adsorbed amount of polymers are described. An analysis of the influence of various complicating factors, namely polarization of the EDL, curvature of the surface and the presence of electrolytes, on the calculation of polymer layer thickness from electrophoretic data has been performed. Results of electrophoretic measurements in suspensions of non-conventional particles (TiC, SiC and Si3N4) having adsorbed polyethylene oxide are presented. Regularities of the effect of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) and their binary mixtures on the electrokinetic potential of dispersed particles (polystyrene, silica, bentonite and kaolin) as a function of the polymer dose, pH, charge density (CD) of the polyelectrolyte, as well as the mixture composition and the sequence of component addition are described. It has been shown that addition of increasing amount of anionic PEs increases the absolute value of the negative zeta potential of particles, while adsorption of cationic PEs results in a significant decrease in the negative ?-potential and overcharging the particle surface; changes in the ?-potential are more pronounced for samples with higher CD. In mixtures of cationic and anionic PEs, in a wide range of their composition, the ?-potential of negatively charged particles is determined by the adsorbed amount of the anionic polymer independently of the CD of polyelectrolyte and the sequence of the mixture component addition. The role of coulombic and non-coulombic forces in the mechanism of polyelectrolyte adsorption and structure of adsorbed layers formed is discussed. The results of comparative investigations on the effect of adsorbed polymers on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles in weak and strong electric fields are presented. It is shown that adsorption of non-ionic polymers only slightly (by about 20-50%) decreases the electrophoretic velocity (V(ef)) of polystyrene, graphite and aluminium-oxide particles in strong fields (100-400 V/cm). This is in contrast to the electrophoresis in weak fields (5-20 V/cm) in which adsorption of these polymers gives a drop in V(ef) by an order of magnitude or even more. In line with our theoretical predictions, it means that the non-linear ("cubic") electrophoresis, that arises in strong electric fields, is independent of the position of the shear plane, i.e. the zeta potential value. It is determined mainly by the surface conductivity of particles, i.e. by the Dukhin number that characterizes the polarization of the electric double layer. PMID:25456453
A. N. Ivanov; R. Höllwieser; T. Jenke; M. Wellenzohen; H. Abele
2012-07-02
We calculate the chameleon field potential for ultracold neutrons, bouncing on top of one or between two neutron mirrors in the gravitational field of the Earth. For the resulting non--linear equations of motion we give approximate analytical solutions and compare them with exact numerical ones for which we propose the analytical fit. The obtained solutions may be used for the quantitative analysis of contributions of a chameleon field to the transition frequencies of quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons bound in the gravitational field of the Earth.
On inhomogeneous magnetic seed fields and gravitational waves within the MHD limit
Caroline Zunckel; Gerold Betschart; Peter K S Dunsby; Mattias Marklund
2006-02-09
In this paper we apply second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory to investigate the possibility that the non-linear coupling between gravitational waves (GW) and a large scale inhomogeneous magnetic field acts as an amplification mechanism in an `almost' Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe. The spatial inhomogeneities in the magnetic field are consistently implemented using the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation, which yields an additional source term due to the interaction of the magnetic field with velocity perturbations in the plasma. Comparing the solutions with the corresponding results in our previous work indicates that, on super-horizon scales, the interaction with the spatially inhomogeneous field in the dust regime induces the same boost as the case of a homogeneous field, at least in the ideal MHD approximation. This is attributed to the observation that the MHD induced part of the generated field effectively only contributes on scales where the coherence length of the initial field is less than the Hubble scale. At sub-horizon scales, the GW induced magnetic field is completely negligible in relation to the MHD induced field. Moreover, there is no amplification found in the long-wavelength limit.
Inhomogeneous magnetic seed fields and gravitational waves within the magnetohydrodynamic limit
Zunckel, Caroline; Betschart, Gerold; Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Marklund, Mattias
2006-05-15
In this paper we apply second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory to investigate the possibility that the coupling between gravitational waves (GWs) and a large-scale inhomogeneous magnetic field acts as an amplification mechanism in an 'almost' Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Universe. The spatial inhomogeneities in the magnetic field are consistently implemented using the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation, which yields an additional source term due to the interaction of the magnetic field with velocity perturbations in the plasma. Comparing the solutions with the corresponding results in our previous work indicates that, on superhorizon scales, the interaction with the spatially inhomogeneous field in the dust regime induces the same boost as the case of a homogeneous field, at least in the ideal MHD approximation. This is attributed to the observation that the MHD induced part of the generated field effectively only contributes on scales where the coherence length of the initial field is less than the Hubble scale. At subhorizon scales, the GW induced magnetic field is completely negligible in relation to the MHD induced field. Moreover, there is no amplification found in the long-wavelength limit.
The magnetic field and spectral variability of the He-weak star HR 2949
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, M.; Rivinius, Th.; Folsom, C. P.; Wade, G. A.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Sikora, J.; Grunhut, J.; Stahl, O.; MiMeS Collaboration
2015-06-01
We analyse a high-resolution spectropolarimetric data set collected for the He-weak B3p IV star HR 2949. The Zeeman effect is visible in the circularly polarized component of numerous spectral lines. The longitudinal magnetic field varies between approximately -650 and +150 G. The polar strength of the surface magnetic dipole is calculated to be 2.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2} kG. The star has strong overabundances of Fe-peak elements, along with extremely strong overabundances of rare-earth elements; however, He, Al, and S are underabundant. This implies that HR 2949 is a chemically peculiar star. Variability is seen in all photospheric lines, likely due to abundance patches as seen in many Ap/Bp stars. Longitudinal magnetic field variations measured from different spectral lines yield different results, likely a consequence of uneven sampling of the photospheric magnetic field by the abundance patches. Analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data for both HR 2949 and its companion star, HR 2948, suggests a revision of HR 2949's fundamental parameters: in particular, it is somewhat larger, hotter, and more luminous than previously believed. There is no evidence of optical or ultraviolet emission originating in HR 2949's magnetosphere, despite its moderately strong magnetic field and relatively rapid rotation; however, when calculated using theoretical and empirical boundaries on the initial rotational velocity, the spin-down age is compatible with the stellar age. With the extensive phase coverage presented here, HR 2949 will make an excellent subject for Zeeman Doppler imaging.
A search for weak or complex magnetic fields in the B3V star ? Herculis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, G. A.; Folsom, C. P.; Petit, P.; Petit, V.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Böhm, T.
2014-11-01
We obtained 128 high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V spectra of the B3V star ? Her on five consecutive nights in 2012 with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with the aim of searching for the presence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) mean profiles were computed from individual spectra, averaged over individual nights and over the entire run. No Zeeman signatures are detected in any of the profiles. The longitudinal magnetic field in the grand average profile was measured to be -0.24 ± 0.32 G, as compared to -0.22 ± 0.32 G in the null profile. Our observations therefore provide no evidence for the presence of Zeeman signatures analogous to those observed in the A0V star Vega by Lignières et al. We interpret these observations in three ways. First, we compare the LSD profiles with synthetic Stokes V profiles corresponding to organized (dipolar) magnetic fields, for which we find an upper limit of about 8 G on the polar strength of any surface dipole present. Secondly, we compare the grand average profile with calculations corresponding to the random magnetic spot topologies of Kochukhov & Sudnik, inferring that spots, if present, of 2° radius with strengths of 2-4 G and a filling factor of 50 per cent should have been detected in our data. Finally, we compare the observations with synthetic V profiles corresponding to the surface magnetic maps of Vega (Petit et al.) computed for the spectral characteristics of ? Her. We conclude that while it is unlikely we would have detected a magnetic field identical to Vega's, we would have likely detected one with a peak strength of about 30 G, i.e. approximately four times as strong as that of Vega.
Weak gravity conjecture constraints on inflation
Qing-Guo Huang
2007-05-26
We consider the gravitational correction to the coupling of the scalar fields. Weak gravity conjecture says that the gravitational correction to the running of scalar coupling should be less than the contribution from scalar fields. For instance, a new scale $\\Lambda=\\lambda_4^{1/2}M_p$ sets a UV cutoff on the validity of the effective $\\lambda_4 \\phi^4$ theory. Furthermore, this conjecture implies a possible constraint on the inflation model, e.g. the chaotic inflation model might be in the swampland.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombeau, M.
2015-06-01
We construct a family of classical continuous functions S(x, y, z, t, ?) which tend to satisfy asymptotically the system of selfgravitating pressureless fluids when ? ? 0. This produces a weak asymptotic method in the sense of Danilov, Omel'yanov, and Shelkovich. The construction is based on a family of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) (one for the continuity equation and one for the Euler equation) in classical Banach spaces of continuous functions. This construction applies to 3-D self-gravitating pressureless fluids even in presence of point and string concentrations of matter. The method is constructive which permits to check numerically from standard methods for ODEs that these functions tend to the known or admitted solutions when the latter exist. As a direct application, we present a simulation of formation and evolution of a planetary system from a rotating disk of dust: a theorem in this paper asserts that the observed results are a depiction of functions that satisfy the system with arbitrary precision.
Plasma waves around separatrix in collisionless magnetic reconnection with weak guide field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yangao; Fujimoto, Keizo; Xiao, Chijie; Ji, Hantao
2015-08-01
Electrostatic and electromagnetic waves excited by electron beam around the separatrix region are analyzed in detail during the collisionless magnetic reconnection with a weak guide field by using 2-D particle-in-cell simulation with the adaptive mesh refinement. Broadband electrostatic waves are excited both in the inflow and outflow regions around the separatrices due to the electron bump-on-tail, two-stream, and Buneman instabilities. In contrast, the quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic waves are excited only in the inflow side of the separatrices due to a beam-driven whistler instability. The localization of the whistler waves is attributed to the nonuniformity of the out-of-plane magnetic field By. The whistler instability is suppressed in the outflow side where By is too small for the oblique propagation. The electrostatic waves with distinct speeds can explain the in situ spacecraft observations. From the causality point of view, the waves are generated as the consequence of the electron bulk acceleration to thermalize the particles through wave-particle interactions. These simulation results provide guidance to analyze high-resolution wave observations during reconnection in the ongoing and upcoming satellite missions, as well as in dedicated laboratory experiments.
Morozov, Darya; Bar, Leah; Sochen, Nir; Cohen, Yoram
2013-04-01
NMR diffusion-diffraction patterns observed in compartments in which restricted diffusion occurs are a useful tool for direct extraction of compartment sizes. Such diffusion-diffraction patterns may be observed when the signal intensity E(q,?) is plotted against the wave-vector q (when q=(2?)(-1)??G). However, the smaller the compartment sizes are, the higher are the q-values needed to observe such diffractions. Moreover, these q-values should be achieved using short gradient pulses requiring extremely strong gradient systems. The angular double-pulsed-field gradient (d-PFG) NMR methodology has been proposed as a tool to extract compartment sizes using relatively low q-values. In this study, we have used single-PFG (s-PFG) NMR and angular d-PFG NMR to characterize the size of microcapillaries of about 2±1?m in diameter. We found that these microcapillaries are characterized by relatively strong background gradients that completely masked the effects of the microscopic anisotropy (?A) of the sample, resulting in a completely unexpected E(?) profile in the angular d-PFG NMR experiments. We also show that bipolar angular d-PFG NMR experiments can largely suppress the effect of these background gradients resulting in the expected E(?) profile from which the compartment dimensions could be obtained with relatively weak gradient pulses. These results demonstrate that the above methodology provides a quick, reliable, non-invasive means for estimating small pore sizes with relatively weak gradients in the presence of large magnetic susceptibility. PMID:23102951
A new line element derived from the variable rest mass in gravitational field
N. Ben-Amots
2008-08-19
This paper presents a new line element based on the assumption of the variable rest mass in gravitational field, and explores some its implications. This line element is not a vacuum solution of Einstein's equations, yet it is sufficiently close to Schwarzschild's line element to be compatible with all of the experimental and observational measurements made so far to confirm the three Einstein's predictions. The theory allows radiation and fast particles to escape from all massive bodies, even from those that in Einstein's general relativity framework will be black holes. The striking feature of this line element is the non-existence of black holes.
Geometric optics for a coupling model of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields
Chen, Jiliang Jing Songbai
2015-01-01
In the usual spacetime, the first and third laws of geometric optics are invalid for a modified theory in which the electromagnetic and gravitational fields interact with each other. By introducing an effective spacetime, we find that the wave vector is null and obeys the geodesic equation, the polarization vector is perpendicular to the rays, and the number of photons is conserved. That is to say, the laws of geometric optics are still valid for the modified theory in the effective spacetime. We also show that the focusing theorem of light rays for the modified theory in the effective spacetime takes the same form as usual.
Effect of the Earth's time-retarded transverse gravitational field on the motion of the Moon
J. C. Hafele
2012-02-27
Classical Newtonian gravitational theory does not satisfy the causality principle because it is based on instantaneous action-at-a-distance. A causal version of Newtonian theory for a large rotating sphere is derived herein by time-retarding the distance between interior circulating point-mass sources and an exterior field-point. The resulting causal theory explains exactly the flyby anomaly reported by NASA scientists in 2008. It also explains exactly an anomalous decrease in the Moon's orbital speed. No other known theory can make both of these claims.
Spin dynamics in gravitational fields of rotating bodies and the equivalence principle
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2009-09-15
We discuss the quantum and classical dynamics of a particle with spin in the gravitational field of a rotating source. A relativistic equation describing the motion of classical spin in curved spacetimes is obtained. We demonstrate that the precession of the classical spin is in a perfect agreement with the motion of the quantum spin derived from the Foldy-Wouthuysen approach for the Dirac particle in a curved spacetime. We show that the precession effect depends crucially on the choice of a tetrad. The results obtained are compared to the earlier computations for different tetrad gauges.
TASI Lectures on Holographic Space-Time, SUSY and Gravitational Effective Field Theory
Tom Banks
2010-09-23
I argue that the conventional field theoretic notion of vacuum state is not valid in quantum gravity. The arguments use gravitational effective field theory, as well as results from string theory, particularly the AdS/CFT correspondence. Different solutions of the same low energy gravitational field equations correspond to different quantum systems, rather than different states in the same system. I then introduce {\\it holographic space-time} a quasi-local quantum mechanical construction based on the holographic principle. I argue that models of quantum gravity in asymptotically flat space-time will be exactly super-Poincare invariant, because the natural variables of holographic space-time for such a system, are the degrees of freedom of massless superparticles. The formalism leads to a non-singular quantum Big Bang cosmology, in which the asymptotic future is required to be a de Sitter space, with cosmological constant (c.c.) determined by cosmological initial conditions. It is also approximately SUSic in the future, with the gravitino mass $K \\Lambda^{1/4}$.
TASI Lectures on Holographic Space-Time, SUSY and Gravitational Effective Field Theory
Banks, Tom
2010-01-01
I argue that the conventional field theoretic notion of vacuum state is not valid in quantum gravity. The arguments use gravitational effective field theory, as well as results from string theory, particularly the AdS/CFT correspondence. Different solutions of the same low energy gravitational field equations correspond to different quantum systems, rather than different states in the same system. I then introduce {\\it holographic space-time} a quasi-local quantum mechanical construction based on the holographic principle. I argue that models of quantum gravity in asymptotically flat space-time will be exactly super-Poincare invariant, because the natural variables of holographic space-time for such a system, are the degrees of freedom of massless superparticles. The formalism leads to a non-singular quantum Big Bang cosmology, in which the asymptotic future is required to be a de Sitter space, with cosmological constant (c.c.) determined by cosmological initial conditions. It is also approximately SUSic in t...
TASI Lectures on Holographic Space-Time, SUSY, and Gravitational Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Tom
2012-11-01
I argue that the conventional field theoretic notion of vacuum state is not valid in quantum gravity. The arguments use gravitational effective field theory, as well as results from string theory, particularly the AdS/CFT correspondence. Different solutions of the same low energy gravitational field equations correspond to different quantum systems, rather than different states in the same system. I then introduce holographic space-time a quasi-local quantum mechanical construction based on the holographic principle. I argue that models of quantum gravity in asymptotically flat space-time will be exactly super-Poincare invariant, because the natural variables of holographic space-time for such a system, are the degrees of freedom of massless superparticles. The formalism leads to a non-singular quantum Big Bang cosmology, in which the asymptotic future is required to be a de Sitter space, with cosmological constant (c.c.) determined by cosmological initial conditions. It is also approximately SUSic in the future, with the gravitino mass K?1/4.
Quantum fog and the degradation of information by the gravitational field
Sciffer, M. )
1993-07-01
In this paper the authors discuss how information transferred optically through a gravitational field is degraded as the quanta interact with the medium (vacuum state). The authors quantify information by means of Shannon's entropy, and consider information carriers that are quanta of some field. Next, the authors obtain the quantum noise ([open quote]quantum fog[close quote]) produced by the gravitational field and derive the appropriate [open quote]channel capacity[close quote] formula, which quantifies the maximum amount of information that can be transmitted per pulse, in the face of this noise. It is shown that the channel capacity formula vanishes if the source of information is a space-time singularity because a very intense noise is produced in the vicinity of the singularity. In other words, space-time singularities are hidden behind a very intense [open quote]quantum fog[close quote] and cannot be optically observed. A second consequence is that information is degraded as anisotropies (lumpiness) develop in the universe. 32 refs., 9 figs., 5 figs.
Douglas Fregolente; George E. A. Matsas; Daniel A. T. Vanzella
2006-08-04
We investigate the possible decay of protons in geodesic circular motion around neutral compact objects. Weak and strong decay rates and the associated emitted powers are calculated using a semi-classical approach. Our results are discussed with respect to distinct ones in the literature, which consider the decay of accelerated protons in electromagnetic fields. A number of consistency checks are presented along the paper.
Unveiling chameleon fields in tests of the gravitational inverse-square law
Upadhye, Amol; Gubser, Steven S.; Khoury, Justin
2006-11-15
Scalar self-interactions are known to weaken considerably the current constraints on scalar-mediated fifth forces. We consider a scalar field with a quartic self-interaction and gravitation-strength Yukawa couplings to matter particles. After discussing the phenomenology of this scalar field, we assess the ability of ongoing and planned experiments to detect the fifth force mediated by such a field. Assuming that the quartic and matter couplings are of order unity, the current-generation Eoet-Wash experiment at the University of Washington will be able to explore an interesting subset of parameter space. The next-generation Eoet-Wash experiment is expected to be able to detect, or to rule out, the fifth force due to such a scalar with unit quartic and matter couplings at the 3{sigma} confidence level.
Sensitivity of gravitational waves from preheating to a scalar field's interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyde, Jeffrey M.
2015-08-01
After inflation, a period of preheating may have produced a stochastic background of high frequency gravitational waves (GWs) that would persist until today. The nature of the inflaton's coupling to standard model or other fields is unknown, so it is useful to ask what features such fields may typically have, and how these affect predictions for the GWs produced. Here we consider the inflaton to be coupled to a light scalar field, and show that even a very small quartic self-interaction term will reduce the amplitude of the GW spectrum. For self-coupling ???g2, where g2 is the inflaton-scalar coupling, the peak energy density goes as ?gw(??)/?gw(??=0 )˜(g2/??)2 . A consequence is that if the universe reheats through an inflaton-Higgs coupling then the spectrum would be suppressed but the dynamics would be sensitive to the Higgs potential near the energy scale of inflation.
SELF-GRAVITATING BODY WITH AN INTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD. I. NEW ANALYTICAL EQUILIBRIA
Aly, J.-J.; Amari, T.
2012-05-01
We construct exact analytical solutions of the equations describing the equilibrium of a self-gravitating magnetized fluid body, possibly rigidly rotating, by superposing two solutions of finite energy defined in the whole space, one describing a non-magnetized gravitating equilibrium (ST1) and the other describing a magnetized non-gravitating equilibrium (ST2). A large number of ST1s can be found in the literature and directly used for our constructions, and we thus concentrate on ST2s, which are difficult to obtain. We derive some of their general properties and exhibit two explicit classes of axisymmetric 'elementary' such equilibria. The first one is extracted from the stellar models proposed by Prendergast and by Kutvitskii and Solov'ev, respectively. The second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which the magnetic pressure is constant on each flux surface. Both types of ST2s have their magnetic field confined within a bounded region, respectively, of spherical and toroidal shapes. A much more general ST2 can be obtained by juxtaposing n+q elementary ST2s, with n of the first type and q of the second type, in such a way that the magnetic regions do not pairwise overlap. The specific equilibria we obtain by superposition thus have no external field extending to infinity, and may be three dimensional (3D), which invalidates a recent nonexistence conjecture. Moreover, they may be arranged to contain force-free regions. Our superposition method can be considered as a 3D generalization of the axisymmetric splitting method previously developed by Kutvitskii and Solov'ev.
Numerical Simulations of the Light Propagation in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
Sergei A. Klioner; Michael Peip
2003-07-23
One of the most subtle points in the modern relativistic models for microarcsecond astrometrical observations is the treatment of the influence of translational motion of gravitating bodies on the light propagation. This paper describes numerical simulations of the light propagation in the gravitational field of moving gravitating bodies as well as summarizes the underlying theory. The simulations include high-precision numerical integrations of both post-Newtonian and post-Minkowskian differential equations of light propagation and a detailed comparison of the results of the numerical integrations with various available approximate analytical formulas. The simulations has been performed both for hypothetical bodies with various parameters of trajectories as well as for all the major bodies of the solar system using the JPL ephemeris DE405/LE405 to calculate their motion. It is shown that for the accuracy of $\\sim 0.2$ $\\mu$as it is sufficient to use the well-known solution for the light propagation in the field of a motionless mass monopole and substitute in that solution the position of the body at the moment of closest approach between the actual trajectory of the body and the unperturbed light path (as it was first suggested by Hellings (1986)). For a higher accuracy one should use either the post-Newtonian solution for uniformly moving bodies (Klioner & Kopeikin, 1992) or the post-Minkowskian solution for arbitrarily moving bodies (Kopeikin & Schaefer, 1999). For astrometric observations performed from within the solar system these two solutions guarantee the accuracy of $\\sim 0.002$ $\\mu$as and are virtually indistinguishable from each other.
Spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan
2015-09-01
We introduce a formulation for spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme in the context of the binary inspiral problem. We aim at an effective action, where all field modes below the orbital scale are integrated out. We spell out the relevant degrees of freedom, in particular the rotational ones, and the associated symmetries. Building on these symmetries, we introduce the minimal coupling part of the point particle action in terms of gauge rotational variables, and construct the spin-induced nonminimal couplings, where we obtain the leading order couplings to all orders in spin. We specify the gauge for the rotational variables, where the unphysical degrees of freedom are eliminated already from the Feynman rules, and all the orbital field modes are integrated out. The equations of motion of the spin can be directly obtained via a proper variation of the action, and Hamiltonians may be straightforwardly derived. We implement this effective field theory for spin to derive all spin dependent potentials up to next-to-leading order to quadratic level in spin, namely up to the third post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. In particular, the proper next-to-leading order spin-squared potential and Hamiltonian for generic compact objects are also derived. For the implementations we use the nonrelativistic gravitational field decomposition, which is found here to eliminate higher-loop Feynman diagrams also in spin dependent sectors, and facilitates derivations. This formulation for spin is thus ideal for treatment of higher order spin dependent sectors.
Formation of graded vanadium oxide (V–O compound) under strong gravitational field
Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira
2015-05-14
Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397?×?10{sup 6?}G at 400?°C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09?eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.
Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, Yudai; Iguchi, Yusuke; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Ono, Masao; Mashimo, Tsutomu
2015-03-01
To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.
Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks by Singular Value Decomposition and Gravitation Field Algorithm
Zheng, Ming; Wu, Jia-nan; Huang, Yan-xin; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is of utmost interest and has become a challenge computational problem in system biology. However, every existing inference algorithm from gene expression profiles has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of every previous algorithm is not high enough. In this work, we proposed a novel inference algorithm from gene expression data based on differential equation model. In this algorithm, two methods were included for inferring GRNs. Before reconstructing GRNs, singular value decomposition method was used to decompose gene expression data, determine the algorithm solution space, and get all candidate solutions of GRNs. In these generated family of candidate solutions, gravitation field algorithm was modified to infer GRNs, used to optimize the criteria of differential equation model, and search the best network structure result. The proposed algorithm is validated on both the simulated scale-free network and real benchmark gene regulatory network in networks database. Both the Bayesian method and the traditional differential equation model were also used to infer GRNs, and the results were used to compare with the proposed algorithm in our work. And genetic algorithm and simulated annealing were also used to evaluate gravitation field algorithm. The cross-validation results confirmed the effectiveness of our algorithm, which outperforms significantly other previous algorithms. PMID:23226565
Observation of the first gravitational microlensing event in a sparse stellar field : the Tago event
A. Fukui; F. Abe; K. Ayani; M. Fujii; R. Iizuka; Y. Itow; K. Kabumoto; K. Kamiya; T. Kawabata; S. Kawanomoto; K. Kinugasa; R. A. Koff; T. Krajci; H. Naito; D. Nogami; S. Narusawa; N. Ohishi; K. Ohnishi; T. Sumi; F. Tsumuraya
2008-01-09
We report the observation of the first gravitational microlensing event in a sparse stellar field, involving the brightest (V=11.4 mag) andclosest (~ 1 kpc) source star to date. This event was discovered by an amateurastronomer, A. Tago, on 2006 October 31 as a transient brightening, by ~4.5 mag during a ~15 day period, of a normal A-type star (GSC 3656-1328) in the Cassiopeia constellation. Analysis of both spectroscopic observations and the light curve indicates that this event was caused by gravitational microlensing rather than an intrinsically variable star. Discovery of this single event over a 30 year period is roughly consistent with the expected microlensing rate for the whole sky down to V = 12 mag stars. However, the probability for finding events with such a high magnification (~ 50) is much smaller, by a factor ~1/50, which implies that the true event rate may be higher than expected. This discovery indicates the potential of all sky variability surveys, employing frequent sampling by telescopes with small apertures and wide fields of view, for finding such rare transient events, and using the observations to explore galactic disk structure and search for exo-planets.
Formation of graded vanadium oxide (V-O compound) under strong gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira; Mashimo, Tsutomu
2015-05-01
Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397 × 106 G at 400 °C for 24 h) on a V2O5 polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO2 and V2O3 phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V2O5 phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09 eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.
The Gravitational Field of Massive Non-Charged Point Source in General Relativity
Plamen Fiziev
2004-12-30
Utilizing various gauges of the radial coordinate we give a description of static spherically symmetric space-times with point singularity at the center and vacuum outside the singularity. We show that in general relativity (GR) there exist a two-parameters family of such solutions to the Einstein equations which are physically distinguishable but only some of them describe the gravitational field of a single massive point particle with nonzero bare mass $M_0$. In particular, the widespread Hilbert's form of Schwarzschild solution, which depends only on the Keplerian mass $Mpoint particle's stress-energy tensor as a source. Novel normal coordinates for the field and a new physical class of gauges are proposed, in this way achieving a correct description of a point mass source in GR. We also introduce a gravitational mass defect of a point particle and determine the dependence of the solutions on this mass defect. The result can be described as a change of the Newton potential $\\phi_{{}_N}=-G_{{}_N}M/r$ to a modified one: $\\phi_{{}_G}=-G_{{}_N}M/ (r+G_{{}_N} M/c^2\\ln{{M_0}\\over M})$ and a corresponding modification of the four-interval. In addition we give invariant characteristics of the physically and geometrically different classes of spherically symmetric static space-times created by one point mass. These space-times are analytic manifolds with a definite singularity at the place of the matter particle.
Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field
Ogata, Yudai; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Iguchi, Yusuke; Ono, Masao
2015-03-28
To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.
Explaining atomic clock behavior in a gravitational field with only 1905 Relativity
Rafael A. Valls Hidalgo-Gato; Natalio Svarch Scharager
2010-09-27
Supported only in the two 1905 Einstein's papers on Relativity and a very rigid respect for the historical context, an analysis is done of the derivation of the universal mass-energy relationship. It is found, contrary to the today accepted Physics knowledge, that a body's Rest Mass measures its Potential Energy in the 1905 context. After emphasizing the difference between 1905 Relativity (1905R) and Special Relativity (SR), the developing of a 1905R relativistic gravity is started for a small mass m material point moving in the central gravitational field of a great mass M one. A formula for the rest mass m_0 as a function of its distance r from M is obtained. Finally, those results are applied to an atomic clock in a gravitational field, reaching a factor to obtain the clock time rate change very close to the GR one. The factors from 1905R and GR are compared, emphasizing the absent of a singularity in 1905R. In the conclusions, a new road for the development of a 1905R relativistic mechanics is declared, related with the discovery that Rest Mass measures Potential Energy, done by 1905 Einstein even if not realizing it.
Non-thermal mechanism of weak microwave fields influence on neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.
2013-09-01
A non-thermal mechanism of weak microwave field impact on a nerve fiber is proposed. It is shown that in the range of about 30-300 GHz, there are strongly pronounced resonances associated with the excitation of ultrasonic vibrations in the membrane as a result of interaction with electromagnetic radiation. The viscous dissipation limits the resonances and results in their broadening. These forced vibrations create acoustic pressure, which may lead to the redistribution of the protein transmembrane channels, and thus changing the threshold of the action potential excitation in the axons of the neural network. The influence of the electromagnetic microwave radiation on various specific areas of myelin nerve fibers was analyzed: the nodes of Ranvier, and the initial segment—the area between the neuron hillock and the first part of the axon covered with the myelin layer. It was shown that the initial segment is the most sensitive area of the myelined neurons from which the action potential normally starts.
Four-Hair Relations for Differentially Rotating Neutron Stars in the Weak-Field Limit
Bretz, Joseph; Yunes, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The opportunity to study physics at supra-nuclear densities through X-ray observations of neutron stars has led to in-depth investigations of certain approximately universal relations that can remove degeneracies in pulse profile models. One such set of relations determines all of the multipole moments of a neutron star just from the first three (the mass monopole, the current dipole and the mass quadrupole moment) approximately independently of the equation of state. These three-hair relations were found to hold in neutron stars that rotate rigidly, as is the case in old pulsars, but neutron stars can also rotate differentially, as is the case for proto-neutron stars and hypermassive transient remnants of binary mergers. We here extend the three-hair relations to differentially rotating stars for the first time with a generic rotation law using two approximations: a weak-field scheme (an expansion in powers of the neutron star compactness) and a perturbative differential rotation scheme (an expansion about r...
A null-tetrad approach to Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in matter
Udeschini, E.B.; Magli, G.
1996-11-01
The null tetrad formalism is used to investigate the structure of the Einstein field equations for Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in the presence of an elastic solid source. It is shown that such equations may be reduced to five nonlinear partial differential equations for five variables. It turns out that, when the interior solutions admit the same preferred null congruence of the vacuum ones and some compatibility conditions hold, it is possible to reduce them to a linear system and to develop a method of solution which closely resembles the {open_quote}{open_quote}variation of the arbitrary constants{close_quote}{close_quote} for ordinary differential equations. In the present paper, the above technical framework is developed in general and applied to two simple examples, deferring to future work the approach to the Kerr{endash}interior problem. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Equilibrium of a system of superconducting rings in a uniform gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishaev, A. M.; Bush, A. A.; Gavrikov, M. B.; Gordeev, I. S.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Savel'ev, V. V.; Sigov, A. S.
2013-05-01
To construct a plasma trap with levitating magnetic coils in the thin ring approximation, we derive the expression for the potential energy of a system of several superconducting rings (one of which is fixed) capturing the preset flows in the uniform gravitational field as a function of the coordinates of the free ring (or rings). Calculations performed in the Mathcad system show that the potential energy of such a system has a local minimum for certain values of parameters. Stable levitation of a superconducting ring in the position corresponding to calculations is realized in the field of another superconducting ring, and this leads to the conclusion that a magnetic Galatea trap can be prepared on the basis of a levitating quadrupole.
Conversion of relic gravitational waves into photons in cosmological magnetic fields
Dolgov, Alexander D.; Ejlli, Damian E-mail: ejlli@fe.infn.it
2012-12-01
Conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The probability of transformations of gravitons into photons in presence of cosmological background magnetic field is calculated at the recombination epoch and during subsequent cosmological stages. The produced electromagnetic radiation is concentrated in the X-ray part of the spectrum. It is shown that if the early Universe was dominated by primordial black holes (PBHs) prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), the relic gravitons emitted by PBHs would transform to an almost isotropic background of electromagnetic radiation due to conversion of gravitons into photons in cosmological magnetic fields. Such extragalactic radiation could be noticeable or even dominant component of Cosmic X-ray Background.
Late-time tails of a self-gravitating massless scalar field, revisited
Piotr Bizo?; Tadeusz Chmaj; Andrzej Rostworowski
2009-08-11
We discuss the nonlinear origin of the power-law tail in the long-time evolution of a spherically symmetric self-gravitating massless scalar field in even-dimensional spacetimes. Using third-order perturbation method, we derive explicit expressions for the tail (the decay rate and the amplitude) for solutions starting from small initial data and we verify this prediction via numerical integration of the Einstein-scalar field equations in four and six dimensions. Our results show that the coincidence of decay rates of linear and nonlinear tails in four dimensions (which has misguided some tail hunters in the past) is in a sense accidental and does not hold in higher dimensions.
Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments.
Craven, Galen T; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-02-21
Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates predicted by stability analysis and rates obtained through numerical calculation of the reactive flux. We also show that the optimal dividing surface and the resulting reaction rate for a reactive system driven by weak thermal noise can be approximated well using the transition state geometry of the underlying deterministic system. This agreement persists as long as the thermal driving strength is less than the order of that of the periodic driving. The power of this result is its simplicity. The surprising accuracy of the time-dependent noise-free geometry for obtaining transition state theory rates in chemical reactions driven by periodic fields reveals the dynamics without requiring the cost of brute-force calculations. PMID:25702003
Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craven, Galen T.; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-02-01
Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates predicted by stability analysis and rates obtained through numerical calculation of the reactive flux. We also show that the optimal dividing surface and the resulting reaction rate for a reactive system driven by weak thermal noise can be approximated well using the transition state geometry of the underlying deterministic system. This agreement persists as long as the thermal driving strength is less than the order of that of the periodic driving. The power of this result is its simplicity. The surprising accuracy of the time-dependent noise-free geometry for obtaining transition state theory rates in chemical reactions driven by periodic fields reveals the dynamics without requiring the cost of brute-force calculations.
Weak static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields affect in vitro pollen germination.
Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Fregola, Fabio; Zurla, Michela; Mesirca, Pietro; Brizzi, Maurizio; Borghini, Francesco
2011-01-01
This study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (MF) at 10 µT oriented downward, combined with a 16-Hz sinusoidal MF (10 µT), on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. Two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. In the direct treatment, pollen samples were directly exposed during rehydration, germination, or both. In the indirect treatment, the pollen growth medium was prepared with water aliquots (at standard temperature of 20°C and pH = 6.74) that were exposed before use for 8 or 24 h. The main purpose of our research was to identify a biological marker (in vitro pollen germination in a stressing growth medium without Ca2+) susceptible to the effects of direct or indirect ELF-MF exposure. The working variable was the pollen germination rate, as detected blind after 3 h 30 min by an Axioplan microscope. A directionally consistent recovery of germination percentage was observed both for direct exposure (during germination and both rehydration and germination phases) and water-mediated exposure (with water exposed for 24 h and immediately used). Our results suggest that the ELF-MF treatment might partially remove the inhibitory effect caused by the lack of Ca2+ in the culture medium, inducing a release of internal Ca2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of pollen plasma membrane. Although preliminary, findings seem to indicate the in vitro pollen performance as adequate to study the effects of ELF-MFs on living matter. PMID:21516284
Zakirjon Kanokov; Juern W. P. Schmelzer; Avazbek K. Nasirov
2009-04-07
An analysis of a variety of existing experimental data leads to the conclusion on the existence of a resonance mechanism allowing weak magnetic fields to affect biological processes. These fields may either be static magnetic fields comparable in magnitude with the magnetic field of the earth or weak ultra-low frequency time-dependent fields. So far, a generally accepted theoretical model allowing one to understand the effect of magnetic and electric fields on biological processes is not available. By this reason, it is not clear which characteristics of the fields, like magnetic and electric field strength, frequency of change of the field, shape of the electromagnetic wave, the duration of the magnetic or electric influence or some particular combination of them, are responsible for the biological effect. In the present analysis it is shown that external time-independent magnetic fields may cause a resonance amplification of ionic electric currents in biological tissues and, in particular, in the vasculature system due to a Brownian motion of charges. These resonance electric currents may cause necrotic changes in the tissues or blood circulation and in this way significantly affect the biological organism. The magnitude of the magnetic fields leading to resonance effects is estimated, it is shown that it depends significantly on the radius of the blood capillaries.
Materniak, S; Patrykiejew, A; Soko?owski, S
2011-06-01
Using Monte Carlo simulation methods in the grand canonical and semigrand canonical ensembles, we study the phase behavior of two-dimensional symmetrical binary mixtures of Lennard-Jones particles subjected to a weakly corrugated external field of a square symmetry. It is shown that the both vapor-liquid condensation and demixing transition in the liquid phase are not appreciably affected by a weakly corrugated external field. On the other hand, even a weakly corrugated external field considerably influences the structure of solid phases and the liquid-solid transition. In particular, the solid phases are found to exhibit uniaxially ordered distorted hexagonal structure. The triple point temperature increases with the corrugation of the external field, while the triple point density becomes lower when the surface corrugation increases. The changes in the location of the triple point are shown to lead to the changes of the phase diagram topology. It is also demonstrated that the solid phase undergoes a demixing transition, which is also very slightly affected by the weakly corrugated external potential. The demixing transition in the solid phase is shown to belong to the universality class of the Ising model. PMID:21663373
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.
2009-01-01
We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).
GALAXY CLUSTERING EVOLUTION IN THE UH8K WEAK-LENSING FIELDS1 Gillian Wilson2,3
Wilson, Gillian
GALAXY CLUSTERING EVOLUTION IN THE UH8K WEAK-LENSING FIELDS1 Gillian Wilson2,3 Received 2002 August for the varying mix of morphologies and absolute luminosities (and hence clustering strengths) of galaxies sampled at different apparent magnitudes. We find a strong clustering dependence on VÃ?I color. This is because galaxies
Ng, Chung-Sang
Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind Flight Center Turbulent plasmas in the solar wind and the interstellar medium of- ten contain a large to be in agreement. The scaling of density uctuations with Mach number are compared with solar wind data from Helios
Collision induced two-pulsed photon echo at the transition 0–1 in a weak longitudinal magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubtsova, N. N.; Gol’dort, V. G.; Ishchenko, V. N.; Khvorostov, E. B.; Kochubei, S. A.; Reshetov, V. A.
2015-12-01
It was shown experimentally in ytterbium vapour at the transition (6s2) 1S0 ?ftrightarrow (6s6p) 3P1 (type 0?ftrightarrow 1 ), that the weak longitudinal magnetic field destroys the collision induced two-pulsed photon echo generated in a gas mixture with heavy atomic buffer; in agreement with theoretical prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, J. W.; Yu, S. X.
2015-09-01
The Earth gravitational filed model is a kind of important dynamic model in satellite orbit computation. In recent years, several space gravity missions have obtained great success, prompting a lot of gravitational filed models to be published. In this paper, 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96) and 4 latest models, including EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008 are evaluated by being employed in the precision orbit determination (POD) and prediction, based on the laser range observation of four low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, including CHAMP, GFZ-1, GRACE-A, and SWARM-A. The residual error of observation in POD is adopted to describe the accuracy of six gravitational field models. We show the main results as follows: (1) for LEO POD, the accuracies of 4 latest models (EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008) are at the same level, and better than those of 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96); (2) If taking JGM3 as reference, EGM96 model's accuracy is better in most situations, and the accuracies of the 4 latest models are improved by 12%-47% in POD and 63% in prediction, respectively. We also confirm that the model's accuracy in POD is enhanced with the increasing degree and order if they are smaller than 70, and when they exceed 70 the accuracy keeps stable, and is unrelated with the increasing degree, meaning that the model's degree and order truncated to 70 are sufficient to meet the requirement of LEO orbit computation with centimeter level precision.
Lossless Kerr-phase gate in a quantum-well system via tunneling interference effect for weak fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y. L.; Huang, Y. C.; Wu, J. X.; Zhu, C. J.; Xu, J. P.; Yang, Y. P.
2015-06-01
We examine a lossless Kerr-phase gate in a semiconductor quantum-well system via the tunneling interference effect for weak fields. We show that there exists a magic detuning for the signal field, at which the absorption or amplification for the probe field can be eliminated by increasing the tunneling interference effect. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -? phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a lossless Kerr-phase gate is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.
Improved mapping of planetary gravitational field with an electrostatic accelerometer/gradiometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulon, Bernard; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Francoise; Christophe, Bruno; Hardy, Emilie; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy
2015-04-01
ONERA has a proven record spanning several years in developing the most accurate accelerometers for geodesy missions. They are still operational in the GRACE mission and their successors for the GRACE-FO mission will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has shown the benefit of using a gradiometer for the direct measurement of the gravity field. Now, ONERA proposes a new accelerometer design, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary missions. This design based on the same technology as for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, with the notable addition of a bias rejection system, has a reduced mass and consumption. The accelerometer is embarked on Uranus Pathfinder (mission proposal for Cosmic M4) as up-scope instrument to achieve two scientific objectives: 1) to determine the gravity fields of Uranus and the satellites, allowing for a better understanding of the planet interior composition, 2) to test gravity at the largest possible length scales to search for deviations from General Relativity. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science field. The poster details the accuracy which can be achieved on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations. It describes the instrument and its integration inside an interplanetary probe. Finally, it explains the benefit of using this electrostatic accelerometer complementary to radio science technology for improved planetary gravitational field measurements.
Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study
Libersky, Matthew Murray
2014-09-04
The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.
Gravitational Lens Modeling of Fields Containing Multiple Projected Cluster-Scale Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raney, Catie Ann; Wong, Kenneth C.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Keeton, Charles R.; Ammons, S. Mark; Zabludoff, Ann I.; French, K. Decker
2016-01-01
We have identified new lines of sight that are promising places to search for high-redshift galaxies. These beams contain a total mass well above 1015 M? distributed among multiple group- and cluster-scale halos. The field J085007.6+360428 includes the massive cluster Zwicky 1953 plus a second massive halo in the foreground, and it features two candidate lensed images of a galaxy with a photometric redshift z=5.03. We present results from a joint weak and strong lensing analysis of the field that accounts for the full three-dimensional mass distribution and uses a full pixel reconstruction of the lensed images. We find that constraints on various field parameters, specifically cluster mass and concentration, are considerably improved with the joint approach.
Gravitational Anomaly and Hydrodynamics
Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
We study the anomalous induced current of a vortex in a relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. We perform this analysis at weak and strong coupling. We discuss inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry. At strong coupling we use a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the Chern-Simons terms do not induce new divergences. Strong and weak coupling results agree precisely. We also point out that the holographic calculation can be done without a singular gauge field configuration on the horizon of the black hole.
Gravitational Anomaly and Hydrodynamics
Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Luis Melgar; Francisco Pena-Benitez
2011-11-18
We study the anomalous induced current of a vortex in a relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. We perform this analysis at weak and strong coupling. We discuss inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry. At strong coupling we use a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the Chern-Simons terms do not induce new divergences. Strong and weak coupling results agree precisely. We also point out that the holographic calculation can be done without a singular gauge field configuration on the horizon of the black hole.
Sven Zschocke
2015-09-24
The light-trajectory in the gravitational field of N extended bodies in arbitrary motion is determined in the first post-Newtonian approximation. According to the theory of reference systems, the gravitational fields of these massive bodies are expressed in terms of their intrinsic multipoles, allowing for arbitrary shape and inner structure of these bodies. The results of this investigation aim towards a consistent general-relativistic theory of light propagation in the Solar system for high-precision astrometry at sub-micro-arcsecond level of accuracy.
Zschocke, Sven
2015-01-01
The light-trajectory in the gravitational field of N extended bodies in arbitrary motion is determined in the first post-Newtonian approximation. According to the theory of reference systems, the gravitational fields of these massive bodies are expressed in terms of their intrinsic multipoles, allowing for arbitrary shape and inner structure of these bodies. The results of this investigation aim towards a consistent general-relativistic theory of light propagation in the Solar system for high-precision astrometry at sub-micro-arcsecond level of accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zschocke, Sven
2015-09-01
The light-trajectory in the gravitational field of N extended bodies in arbitrary motion is determined in the first post-Newtonian approximation. According to the theory of reference systems, the gravitational fields of these massive bodies are expressed in terms of their intrinsic multipoles, allowing for the arbitrary shape and inner structure of these bodies. The results of this investigation aim towards a consistent general-relativistic theory of light propagation in the Solar System for high-precision astrometry at the sub-microarcsecond level of accuracy.
Four-Hair Relations for Differentially Rotating Neutron Stars in the Weak-Field Limit
Joseph Bretz; Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes
2015-10-09
The opportunity to study physics at supra-nuclear densities through X-ray observations of neutron stars has led to in-depth investigations of certain approximately universal relations that can remove degeneracies in pulse profile models. One such set of relations determines all of the multipole moments of a neutron star just from the first three (the mass monopole, the current dipole and the mass quadrupole moment) approximately independently of the equation of state. These three-hair relations were found to hold in neutron stars that rotate rigidly, as is the case in old pulsars, but neutron stars can also rotate differentially, as is the case for proto-neutron stars and hypermassive transient remnants of binary mergers. We here extend the three-hair relations to differentially rotating stars for the first time with a generic rotation law using two approximations: a weak-field scheme (an expansion in powers of the neutron star compactness) and a perturbative differential rotation scheme (an expansion about rigid rotation). These approximations allow us to analytically derive approximately universal relations that allow us to determine all of the multipole moments of a (perturbative) differentially rotating star in terms of only the first four moments. These new four-hair relations for differentially rotating neutron stars are found to be approximately independent of the equation of state to a higher degree than the three-hair relations for uniformly rotating stars. Our results can be instrumental in the development of four-hair relations for rapidly differentially rotating stars in full General Relativity using numerical simulations.
Four-hair relations for differentially rotating neutron stars in the weak-field limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretz, Joseph; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás
2015-10-01
The opportunity to study physics at supra-nuclear densities through x-ray observations of neutron stars has led to in-depth investigations of certain approximately universal relations that can remove degeneracies in pulse profile models. One such set of relations determines all of the multipole moments of a neutron star just from the first three (the mass monopole, the current dipole and the mass quadrupole moment) approximately independently of the equation of state. These three-hair relations were found to hold in neutron stars that rotate rigidly, as is the case in old pulsars, but neutron stars can also rotate differentially, as is the case for proto-neutron stars and hypermassive transient remnants of binary mergers. We here extend the three-hair relations to differentially rotating stars for the first time with a generic rotation law using two approximations: a weak-field scheme (an expansion in powers of the neutron star compactness) and a perturbative differential rotation scheme (an expansion about rigid rotation). These approximations allow us to analytically derive approximately universal relations that allow us to determine all of the multipole moments of a (perturbative) differentially rotating star in terms of only the first four moments. These new four-hair relations for differentially rotating neutron stars are found to be approximately independent of the equation of state to a higher degree than the three-hair relations for uniformly rotating stars. Our results can be instrumental in the development of four-hair relations for rapidly differentially rotating stars in full general relativity using numerical simulations.
Ujjal Debnath; Prabir Rudra; Ritabrata Biswas
2012-03-09
In this work, we have investigated the outcome of gravitational collapse in Husain space-time in the presence of electro-magnetic and a scalar field with potential. In order to study the nature of the singularity, global behavior of radial null geodesics have been taken into account. The nature of singularities formed has been thoroughly studied for all possible variations of the parameters. These choices of parameters has been presented in tabular form in various dimensions. It is seen that irrespective of whatever values of the parameters chosen, the collapse always results in a naked singularity in all dimensions. There is less possibility of formation of a black hole. Hence this work is a significant counterexample of the cosmic censorship hypothesis.
Plocková, J; Chmelík, J
2001-05-25
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. PMID:11407583
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Zhao, Jia; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin
2012-07-01
Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network.
A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David
2013-04-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asmar, S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Williams, J. G.; Watkins, M. M.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Park, R. S.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) dual-spacecraft mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 420 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 13 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution using KBRR and Deep Space Network tracking data shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, and constrain deep interior structure from tides. Place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.
M. V. Gorbatenko; V. P. Neznamov; E. Yu. Popov
2015-04-01
The domain of wave functions and effective potentials of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for quantum-mechanical particles in static centrally symmetric gravitational fields are analyzed by taking into account the Hilbert causality condition. For all the explored metrics, assuming existence of event horizons, the conditions of a "fall" of a particle to the appropriate event horizons are implemented. The exclusion is one of the solutions for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with the single event horizon. In this case, while fulfilling the condition found by V.I.Dokuchaev, Yu.N.Yeroshenko, the normalization integral is convergent and the wave functions become zero on the event horizon. This corresponds to the Hilbert causality condition. In our paper, due to the analysis of the effective potential for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with real radial wave functions of the Dirac equation, the impossibility is demonstrated for the bound stationary state existence of quantum-mechanical particles, with positive energy, off the event horizon. The analysis of the effective potential of the Dirac equation for the case of the naked singularity of the Reissner-Nordstroem field shown the possible existence of stationary bound states of quantum-mechanical half-spin particles.
An improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Christodoulidis, D. C.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Smith, D. E.; Klosko, S. M.; Martin, T. V.; Pavlis, E. C.
1987-01-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
``Faster than Light'' Photons in Gravitational Fields -- Causality, Anomalies and Horizons
G. M. Shore
1995-04-25
A number of general issues relating to superluminal photon propagation in gravitational fields are explored. The possibility of superluminal, yet causal, photon propagation arises because of Equivalence Principle violating interactions induced by vacuum polarisation in QED in curved spacetime. Two general theorems are presented: first, a polarisation sum rule which relates the polarisation averaged velocity shift to the matter energy-momentum tensor and second, a `horizon theorem' which ensures that the geometric event horizon for black hole spacetimes remains a true horizon for real photon propagation in QED. A comparision is made with the equivalent results for electromagnetic birefringence and possible connections between superluminal photon propagation, causality and the conformal anomaly are exposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nisbet, John S.
1988-01-01
General equations for the Reynolds number of a variety of types of ice crystals and water drops are given in terms of the Davies, Bond, and Knudsen numbers. The equations are in terms of the basic physical parameters of the system and are valid for calculating velocities in gravitational and electric fields over a very wide range of sizes and atmospheric conditions. The equations are asymptotically matched at the bottom and top of the size spectrum, useful when checking large computer codes. A numerical system for specifying the dimensional properties of ice crystals is introduced. Within the limits imposed by such variables as particle density, which have large deviations, the accuracy of velocities appears to be within 10 percent over the entire range of sizes of interest.
Geometric optics for a coupling model of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields
Jiliang Jing; Songbai Chen; Qiyuan Pan
2015-10-20
The coupling between the electromagnetic and gravitational fields results in "faster than light" photons and invalids the Lorentz invariance and some laws of physics. A typical example is that the first and third laws of geometric optics are invalid in the usual spacetime. By introducing an effective spacetime, we find that the wave vector can be casted into null and then it obeys the geodesic equation, the polarization vector is perpendicular to the rays, and the number of photons is conserved. That is to say, the laws of geometric optics are still valid for the modified theory in the effective spacetime. We also show that the focusing theorem of light rays for the modified theory in the effective spacetime takes the same form as usual.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovskaya, M. S.
The conventional approach to the recovery of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite gradiometry observations is based on constructing, from the start, several boundary value (BV) relations, each of them corresponding to a separate observable component of the gravity gradient (GG) tensor or a certain combination of them. In particular, one of such projects, the ARISTOTELES mission, assumes that only the radial and across-track components are accessible (by technical reasons). The purpose of the present paper is mainly to discuss the principle aspects of the problem of the Earth's potential recovering from satellite gradiometry, to give an optimal formulation of the problem and derive the basic boundary value equation in different forms.
Improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
Marsh, J.G.; Lerch, F.J.; Christodoulidis, D.C.; Putney, B.H.; Felsentreger, T.L.; Sanchez, B.V.; Smith, D.E.; Klosko, S.M.; Martin, T.V.; Pavlis, E.C.
1987-07-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
Strong field limit analysis of gravitational lensing in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E; Yang, Ke E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn E-mail: yangke09@lzu.edu.cn
2012-10-01
In this paper, we study numerically the quasi-equatorial lensing by the stationary, axially-symmetric black hole in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime in the strong field limit. The deflection angle of light ray and other strong deflection limit coefficients are obtained numerically and they are found to be closely dependent on the NUT charge n and spin a. We also compute the magnification and the positions of the relativistic images. The caustics are studied and the results show that these caustics drift away from the optical axis, which is quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole case. Moreover, the intersections of the critical curves on the equatorial plane are obtained and it is shown that they increase with the NUT charge. These results show that there is a significant effect of the NUT charge on the strong gravitational lensing.
Variations of Mars gravitational field and rotation due to seasonal CO sub 2 exchange
Chao, B.F.; Rubincam, D.P. )
1990-08-30
About a quarter of the Martian atmospheric mass is exchanged between the atmosphere and the polar caps in the course of a Martian year: CO{sub 2} condenses to form (or add to) the polar caps in winter and sublimes into the atmosphere in summer. This paper studies the effect of this CO{sub 2} mass redistribution on Martian rotation and gravitational field. Two mechanisms are examined: (1) the waxing and waning of solid CO{sub 2} in the polar caps and (2) the geographical distribution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. In particular, the net peak-to-peak changes in J{sub 2} and J{sub 3} over a Martian year are both found to be as much as {approximately}6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}. A simulation suggests that these changes may be detected by the upcoming Mars Observer under favorable but realistic conditions.
Miroslav Sukenik; Jozef Sima; Julius Vanko
2000-04-20
Applying the Vaidya metrics in the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe (ENU) leads to compatibility of the ENU model both with the classic Newton gravitational theory and the general theory of relativity in weak fields
The motion of stars in galaxies and the gravitational time dilatation
Emmanuel Moulay
2010-05-31
This article deals with the problem of the motion of stars in galaxies. By using the Newton's theory combined with a gravitational time dilatation for the weak gravitational field, it is possible to give a solution without using the dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriev, A. D.; Grigoriev, P. D.
2014-04-01
We investigate the monotonic growth of longitudinal interlayer magnetoresistance R¯zz(Bz), analytically and numerically in the self-consistent Born approximation. We show that in a weak magnetic field the monotonic part of R ¯zz(Bz) is almost constant and starts to grow only above the crossover field Bc, when the Landau levels (LL) become isolated, i.e., when the LL separation becomes greater than the LL broadening. In higher field Bz ? Bc, R ¯zz(Bz) ? Bz1/2 in agreement with previous works.
Gravitation as a Composite Particle Effect in a Unified Spinor-Isospinor Preon Field Model I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stumpf, H.
1988-04-01
The model is defined by a selfregularizing nonlinear preon field equation, and all observable (elementary and non-elementary) particles are assumed to be bound (quantum) states of fermionic preon fields. Electroweak gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, gluons as preon composites and their effective dynamics etc. were studied in preceding papers. In this paper gravitons are introduced as four-preon composites and their effective interactions are discussed. This discussion is performed by the application of functional quantum theory to the model under consideration and subsequent evaluation of a weak mapping procedure, both introduced in preceding papers. In the low energy limit it is demonstrated that the effective graviton dynamics lead to the complete homogeneous Einstein equations in tetrad formulation.
Classical gauge gravitation theory
G. Sardanashvily
2011-10-06
Classical gravitation theory is formulated as gauge theory on natural bundles where gauge symmetries are general covariant transformations and a gravitational field is a Higgs field responsible for their spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Chad R. Galley; B. L. Hu; Shih-Yuin Lin
2006-03-24
We provide a quantum field theoretical derivation of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) equation, describing the motion of an electric point charge sourcing an electromagnetic field, which back-reacts on the charge as a self-force, and the Mino-Sasaki-Tanaka-Quinn-Wald (MSTQW) equation describing the motion of a point mass with self-force interacting with the linearized metric perturbations caused by the mass off an otherwise vacuous curved background spacetime. We regularize the formally divergent self-force by smearing the direct part of the retarded Green's function and using a quasilocal expansion. We also derive the ALD-Langevin and the MSTQW-Langevin equations with a classical stochastic force accounting for the effect of the quantum fluctuations in the field, which causes small fluctuations on the particle trajectory. These equations will be useful for studying the stochastic motion of charges and small masses under the influence of both quantum and classical noise sources, derived either self-consistently or put in by hand phenomenologically. We also show that history-dependent noise-induced drift motions could arise from such stochastic sources on the trajectory that could be a hidden feature of gravitational wave forms hitherto unknown.
Sergei Bashinsky
2015-05-28
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as low-resolution descriptions of the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every Hamiltonian that possesses pointer states. Then for a typical system the Hamiltonian changes unpredictably during evolution. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient symmetry, e.g., local supersymmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabilities follow from the first principles. The Born rule is not universal but there are reasons to expect it in a typical world. The emergent quantum evolution is necessarily Everettian (many-world). However, for a finite underlying structure the Everett branches with the norm below a positive threshold cease to exist. Hence some experiments that could be motivated by taking the Everett view too literally will be fatal for the participants.
The R.I. Pimenov unified gravitation and electromagnetism field theory as semi-Riemannian geometry
N. A. Gromov
2008-10-02
More then forty years ago R.I. Pimenov introduced a new geometry -- semi-Riemannian one -- as a set of geometrical objects consistent with a fibering $ pr: M_n \\to M_m.$ He suggested the heuristic principle according to which the physically different quantities (meter, second, coulomb etc.) are geometrically modelled as space coordinates that are not superposed by automorphisms. As there is only one type of coordinates in Riemannian geometry and only three types of coordinates in pseudo-Riemannian one, a multiple fibered semi-Riemannian geometry is the most appropriate one for the treatment of more then three different physical quantities as unified geometrical field theory. Semi-Euclidean geometry $^{3}R_5^4$ with 1-dimensional fiber $x^5$ and 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time as a base is naturally interpreted as classical electrodynamics. Semi-Riemannian geometry $^{3}V_5^4$ with the general relativity pseudo-Riemannian space-time $^{3}V^4,$ and 1-dimensional fiber $x^5,$ responsible for the electromagnetism, provides the unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Unlike Kaluza-Klein theories, where the 5-th coordinate appears in nondegenerate Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometry, the theory based on semi-Riemannian geometry is free from defects of the former. In particular, scalar field does not arise. PACS: 04.50.Cd, 02.40.-k, 11.10.Kk
The R.I. Pimenov unified gravitation and electromagnetism field theory as semi-Riemannian geometry
Gromov, N. A.
2009-05-15
More than forty years ago R.I. Pimenov introduced a new geometry-semi-Riemannian one-as a set of geometrical objects consistent with a fibering pr: M{sub n} {yields} M{sub m}. He suggested the heuristic principle according to which the physically different quantities (meter, second, Coulomb, etc.) are geometrically modelled as space coordinates that are not superposed by automorphisms. As there is only one type of coordinates in Riemannian geometry and only three types of coordinates in pseudo-Riemannian one, a multiple-fibered semi-Riemannian geometry is the most appropriate one for the treatment of more than three different physical quantities as unified geometrical field theory. Semi-Euclidean geometry {sup 3}R{sub 5}{sup 4} with 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5} and 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time as a base is naturally interpreted as classical electrodynamics. Semi-Riemannian geometry {sup 3}V{sub 5}{sup 4} with the general relativity pseudo-Riemannian space-time {sup 3}V{sub 4}, and 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5}, responsible for the electromagnetism, provides the unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Unlike Kaluza-Klein theories, where the fifth coordinate appears in nondegenerate Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometry, the theory based on semi-Riemannian geometry is free from defects of the former. In particular, scalar field does not arise.
Gravitational field equations near an arbitrary null surface expressed as a thermodynamic identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Sumanta; Parattu, Krishnamohan; Padmanabhan, T.
2015-10-01
Previous work has demonstrated that the gravitational field equations in all Lanczos-Lovelock models imply a thermodynamic identity T ?? S = ?? E + P ?? V (where the variations are interpreted as changes due to virtual displacement along the affine parameter ?) in the near-horizon limit in static spacetimes. Here we generalize this result to any arbitrary null surface in an arbitrary spacetime and show that certain components of the Einstein's equations can be expressed in the form of the above thermodynamic identity. We also obtain an explicit expression for the thermodynamic energy associated with the null surface. Under appropriate limits, our expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature. The components of the field equations used in obtaining the current result are orthogonal to the components used previously to obtain another related result, viz. that some components of the field equations reduce to a Navier-Stokes equation on any null surface, in any spacetime. We also describe the structure of Einstein's equations near a null surface in terms of three well-defined projections and show how the different results complement each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reintjes, J.; Bashkansky, Mark
2013-08-01
We present an analysis of the transmission of a weak optical pulse, with energy 1??0, through a dense absorbing medium with absorption frequency ?0. We analyze the system by treating the optical pulse classically and the absorbing medium quantum mechanically. We find that the probabilistic back reaction of the quantum absorber on the classical pulse impresses statistical behavior on the pulse that does not arise from quantization of the optical field. All properties of the optical transmission and atomic absorption are self-consistent without contradiction. Issues relating to conservation of energy are resolved by considering the impact of superposition states on conservation laws in individual interactions. As a result, we conclude that transmission of a weak optical pulse with energy 1??0 through a dense atomic absorber does not require quantization of the field.
Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena; Navarro, Jorge; Sanchez, Angel; Piccinelli, Gabriella
2008-07-02
The study of the universe's primordial plasma at high temperature plays an important role when tackling different questions in cosmology, such as the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) neither the amount of CP violation nor the strength of the phase transition are enough to produce and preserve baryon number during the Electroweak Phase Transition (EWPT), which are two of the three ingredients needed to develop baryon asymmetry. In this talk we present the first part of the analysis done within a scenario where it is viable to have improvements to the aforementioned situation: we work with the degrees of freedom in the broken symmetry phase of the MSM and analyze the development of the EWPT in the presence of a weak magnetic field. More specifically, we calculate the particle self-energies that include the effects of the weak magnetic field, needed for the MSM effective potential up to ring diagrams.
Novitskii, Yu I; Novitskaya, G V; Molokanov, D R; Serdyukov, Yu A; Yusupova, I U
2015-01-01
The lipid composition and content were analyzed in lettuce Lactica sativa L. (variety Stone head) leaves grown in a weak horizontal permanent magnetic field (PMF) produced by Helmholtz coils of 400 A/m strength under controlled conditions of illumination and temperature in phytothrone. Control plants were grown under the same conditions in a geomagnetic field. PMF decreased the total lipid content by 40% due to a significant decrease in polar and neutral lipids. Among polar lipids, the fractions of glycolipids and phospholipids diminished. Among glycolipids, the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols was lower by 25-52%. The content of phospholipids decreased, too, namely phosphatidylglycerols were lower by 17-51%, phosphatidylcholines by 21-24%, phosphatidylethanolamines by 12-20%, and phosphatidylinositols by 12-41%. Therefore, weak PMF reduced the content of lipids in membranes, including the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic membranes. PMID:26638236
Probing Gravitational Dark Matter
Jing Ren; Hong-Jian He
2015-01-22
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to gravitational interactions of the DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) acts as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle $\\chi_s$. It is a $Z_2$ odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, $\\xi_s \\chi_s^2 R$, where $\\xi_s$ is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction $\\xi_s \\chi_s^2 R$, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term $\\xi_h H^\\dag H R$, induces effective couplings between $\\chi_s^2$ and SM fields which can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Fermions in Gravitation Theory
G. Sardanashvily
1995-08-21
In gravitation theory, a fermion field must be regarded only in a pair with a certain tetrad gravitational field. These pairs can be represented by sections of the composite spinor bundle $S\\to\\Si\\to X^4$ where values of gravitational fields play the role of parameter coordinates, besides the familiar world coordinates.
A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Cool, Richard J.; Keeton, Charles R.; Zabludoff, Ann I.
2015-08-01
We present the spectroscopic redshift catalog from a wide-field survey of the fields of 28 galaxy-mass strong gravitational lenses. We discuss the acquisition and reduction of the survey data, collected over 40 nights of 6.5 m MMT and Magellan time, employing four different multiobject spectrographs. We determine that no biases are introduced by combining data sets obtained with different telescope and spectrograph combinations. Special care is taken to determine redshift uncertainties using repeat observations. The redshift catalog consists of 9,768 new and unique galaxy redshifts. 82.4% of the catalog redshifts are between z = 0.1 and z = 0.7, and the catalog median redshift is {z}{med}=0.36. The data from this survey will be used to study the lens environments and line-of-sight structures to gain a better understanding of the effects of large-scale structure on lens statistics and lens-derived parameters. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile and the 6.5 m MMT located in Arizona.
Advances in Magnetic and Gravitational Potential Field Data in the Arctic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olesen, Odleiv; Saltus, Rick
2010-10-01
Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE); Tromsø, Norway, 1-2 June 2010; Magnetic and gravitational potential field data are crucial components of regional tectonic framework studies and resource exploration in the Arctic. Special data acquisition difficulties at high latitudes include extreme weather conditions, ice-covered waters, and magnetic disturbances from the aurora borealis. Improved techniques in sub-ice, sub-salt, and sub-basalt exploration are required. The Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE) meeting (part of Arctic Days 2010) featured discussion of the most recent advances in potential field methods with particular attention to Arctic challenges. Presentations concentrated on regional interpretations in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Siberia, and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Talks also touched on regional petroleum exploration and on the interpretation of weathered bedrock in Norway. In addition, a group of talks dealt with geomagnetic disturbances and their effect on magnetic data collection and in magnetic orientation for directional drilling.
Wide-field X-ray afterglow searches for gravitational wave events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shawhan, Peter; Tervala, Justin
2015-04-01
The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors are on track to begin collecting science data soon and to reach full sensitivity by 2019. Low-latency analysis of the GW data will provide triggers for astronomers to seek electromagnetic transient counterparts. Many instruments will contribute to that effort, but instruments with very large fields of view will have a natural advantage for following up the typically large GW error regions. In particular, we consider ISS-Lobster, a proposed NASA mission to be deployed on the International Space Station, which features a focusing imager for soft X-rays with a field of view of over 800 square degrees. Our study using binary neutron star coalescence simulations from Singer et al. shows that a single ISS-Lobster pointing will, on average, cover over 95% of a LIGO-Virgo 3-detector sky map, while even a 2-detector sky map can be over 85% covered (on average) by a sequence of four pointings. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.
The MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability. II. The Roles of Weak and Oblique Fields in Planar Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, T. W.; Gaalaas, Joseph B.; Ryu, Dongsu; Frank, Adam
1997-06-01
We have carried out high-resolution MHD simulations of the nonlinear evolution of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable flows in 21/2 dimensions. The modeled flows and fields were initially uniform except for a thin shear layer with a hyperbolic tangent velocity profile and a small, normal mode perturbation. These simulations extend work by Frank et al. and Malagoli, Bodo, & Rosner. They consider periodic sections of flows containing magnetic fields parallel to the shear layer, but projecting over a full range of angles with respect to the flow vectors. They are intended as preparation for fully three-dimensional calculations and to address two specific questions raised in earlier work: (1) What role, if any, does the orientation of the field play in nonlinear evolution of the MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in 21/2 dimensions? (2) Given that the field is too weak to stabilize against a linear perturbation of the flow, how does the nonlinear evolution of the instability depend on strength of the field? The magnetic field component in the third direction contributes only through minor pressure contributions, so the flows are essentially two-dimensional. In Frank et al. we found that fields too weak to stabilize a linear perturbation may still be able to alter fundamentally the flow so that it evolves from the classical ``Cat's Eye'' vortex expected in gasdynamics into a marginally stable, broad laminar shear layer. In that process the magnetic field plays the role of a catalyst, briefly storing energy and then returning it to the plasma during reconnection events that lead to dynamical alignment between magnetic field and flow vectors. In our new work we identify another transformation in the flow evolution for fields below a critical strength. That we found to be ~10% of the critical field needed for linear stabilization in the cases we studied. In this ``very weak field'' regime, the role of the magnetic field is to enhance the rate of energy dissipation within and around the Cat's Eye vortex, not to disrupt it. The presence of even a very weak field can add substantially to the rate at which flow kinetic energy is dissipated. In all of the cases we studied magnetic field amplification by stretching in the vortex is limited by tearing mode, ``fast'' reconnection events that isolate and then destroy magnetic flux islands within the vortex and relax the fields outside the vortex. If the magnetic tension developed prior to reconnection is comparable to Reynolds stresses in the flow, that flow is reorganized during reconnection. Otherwise, the primary influence on the plasma is generation of entropy. The effective expulsion of flux from the vortex is very similar to that shown by Weiss for passive fields in idealized vortices with large magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrated that this expulsion cannot be interpreted as a direct consequence of steady, resistive diffusion, but must be seen as a consequence of unsteady fast reconnection.
Universal decoherence due to gravitational time dilation
Pikovski, Igor; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Caslav
2013-01-01
Phenomena inherent to quantum theory on curved space-time, such as Hawking radiation, are typically assumed to be only relevant at extreme physical conditions: at high energies and in strong gravitational fields. Here we consider low-energy quantum mechanics in the presence of weak gravitational time dilation and show that the latter leads to universal decoherence of quantum superpositions. Time dilation induces a universal coupling between internal degrees-of-freedom and the centre-of-mass of a composite particle and we show that the resulting entanglement causes the particle's position to decohere. We derive the decoherence timescale and show that the weak time dilation on Earth is already sufficient to decohere micro-scale objects. No coupling to an external environment is necessary, thus even completely isolated composite systems will decohere on curved space-time. In contrast to gravitational collapse models, no modification of quantum theory is assumed. General relativity therefore can account for the e...
Lyubutin, I S; Pikin, S A
2013-06-12
The influence of external magnetic and electric fields on the properties of a multiferroic with a helical magnetic structure is described. Thermodynamics of the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic ferroelectric to the new magnetic state is described for a multiferroic with a perovskite-type structure. In this magnetic state a spiral spin structure and weak ferromagnetism can exist simultaneously. Such a state is a result of the first-order phase transition at a certain temperature below T(N) when, due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya effect, a helical magnetic structure occurs. In this state the vectors of electrical polarization and the helicoid of magnetic moments in perovskites are mutually perpendicular and lie in the basic (ab) plane perpendicular to the main c axis. In this case an additional electrical polarization proportional to the square of magnetization appears in the (ab) plane which reduces the common polarization of the ferroelectric. It is shown that a weak ferromagnetic moment m occurs along the c axis in an applied magnetic field in addition to a modulated magnetic structure appearing in the (ab) plane. The dependence of these phenomena on the applied electric field is considered. It is shown that a sign-alternating electric field causes a linear-in-the-field variation of the magnetic moment opposite in sign to the electric field variation (i.e., the greater is the electric field, the smaller is the magnetic moment m). The observed hysteresis phenomena determining the temperature ranges of overheating and overcooling of each phase under applied magnetic and electrical fields are explained. PMID:23676279
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubutin, I. S.; Pikin, S. A.
2013-06-01
The influence of external magnetic and electric fields on the properties of a multiferroic with a helical magnetic structure is described. Thermodynamics of the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic ferroelectric to the new magnetic state is described for a multiferroic with a perovskite-type structure. In this magnetic state a spiral spin structure and weak ferromagnetism can exist simultaneously. Such a state is a result of the first-order phase transition at a certain temperature below TN when, due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya effect, a helical magnetic structure occurs. In this state the vectors of electrical polarization and the helicoid of magnetic moments in perovskites are mutually perpendicular and lie in the basic (ab) plane perpendicular to the main c axis. In this case an additional electrical polarization proportional to the square of magnetization appears in the (ab) plane which reduces the common polarization of the ferroelectric. It is shown that a weak ferromagnetic moment m occurs along the c axis in an applied magnetic field in addition to a modulated magnetic structure appearing in the (ab) plane. The dependence of these phenomena on the applied electric field is considered. It is shown that a sign-alternating electric field causes a linear-in-the-field variation of the magnetic moment opposite in sign to the electric field variation (i.e., the greater is the electric field, the smaller is the magnetic moment m). The observed hysteresis phenomena determining the temperature ranges of overheating and overcooling of each phase under applied magnetic and electrical fields are explained.
Shaon Ghosh; Steven Bloemen; Gijs Nelemans; Paul J. Groot; Larry R. Price
2015-11-09
The advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors scheduled to come online in the next two years will open up the much anticipated era of gravitational wave astronomy. Among the strongest contenders for the first detection are merging binary neutron stars, a fraction of which are also expected to produce observable electromagnetic signals in coincidence with the gravitational wave events. In this paper we investigate the strategy of using gravitational wave sky-localizations that we can expect to see in the first two years of the advanced detector era, to look for electromagnetic counterparts using wide field of view optical telescopes. The key to efficient observation of the gravitational wave sky-localizations is to obtain the optimal discretized approximation of the sky-localizations, where the coarseness of the discretization will depend on the field of view of the telescope. We examine various strategies of scanning these sky-localizations and propose the ranked-tiling strategy that we found to be the most effective and that requires the least amount of fine-tuning. We discuss the concept of distributed field-of-view arrays, which use multiple telescopes in a synchronous fashion with an effective FOV equal to the sum of all the individual telescopes in the context of covering the sky-localizations. We show that such arrays will be more efficient than monolithic large FOV telescopes in scanning the sky-localizations in the first two years of operation of the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. This result underscores the importance of using multiple non-local telescopes in a joint fashion to target the gravitational wave sky-localizations.
Weak solutions to Fokker-Planck equations and Mean Field Games
Porretta, Alessio
Field Games The Mean Field Games theory was introduced by Lasry-Lions and Huang-Caines-Malham´e since · D and m(0) = initial distribution of X0. Hence, the evolution of the state of the agents is governed
Lluis Bel
2009-05-17
A simple and {\\it innocent} modification of Poisson's equation leads to a modified Newtonnian theory of gravitation where a localized and {\\it positive} energy density of the gravitational field contributes to its own source. The result is that the total {\\it active gravitational mass} of a compact object is the sum of its {\\it proper mass} and an {\\it evanescent gravitational mass} which is a mass equivalent to the gravitational energy.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE DENSITY FIELD: AN SVD APPROACH TO WEAK-LENSING TOMOGRAPHY
VanderPlas, J. T.; Connolly, A. J.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.
2011-02-01
We present a new method for constructing three-dimensional mass maps from gravitational lensing shear data. We solve the lensing inversion problem using truncation of singular values (within the context of generalized least-squares estimation) without a priori assumptions about the statistical nature of the signal. This singular value framework allows a quantitative comparison between different filtering methods: we evaluate our method beside the previously explored Wiener-filter approaches. Our method yields near-optimal angular resolution of the lensing reconstruction and allows cluster sized halos to be de-blended robustly. It allows for mass reconstructions which are two to three orders of magnitude faster than the Wiener-filter approach; in particular, we estimate that an all-sky reconstruction with arcminute resolution could be performed on a timescale of hours. We find however that linear, non-parametric reconstructions have a fundamental limitation in the resolution achieved in the redshift direction.
Improved dynamics and gravitational collapse of tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marto, João; Tavakoli, Yaser; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2015-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a tachyon field with an inverse square potential, which is coupled with a barotropic fluid. By employing an holonomy correction imported from loop quantum cosmology (LQC), we analyze the dynamics of the collapse within a semiclassical description. Using a dynamical system approach, we find that the stable fixed points given by the standard general relativistic setting turn into saddle points in the present context. This provides a new dynamics in contrast to the black hole and naked singularities solutions appearing in the classical model. Our results suggest that classical singularities can be avoided by quantum gravity effects and are replaced by a bounce. By a thorough numerical studies we show that, depending on the barotropic parameter ?, there exists a class of solutions corresponding to either a fluid or a tachyon dominated regimes. Furthermore, for the case ? 1, we find an interesting tracking behavior between the tachyon and the fluid leading to a dust-like collapse. In addition, we show that, there exists a threshold scale which determines when an outward energy flux emerges, as a nonsingular black hole is forming, at the corresponding collapse final stages.
Improved dynamics and gravitational collapse of tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid
Joao Marto; Yaser Tavakoli; Paulo Vargas Moniz
2015-01-15
We consider a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a tachyon field with an inverse square potential, which is coupled with a barotropic fluid. By employing an holonomy correction imported from loop quantum cosmology, we analyse the dynamics of the collapse within a semiclassical description. Using a dynamical system approach, we find that the stable fixed points given by the standard general relativistic setting turn into saddle points in the present context. This provides a new dynamics in contrast to the black hole and naked singularities solutions appearing in the classical model. Our results suggest that classical singularities can be avoided by quantum gravity effects and are replaced by a bounce. By a thorough numerical studies we show that, depending on the barotropic parameter $\\gamma$, there exists a class of solutions corresponding to either a fluid or a tachyon dominated regimes. Furthermore, for the case $\\gamma \\sim 1$, we find an interesting tracking behaviour between the tachyon and the fluid leading to a dust-like collapse. In addition, we show that, there exists a threshold scale which determines when an outward energy flux emerges, as a non-singular black hole is forming, at the corresponding collapse final stages.
Field equation of the correlation function of mass-density fluctuations for self-gravitating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Chen, Qing
2015-09-01
We study the mass-density distribution of Newtonian self-gravitating systems. Modeling the system as a fluid in hydrostatical equilibrium, we obtain from first principles the field equation and its solution of the correlation function ?(r) of the mass-density fluctuation itself. We apply this to studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe within a small redshift range. The equation shows that ?(r) depends on the point mass m and the Jeans wavelength scale ?0, which are different for galaxies and clusters. It explains several long-standing prominent features of the observed clustering: that the profile of ?cc(r) of clusters is similar to ?gg(r) of galaxies, but with a higher amplitude and a longer correlation length, and that the correlation length increases with the mean separation between clusters as a universal scaling r0 ? 0.4d. Our solution ?(r) also shows that the observed power-law correlation function of galaxies ?gg(r) ? (r0/r)1.7 is only valid in a range 1
Saturn’s fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-11-01
Knowledge of the rotation period of a giant planet is crucial for constraining its internal structure and atmosphere dynamics. However, this physical property is not accurately determined in the case of Saturn. Spacecraft measurements of Saturn’s radio emission have revealed an uncertainty of nearly 10 minutes in its rotation period. Theoretical efforts to infer the rotation period have increased the uncertainty even more and at present, Saturn’s rotation period is thought to be between ˜ 10h 32m and ˜10h 47m. We present a new statistical optimization approach to determine Saturn’s rotation period. We find that by using its measured gravitational field and without imposing any constraints on the planetary shape and internal density profile Saturn’s rotation period can be determined to within several minutes. Moreover, if we include limits based on the observed planetary shape and possible density profiles, the rotation period can be determined to be 10h 32m 44s ± 46s. The success of our method is confirmed by applying it for Jupiter and reproducing exactly its measured rotation period which is well-known.
The Distribution of Galaxies’ Gravitational Field Stemming from Their Tidal Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanovich, Vladimir; God?owski, W?odzimierz
2015-09-01
We calculate the distribution function of astronomical objects’ (like galaxies and/or smooth halos of different kinds) gravitational fields due to their tidal interaction. For that we apply the statistical method of Chandrasekhar, used originally to calculate the famous Holtzmark distribution. We show that in our approach the distribution function is never Gaussian, its form being dictated by the potential of interaction between objects. This calculation permits us to perform a theoretical analysis of the relation between angular momentum and mass (richness) of the galaxy clusters. To do so, we follow the ideas of Catelan & Theuns and Heavens & Peacock. The main difference is that here we reduce the problem to a discrete many-body case, where all physical properties of the system are determined by the interaction potential V({{\\boldsymbol{r}}}{ij}). The essence of reduction is that we use the multipole (up to quadrupole here) expansion of Newtonian potential so that all hydrodynamic, “extended” characteristics of an object, such as its density mass, are “integrated out,” leaving its “point-like” characteristics, such as mass and quadrupole moment. In that sense we do not distinguish between galaxies and smooth components such as halos. We compare our theoretical results with observational data.
Imshennik, V. S.
2010-04-15
The standard problem of a radial motion of test particles in the stationary gravitational field of a spherically symmetric celestial body is solved and is used to determine the time features of this motion. The problem is solved for the equations of motion of general relativity (GR), and the time features are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation, with linear GR corrections proportional to r{sub g}/r and {beta}{sup 2} (in the solution being considered, they are of the same order of smallness) being taken rigorously into account. Total times obtained by integrating the time differentials along the trajectories of motion are considered as the time features in question. It is shown that, for any parameters of the motion, the proper time (which corresponds to watches comoving with a test particle) exceeds the time of watches at rest (watches at the surface of the celestial body being considered). The mass and the radius of the celestial body, as well as the initial velocity of the test particle, serve as arbitrary parameters of the motion. The time difference indicated above implies a leading role of the gravitational redshift, which decreases somewhat because of the opposite effect of the Doppler shift. The results are estimated quantitatively for the important (from the experimental point of view) case of vertical flights of rockets starting from the Earth's surface. In this case, the GR corrections, albeit being extremely small (a few microseconds for several hours of the flight), aremeasurable with atomic (quantum) watches.
Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Will, C. M.
1986-01-01
The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. Recent developments are summarized in two areas in which approximations are important: (a) the quadrupole approxiamtion, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (b) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.
Gravitational Collapse in Horndeski Theory
Koutsoumbas, George; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Tsoukalas, Minas
2015-01-01
We study the gravitational collapse of a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field which, besides its coupling to curvature, it is also coupled kinematically to the Einstein tensor. This coupling is part of the Horndeski theory and we investigate the effect of the shift symmetry on the collapsing process. We find that, as the value of the derivative coupling is increasing, the time required for the scalar field to collapse is also increasing, the singularity is protected by a horizon and a black hole is formed while the weak energy condition is satisfied during the collapsing process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, She-Sheng
2015-10-01
We study a quantum field theory for the Einstein-Cartan gravity and the domain of its ultraviolet unstable (stable) fixed point ?c ? 0 (Gc ? GN) of running gravitational constant G, where inflationary (low-redshift) universe can be realized as the basic space-time cutoff ã approaching to the Planck length apl. Because the fundamental operators of quantum gravitational field theory are dimension-2 area operators, the cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the squared correlation length ? ? ??2. The correlation length ? characterizes an infrared size of a causally correlate patch of the universe. The quantitative description of low-redshift universe in the scaling-invariant region of fixed point Gc is given, and its deviation from the ?CDM can be examined by recent cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.
KCNJ15/Kir4.2 couples with polyamines to sense weak extracellular electric fields in galvanotaxis
Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Zhu, Kan; Sun, Yao-Hui; Hegyi, Bence; Zeng, Qunli; Murphy, Christopher J.; Small, J. Victor; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Penninger, Josef M.; Zhao, Min
2015-01-01
Weak electric fields guide cell migration, known as galvanotaxis/electrotaxis. The sensor(s) cells use to detect the fields remain elusive. Here we perform a large-scale screen using an RNAi library targeting ion transporters in human cells. We identify 18 genes that show either defective or increased galvanotaxis after knockdown. Knockdown of the KCNJ15 gene (encoding inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.2) specifically abolishes galvanotaxis, without affecting basal motility and directional migration in a monolayer scratch assay. Depletion of cytoplasmic polyamines, highly positively charged small molecules that regulate Kir4.2 function, completely inhibits galvanotaxis, whereas increase of intracellular polyamines enhances galvanotaxis in a Kir4.2-dependent manner. Expression of a polyamine-binding defective mutant of KCNJ15 significantly decreases galvanotaxis. Knockdown or inhibition of KCNJ15 prevents phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) from distributing to the leading edge. Taken together these data suggest a previously unknown two-molecule sensing mechanism in which KCNJ15/Kir4.2 couples with polyamines in sensing weak electric fields. PMID:26449415
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, W. A.; Lisboa-Filho, P. N.; Passos, W. A. C.; Araújo-Moreira, F. M.
2001-10-01
In this article we report a direct observation that the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME, also called Wohlleben effect), presented by some superconducting samples, is an inherent consequence of granularity in superconductors. The experiments reported here were performed using high-quality thin films of Nb and YBa 2Cu 3O 7- ?. A network of randomly distributed SS?S weak-links was induced on the film by application of a small perpendicular DC magnetic field. The high demagnetization factor arising from this geometry, forces magnetic flux to penetrate into the sample, establishing a pattern of magnetic dendrites. By changing the external field we can adjust the critical current strength of the weak-links, thus controlling the magnetic response of the induced network. In this way we have tuned the temperature dependence of the field-cooled magnetization. An important conclusion supported by the experiments is that PME results from a competition between positive and negative magnetic responses generated by different levels of granularity in a multigranular system. This is in accordance with previous experiments correlating PME and the dynamic reentrance exhibited by a Josephson junction array, a particularly ordered granular system.
KCNJ15/Kir4.2 couples with polyamines to sense weak extracellular electric fields in galvanotaxis.
Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Zhu, Kan; Sun, Yao-Hui; Hegyi, Bence; Zeng, Qunli; Murphy, Christopher J; Small, J Victor; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Penninger, Josef M; Zhao, Min
2015-01-01
Weak electric fields guide cell migration, known as galvanotaxis/electrotaxis. The sensor(s) cells use to detect the fields remain elusive. Here we perform a large-scale screen using an RNAi library targeting ion transporters in human cells. We identify 18 genes that show either defective or increased galvanotaxis after knockdown. Knockdown of the KCNJ15 gene (encoding inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.2) specifically abolishes galvanotaxis, without affecting basal motility and directional migration in a monolayer scratch assay. Depletion of cytoplasmic polyamines, highly positively charged small molecules that regulate Kir4.2 function, completely inhibits galvanotaxis, whereas increase of intracellular polyamines enhances galvanotaxis in a Kir4.2-dependent manner. Expression of a polyamine-binding defective mutant of KCNJ15 significantly decreases galvanotaxis. Knockdown or inhibition of KCNJ15 prevents phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) from distributing to the leading edge. Taken together these data suggest a previously unknown two-molecule sensing mechanism in which KCNJ15/Kir4.2 couples with polyamines in sensing weak electric fields. PMID:26449415
Weak magnetic field effects on chiral critical temperature in a nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model
M. Loewe; F. Marquez; C. Villavicencio; R. Zamora
2015-06-03
In this article we study the nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with a Gaussian regulator in the chiral limit. Finite temperature effects and the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field are considered. The magnetic evolution of the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration is then obtained. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of low magnetic field values, being this a complementary discussion to the exisiting analysis in nonlocal models in the strong magnetic field regime.
Theory of weak scattering of stochastic electromagnetic fields from deterministic and random media
Tong Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga
2010-09-15
The theory of scattering of scalar stochastic fields from deterministic and random media is generalized to the electromagnetic domain under the first-order Born approximation. The analysis allows for determining the changes in spectrum, coherence, and polarization of electromagnetic fields produced on their propagation from the source to the scattering volume, interaction with the scatterer, and propagation from the scatterer to the far field. An example of scattering of a field produced by a {delta}-correlated partially polarized source and scattered from a {delta}-correlated medium is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey
2015-04-01
During the analysis of wave dynamics density and pressure are usually excluded to obtain the equation for a velocity or pycnocline displacement. In our work, the wave pressure variations are expressed in terms of pycnocline displacement, because existing models of internal waves are focused on the calculation of the vertical isopycnal displacement. This allows to combine in a single numerical model both calculation of the displacement field induced by internal waves and calculation of bottom pressure variations caused by internal waves. A comparison of the structure of wave pressure for displacements determined by various weakly nonlinear equations is made.
Miyazaki, A
2001-01-01
The Machian cosmological solution satisfying $\\phi =O(\\rho /\\omega)$ in the generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with the varying cosmological constant is summarized. The scalar field $\\phi $ with the exponential potential is introduced as dark matter and the barotropic evolution of matter in the universe is discussed. As the universe expands, the coefficient $\\gamma $ of the equation of state approaches to -1/3 and the coupling function $\\omega (\\phi)$ diverges to $-\\infty $.
A. Miyazaki
2001-03-05
The Machian cosmological solution satisfying $\\phi =O(\\rho /\\omega)$ in the generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with the varying cosmological constant is summarized. The scalar field $\\phi $ with the exponential potential is introduced as dark matter and the barotropic evolution of matter in the universe is discussed. As the universe expands, the coefficient $\\gamma $ of the equation of state approaches to -1/3 and the coupling function $\\omega (\\phi)$ diverges to $-\\infty $.
Childhood leukemia and residential exposure to weak extremely low frequency magnetic fields
Feychting, M.; Ahlbom, A.
1995-03-01
There is no known mechanism by which magnetic fields of the type generated by high voltage power lines can play a role in cancer development. Nevertheless, epidemiologic research has rather consistently found associations between residential magnetic field exposure and cancer. This is most evident for leukemia in children. 18 refs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, C. T.; Xu, K.; Chan, K. L.; Deng, L. C.
2007-10-01
This paper extends the gas-kinetic scheme for one-dimensional inviscid shallow water equations (K. Xu, A well-balanced gas-kinetic scheme for the shallow-water equations with source terms, J. Comput. Phys. 178 (2002) 533-562) to multidimensional gas dynamic equations under gravitational fields. Four important issues in the construction of a well-balanced scheme for gas dynamic equations are addressed. First, the inclusion of the gravitational source term into the flux function is necessary. Second, to achieve second-order accuracy of a well-balanced scheme, the Chapman-Enskog expansion of the Boltzmann equation with the inclusion of the external force term is used. Third, to avoid artificial heating in an isolated system under a gravitational field, the source term treatment inside each cell has to be evaluated consistently with the flux evaluation at the cell interface. Fourth, the multidimensional approach with the inclusion of tangential gradients in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases becomes important in order to maintain the accuracy of the scheme. Many numerical examples are used to validate the above issues, which include the comparison between the solutions from the current scheme and the Strang splitting method. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied to other systems, such as semi-conductor device simulations under electric fields.
Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.
2014-05-01
In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed.
ON THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS OF MACLAURIN SPHEROID MODELS OF ROTATING FLUID PLANETS
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald E-mail: kzhang@ex.ac.uk
2013-02-10
Hubbard recently derived an important iterative equation for calculating the gravitational coefficients of a Maclaurin spheroid that does not require an expansion in a small distortion parameter. We show that this iterative equation, which is based on an incomplete solution of the Poisson equation, diverges when the distortion parameter is not sufficiently small. We derive a new iterative equation that is based on a complete solution of the Poisson equation and, hence, always converges when calculating the gravitational coefficients of a Maclaurin spheroid.
Gravitational radiation fields in teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and their energies
G. G. L. Nashed
2011-01-05
We derive two new retarded solutions in the teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity (TEGR). One of these solutions gives a divergent energy. Therefore, we used the regularized expression of the gravitational energy-momentum tensor, which is a coordinate dependent. A detailed analysis of the loss of the mass of Bondi space-time is carried out using the flux of the gravitational energy-momentum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.
2015-10-01
The dynamical state of the solar and stellar atmospheres depends on the macroscopic velocity fields prevailing within them. The presence of such velocity fields in the line formation regions strongly affects the polarized radiation field emerging from these atmospheres. Thus it becomes necessary to solve the radiative transfer equation for polarized lines in moving atmospheres. Solutions based on the “observer’s frame method” are computationally expensive to obtain, especially when partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering and large-amplitude velocity fields are taken into account. In this paper we present an efficient alternative method of solution, namely, the comoving frame technique, to solve the polarized PRD line formation problems in the presence of velocity fields. We consider one-dimensional planar isothermal atmospheres with vertical velocity fields. We present a study of the effect of velocity fields on the emergent linear polarization profiles formed in optically thick moving atmospheres. We show that the comoving frame method is far superior when compared to the observer’s frame method in terms of the computational speed and memory requirements.
Multiparameter investigation of gravitational slip
Daniel, Scott F.; Caldwell, Robert R.; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2009-07-15
A detailed analysis of gravitational slip, a new post-general relativity cosmological parameter characterizing the degree of departure of the laws of gravitation from general relativity on cosmological scales, is presented. This phenomenological approach assumes that cosmic acceleration is due to new gravitational effects; the amount of spacetime curvature produced per unit mass is changed in such a way that a universe containing only matter and radiation begins to accelerate as if under the influence of a cosmological constant. Changes in the law of gravitation are further manifest in the behavior of the inhomogeneous gravitational field, as reflected in the cosmic microwave background, weak lensing, and evolution of large-scale structure. The new parameter {pi}{sub 0} is naively expected to be of order unity. However, a multiparameter analysis, allowing for variation of all of the standard cosmological parameters, finds that {pi}{sub 0}=0.09{sub -0.59}{sup +0.74}(2{sigma}), where {pi}{sub 0}=0 corresponds to a cosmological constant plus cold dark matter universe under general relativity. Future probes of the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and large-scale structure (Euclid) may improve the limits by a factor of 4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karseev, A.; Vologdin, V.; Davydov, V.
2015-11-01
This paper presents a method of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy in weak magnetic fields, as well as the peculiarities that arise when experimental studies conducting of biological fluids and liquid medium. The proposed method allows to measure of the condensed matter relaxation constants in weak magnetic fields by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance for express control of their condition at the place of study. The accuracy smaller than 1%. The results of experimental studies of various fluids and their mixtures are presented.
Gravitational Wave Induced Vibrations of Slender Structures in Space
R W Tucker; C Wang
2001-12-06
This paper explores the interaction of weak gravitational fields with slender elastic materials in space and estimates their sensitivities for the detection of gravitational waves with frequencies between $10^{-4}$ and 1 Hz. The dynamic behaviour of such slender structures is ideally suited to analysis by the simple theory of Cosserat rods. Such a description offers a clean conceptual separation of the vibrations induced by bending, shear, twist and extension and the response to gravitational tidal accelerations can be reliably estimated in terms of the constitutive properties of the structure. The sensitivity estimates are based on a truncation of the theory in the presence of thermally induced homogeneous Gaussian stochastic forces.
Possibility of realizing weak gravity in redshift space distortion measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji
2015-08-01
We study the possibility of realizing a growth rate of matter density perturbations lower than that in general relativity. Using the approach of the effective field theory of modified gravity encompassing theories beyond Horndeski, we derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff and the gravitational slip parameter ? for perturbations deep inside the Hubble radius. In Horndeski theories we derive a necessary condition for achieving weak gravity associated with tensor perturbations, but this is not a sufficient condition due to the presence of a scalar-matter interaction that always enhances Geff. Beyond the Horndeski domain it is possible to realize Geff smaller than Newton's gravitational constant G , while the scalar and tensor perturbations satisfy no-ghost and stability conditions. We present a concrete dark energy scenario with varying ct and numerically study the evolution of perturbations to confront the model with the observations of redshift-space distortions and weak lensing.
Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.
2012-05-15
The design of ion drivers for warm dense matter and high energy density physics applications and heavy ion fusion involves transverse focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams to a small spot size on the target. To facilitate the process, the compression occurs in a long drift section filled with a dense background plasma, which neutralizes the intense beam self-fields. Typically, the ion bunch charge is better neutralized than its current, and as a result a net self-pinching (magnetic) force is produced. The self-pinching effect is of particular practical importance, and is used in various ion driver designs in order to control the transverse beam envelope. In the present work we demonstrate that this radial self-focusing force can be significantly enhanced if a weak (B {approx} 100 G) solenoidal magnetic field is applied inside the neutralized drift section, thus allowing for substantially improved transport. It is shown that in contrast to magnetic self-pinching, the enhanced collective self-focusing has a radial electric field component and occurs as a result of the overcompensation of the beam charge by plasma electrons, whereas the beam current becomes well-neutralized. As the beam leaves the neutralizing drift section, additional transverse focusing can be applied. For instance, in the neutralized drift compression experiments (NDCX) a strong (several Tesla) final focus solenoid is used for this purpose. In the present analysis we propose that the tight final focus in the NDCX experiments may possibly be achieved by using a much weaker (few hundred Gauss) magnetic lens, provided the ion beam carries an equal amount of co-moving neutralizing electrons from the preceding drift section into the lens. In this case the enhanced focusing is provided by the collective electron dynamics strongly affected by a weak applied magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passot, Thierry; Henri, Pierre; Laveder, Dimitri; Sulem, Pierre-Louis
2014-07-01
Three-dimensional simulations of turbulence in collisionless plasmas are presented, using a fluid model that extends the anisotropic MHD to scales of the order of the ion gyroradius and below in directions perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This model, which includes linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius corrections to all the retained moments, provides an efficient tool to describe Alfvénic turbulence in the absence of cyclotron resonance. When sufficiently small scales are retained, no artificial damping nor collisional effects is required. Simulations with large-scale Alfvenic driving show the development of perpendicular power-law spectra (taken at zero parallel wavenumber) with an exponent close to -2.8 for the perpendicular magnetic field at scales smaller than the ion inertial length. The electric field spectrum displays a break at intermediate scales, consistent with Solar Wind observations. These spectra appear in a quasi-stationary state after early-formed sheet-like density and current structures have evolved into filaments. In the presence of temperature anisotropy, the nonlinear development of the mirror instability leads to pressure-balanced magnetic structures surrounded by significant ion velocity fields perpendicular to the ambient field. At later time, the system becomes turbulent, with the disruption of the magnetic structures into parallel filaments.
Effects of weak electric fields on the chemistry in the trailing columns of sprite streamers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sentman, D. D.
2008-12-01
The chemical effects of undervoltage electric fields in the trailing columns of sprite streamers are investigated. The existence of such fields are suggested by observations of ELF radiation associated with optical emissions of bright sprites that has been interpreted as evidence for intense electrical currents flowing in the body of the sprite (Cummer et al., GRL, 25(8), 1281-1284, 1998). An earlier nonlinear coupled chemical kinetics modeling study involving 80+ species and 800+ reactions of the chemical response to the passage of a sprite streamer at 70 km altitude (Sentman et al., JGR, 113, D11112, 2008) is extended to include undervoltage fields in the trailing region behind the compact streamer head that would be responsible for driving such currents. Recent high speed imaging observations combined with chemical modeling results suggest the trailing field is less than ~0.5 Ek, where Ek=123 Td is the threshold electric field for ionization avalanche. Electron densities are slightly depressed on account of enhanced dissociative attachment in the undervoltage environment. The effects on the densities of O(3P) and the metastable species O(1D), and N2(A3?u+) are enhancements by a modest factor of 2 or less. O2(a1?g) shows slightly greater enhancements, by up to a factor of 3, and O- shows enhancements by up to a factor of 5.
Malkemper, E. Pascal; Eder, Stephan H. K.; Begall, Sabine; Phillips, John B.; Winklhofer, Michael; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek
2015-01-01
The mammalian magnetic sense is predominantly studied in species with reduced vision such as mole-rats and bats. Far less is known about surface-dwelling (epigeic) rodents with well-developed eyes. Here, we tested the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus for magnetoreception using a simple behavioural assay in which mice are allowed to build nests overnight in a visually symmetrical, circular arena. The tests were performed in the ambient magnetic field or in a field rotated by 90°. When plotted with respect to magnetic north, the nests were bimodally clustered in the northern and southern sectors, clearly indicating that the animals used magnetic cues. Additionally, mice were tested in the ambient magnetic field with a superimposed radio frequency magnetic field of the order of 100?nT. Wood mice exposed to a 0.9 to 5?MHz frequency sweep changed their preference from north-south to east-west. In contrast to birds, however, a constant frequency field tuned to the Larmor frequency (1.33?MHz) had no effect on mouse orientation. In sum, we demonstrated magnetoreception in wood mice and provide first evidence for a radical-pair mechanism in a mammal. PMID:25923312
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, D. N.; Webb, S. J.
1981-09-01
Respiration of the insect larva, Danaüs archippus, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in log phase has been monitored before and after an oscillatory magnetic insult of 0.005 Gauss rms amplitude and 40 50 min duration. Frequencies used were 10 16 Hz for the insect and 100 200 Hz for the yeast. Depression of as much as 30% in metabolic rate has been found to occur immediately after the field is both imposed and eliminated with a general recovery over the 30-min period thereafter both in and out of the imposed field, although complete recovery to original levels may take much longer. Evidence is given that the response may depend on the frequency pattern used. This data is used to formulate an hypothesis whereby changes in the geomagnetic field variability pattern may act as a biochronometric zeitgeber.
Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina
Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.
1995-06-01
Extremely-low-frequency (ELF), low-intensity magnetic fields have been shown to influence cell signaling processes in a variety of systems, both in vivo and in vitro. Similar effects have been demonstrated for nervous system development and neurite outgrowth. The authors report that regeneration in planaria, which incorporates many of these processes, is also affected by ELF magnetic fields. The rate of cephalic regeneration, reflected by the mean regeneration time (MRT), for planaria populations regenerating under continuous exposure to combined DC (78.4 {mu}T) and AC (60.0 Hz at 10.0 {mu}T{sub peak}) magnetic fields applied in parallel was found to be significantly delayed (P {much_lt} 0.001) by 48 {+-} 1 h relative to two different types of control populations (MRT {minus}140 {+-} 12 h). One control population was exposed to only the AC component of this field combination, while the other experienced only the ambient geomagnetic field. All measurements were conducted in a low-gradient, low-noise magnetics laboratory under well-maintained temperature conditions. This delay in regeneration was shown to be dependent on the planaria having a fixed orientation with respect to the magnetic field vectors. Results also indicate that this orientation-dependent transduction process does not result from Faraday induction but is consistent with a Ca{sup 2+} cyclotron resonance mechanism. Data interpretation also permits the tentative conclusion that the effect results from an inhibition of events at an early stage in the regeneration process before the onset of proliferation and differentiation.
Measurement of weak magnetic field of corrosion current of isolated corrosion center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardin, I. V.; Bautin, V. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Ljubimov, B. Ya.; Usov, N. A.
2015-01-01
A very small magnetic field of corrosion current, of the order of 10-4 Oe, generated by isolated zinc inclusion in a copper platelet placed in electrolyte has been measured for the first time with a highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance magnetometer. The total corrosion current of the inclusion is estimated comparing the measured magnetic field distribution with corresponding theoretical calculation. The estimated value of the total corrosion current turns out to be in reasonable agreement with that one obtained in the standard gravimetric measurement.
Dynamical characteristics of Rydberg electrons released by a weak electric field
Diesen, Elias; Richter, Martin; Kunitski, Maksim; Dörner, Reinhard; Rost, Jan M
2015-01-01
The dynamics of ultra-slow electrons in the combined potential of an ionic core and a static electric field is discussed. With state-of-the-art detection it is possible to create such electrons through strong intense-field photo-absorption and to detect them via high-resolution time-of-flight spectroscopy despite their very low kinetic energy. The characteristic feature of their momentum spectrum, which emerges at the same position for different laser orientations, is derived and could be revealed experimentally with an energy resolution of the order of 1meV.
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr
2012-01-01
Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10?KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9?W for 5 days, each?5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313
Radiation Damage of Myoglobin Crystals in Weak Stationary Electric and Magnetic Fields
Trame, C B; Dragovic, M; Chiu, H-J
2014-01-01
Radiation damage is one of the bottlenecks in the field of structural biology. Cryo-cooling of protein crystals provided a breakthrough in the 1980s and resulted in significant reductions in radiation damage. Other factors positively influencing the progression of damage include the application of radical scavengers and reductions in the experimental beam size. Here we study the impact on radiation damage of applying static magnetic and electric fields during protein diffraction experiments, ultimately probing the Lorenz force effect on primary photoelectrons and secondary Auger electrons, which both contribute to the damage process. The design of a special mounting pin using graphene for applying electric fields on a crystalline sample is described. Analyses of myoglobin protein crystals exposed to the fields of ~40 mT and ?300 V show a slower global radiation damage rate and also changes in the progression of specific damage process on the molecular level, in particular at doses extending beyond the Garman limit of 30 MGy. PMID:25089148
Red Shift from Gravitational Back Reaction
Ernst Fischer
2007-03-30
Deviations from geodesic motion caused by gravitational radiation have been discussed in the last decades to describe the motion of particles or photons in strong fields around collapsed objects. On cosmological scale this effect, which in the first order is caused by the finite speed of gravitational interaction, is important also in the weak field limit. In this paper the energy loss by transfer to the gravitational potential is determined in a quasi-Newtonian approximation for the examples of a static Einstein universe and for an expanding universe with flat metric. In both cases the resulting red shift is a considerable fraction of the total red shift and requires an adjustment of the age and the matter composition in our models of the universe.
Weak Field Collapse in AdS: Introducing a Charge Density
Elena Caceres; Arnab Kundu; Juan F. Pedraza; Di-Lun Yang
2015-06-29
We study the effect of a non-vanishing chemical potential on the thermalization time of a strongly coupled large $N_c$ gauge theory in $(2+1)$-dimensions, using a specific bottom-up gravity model in asymptotically AdS space. We first construct a perturbative solution to the gravity-equations, which dynamically interpolates between two AdS black hole backgrounds with different temperatures and chemical potentials, in a perturbative expansion of a bulk neutral scalar field. In the dual field theory, this corresponds to a quench dynamics by a marginal operator, where the corresponding coupling serves as the small parameter in which the perturbation is carried out. The evolution of non-local observables, such as the entanglement entropy, suggests that thermalization time decreases with increasing chemical potential. We also comment on the validity of our perturbative analysis.
The Magnetorotational Explosion of Core-Collapse Supernovae with Initially Weak Magnetic Field
Kuroda, Takami; Umeda, Hideyuki
2008-05-21
Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the final fate of the massive stars, but their explosion mechanisms are still uncertain. One of the clues to the solution of the explosion mechanism is to examine the asymmetric effects. This is because most of observed CCSNe are asymmetric explosions. One of the factors to the asymmetric explosions are the magnetorotational effects. The magnetic fields are amplified intensively along the rotational axsis during the collapse, and it leads to the bipolar outflows which may eject outer mantle. To understand the role of magnetorotational effects during CCSNe, we have developed a new multidimensional magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) code and calculate collapse of a 25 M{sub {center_dot}} star with various magnetic field and rotational velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W. Y.; Wei, X. F.; Lv, K.; Wu, B.; Chang, S.; Mao, J. J.
2015-10-01
Within a nonperturbative approach, the electron energy transfer rate induced by microwave-dressed electron-impurity interaction is analyzed theoretically in 2DEGs under weak perpendicular magnetic field. We find that for relatively low radiation levels cyclotron resonance (CR) is observed. However, when the radiation becomes intense, the peak of CR begins to split and the splitting increases with radiation intensity. Furthermore, we also show that multiphoton transition channels cannot be neglected in the vicinity of resonant region. The physical reasons behind these interesting finding are discussed.
Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek
2014-12-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ?35% at redshift z ? 7 to ? 65% at z ? 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.
Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra
1997-01-01
Many of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during space flight may originate from the dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. The weightlessness affects the system when blood and other fluids move to the upper body causing the heart to enlarge to handle the increased blood flow to the upper extremities and decrease circulating volume. Increase arterial pressure triggers baroreceptors which signal the brain to adjust heart rate. Hemodynarnic studies indicate that the microgravity-induced headward fluid redistribution results in various cardiovascular changes such as; alteration of vascular permeability resulting in lipid accumulation in the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the the vascular wall, capillary alteration with extensive endothelial invagination. Achieving a true microgravity environment in ground based studies for prolonged periods is virtually impossible. The application of vector-averaged gravity to mammalian cells using horizontal clinostat produces alterations of cellular behavior similar to those observed in microgravity. Similarly, the low shear, horizontally rotating bioreactor (originally designed by NASA) also duplicates several properties of microgravity. Additionally, increasing gravity, i.e., hypcrgravity is easily achieved. Hypergravity has been found to increase the proliferation of several different cell lines (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. The effect of altered gravity on cells maybe similar to those of other physical forces, i.e. shear stress. Previous studies examining laminar flow and shear stress on endothelial cells found that the cells elongate, orient with the direction of flow, and reorganize their F-actin structure, with concomitant increase in cell stiffness. These studies suggest that alterations in the gravity environment will change the behavior of most cells, including vascular cells. However, few studies have been directed at assessing the effect of altered gravitational field on vascular cell fiction and metabolism, Using image analysis we examined how bovine aortic endothelial cells altered their morphological characteristics and their response to a denudation injury when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity and hypergravity.
J. Meichsner; M. H. Soffel
2015-06-22
Perturbations of satellite orbits in the gravitational field of a body with a mass monopole and arbitrary spin multipole moments are considered for an axisymmetric and stationary situation. Periodic and secular effects caused by the central gravitomagnetic field are derived by a first order perturbation theory. For a central spin-dipole field these results reduce to the well known Lense-Thirring effects.