Casimir effect in a weak gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorge, Francesco
2005-12-01
We study the Casimir vacuum energy density for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates (a cavity) in a slightly curved, static spacetime background, employing the weak-field approximation. Following an order-by-order perturbative approach, we evaluate the gravity-induced correction to Casimir energy. We find evidence for a small shift in the (negative) vacuum energy. As a consequence, the (attractive) force between the cavity walls is expected to weaken. Although derived in the weak-field approximation, and too small to be detected with the current technology, such gravitationally induced shift in vacuum energy seems nevertheless interesting from a theoretical point of view, since it might play a role in a cosmological scenario (e.g., gravitational influence on the ?-term) as well as at a microscopic level (quark confinement) in strong gravitational fields. Finally, the analysis of the possible gravitational effects on Casimir cavities faces the open issue concerning the limits of validity of general relativity at small distances.
Strong and weak gravitational field in $R+?^4/R$ gravity
Kh. Saaidi; A. Vajdi; S. W. Rabiei; A. Aghamohammadi; H. Sheikhahmadi
2012-01-18
We introduce a new approach for investigating the weak field limit of vacuum field equations in $f(R)$ gravity and we find the weak field limit of $f(R)=R+\\mu ^4/R$ gravity. Furthermore, we study the strong gravity regime in $R+\\mu^{4}/R$ model of $f(R)$ gravity. We show the existence of strong gravitational field in vacuum for such model. We find out in the limit $\\mu\\rightarrow 0$, the weak field limit and the strong gravitational field can be regarded as a perturbed Schwarzschild metric.
Weak Gravitational Lensing around Field Galaxies in HST Survey Images
R. E. Griffiths; S. Casertano; M. Im; K. U. Ratnatunga
1996-05-17
Using data from the HST Medium Deep Survey, a long-term Key Project, together with generically similar archived data, we have discovered evidence for weak gravitational `shear' of background field galaxies (I = 22 -- 26) in the vicinity of isolated, foreground galaxies ( I = 15 -- 22), especially those of early type. The statistical lensing is demonstrated by the slight preferential orientation of the major axes of the background galaxies in directions at right angles to the lines joining them to the foreground ones. The detected shear is at the level of $\\delta\\phi = 2.5^{o}\\pm 1.2^{o}$ averaged over the background galaxies at about ~10 half-light radii from 400 foreground ellipticals, corresponding to a polarization of about 0.04. A positive but less significant result is also reported for foreground spirals. This result excludes the de Vaucouleurs model for the mass distribution of ellipticals, but is consistent with elliptical galaxies having total M/L ~ 100 and extensive dark halos.
On the constraint equations in Einstein-aether theories and the weak gravitational field limit
David Garfinkle; James Isenberg; Jose M. Martin-Garcia
2012-07-27
We discuss the set of constraints for Einstein-aether theories, comparing the flat background case with what is expected when the gravitational fields are dynamic. We note potential pathologies occurring in the weak gravitational field limit for some of the Einstein-aether theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre
2012-03-01
This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy, which affects the evolution of structures. Gravitational lensing is the process by which light from distant galaxies is bent by the gravity of intervening mass in the Universe as it travels toward us. This bending causes the images of background galaxies to appear slightly distorted, and can be used to extract important cosmological information. In the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Einstein predicted that massive bodies could be seen as gravitational lenses that bend the path of light rays by creating a local curvature in space time. One of the first confirmations of Einstein's new theory was the observation during the 1919 solar eclipse of the deflection of light from distant stars by the sun. Since then, a wide range of lensing phenomena have been detected. The gravitational deflection of light by mass concentrations along light paths produces magnification, multiplication, and distortion of images. These lensing effects are illustrated by Figure 14.2, which shows one of the strongest lenses observed: Abell 2218, a very massive and distant cluster of galaxies in the constellation Draco. The observed gravitational arcs are actually the magnified and strongly distorted images of galaxies that are about 10 times more distant than the cluster itself. These strong gravitational lensing effects are very impressive but they are very rare. Far more prevalent are weak gravitational lensing effects, which we consider in this chapter, and in which the induced distortion in galaxy images is much weaker. These gravitational lensing effects are now widely used, but the amplitude of the weak lensing signal is so weak that its detection relies on the accuracy of the techniques used to analyze the data. Future weak lensing surveys are already planned in order to cover a large fraction of the sky with high accuracy, such as Euclid [68]. However, improving accuracy also places greater demands on the methods used to extract the available information.
Multiscale analysis of the electromagnetic self-force in a weak gravitational field
Pound, Adam; Poisson, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)
2008-02-15
We examine the motion of a charged particle in a weak gravitational field. In addition to the Newtonian gravity exerted by a large central body, the particle is subjected to an electromagnetic self-force that contains both a conservative piece and a radiation-reaction piece. This toy problem shares many of the features of the strong-field gravitational self-force problem, and it is sufficiently simple that it can be solved exactly with numerical methods, and approximately with analytical methods. We submit the equations of motion to a multiscale analysis, and we examine the roles of the conservative and radiation-reaction pieces of the self-force. We show that the radiation-reaction force drives secular changes in the orbit's semilatus rectum and eccentricity, while the conservative force drives a secular regression of the periapsis and affects the orbital time function; neglect of the conservative term can hence give rise to an important phasing error. We next examine what might be required in the formulation of a reliable secular approximation for the orbital evolution; this would capture all secular changes in the orbit and discard all irrelevant oscillations. We conclude that such an approximation would be very difficult to formulate without prior knowledge of the exact solution.
Multi-scale analysis of the electromagnetic self-force in a weak gravitational field
Adam Pound; Eric Poisson
2007-12-18
We examine the motion of a charged particle in a weak gravitational field. In addition to the Newtonian gravity exerted by a large central body, the particle is subjected to an electromagnetic self-force that contains both a conservative piece and a radiation-reaction piece. This toy problem shares many of the features of the strong-field gravitational self-force problem, and it is sufficiently simple that it can be solved exactly with numerical methods, and approximately with analytical methods. We submit the equations of motion to a multi-scale analysis, and we examine the roles of the conservative and radiation-reaction pieces of the self-force. We show that the radiation-reaction force drives secular changes in the orbit's semilatus rectum and eccentricity, while the conservative force drives a secular regression of the periapsis and affects the orbital time function; neglect of the conservative term can hence give rise to an important phasing error. We next examine what might be required in the formulation of a reliable adiabatic approximation for the orbital evolution; this would capture all secular changes in the orbit and discard all irrelevant oscillations. We conclude that such an approximation would be very difficult to formulate without prior knowledge of the exact solution.
D. J. Bacon; D. M. Goldberg; B. T. P. Rowe; A. N. Taylor
2005-04-21
Flexion is the significant third-order weak gravitational lensing effect responsible for the weakly skewed and arc-like appearance of lensed galaxies. Here we demonstrate how flexion measurements can be used to measure galaxy halo density profiles and large-scale structure on non-linear scales, via galaxy-galaxy lensing, dark matter mapping and cosmic flexion correlation functions. We describe the origin of gravitational flexion, and discuss its four components, two of which are first described here. We also introduce an efficient complex formalism for all orders of lensing distortion. We proceed to examine the flexion predictions for galaxy-galaxy lensing, examining isothermal sphere and Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profiles and both circularly symmetric and elliptical cases. We show that in combination with shear we can precisely measure galaxy masses and NFW halo concentrations. We also show how flexion measurements can be used to reconstruct mass maps in 2-D projection on the sky, and in 3-D in combination with redshift data. Finally, we examine the predictions for cosmic flexion, including convergence-flexion cross-correlations, and find that the signal is an effective probe of structure on non-linear scales.
Andrei Lebed
2012-05-14
It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.
Simulations of weak gravitational lensing
Martin White; Chris Vale
2004-05-13
We describe the simulation data produced by a pilot programme to compute mock weak gravitational lensing maps for a range of currently popular cosmological models by ray tracing through high-resolution N-body simulations. The programme required only a modest investment in computer time to produce maps accurate to arcminute scales covering hundreds of square degrees of sky for 4 cosmological models.
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Rosa, Luigi [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, Edificio 6, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, Edificio 6, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Esposito, Giampiero [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, Edificio 6, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2008-07-15
This paper studies two perfectly conducting parallel plates in the weak gravitational field on the surface of the Earth. Since the appropriate line element, to first order in the constant gravity acceleration g, is precisely of the Rindler type, we can exploit the formalism for studying Feynman Green functions in Rindler spacetime. Our analysis does not reduce the electromagnetic potential to the transverse part before quantization. It is instead fully covariant and well suited for obtaining all components of the regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor to arbitrary order in the gravity acceleration g. The general structure of the calculation is therefore elucidated, and the components of the Maxwell energy-momentum tensor are evaluated up to second order in g, improving a previous analysis by the authors and correcting their old first-order formula for the Casimir energy.
Image processing challenges in weak gravitational lensing
Amara, Adam
2011-01-01
The field of weak gravitational lensing, which measures the basic properties of the Universe by studying the way that light from distant galaxies is perturbed as it travels towards us, is a very active field in astronomy. This short article presents a broad overview of the field, including some of the important questions that cosmologists are trying to address, such as understanding the nature of dark energy and dark matter. To do this, there is an increasing feeling within the weak lensing community that other disciplines, such as computer science, machine learning, signal processing and image processing, have the expertise that would bring enormous advantage if channelled into lensing studies. To illustrate this point, the article below outlines some of the key steps in a weak lensing analysis chain. The challenges are distinct at each step, but each could benefit from ideas developed in the signal processing domain. This article also gives a brief overview of current and planned lensing experiments that wi...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowland, David R.
2015-06-01
Galaxy rotation curves are generally analyzed theoretically using Newtonian physics; however, two groups of authors have claimed that for self-gravitating dusts, general relativity (GR) makes significantly different predictions to Newtonian physics, even in the weak field, low velocity limit. One group has even gone so far as to claim that nonlinear general relativistic effects can explain flat galactic rotation curves without the need for cold dark matter. These claims seem to contradict the well-known fact that the weak field, low velocity, low pressure correspondence limit of GR is Newtonian gravity, as evidenced by solar system tests. Both groups of authors claim that their conclusions do not contradict this fact, with Cooperstock and Tieu arguing that the reason is that for the solar system, we have test particles orbiting a central gravitating body, whereas for a galaxy, each star is both an orbiting body and a contributor to the net gravitational field, and this supposedly makes a difference due to nonlinear general relativistic effects. Given the significance of these claims for analyses of the flat galactic rotation curve problem, this article compares the predictions of GR and Newtonian gravity for three cases of self-gravitating dusts for which the exact general relativistic solutions are known. These investigations reveal that GR and Newtonian gravity are in excellent agreement in the appropriate limits, thus supporting the conventional use of Newtonian physics to analyze galactic rotation curves. These analyses also reveal some sources of error in the referred to works.
Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandelbaum, R.
2015-05-01
We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements.
Weak gravitational lensing of intrinsically aligned galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giahi-Saravani, Aram; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2014-01-01
Subject of this paper is the weak lensing effect on galaxies that show intrinsically correlated ellipticities. In our model, we investigate the distortion of the ellipticity field if the galaxies experience an apparent shift in their position by weak lensing deflection and compare this effect to the shearing effect induced by tidal fields. Starting with a derivation of intrinsic ellipticity spectra by employing a tidal torquing model generating galactic angular momenta, we model the galaxy ellipticity by assuming that the galactic disc forms perpendicularly to the host halo angular momentum direction and derives intrinsic ellipticity E-mode and B-mode spectra from the angular momentum statistics. The lensing effect on the ellipticity field is modelled by employing the methodology developed in the framework of lensing of the cosmic microwave background polarization. For Euclid, ellipticity correlations are altered by lensing deflection on multipoles ? ? 1000 by 5 per cent for the ellipticity E modes and 30 per cent for the B modes, while a shallower survey would exhibit larger changes on larger angular scales. In addition to the convolving effect of lensing on the ellipticity spectra, we investigate the E/B-mode conversion and discuss the possibility of measuring correlations between different multipoles, which is evoked by the homogeneity breaking effect of the lensing displacement. Our conclusion is that although shape correlations generated by weak gravitational shear is dominant, the shifting effect due to lensing is shaping the ellipticity spectra on small angular scales and causing a number of interesting phenomena, which might be observable by future surveys.
Theoretical analysis of a reported weak gravitational shielding effect
G. Modanese
1996-06-15
Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation in a high frequency magnetic field and rapid rotation) a disk of high-$T_c$ superconducting material has recently been found to produce a weak shielding of the gravitational field. We show that this phenomenon has no explanation in the standard gravity theories, except possibly in the non-perturbative Euclidean quantum theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyen, G.; Drakova, D.
2015-06-01
We construct a world model consisting of a matter field living in 4 dimensional spacetime and a gravitational field living in 11 dimensional spacetime. The seven hidden dimensions are compactified within a radius estimated by reproducing the particle-wave characteristics of diffraction experiments. In the presence of matter fields the gravitational field develops localized modes with elementary excitations called gravonons which are induced by the sources (massive particles). The final world model treated here contains only gravonons and a scalar matter field. The gravonons are localized in the environment of the massive particles which generate them. The solution of the Schrödinger equation for the world model yields matter fields which are localized in the 4 dimensional subspace. The localization has the following properties: (i) There is a chooser mechanism for the selection of the localization site. (ii) The chooser selects one site on the basis of minor energy differences and differences in the gravonon structure between the sites, which at present cannot be controlled experimentally and therefore let the choice appear statistical. (iii) The changes from one localization site to a neighbouring one take place in a telegraph-signal like manner. (iv) The times at which telegraph like jumps occur depend on subtleties of the gravonon structure which at present cannot be controlled experimentally and therefore let the telegraph-like jumps appear statistical. (v) The fact that the dynamical law acts in the configuration space of fields living in 11 dimensional spacetime lets the events observed in 4 dimensional spacetime appear non-local. In this way the phenomenology of CQM is obtained without the need of introducing the process of collapse and a probabilistic interpretation of the wave function. Operators defining observables need not be introduced. All experimental findings are explained in a deterministic way as a consequence of the time development of the wave function in configuration space according to Schrödinger's equation without the need of introducing a probabilistic interpretation.
Weak gravitational lensing with DEIMOS
Melchior, Peter; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Bartelmann, Matthias
2010-01-01
We introduce a novel method for weak-lensing measurements, which is based on a mathematically exact deconvolution of the moments of the apparent brightness distribution of galaxies from the telescope's PSF. No assumptions on the shape of the galaxy or the PSF are made. The (de)convolution equations are exact for unweighted moments only, while in practice a compact weight function needs to be applied to the noisy images to ensure that the moment measurement yields significant results. We employ a Gaussian weight function, whose centroid and ellipticity are iteratively adjusted to match the corresponding quantities of the source. The change of the moments caused by the application of the weight function can then be corrected by considering higher-order weighted moments of the same source. Because of the form of the deconvolution equations, even an incomplete weighting correction leads to an excellent shear estimation if galaxies and PSF are measured with a weight function of identical size. We demonstrate the a...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.
2013-12-01
Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.
Theoretical analysis of a reported weak gravitational shielding effect
Modanese, G
1995-01-01
Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation and rapid rotation) a disk of high-T_c superconducting material has recently been found to produce a weak shielding of the gravitational field. We show that this phenomenon has no explanation in the standard gravity theories, except possibly in the non-perturbative quantum theory on the Regge lattice. More data, and independent repetitions of the experiment are however necessary.
Einstein's gravitational field
Peter M. Brown
2002-12-23
There exists some confusion, as evidenced in the literature, regarding the nature of the gravitational field in Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. It is argued here the this confusion is a result of a change in interpretation of the gravitational field. Einstein identified the existence of gravity with the inertial motion of accelerating bodies (i.e. bodies in free-fall) whereas contemporary physicists identify the existence of gravity with space-time curvature (i.e. tidal forces). The interpretation of gravity as a curvature in space-time is an interpretation Einstein did not agree with.
Baryons, neutrinos, feedback and weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2015-06-01
The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OverWhelmingly Large hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for z < 1.5, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than 2 per cent for scales k < 10 h Mpc-1 and better than 5 per cent for 10 < k < 100 h Mpc-1. Equipped with this precise tool, this paper presents the first constraint on baryonic feedback models using gravitational lensing data, from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). In this analysis, we show that the effect of neutrino mass on the mass power spectrum is degenerate with the baryonic feedback at small angular scales and cannot be ignored. Assuming a cosmology precision fixed by WMAP9, we find that a universe with massless neutrinos is rejected by the CFHTLenS lensing data with 85-98 per cent confidence, depending on the baryon feedback model. Some combinations of feedback and non-zero neutrino masses are also disfavoured by the data, although it is not yet possible to isolate a unique neutrino mass and feedback model. Our study shows that ongoing weak gravitational lensing surveys (KiDS, HSC and DES) will offer a unique opportunity to probe the physics of baryons at galactic scales, in addition to the expected constraints on the total neutrino mass.
Baryons, Neutrinos, Feedback and Weak Gravitational Lensing
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2014-01-01
(Abridged) The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OWL hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for $z<1.5$, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than $2\\%$ for scales $k<10 h\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$ and better than ...
Weak 'Antigravity' Fields in General Relativity
F. S. Felber
2009-02-10
Within the weak-field approximation of general relativity, new exact solutions are derived for the gravitational field of a mass moving with arbitrary velocity and acceleration. A mass having a constant velocity greater than 3^-1/2 times the speed of light gravitationally repels other masses at rest within a narrow cone. At high Lorentz factors (gamma >> 1), the force of repulsion in the forward direction is about -8(gamma^5) times the Newtonian force, offering opportunities for laboratory tests of gravity at extreme velocities. One such experiment is outlined for the Large Hadron Collider.
Studying the LSS through weak gravitational lensing maps
Antonio C. C. Guimarăes
2001-12-10
Weak gravitational lensing is a promising tool for the study of the mass distribution in the Universe. Here we report some partial results that show how lensing maps can be used to differentiate between cosmological models. We pay special attention to the role of noise and smoothing. As an application, we use mock convergence fields constructed from N-body simulations of the large-scale structure for three historically important cosmological models. Various map analyses are used, including Minkowski functionals, and their ability to differentiate the models is calculated and discussed.
Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data
Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2005-12-14
We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.
The antimatter gravitational field
Chiarelli, Piero
2015-01-01
In this work the author derives the Galilean limit of the gravitational field of antimatter by using the hydrodynamic quantum gravity equations that comprehend the antiparticle impulse-energy tensor. The result shows that, even the antimatter mass is a positive valued quantity, its presence gives a negative 4-d space curvature respect to that one of the matter as a consequence of the backward propagation in time of the antimatter wave function. The result leads to the consequence that the null space curvature of photons undergoing to electron-positron couples generation (or annihilation) does not change during the process. A laboratory experiment to validate the theory output is also proposed .
Weak gravitational lensing by compact objects in fourth order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horváth, Zsolt; Gergely, László Á.; Hobill, David; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2013-09-01
We discuss weak lensing characteristics in the gravitational field of a compact object in the low-energy approximation of fourth order f(R)-gravity theory. The particular solution is characterized by a gravitational strength parameter ? and a distance scale rc much larger than the Schwarzschild radius. Above rc gravity is strengthened and as a consequence weak lensing features are modified compared to the Schwarzschild case. We find a critical impact parameter (depending upon rc) for which the behavior of the deflection angle changes. Using the Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation we improve the computation of the image positions, Einstein ring radii, magnification factors and the magnification ratio. We demonstrate that the magnification ratio as function of image separation obeys a power law depending on the parameter ?, with a double degeneracy. No ??0 value gives the same power as the one characterizing Schwarzschild black holes. As the magnification ratio and the image separation are the lensing quantities most conveniently determined by direct measurements, future lensing surveys will be able to constrain the parameter ? based on this prediction.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.
2011-10-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.
Gravitational redshift in Kerr field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Anuj Kumar; Sen, Asoke Kumar
2014-03-01
Generally gravitational redshift has been calculated without consideration of rotation of a body. Neglecting the rotation, the geometry of space time can be described by using the well-known spherically symmetric Schwarzschild geometry. Rotation has great effect on general relativity, which gives new challenges on gravitational redshift. When rotation is taken into consideration spherical symmetry lost and off diagonal terms appears in the metric and the geometry of space time can be described by using the Kerr solution, which is the exact solution of the Einstein's field equations known at present. In this paper we will derive the expression for gravitational redshift for rotating source in Kerr field, and also apply the derived expression to calculate the gravitational redshift in case of Sun under Newtonian approximation of angular momentum.
Caution: Strong gravitational field present
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reif, Marc
2014-05-01
I came up with a new way to introduce the concept of a constant gravitational field near the surface of the Earth. I made "g-field detectors" (see Fig. 1) and suspended them by strings from the ceiling in a regular spacing. The detectors are cardstock arrows with a hole punched out of them and the letter "g" in the center.
Caution: Strong Gravitational Field Present
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reif, Marc
2014-01-01
I came up with a new way to introduce the concept of a constant gravitational field near the surface of the Earth. I made "g-field detectors" (see Fig. 1 ) and suspended them by strings from the ceiling in a regular spacing. The detectors are cardstock arrows with a hole punched out of them and the letter "g" in the center.
Victor I. Denisov; Sergei I. Svertilov
2005-01-01
The nonlinear electrodynamic and gravitational actions on the weak electromagnetic wave propagation in the strong dipole magnetic and gravitational fields of a neutron star are discussed. The eikonal equations for an electromagnetic wave propagating in the external field as well as the motion equations of photons in the dipole magnetic and gravitational fields of a neutron star are obtained from
The gravitational field of Phobos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; Rubincam, David Parry
1989-01-01
The external gravitational field produced by a rigid body of uniform density but irregular shape is formulated in terms of spherical harmonics. The formalism is applied to the Martian satellite Phobos. Based on a three-dimensional shape model of Phobos by Duxbury (1989), the gravitational coefficients up to degree and order 4 for a homogeneous Phobos are computed. In particular, J2 is found to be 0.105. The in-plane libration amplitude of a homogeneous Phobos is predicted to be 0.97 deg, within the rather large uncertainty of the observed value of 0.78 + or - 0.4 deg.
Weak gravitational shear and flexion with polar shapelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massey, Richard; Rowe, Barnaby; Refregier, Alexandre; Bacon, David J.; Bergé, Joel
2007-09-01
We derive expressions, in terms of `polar shapelets', for the image distortion operations associated with weak gravitational lensing. Shear causes galaxy shapes to become elongated, and is sensitive to the second derivative of the projected gravitational potential along their line of sight; flexion bends galaxy shapes into arcs, and is sensitive to the third derivative. Polar shapelets provide a natural representation, in which both shear and flexion transformations are compact. Through this tool, we understand progress in several weak lensing methods. We then exploit various symmetries of shapelets to construct a range of shear estimators with useful properties. Through an analogous investigation, we also explore several flexion estimators. In particular, some of the estimators can be measured simultaneously and independently for every galaxy, and will provide unique checks for systematics in future weak lensing analyses. Using simulated images from the Shear TEsting Programme, we show that we can recover input shears with no significant bias. A complete software package to parametrize astronomical images in terms of polar shapelets, and to perform a full weak lensing analysis, is available on the Internet.
Weak gravitational shear and flexion with polar shapelets
Richard Massey; Barnaby Rowe; Alexandre Refregier; David J. Bacon; Joel Berge
2007-09-01
We derive expressions, in terms of "polar shapelets", for the image distortion operations associated with weak gravitational lensing. Shear causes galaxy shapes to become elongated, and is sensitive to the second derivative of the projected gravitational potential along their line of sight; flexion bends galaxy shapes into arcs, and is sensitive to the third derivative. Polar shapelets provide a natural representation, in which both shear and flexion transformations are compact. Through this tool, we understand progress in several weak lensing methods. We then exploit various symmetries of shapelets to construct a range of shear estimators with useful properties. Through an analogous investigation, we also explore several flexion estimators. In particular, some of the estimators can be measured simultaneously and independently for every galaxy, and will provide unique checks for systematics in future weak lensing analyses. Using simulated images from the Shear TEsting Programme (STEP), we show that we can recover input shears with no significant bias. A complete software package to parametrize astronomical images in terms of polar shapelets, and to perform a full weak lensing analysis, is available at http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~rjm/shapelets/ .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krot, Alexander M.
2002-01-01
the framework of this model bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. The consistency of the statistical model with the Einstein general relativity3,4,5 has been shown. In the work6, which is a continuation of the paper2, it was investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression (contraction) of a spheroidal body close to an unstable meńhanical equilibrium state (a low mass flow), therefore the process of the gravitational contraction appears slowly developing in time (the case of unobservable velocities of particles composing a spheroidal body). For this case in the work7 it has been shown that the strength and potential of the gravitational field of a slowly contracting spheroidal body satisfy a differential equation of the second order of the parabolic type for the case of unobservable velocities of particles. Therefore gravitational waves of a soliton type are propagated in a weakly gravitating spheroidal body if values of velocities are unobservable. body. In the connection with the above-given statements, in the present paper the following assumptions are used: 1.The spheroidal body under consideration is homogeneous in its chemical structure, i.e. it consists of identical particles with the mass m0. 2.The spheroidal body is not subjected to influence of external fields and bodies. 3.The spheroidal body is isothermal and has temperature close to the absolute zero. 4.The concentration gradient is not too large in the sense that interphase boundaries are absent inside the spheroidal body. 5. In view of low values of the temperature the heat conduction and viscosity processes are not important, which allows to describe the rotation of the spheroidal body as a whole, while movement of flows of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body is modeled by means of a motion of an ideal medium (the case of observable velocities of particles). 6.Since the process of the gravitational compression (contraction) of the spheroidal body is weak and viscosity is absent, we regard the motion of the continuous medium to be non-turbulent. modeled by means of an ideal liquid. It is determined the connection of this equation with an equation of motion of a particle in a noninertial frame of reference. A gravimagnetic field is introduced in this paper. It is obtained the scalar and vector potentials as well as the Lagrange function of a particle moving in a gravitational and gravimagnetic fields. It is derived the equations of hyperbolic type for the gravitational field of a weakly gravitating spheroidal body under observable values of velocities of particles composing it. 1. A.M.Krot, Achievements in Modern Radioelectronics, special issue "Cosmic Radiophysics", no.8, pp.66- 2. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 13th Symp."AeroSense", Orlando, Florida, April 5-9,1999, vol.3710,pp.1248-1259. 3. L.D.Landau and E.M.Lifshitz, Classical Theory of Fields, Addison-Wesley, 1951. 4. S.Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1972. 5. C.W.Misner, K.S.Thorne, and J.A.Wheeler, Gravitation, W.H.Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973. 6. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 14th Symp."AeroSense",Orlando,Florida,April 24-28,2000,vol.4038,pp.1318-1329. 7. A.M.Krot, Proc. SPIE 15th Symp."AeroSense",Orlando,Florida,April 16-20,2001,vol.4394,pp.1271-1282.
Weak shear study of galaxy clusters by simulated gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coss, David
Gravitational lensing has been simulated for numerical galaxy clusters in order to characterize the effects of substructure and shape variations of dark matter halos on the weak lensing properties of clusters. In order to analyze realistic galaxy clusters, 6 high-resolution Adaptive Refinement Tree N-body simulations of clusters with hydrodynamics are used, in addition to a simulation of one group undergoing a merger. For each cluster, the three-dimensional particle distribution is projected perpendicular to three orthogonal lines of sight, providing 21 projected mass density maps. The clusters have representative concentration and mass values for clusters in the concordance cosmology. Two gravitational lensing simulation methods are presented. In the first method, direct integration is used to calculate deflection angles. To overcome computational constraints inherent in this method, a distributed computing project was created for parallel computation. In addition to its use in gravitational lensing simulation, a description of the setup and function of this distributed computing project is presented as an alternative to in-house computing clusters, which has the added benefit of public enrollment in science and low cost. In the second method, shear maps are created using a fast Fourier transform method. From these shear maps, the effects of substructure and shape variation are related to observational gravitational lensing studies. Average shear in regions less than and greater than half of the virial radius demonstrates distinct dispersion, varying by 24% from the mean among the 21 maps. We estimate the numerical error in shear calculations to be of the order of 5%. Therefore, this shear dispersion is a reliable consequence of shape dispersion, correlating most strongly with the ratio of smallest-to-largest principal axis lengths of a cluster isodensity shell. On the other hand, image ellipticities, which are of great importance in mass reconstruction, are shown to have very little variance. However, tangential alignment of average image distortion is quite strong, making mass density peak locations easily resolvable.
Gravitational Attraction Fields for Population in Turkey
Cihan Ahmet Tutluođlu; Vedia Dokmeci
2005-01-01
Inspired by the gravitational attraction of the masses in Physics, the gravitational pull between the settlements has been proven to be an important phenomenon in explaining potentials that arise among towns. Again inspired by the Electro-magnetic fields in Physics, in this paper, the gravitational attraction between the cities is assumed to be exerted on a city with a certain charge
Weak Gravity Strongly Constrains Large-Field Axion Inflation
Ben Heidenreich; Matthew Reece; Tom Rudelius
2015-06-10
Models of large-field inflation based on axion-like fields with shift symmetries can be simple and natural, and make a promising prediction of detectable primordial gravitational waves. The Weak Gravity Conjecture is known to constrain the simplest case in which a single axion descends from a gauge field in an extra dimension. By supplementing the Weak Gravity Conjecture with considerations of how the mass spectrum of the theory varies across the axion moduli space, we obtain more powerful constraints that apply to a variety of multi-axion theories including N-flation and alignment models. In every case that we consider, plausible assumptions lead to field ranges that cannot be parametrically larger than the Planck scale. Our results are strongly suggestive of a general inconsistency in models of large-field inflation based on axions, and possibly of a more general principle forbidding super-Planckian field ranges.
Weak Gravity Strongly Constrains Large-Field Axion Inflation
Heidenreich, Ben; Rudelius, Tom
2015-01-01
Models of large-field inflation based on axion-like fields with shift symmetries can be simple and natural, and make a promising prediction of detectable primordial gravitational waves. The Weak Gravity Conjecture is known to constrain the simplest case in which a single axion descends from a gauge field in an extra dimension. By supplementing the Weak Gravity Conjecture with considerations of how the mass spectrum of the theory varies across the axion moduli space, we obtain more powerful constraints that apply to a variety of multi-axion theories including N-flation and alignment models. In every case that we consider, plausible assumptions lead to field ranges that cannot be parametrically larger than the Planck scale. Our results are strongly suggestive of a general inconsistency in models of large-field inflation based on axions, and possibly of a more general principle forbidding super-Planckian field ranges.
Helmut Kling
2015-05-24
A mass distribution is analyzed in terms of classical gravitational field theory. Newton's law of gravitation is consistently applied on the assumption that the equivalence of energy and mass according to Einstein's theory of relativity is valid for gravitational fields as well. Different from standard approaches the gravitational field, via its associated field energy, is handled as a source of gravitation by itself. Starting from these principles a gravitational self-shielding phenomenon is derived as a common characteristic of all mass/energy distributions. Moreover, it is demonstrated that even in the absence of any stimulating mass the existence of independent static gravitational fields is fully consistent with Newton's law of gravitation as long as the equivalence of energy and mass is respected. From a distance such gravitational fields appear as negative masses.
Thermal Effective Lagrangian of Static Gravitational Fields
F T Brandt; J B Siqueira
2012-03-08
We compute the effective Lagrangian of static gravitational fields interacting with thermal fields. Our approach employs the usual imaginary time formalism as well as the equivalence between the static and space-time independent external gravitational fields. This allows to obtain a closed form expression for the thermal effective Lagrangian in $d$ space-time dimensions.
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs in weakly lithified sediment
Hampton, M.A.
2002-01-01
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs eroded into weakly lithified sediment at several sites in California involves episodic stress-release fracturing and cantilevered block falls. The principal variables that influence the gravitational stability are tensional stresses generated during the release of horizontal confining stress and weakening of the sediment with increased saturation levels. Individual failures typically comprise less than a cubic meter of sediment, but large areas of a cliff face can be affected by sustained instability over a period of several days. Typically, only the outer meter or so of sediment is removed during a failure episode. In-place sediment saturation levels vary over time and space, generally being higher during the rainy season but moderate to high year-round. Laboratory direct-shear tests show that sediment cohesion decreases abruptly with increasing saturation level; the decrease is similar for all tested sediment if the cohesion is normalized by the maximum, dry-sediment cohesion. Large failures that extend over most or all of the height of the sea cliff are uncommon, but a few large wedge-shaped failures sometimes occur, as does separation of large blocks at sea cliff-gully intersections.
The mean curvature of gravitational fields
Kishore B. Marathe
1982-01-01
The mean curvature of a gravitational field is defined as a generalization of the average curvature in a given direction by using the gravitational sectional curvature function on non-degenerate tangent 2-planes to the space-time manifold. We find that the mean curvature of a gravitational field is independent of direction as determined by a unit vector. The converse of this result
Weak Gravitational Lensing with COSMOS: Galaxy Selection and Shape Measurements
A. Leauthaud; R. Massey; J. P. Kneib; J. Rhodes; D. E. Johnston; P. Capak; C. Heymans; R. S. Ellis; A. M. Koekemoer; O. Le Fevre; Y. Mellier; A. Refregier; A. C. Robin; N. Scoville; L. Tasca; J. E. Taylor; L. Van Waerbeke
2007-02-13
With a primary goal of conducting precision weak lensing measurements from space, the COSMOS survey has imaged the largest contiguous area observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to date using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). This is the first paper in a series where we describe our strategy for addressing the various technical challenges in the production of weak lensing measurements from the COSMOS data. The COSMOS ACS catalog is constructed from 575 ACS/WFC tiles (1.64 deg^2) and contains a total 1.2x10^6 objects to a limiting magnitude of F814W=26.5. This catalog is made publicly available. The shapes of galaxies have been measured and corrected for the distortion induced by the time varying ACS Point Spread Function and for Charge Transfer Efficiency effects. Next, simulated images are used to derive the shear susceptibility factors that are necessary in order to transform shape measurements into unbiased shear estimators. Finally, for each galaxy, we derive a shape measurement error and utilize this quantity to extract the intrinsic shape noise of the galaxy sample. Interestingly, our results indicate that the intrinsic shape noise varies little with either size, magnitude or redshift. Representing a number density of 66 galaxies per arcmin^2, the final COSMOS weak lensing catalog contains 3.9x10^5 galaxies with accurate shape measurements. The properties of the COSMOS weak lensing catalog described throughout this paper will provide key input numbers for the preparation and design of next-generation wide field space missions.
Initial Results from a Laboratory Emulation of Weak Gravitational Lensing Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seshadri, S.; Shapiro, C.; Goodsall, T.; Fucik, J.; Hirata, C.; Rhodes, J. D.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Smith, R. M.
2013-09-01
Weak gravitational lensing observations are a key science driver for the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). To validate the performance of the WFIRST infrared detectors, we have performed a laboratory emulation of weak gravitational lensing measurements. Our experiments used a custom precision projector system to image a target mask composed of a grid of pinholes, emulating stellar point sources, onto a 1.7 ?m cut-off Teledyne HgCdTe/H2RG detector. We used a 0.88 ?m LED illumination source and f/22 pupil stop to produce undersampled point spread functions similar to those expected from WFIRST. We also emulated the WFIRST image reconstruction strategy, using the image combination (IMCOM) algorithm to derive oversampled images from dithered, undersampled input images. We created shear maps for this data and computed shear correlation functions to mimic a real weak lensing analysis. After removing only second-order polynomial fits to the shear maps, we found that the correlation functions could be reduced to O(10-6). This places a conservative upper limit on the detector-induced bias to the correlation function (under our test conditions). This bias is two orders of magnitude lower than the expected weak lensing signal. Restricted to scales relevant to dark energy analyses (sky separations >0.5'), the bias is O(10-7) - comparable to the requirement for future weak lensing missions to avoid biasing cosmological parameter estimates. Our experiment will need to be upgraded and repeated under different configurations to fully characterize the shape measurement performance of WFIRST IR detectors.
Numerical study of primordial magnetic field amplification by inflation-produced gravitational waves
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tashiro, Hiroyuki [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud XI and CNR, Orsay, F-91405 (France); Sugiyama, Naoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2010-01-15
We numerically study the interaction of inflation-produced magnetic fields with gravitational waves, both of which originate from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The resonance between the magnetic field perturbations and the gravitational waves has been suggested as a possible mechanism for magnetic field amplification. However, some analytical studies suggest that the effect of the inflationary gravitational waves is too small to provide significant amplification. Our numerical study shows more clearly how the interaction affects the magnetic fields and confirms the weakness of the influence of the gravitational waves. We present an investigation based on the magnetohydrodynamic approximation and take into account the differences of the Alfven speed.
Gravitational Lensing by Kerr-Sen Dilaton-Axion Black Hole in the Weak Deflection Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulchev, G. N.; Yazadjiev, S. S.
2010-11-01
We investigate analytically gravitational lensing by charged, stationary, axially symmetric Kerr-Sen dilaton-axion black hole in the weak deflection limit. Approximate solutions to the lightlike equations of motion are present up to and including third-order terms in M/b, a/b and r?/b, where M is the black hole mass, a is the angular momentum, r? = Q2/M,Q being the charge and b is the impact parameter of the light ray. We compute the positions of the two weak field images up to post-Newtonian order. The shift of the critical curves as a function of the lens angular momentum is found, and it is shown that they decrease slightly with the increase of the charge. The lensing observables are compared to these characteristics for particular cases as Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes as well as the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole.
Primordial magnetic seed field amplification by gravitational waves
Gerold Betschart; Caroline Zunckel; Peter Dunsby; Mattias Marklund
2006-01-10
Using second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory, a self-consistent framework describing the non-linear coupling between gravitational waves and a large-scale homogeneous magnetic field is presented. It is shown how this coupling may be used to amplify seed magnetic fields to strengths needed to support the galactic dynamo. In situations where the gravitational wave background is described by an `almost' Friedmann-Lema{\\^i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology we find that the magnitude of the original magnetic field is amplified by an amount proportional to the magnitude of the gravitational wave induced shear anisotropy and the square of the field's initial co-moving scale. We apply this mechanism to the case where the seed field and gravitational wave background are produced during inflation and find that the magnitude of the gravitational boost depends significantly on the manner in which the estimate of the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation is calculated. Assuming a seed field of $10^{-34}$ $\\rm{G}$ spanning a comoving scale of about $10 \\rm{kpc}$ today, the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation must be at least as large as $10^{-40}$ in order to obtain a generated magnetic field of the same order of magnitude as the original seed. Moreover, contrasting the weak field approximation to our gauge-invariant approach, we find that while both methods agree in the limit of high conductivity, their corresponding solutions are otherwise only compatible in the limit of infinitely long-wavelength gravitational waves.
Neutrino Oscillations in Strong Gravitational Fields
Dardo Píriz; Mou Roy; José Wudka
1996-04-25
Neutrino oscillations in the presence of strong gravitational fields are studied. We look at very high energy neutrinos ($\\sim $1 TeV) emanating from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It is observed that spin flavor resonant transitions of such neutrinos may occur in the vicinity of AGN due to {\\it gravitational} effects and due to the presence of a large magnetic field ($\\sim $1 Tesla). A point to note is that matter effects (normal MSW transitions) become negligible in comparison o gravitational effects in our scenario.
Spin Precession in Inertial and Gravitational Fields
Bahram Mashhoon; Yuri N. Obukhov
2013-09-06
We discuss the motion of spin in inertial and gravitational fields. The coupling of spin with rotation and the gravitomagnetic field has already been extensively studied; therefore, we focus here on the inertial and gravitational spin-orbit couplings. In particular, we investigate the classical and quantum aspects of spin precession and spin-orbit coupling in an arbitrary translationally accelerated frame of reference as well as the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime. Moreover, in connection with Einstein's principle of equivalence, we clarify the relation between the inertial and gravitational spin-orbit couplings.
J. Anthony Tyson; David Kirkman; Ian Dell'Antonio; Gary Bernstein; David M. Wittman
2000-01-01
Most of the matter in the Universe is not luminous, and can be observed only through its gravitational influence on the appearance of luminous matter. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that uses the distortions of the images of distant galaxies as a tracer of dark matter: such distortions are induced as the light passes through large-scale distributions of dark
Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational self-forces in weakly curved spacetimes
Michael J. Pfenning; Eric Poisson
2001-09-12
We calculate the self-force experienced by a point scalar charge, a point electric charge, and a point mass moving in a weakly curved spacetime characterized by a time-independent Newtonian potential. The self-forces are calculated by first computing the retarded Green's functions for scalar, electromagnetic, and (linearized) gravitational fields in the weakly curved spacetime, and then evaluating an integral over the particle's past world line. In all three cases the self-force contains both a conservative and a nonconservative (radiation-reaction) part. The conservative part of the self-force is directly related to the presence of matter in the spacetime. The radiation-reaction part of the self-force, on the other hand, is insensitive to the presence of matter. Our result for the gravitational self-force is disturbing: a radiation-reaction force should not appear in the equations of motion at this level of approximation, and it should certainly not give rise to radiation antidamping. The last section of this paper attempts to make sense of this result by placing it in the context of the post-Newtonian N-body problem.
Gravitational Anomalies in Noncommutative Field Theory
Sendic Estrada-Jimenez; Hugo Garcia-Compean; Carlos Soto-Campos
2004-04-14
Gravitational axial and chiral anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined through the explicit perturbative computation of one-loop diagrams in various dimensions. The analysis depend on how gravity is coupled to noncommutative matter fields. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational axial anomaly contribution to the pion decay into two photons, is studied in detail in this context. In the process we show that the two-dimensional chiral pure gravitational anomaly does not receive noncommutative corrections. Pure gravitational chiral anomaly in 4k+2 dimensions with matter fields being chiral fermions of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, is discussed and a noncommutative correction is found in both cases. Mixed anomalies are finally considered in both cases.
On the linear and weak-field limits of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Marcelo Salgado
2002-01-01
The linear approximation of scalar-tensor theories of gravity is obtained in the physical (Jordan) frame under the 4+0 (covariant) and 3+1 formalisms. Then the weak-field limit is analyzed and the conditions leading to significant deviations of the $1\\/r^{2}$ Newton's law of gravitation are discussed. Finally, the scalarization effects induced by these theories in extended objects are confronted within the weak-field
Localized gravitational energy in a Schwarzschild field
James Kentosh
2012-11-27
An interpretation of general relativity is developed in which the energy used to lift a body in a static gravitational field increases its rest mass. Observers at different gravitational potentials would experience different mass reference frames. It is shown that bodies falling in a Schwarzschild field exhibit the relativistic mass/energy relationship from special relativity. This new result is independent of the choice of coordinates. The proposed approach provides a physical explanation for gravitational energy, which is localized as a scalar function intrinsic to general relativity. Applying this model to the Robertson-Walker metric demonstrates that time-varying fields induce a net energy transfer between bodies that is not exhibited in static fields.
Detection of Weak Gravitational Lensing by Large-scale Structure
David Bacon; Alexandre Refregier; Richard Ellis
2000-07-17
We report a detection of the coherent distortion of faint galaxies arising from gravitational lensing by foreground structures. This ``cosmic shear'' is potentially the most direct measure of the mass power spectrum, as it is unaffected by poorly-justified assumptions made concerning the biasing of the distribution. Our detection is based on an initial imaging study of 14 separated 8' x 16' fields observed in good, homogeneous conditions with the prime focus EEV CCD camera of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We detect an rms shear of 1.6% in 8' x 8' cells, with a significance of 3.4 sigma. We carefully justify this detection by quantifying various systematic effects and carrying out extensive simulations of the recovery of the shear signal from artificial images defined according to measured instrument characteristics. We also verify our detection by computing the cross-correlation between the shear in adjacent cells. Including (gaussian) cosmic variance, we measure the shear variance to be (0.016)^2 plus/minus (0.012)^2 plus/minus (0.006)^2, where these 1 sigma errors correspond to statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. Our measurements are consistent with the predictions of cluster-normalised CDM models (within 1 sigma) but a COBE-normalised SCDM model is ruled out at the 3.0 sigma level. For the currently-favoured Lambda-CDM model (with Omega_m = 0.3), our measurement provides a normalisation of the mass power spectrum of sigma_8 = 1.5 plus/minus 0.5, fully consistent with that derived from cluster abundances. Our result demonstrates that ground-based telescopes can, with adequate care, be used to constrain the mass power spectrum on various scales. The present results are limited mainly by cosmic variance, which can be overcome in the near future with more observations.
Parametric instability in scalar gravitational fields
T. B. Davies; C. H. -T. Wang; R. Bingham; J. T. Mendonca
2013-09-17
We present a brief review on a new dynamical mechanism for a strong field effect in scalar tensor theory. Starting with a summary of the essential features of the theory and subsequent work by several authors, we analytically investigate the parametric excitation of a scalar gravitational field in a spherically symmetric radially pulsating neutron star.
Lorentz Invariance in a Gravitational Field
Robert L. Kirkwood
1970-01-01
In any theory of gravity in which free particles move along the geodesics of a 4-dimensional metric tensor, a particular class of metrics can be defined which correspond to the fields of Newton's theory of gravity. In these Newtonian fields the metric coefficients which describe intrinsic properties of space and time are clearly separated from those that describe the gravitational
On the theory of gravitation field
N. N. Chaus
1999-03-12
We construct a general relativity formula for the law of gravity for material bodies. The formula contains three numeric parameters that are to be determined experimentally. If they are chosen from symmetry considerations, then the theory that appears is close to the theory of electrodynamics: the gravitational field is given by two vector fields, one can write the energy-momentum tensor, we give an answer on the question what a gravitational wave is. Going to infinity, this wave carries with it the negative energy.
Black hole: gravitational charge equal to field energy
N. Dadhich
1999-01-01
In general relativity, both non-gravitational matter energy as well as gravitational field energy are sources of the field. The author proposes that a collapsing body turns into a black hole when contributions of matter energy and field energy become equal. For a measure of field energy the author uses the Brown-York quasilocal energy while for the gravitational charge (measure of
Boyer, Edmond
acquires a geometric phase when a quantum mechanical system has an adiabatic evolution. But it is only interacting with a static gravitational field is investi- gated. A Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation which-Wouthuysen transformation were restricted to a certain class of weak static gravitational field [3] and did not give any
Gravitational Lensing by Kerr-Sen Dilaton-Axion Black Hole in the Weak Deflection Limit
Gyulchev, G. N. [Department of Physics, Biophysics and Roentgenology, Faculty of Medicine, St. Kliment Ohridski, University of Sofia, 1 Kozyak str., 1407 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yazadjiev, S. S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2010-11-25
We investigate analytically gravitational lensing by charged, stationary, axially symmetric Kerr-Sen dilaton-axion black hole in the weak deflection limit. Approximate solutions to the lightlike equations of motion are present up to and including third-order terms in M/b, a/b and r{sub {alpha}}/b, where M is the black hole mass, a is the angular momentum, r{sub {alpha}}= Q{sup 2}/M,Q being the charge and b is the impact parameter of the light ray. We compute the positions of the two weak field images up to post-Newtonian order. The shift of the critical curves as a function of the lens angular momentum is found, and it is shown that they decrease slightly with the increase of the charge. The lensing observables are compared to these characteristics for particular cases as Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes as well as the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole.
Hamber, Herbert W.
, in super- gravity theories, where significant cancellations arise in perturbation theory between graviton and matter loops [2], and in contrast to ordinary gravity where in weak field perturbation theory L loopsNonlocal effective gravitational field equations and the running of Newton's constant G H. W
Gravitational field of a spin-polarized cylinder in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation
Tsoubelis, D.
1983-12-19
The gravitational field produced by an infinite static cylinder with a net spin polarization along its symmetry axis is considered, in the context of the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation. An exact solution is obtained, which shows that the cylinder's spin angular momentum gives rise to magneticlike components in the gravitational field outside.
Testing dark energy paradigms with weak gravitational lensing R. Ali Vanderveld,1
Hu, Wayne
Testing dark energy paradigms with weak gravitational lensing R. Ali Vanderveld,1 Michael J all quintessence models, with or without early dark energy. We further explore how uncertainties a given dark energy paradigm, such as the standard CDM model of cold dark matter and a cosmological
Mapping the Dark Universe with Weak Gravitational Rachel N McInnes
Tittley, Eric
Mapping the Dark Universe with Weak Gravitational Lensing Rachel N McInnes Institute for Astronomy.1.2 Deflection Angle of a Point Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.3 The Lens Equation. The mass map (dark matter) is shown in blue, and the xray is shown in purple, both on top of the optical
Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field
Fukushima, Toshio, E-mail: Toshio.Fukushima@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2014-06-01
As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ?. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4? fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| ? 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.
Prolate Spheroidal Harmonic Expansion of Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2014-06-01
As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Qnm (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ?. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of \\overline{P}_{nm}(t), the 4? fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| <= 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Overlap lattice fermion in a gravitational field
Masashi Hayakawa; Hiroto So; Hiroshi Suzuki
2006-07-03
We construct a lattice Dirac operator of overlap type that describes the propagation of a Dirac fermion in an external gravitational field. The local Lorentz symmetry is manifestly realized as a lattice gauge symmetry, while it is believed that the general coordinate invariance is restored only in the continuum limit. Our doubler-free Dirac operator satisfies the conventional Ginsparg-Wilson relation and possesses gamma_5 hermiticity with respect to the inner product, which is suggested by the general coordinate invariance. The lattice index theorem in the presence of a gravitational field holds, and the classical continuum limit of the index density reproduces the Dirac genus. Reduction to a single Majorana fermion is possible for 8k+2 and 8k+4 dimensions, but not for 8k dimensions, which is consistent with the existence of the global gravitational/gauge anomalies in 8k dimensions. Other Lorentz representations, such as the spinor-vector and the bi-spinor representations, can also be treated. Matter fields with a definite chirality (with respect to the lattice-modified chiral matrix) are briefly considered.
Graphene transparency in weak magnetic fields
David Valenzuela; Saúl Hernández-Ortiz; Marcelo Loewe; Alfredo Raya
2014-10-20
We carry out an explicit calculation of the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy model of monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic field of intensity $B$ perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time representation up to order $(eB)^2$, where $e$ is the unit charge, we find an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is radiated with monochromatic light of frequency $\\omega$ along the external field direction, from the modified Maxwell's equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light and the angle of polarization rotation in terms of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_{xx}$) and transverse ($\\sigma_{xy}$) conductivities. Corrections to these quantities, both calculated and measured, are of order $(eB)^2/\\omega^4$. Our findings generalize and complement previously known results reported in literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from the experimental and theoretical points of view, with and without external magnetic fields.
Problems in field theoretical approach to gravitation
A. I. Nikishov
2004-10-20
We consider gravitational self interaction in the lowest approximation and assume that graviton interacts with gravitational energy-momentum tensor in the same way as it interacts with particles. We show that, using gravitational vertex with a preferred gravitational energy-momentum tensor, it is possible to obtain a metric necessary for explaining perihelion precession. The preferred gravitational energy-momentum tensor gives positive gravitational energy density of Newtonian center. We show also that, employing "improvement" technique, any gravitational energy-momentum tensor can be made suitable for using in gravitational wave equation for obtaining metric which explains perihelion precession. Yet the "improvement" leads to negative gravitational energy density of the Newtonian center.
Mapping the dark matter with weak gravitational lensing
Nick Kaiser; Gordon Squires
1993-01-01
We consider the problem of reconstructing the projected mass distribution in clusters from coherent distortions of background galaxies. The ellipticity of a background galaxy provides an estimate of the trace-free components of the tidal field. We present a technique for inverting this problem. The resulting surface density contains a strong, but incoherent, random component arising from the random intrinsic galaxy
GaBoDS: The Garching-Bonn Deep Survey: VII. Probing galaxy bias using weak gravitational lensing
P. Simon; M. Hetterscheidt; M. Schirmer; T. Erben; P. Schneider; C. Wolf; K. Meisenheimer
2006-01-01
[ABRIDGED] The weak gravitational lensing effect is used to infer matter\\u000adensity fluctuations within the field-of-view of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey\\u000a(GaBoDS). This information is employed for a statistical comparison of the\\u000agalaxy distribution to the total matter distribution. The result of this\\u000acomparison is expressed by means of the linear bias factor, b, the ratio of\\u000adensity fluctuations, and
Spherically-symmetric gravitational fields in the metric-affine gauge theory of gravitation
A. V. Minkevich; Yu. G. Vasilevski
2003-01-24
Geometric structure of spherically-symmetric space-time in metric-affine gauge theory of gravity is studied. Restrictions on curvature tensor and Bianchi identities are obtained. By using certain simple gravitational Lagrangian the solution of gravitational equations for vacuum spherically-symmetric gravitational field is obtained.
Casimir effect due to a slowly rotating source in the weak-field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Mota, H. F.; Muniz, C. R.
2014-02-01
We calculate the renormalized vacuum energy density for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates formed by ideal uncharged conductors, placed very close to the surface of a rotating spherical gravitational source with mass M, radius R and angular momentum J, at the equatorial region. We consider that the source rotates slowly and that the gravitational field is weak. Corrections to the Casimir energy density induced by the gravitational field generated by this source are calculated up to M/R2 order. The results obtained show us that there is an important modification in the Casimir energy only in this order of approximation, which depends on the surface gravity as well as on the rotation of the source. Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy found are also calculated in all these orders.
Casimir effect due to a slowly rotating source in the weak field approximation
Bezerra, V B; Muniz, C R
2014-01-01
We calculate the renormalized vacuum energy density for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates formed by ideal uncharged conductors, placed very close to the surface of a rotating spherical gravitational source with mass $M$, radius $R$ and momentum angular $J$, at the equatorial region. We consider that the source rotates slowly and that the gravitational field is weak. Corrections to the Casimir energy density induced by the gravitational field generated by this source are calculated up to $M/R^2$ order. The obtained results show us that there is an important modification in the Casimir energy only in this order of approximation, which depends on the surface gravity as well as on the rotation of the source. Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy found also are calculated in all these orders.
Casimir effect due to a slowly rotating source in the weak field approximation
V. B. Bezerra; H. F. Mota; C. R. Muniz
2014-01-09
We calculate the renormalized vacuum energy density for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates formed by ideal uncharged conductors, placed very close to the surface of a rotating spherical gravitational source with mass $M$, radius $R$ and momentum angular $J$, at the equatorial region. We consider that the source rotates slowly and that the gravitational field is weak. Corrections to the Casimir energy density induced by the gravitational field generated by this source are calculated up to $M/R^2$ order. The obtained results show us that there is an important modification in the Casimir energy only in this order of approximation, which depends on the surface gravity as well as on the rotation of the source. Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy found also are calculated in all these orders.
Mayeul Arminjon
1999-11-13
Newton's second law: "force = time-derivative of momentum", may also be defined for theories of gravitation endowing space-time with a curved metric. Thus, Einstein's assumption of a geodesic motion may be rewritten in that form, and it corresponds to a velocity-dependent gravity acceleration vector g. In contrast, the investigated theory states that, in the preferred reference frame assumed by the theory, vector g does not depend on the velocity. It recovers geodesic motion only for a constant gravitational field. This leads to a different equation for continuum dynamics, as compared with general relativity. For a perfect fluid, this alternative dynamics predicts tenuous amounts of matter production or destruction, by a reversible exchange with the gravitational field. This exchange is completely determined by the dynamical equation and the scalar equation of the gravitational field. In contrast, the usual equation for relativistic continuum dynamics allows matter production only if some additional field is assumed, and the production rate must be phenomenologically postulated. With the alternative equation, the mass conservation is very nearly recovered for a weak field. The explosion (implosion) of a spherical compact body implies some matter production (destruction).
Model of the electro-weak, gravitational and strong interactions in the O-theory
V. Yu. Dorofeev
2011-01-30
Based on the matrix representation of octonion algebra, supplied with specific multiplication rule, the model of electroweak and gravitational interactions is built up. While electroweak interaction in this model is induced by charged W-bosons, other two forces appear to have slightly more complicated nature. Gravitational interaction coincides in the model with dipole interaction of a pair of charged bosons. The dipole consists of a charged vector bosons pair from the major octonion algebra fields. When the charged dipole pair interacts with the neutral bosons pair from the major octonion algebra fields, the charged bosons pair misses its mass. The drop in mass leads to appearance of far-ranging forces of gravitational interaction. Finally, strong interaction appears in the model as internal gravitational solution of 'black whole' type with the peculiar 'gravitational' constant. The solution is a product of interaction of major vector fields pair with charged W-bosons pair. It is inferred from the model that the state space is ten-dimensional. The space is built as a module of the matrix representation of octonion algebra over the particles field (O-module). Similarly to the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory, the particle mass here appears as the product of interaction of massless spinor fields and Higgs field from O-module representation.
The gravitational field energy density for symmetrical and asymmetrical systems
Roald Sosnovskiy
2007-06-22
The relativistic theory of gravitation has the considerable difficulties by description of the gravitational field energy. Pseudotensor t00 in the some cases cannot be interpreted as energy density of the gravitational field. In [1] the approach was proposed, which allow to express the energy density of such a field through the components of a metric tensor. This approach based on the consideration of the isothermal compression of the layer consisted of the incoherent matter. It was employ to the cylindrically and spherically symmetrical static gravitational field. In presented paper the approach is developed.
Symmetries in tetrad theories. [of gravitational fields and general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinea, F. J.
1988-01-01
The isometry conditions for gravitational fields are given directly at the tetrad level, rather than in terms of the metric. As an illustration, an analysis of the curvature collineations and Killing fields for a twisting type-N vacuum gravitational field is made.
Gravitational radiative corrections from effective field theory
Goldberger, Walter D.; Ross, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)
2010-06-15
In this paper we construct an effective field theory (EFT) that describes long wavelength gravitational radiation from compact systems. To leading order, this EFT consists of the multipole expansion, which we describe in terms of a diffeomorphism invariant point particle Lagrangian. The EFT also systematically captures 'post-Minkowskian' corrections to the multipole expansion due to nonlinear terms in general relativity. Specifically, we compute long distance corrections from the coupling of the (mass) monopole moment to the quadrupole moment, including up to two mass insertions. Along the way, we encounter both logarithmic short distance (UV) and long wavelength (IR) divergences. We show that the UV divergences can be (1) absorbed into a renormalization of the multipole moments and (2) resummed via the renormalization group. The IR singularities are shown to cancel from properly defined physical observables. As a concrete example of the formalism, we use this EFT to reproduce a number of post-Newtonian corrections to the gravitational wave energy flux from nonrelativistic binaries, including long distance effects up to 3 post-Newtonian (v{sup 6}) order. Our results verify that the factorization of scales proposed in the NRGR framework of Goldberger and Rothstein is consistent up to order 3PN.
Gravitational Descendants in Symplectic Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabert, Oliver
2011-02-01
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown using the ideas in Okounkov and Pandharipande (Ann Math 163(2):517-560, 2006) that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we follow the ideas in Cieliebak and Latschev (
Deep field weak lensing: testing (Lambda)CDM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyson, J. Anthony; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Wittman, David; Bernstein, Gary; Guhathakurta, Raja; Kochanski, Greg
1999-02-01
We propose to observe weak gravitational lensing shear correlations as a function of source redshift. A deep 50 arcmin BTC mosaic forms a ``thick" pencil-beam probe, covering an adequate area at both low and high redshift. Different cosmologies predict significantly different dependences of shear on source redshift. This observation will test the competing flat universe models (Lambda)CDM, Hot-Cold DM, and SCDM. In the first case (suggested by recent SNIa observations) the universe is older and larger, giving rise to larger deflections and shear. Such a deep mass probe will pass through many large-scale filaments/walls/lumps of the kind expected from n-body CDM simulations. In addition to measuring the shear correlations induced by the large scale structure, mass maps made from inverting the 100,000 arclets will reveal some of these projected stuctures directly. Three color photometric redshifts enable a reliable low/high source redshift selection. Because these two fields will go fainter than any other planned observations, we propose to release the data to the community 12 months after acquisition.
David Tsiklauri
1999-04-01
Linear stability of an isothermal, pressure-bounded, self-gravitating gas slab which is gravitationally coupled with the background weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is investigated. Analytic dispersion relations describing such a configuration are derived. Two novel, distinct oscillatory modes are found. Astrophysical implications of the results are discussed.
Vacuum polarization in gravitational and electromagnetic fields around a superconducting string
Mankiewicz, L. (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, ul. Bartycka 18, Poland (PL)); Misiak, M. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Poland)
1989-09-15
We have calculated the polarization current induced in the physical vacuum around a superconducting cosmic string taking into account the gravitational field of the string. The current can be calculated as an expansion in powers of the inverse of the electron mass. In the region far from the string, where it is justified to keep only the lowest term of this expansion, the polarization current turns out to screen the original current in the string, but the effect is very weak. A direct calculation of terms due to the presence of the gravitational field shows that they are dominated, for realistic string parameters, by the purely electromagnetic contribution.
Mischa Schirmer; Thomas Erben; Peter Schneider; Christian Wolf; Klaus Meisenheimer
2004-01-12
We report the first confirmation of colour-selected galaxy cluster candidates by means of weak gravitational lensing. Significant lensing signals were identified in the course of the shear-selection programme of dark matter haloes in the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey, which currently covers 20 square degrees of deep, high-quality imaging data on the southern sky. The detection was made in a field that was previously covered by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) in 1997. A highly significant shear-selected mass-concentration perfectly coincides with the richest EIS cluster candidate at z~0.2, thus confirming its cluster nature. Several other shear patterns in the field can also be identified with cluster candidates, one of which could possibly be part of a filament at z~0.45.
Equatorial geodesic motion in the gravitational field of a rotating source
F. de Felice
1968-01-01
Summary The purpose of this note is to investigate the geodesic motion in the gravitational field of a rotating source, making use\\u000a of the exact empty-space solutions of Einsteins equations given by Kerr. The earlier weak-field approximate solutions of\\u000a Lense and Thirring for a rotating body are also examined to compare them with the exact case and with the Schwarzschild nonrotating
Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter
Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)
2010-12-15
The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.
M. W. Evans
2005-01-01
The unification of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields achieved geometrically in the generally covariant unified field theory of Evans implies that electromagnetism is the spinning of spacetime and gravitation is the curving of spacetime. The homogeneous unified field equation of Evans is a balance of spacetime spin and curvature and governs the influence of electromagnetism on gravitation using the first
Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.
Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang
2015-01-01
How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 ?T; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 ?T), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944
Cosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund*
Dunsby, Peter
Cosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund of Electromagnetics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden Peter K. S. Dunsby Department; published 9 October 2000 We consider the dynamics of electromagnetic fields in an almost
Gravitational consequences of modern field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
1989-01-01
Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.
Nuclear magnetic resonances in weak fields
Mitchell, Richard Warren
1953-01-01
?s technique involves ~ su41ng a molecular beam through tuo sueeessive static magnetic fields shish have gradients in opposite direotions, While passing from ene magnetic field ts tho other~ the beam is irradiated eith electro-mag- nstio ?nsrgy? When tho...Lgneto The ssmple was placed in, the best pert of the field Then a permanent magnet was brought close to the solenoid& snd pointed to a spot gust beyond the sample in such a manner that, the field of the permanent magnet was roughly opposibx to that...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielinski, Janusz. B.
2015-01-01
The external gravitational field of the Earth is not axially symmetric but is irregular, described by series of the spherical harmonic functions. In the local inertial coordinate system the field is rotating following the rotation of the Earth. In the Newtonian interpretation the field is rotating stiffly with the Earth but according to the Einstein's General Relativity interpretation the propagation speed of the gravitation is finite and the gravitational anomalies are propagated in space with the speed of light. Consequently the anomalous field at the altitude h should be twisted by angle ? = h ?/cg comparing to the ground level (? - the speed of the Earth's rotation, cg - speed of the gravitational signal). This effect is difficult to measure because of the decreasing of anomaly values with the distance. However, with the modern techniques like GNSS positioning and gradiometry the torsion could be measured.
Computing Gravitational Fields of Finite-Sized Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quadrelli, Marco
2005-01-01
A computer program utilizes the classical theory of gravitation, implemented by means of the finite-element method, to calculate the near gravitational fields of bodies of arbitrary size, shape, and mass distribution. The program was developed for application to a spacecraft and to floating proof masses and associated equipment carried by the spacecraft for detecting gravitational waves. The program can calculate steady or time-dependent gravitational forces, moments, and gradients thereof. Bodies external to a proof mass can be moving around the proof mass and/or deformed under thermoelastic loads. An arbitrarily shaped proof mass is represented by a collection of parallelepiped elements. The gravitational force and moment acting on each parallelepiped element of a proof mass, including those attributable to the self-gravitational field of the proof mass, are computed exactly from the closed-form equation for the gravitational potential of a parallelepiped. The gravitational field of an arbitrary distribution of mass external to a proof mass can be calculated either by summing the fields of suitably many point masses or by higher-order Gauss-Legendre integration over all elements surrounding the proof mass that are part of a finite-element mesh. This computer program is compatible with more general finite-element codes, such as NASTRAN, because it is configured to read a generic input data file, containing the detailed description of the finiteelement mesh.
Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit
Abril Suárez; Pierre-Henri Chavanis
2015-04-05
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with an arbitrary potential of the form $V(|\\varphi|^2)$. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit $c\\rightarrow +\\infty$.
Yu. G. Ignatyev
2011-01-05
On the basis of simple principles we derive and investigate the equations of relativistic plasma magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in an arbitrary gravitational field. An exact solution describing the motion of magnetoactive plasma against the background of the metric of a plane gravitational wave (PGW) with an arbitrary amplitude is obtained. It is shown that in strong magnetic fields even a sufficiently small amplitude PGW can create a shock MHD wave, propagating at a subluminal velocity. Astrophysical consequences of the anomalous plasma acceleration are considered.
SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field
Moshe Carmeli; Shimon Malin
1999-07-25
A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on general differentiable manifolds or on affinely connected manifolds. The SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is employed to explore this possibility. Within this framework, the quantization itself may well be canonical.
Non-Newtonian Dynamic Gravitational Field from The Longitudinally Asymmetric Rotating Objects
Jeong, E J
1997-01-01
The dynamic shift of the center of mass for a rotating hemisphere prompts us the question of what might be its physical consequences. Despite the fact that accelerating object is known to create gravitational field, there is no known external dynamic gravitational force from a rotating sphere where the individual mass components are in constant acceleration. However, Thirring's `induced centrifugal force' and the component of the force along the longitudinal axis inside a rotating spherical shell indicate that they are non-radiative dynamic forces which depend on $\\omega^2$. In this report, Thirring's force is derived by considering the component-wise acceleration of the rotating hemisphere in the weak field approximation. This new analytic solution provides the gravitational explanation of the jet phenomena observed from the fast rotating cosmological bodies, which demands a major revision in our understanding of the universe since it suggests there exists a strong, long ranged, non-Newtonian dynamic gravita...
Weakly bound electrons in external magnetic field
I. V. Mamsurov; F. Kh. Chibirova
2007-03-07
The effect of the uniform magnetic field on the electron in the spherically symmetric square-well potential is studied. A transcendental equation that determines the electron energy spectrum is derived. The approximate value of the lowest (bound) energy state is found. The approximate wave function and probability current density of this state are constructed.
Nuclear magnetic resonances in weak fields
Mitchell, Richard Warren
1953-01-01
as previously noted, (equation (8) ~ ) The incxwass in the spread of Xermor frequencies arising from i~one%ties in the field leads to a correeyonding decrease of Tg as seen in equation (l0)x Banco the dasp1ng of the trxmsients wilX be increased...
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, L
2015-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic p...
Gravitational Field Inside and Near a Caustic Ring
Heywood Tam
2012-05-07
We present an analytic calculation of the gravitational field inside and near a caustic ring of dark matter. The calculation may facilitate N-body simulation studies on the effects that dark matter caustics have on galaxy formation.
Titan's Gravitational Field Inferred from Six Cassini Flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.
2014-02-01
Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. Results are consistent with a differentiated hydrostatic satellite. We find no determination of the tidal Love number k_2.
Sergei Kopeikin; Bahram Mashhoon
2001-10-25
Propagation of light in the gravitational field of self-gravitating spinning bodies moving with arbitrary velocities is discussed. The gravitational field is assumed to be "weak" everywhere. Equations of motion of a light ray are solved in the first post-Minkowskian approximation that is linear with respect to the universal gravitational constant $G$. We do not restrict ourselves with the approximation of gravitational lens so that the solution of light geodesics is applicable for arbitrary locations of source of light and observer. This formalism is applied for studying corrections to the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsars caused by the rotation of pulsar and its companion. We also derive the correction to the light deflection angle caused by rotation of gravitating bodies in the solar system (Sun, planets) or a gravitational lens. The gravitational shift of frequency due to the combined translational and rotational motions of light-ray-deflecting bodies is analyzed as well. We give a general derivation of the formula describing the relativistic rotation of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic waves (Skrotskii effect). This formula is valid for arbitrary translational and rotational motion of gravitating bodies and greatly extends the results of previous researchers. Finally, we discuss the Skrotskii effect for gravitational waves emitted by localized sources such as a binary system. The theoretical results of this paper can be applied for studying various relativistic effects in microarcsecond space astrometry and developing corresponding algorithms for data processing in space astrometric missions such as FAME, SIM, and GAIA.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth [Institute de Physique Théorique, Université de Genčve, 24 quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Genčve 4 (Switzerland); Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan, E-mail: elisa.fenu@unige.ch, E-mail: daniel.figueroa@uam.es, E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es [Instituto de Física Teórica CSIC-UAM and Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2009-10-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as ?{sub GW}(f) ? f{sup 3} with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (k?{sub *} << 1), enters the horizon, for k? ?> 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information.
A Weak Gravity Conjecture for Scalar Field Theories
Miao Li; Wei Song; Yushu Song; Tower Wang
2007-06-27
We show that the recently proposed weak gravity conjecture\\cite{AMNV0601} can be extended to a class of scalar field theories. Taking gravity into account, we find an upper bound on the gravity interaction strength, expressed in terms of scalar coupling parameters. This conjecture is supported by some two-dimensional models and noncommutative field theories.
A step towards testing general relativity using weak gravitational lensing and redshift surveys
Yong-Seon Song; Olivier Doré
2009-08-24
Using the linear theory of perturbations in General Relativity, we express a set of consistency relations that can be observationally tested with current and future large scale structure surveys. We then outline a stringent model-independent program to test gravity on cosmological scales. We illustrate the feasibility of such a program by jointly using several observables like peculiar velocities, galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing. After addressing possible observational or astrophysical caveats like galaxy bias and redshift uncertainties, we forecast in particular how well one can predict the lensing signal from a cosmic shear survey using an over-lapping galaxy survey. We finally discuss the specific physics probed this way and illustrate how $f(R)$ gravity models would fail such a test.
Unification of Gravitation, Gauge Field and Dark Energy
Xin-Bing Huang
2005-08-26
This paper is composed of two correlated topics: 1. unification of gravitation with gauge fields; 2. the coupling between the daor field and other fields and the origin of dark energy. After introducing the concept of ``daor field" and discussing the daor geometry, we indicate that the complex daor field has two kinds of symmetry transformations. Hence the gravitation and SU(1,3) gauge field are unified under the framework of the complex connection. We propose a first-order nonlinear coupling equation of the daor field, which includes the coupling between the daor field and SU(1,3) gauge field and the coupling between the daor field and the curvature, and from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced. The cosmological observations imply that dark energy cannot be zero, and which will dominate the doom of our Universe. The real part of the daor field self-coupling equation can be regarded as Einstein's equation endowed with the cosmological constant. It shows that dark energy originates from the self-coupling of the space-time curvature, and the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the square of coupling constant \\lambda. The dark energy density given by our scenario is in agreement with astronomical observations. Furthermore, the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the coupling constant \\epsilon of gauge field satisfy G= \\lambda^{2}\\epsilon^{2}.
Nonlinear superposition of strong gravitational field of compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to QFT it is deduced that the gravitation is likely to originate from the polarization effect of Dirac vacuum fluctuation (Chen Shao-Guang, Nuovo Cimento B 104, 611, 1989) . In Dirac vacuum the lowest-energy virtual neutrinos nu possess most number, which exert isotropic colliding pressure to isolated mass-point A (m) , the net force on A is zero. For another mass-point B (M) near A to obstruct nu flux shooting to A, the nu number along the line connecting A and B will decrease and destroy isotropic distribution of nu , which leads to not only the change in momentum P (produces net nu flux and net force Fp) but also the change in energy E or rest mass m (produces net force Fm) because in QFT the rest mass is not the bare mass but the physical mass of renormalization which contains nu with energy. From the definition of force: F ? d (m v) /d t = m ( d v / d t ) + v (d m / d t ) = Fp + Fm (1) , on A (or B) net force (quasi-Casimir pressure of weak interaction) is: F Q = Fp + Fm = - K (m M /r 2 )((r /r ) + (v /c )) (2). According to the change in masses caused by Bondi's inductive transfer of energy in GR (H. Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990) and Eq. (1) a new gravitational formula is deduced: F G = Fp +Fm = - G (m M /r 2 )( (r /r ) + (v /c )) (3). F G is equivalent to Einstein's equation. Then we can solve the multi-bodies gravitational problems. K calculated from the weak-electromagnetism unified theory (W-EUT) has the same order of magnitude as experimental gravitational constant G. F G and F Q as a bridge joins QFT and GR. If K ? G, gravitational theory would be merged into W-EUT. The gravitational laws predicted by FG and F Q are identical except that F Q has quantum effects but F G has not, F G has Lense-Thirring effect but F Q has not. The change in masses of A and B caused by the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation or by mass renormalization of QFT will influence their forces on third object C (as self-shielding effect of gravities among objects or each parts of a object): F = - G? m M (1 - q ) r / r 3 = - G (r ) m M r / r 3 (4). Here G (r ) = G? (1 - q ), q = k M / r 2 = k D L S / r 2 . q is a positive shielding coefficient, G? is the gravitational constant when infinite distance between mass-point A and object B (q = 0 ). M / r 2 is the gravitational field strength of B in the place of A, D and L are the density and the thickness respectively, S is the cross section of B. S / r 2 is the solid angle of B subtends to A , k is a constant determined by experiments and called as the section of unit mass. From Stacey et al's experimental results kmu of nucleons to virtual neutrino mu is 4.7×10-19 cm2 g-1 .The section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1×10-43 cm2 which divided by nucleon-mass is the section of unit mass kmue ?6.6×10-20 cm2 g-1 . For the earth (L ?104 km) as a obstructing layer qmue = 4.6×10-10 ; qmu = 3.3×10-9 . Therefore, the self-shielding effect of gravity can be generally ignored, but can not for the compact stars: A spherical shell of neutron (D large than 1014 g cm-3 ) as obstructing layer, when S / r 2 =1 and L=1 km then qmue =1 and qmu large than 1 (completely obstruct mue and mu ), i.e., the gravity from its inside and exterior will be completely shielded. It makes that a neutron star likes a empty shell then it may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of masses and radii, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated at the surface of cooling and/or rapidly rotating compact stars.
The Helmholtz decomposition of decreasing and weakly increasing vector fields
Petrascheck, D
2015-01-01
Helmholtz decomposition theorem for vector fields is presented usually with too strong restrictions on the fields. Based on the work of Blumenthal of 1905 it is shown that the decomposition of vector fields is not only possible for asymptotically weakly decreasing vector fields, but even for vector fields, which asymptotically increase sublinearly. Use is made of a regularizatin of the Greens function and the mathematics of the proof is formulated as simply as possible. We also show a few examples for the decomposition of vector fields including the electric dipole radiation.
Vacuum entanglement enhancement by a weak gravitational field
Cliche, M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States); Kempf, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2011-02-15
Separate regions in space are generally entangled, even in the vacuum state. It is known that this entanglement can be swapped to separated Unruh-DeWitt detectors, i.e., that the vacuum can serve as a source of entanglement. Here, we demonstrate that, in the presence of curvature, the amount of entanglement that Unruh-DeWitt detectors can extract from the vacuum can be increased.
Gravitational radiation generated by cosmological phase transition magnetic fields
Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); National Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia Chavchavadze State University, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Kisslinger, Leonard [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Stevens, Trevor [Department of Physics, West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201 (United States)
2010-01-15
We study gravitational waves generated by the cosmological magnetic fields induced via bubble collisions during the electroweak (EW) and QCD phase transitions. The magnetic field generation mechanisms considered here are based on the use of the fundamental EW minimal supersymmetric and QCD Lagrangians. The gravitational waves spectrum is computed using a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model. We find that the gravitational wave spectrum amplitude generated by the EW phase transition peaks at a frequency of approximately 1-2 mHz, and is of the order of 10{sup -20}-10{sup -21}; thus this signal is possibly detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The gravitational waves generated during the QCD phase transition, however, are outside the LISA sensitivity bands.
Components of the gravitational force in the field of a gravitational wave
D. Baskaran; L. P. Grishchuk
2004-07-14
Gravitational waves bring about the relative motion of free test masses. The detailed knowledge of this motion is important conceptually and practically, because the mirrors of laser interferometric detectors of gravitational waves are essentially free test masses. There exists an analogy between the motion of free masses in the field of a gravitational wave and the motion of free charges in the field of an electromagnetic wave. In particular, a gravitational wave drives the masses in the plane of the wave-front and also, to a smaller extent, back and forth in the direction of the wave's propagation. To describe this motion, we introduce the notion of `electric' and `magnetic' components of the gravitational force. This analogy is not perfect, but it reflects some important features of the phenomenon. Using different methods, we demonstrate the presence and importance of what we call the `magnetic' component of motion of free masses. It contributes to the variation of distance between a pair of particles. We explicitely derive the full response function of a 2-arm laser interferometer to a gravitational wave of arbitrary polarization. We give a convenient description of the response function in terms of the spin-weighted spherical harmonics. We show that the previously ignored `magnetic' component may provide a correction of up to 10 %, or so, to the usual `electric' component of the response function. The `magnetic' contribution must be taken into account in the data analysis, if the parameters of the radiating system are not to be mis-estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic
2015-07-01
Numerical N-body simulations play a central role in the assessment of weak gravitational lensing statistics, residual systematics and error analysis. In this paper, we investigate and quantify the impact of finite simulation volume on weak lensing two- and four-point statistics. These finite support (FS) effects are modelled for several estimators, simulation box sizes and source redshifts, and validated against a new large suite of 500 N-body simulations. The comparison reveals that our theoretical model is accurate to better than 5 per cent for the shear correlation function ?+(?) and its error. We find that the most important quantities for FS modelling are the ratio between the measured angle ? and the angular size of the simulation box at the source redshift, ?box(zs), or the multipole equivalent ?/?box(zs). When this ratio reaches 0.1, independently of the source redshift, the shear correlation function ?+ is suppressed by 5, 10, 20 and 25 per cent for Lbox = 1000, 500, 250 and 147 h-1 Mpc, respectively. The same effect is observed in ?-(?), but at much larger angles. This has important consequences for cosmological analyses using N-body simulations and should not be overlooked. We propose simple semi-analytic correction strategies that account for shape noise and survey masks, generalizable to any weak lensing estimator. From the same simulation suite, we revisit the existing non-Gaussian covariance matrix calibration of the shear correlation function, and propose a new one based on the 9-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe)+baryon acoustic oscillations+supernova cosmology. Our calibration matrix is accurate at 20 per cent down to the arcminute scale, for source redshifts in the range 0 < z < 3, even for the far off-diagonal elements. We propose, for the first time, a parametrization for the full ?- covariance matrix, also 20 per cent accurate for most elements.
General models of Einstein gravity with a non-Newtonian weak-field limit
M. Cadoni; M. Casula
2009-01-08
We investigate Einstein theories of gravity, coupled to a scalar field \\vphi and point-like matter, which are characterized by a scalar field-dependent matter coupling function e^{H(\\vphi)}. We show that under mild constraints on the form of the potential for the scalar field, there are a broad class of Einstein-like gravity models -characterized by the asymptotic behavior of H- which allow for a non-Newtonian weak-field limit with the gravitational potential behaving for large distances as ln r. The Newtonian term GM/r appears only as sub-leading. We point out that this behavior is also shared by gravity models described by f(R) Lagrangians. The relevance of our results for the building of infrared modified theories of gravity and for modified Newtonian dynamics is also discussed.
Does the charge of a body reduce its gravitational field?
V. Hushwater
2010-06-02
One can get the impression from the Reissner-Nordstrom solution of Einstein's equations that the charge of a body reduces its gravitational field. This looks surprising since the energy of the electrostatic field surrounding a charged body, must contribute positively, as an additional, "electromagnetic mass", to the gravitational field produced by the body. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the mass M in the Reissner-Nordstrom solution is not the "bare mass" of the body, but its "renormalized mass". I. e. M, in addition to the bare mass, includes the total electromagnetic mass of the body. But at finite distances from the body only a part of the electromagnetic mass contributes to the gravitational field. That is why the gravity of a charged body is determined by the quantity smaller than M.
Self-consistent Mean Field theory in weakly ionized media
Nicolas Leprovost; Eun-Jin Kim
2007-10-10
We present a self-consistent mean field theory of the dynamo in 3D and turbulent diffusion in 2D in weakly ionized gas. We find that in 3D, the backreaction does not alter the beta effect while it suppresses the alpha effect when the strength of a mean magnetic field exceeds a critical value. These results suggest that a mean field dynamo operates much more efficiently in weakly ionized gas compared to the fully ionized gas. Furthermore, we show that in 2D, the turbulent diffusion is suppressed by back reaction when a mean magnetic field reaches the same critical strength, with the upper bound on turbulent diffusion given by its kinematic value. Astrophysical implications are discussed.
Using Gravitational Analogies to Introduce Elementary Electrical Field Theory Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saeli, Susan; MacIsaac, Dan
2007-01-01
Since electrical field concepts are usually unfamiliar, abstract, and difficult to visualize, conceptual analogies from familiar gravitational phenomena are valuable for teaching. Such analogies emphasize the underlying continuity of field concepts in physics and support the spiral development of student understanding. We find the following four
Braneworld black hole gravitational lens: Strong field limit analysis
Ernesto F. Eiroa; F ´ ősica del Espacio
2005-01-01
In this paper, a braneworld black hole is studied as a gravitational lens, using the strong field limit to obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. Standard lensing and retrolensing situations are analyzed in a unified setting, and the results are compared with those corresponding to the Schwarzschild black hole lens. The possibility of observing the strong field
Braneworld black hole gravitational lens: Strong field limit analysis
Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2005-04-15
In this paper, a braneworld black hole is studied as a gravitational lens, using the strong field limit to obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. Standard lensing and retrolensing situations are analyzed in a unified setting, and the results are compared with those corresponding to the Schwarzschild black hole lens. The possibility of observing the strong field images is discussed.
Weakly chiral networks and two-dimensional delocalized states in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Kagalovsky, V.; Raikh, M. E.
2010-04-01
We study numerically the localization properties of two-dimensional electrons in a weak perpendicular magnetic field. For this purpose we construct weakly chiral network models on the square and triangular lattices. The prime idea is to separate in space the regions with phase action of magnetic field, where it affects interference in course of multiple disorder scattering, and the regions with orbital action of magnetic field, where it bends electron trajectories. In our models, the disorder mixes counterpropagating channels on the links, while scattering matrices at the nodes describe exclusively the bending of electron trajectories. By artificially introducing a strong spread in the scattering strengths on the links (but keeping the average strength constant), we eliminate the interference and reduce the electron propagation over a network to a classical percolation problem. In this limit we establish the form of the disorder-magnetic field phase diagram. This diagram contains the regions with and without edge states, i.e., the regions with zero and quantized Hall conductivities. Taking into account that, for a given disorder, the scattering strength scales as inverse electron energy, we find agreement of our phase diagram with levitation scenario: energy separating the Anderson and quantum-Hall insulating phases floats up to infinity upon decreasing magnetic field. From numerical study, based on the analysis of quantum transmission of the network with random phases on the links, we conclude that the positions of the weak-field quantum-Hall transitions on the phase diagram are very close to our classical-percolation results. We checked that, in accord with the Pruisken theory, presence or absence of time-reversal symmetry on the links has no effect on the line of delocalization transitions. We also find that floating up of delocalized states in energy is accompanied by doubling of the critical exponent of the localization radius. We establish the origin of this doubling within classical-percolation analysis.
Jaroslav Hynecek
In this article it is shown that Newton's law of gravitation can be derived from the hypothesis of locality, the assumption of spatial symmetry, and the assumption of minimum energy stored in the gravitational field. It is also assumed that the force of gravity is related to the curvature of space-time. It is argued that the assumption of minimum gravitational
Interactions of cosmological gravitational waves and magnetic fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4, Switzerland. (Switzerland)
2009-01-15
The energy momentum tensor of a magnetic field always contains a spin-2 component in its anisotropic stress and therefore generates gravitational waves. It has been argued in the literature (Caprini and Durrer [C. Caprini and R. Durrer, Phys. Rev. D 65, 023517 (2001)]) that this gravitational wave production can be very strong and that backreaction cannot be neglected. On the other hand, a gravitational wave background does affect the evolution of magnetic fields. It has also been argued (Tsagas et al.[C. G. Tsagas, P. K. S. Dunsby, and M. Marklund, Phys. Lett. B 561, 17 (2003)][C. Tsagas, Phys. Rev. D 72, 123509 (2005)]) that this can lead to a very strong amplification of a primordial magnetic field. In this paper we revisit these claims and study backreaction to second order.
Probing Dark Energy via Weak Gravitational Lensing with the Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP)
Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3
2005-08-08
SNAP is a candidate for the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) that seeks to place constraints on the dark energy using two distinct methods. The first, Type Ia SN, is discussed in a separate white paper. The second method is weak gravitational lensing, which relies on the coherent distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass structures. The excellent spatial resolution and photometric accuracy afforded by a 2-meter space-based observatory are crucial for achieving the high surface density of resolved galaxies, the tight control of systematic errors in the telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF), and the exquisite redshift accuracy and depth required by this project. These are achieved by the elimination of atmospheric distortion and much of the thermal and gravity loads on the telescope. The SN and WL methods for probing dark energy are highly complementary and the error contours from the two methods are largely orthogonal. The nominal SNAP weak lensing survey covers 1000 square degrees per year of operation in six optical and three near infrared filters (NIR) spanning the range 350 nm to 1.7 {micro}m. This survey will reach a depth of 26.6 AB magnitude in each of the nine filters and allow for approximately 100 resolved galaxies per square arcminute, {approx} 3 times that available from the best ground-based surveys. Photometric redshifts will be measured with statistical accuracy that enables scientific applications for even the faint, high redshift end of the sample. Ongoing work aims to meet the requirements on systematics in galaxy shape measurement, photometric redshift biases, and theoretical predictions.
PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS
Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Crutcher, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hull, Charles L. H., E-mail: mkrumhol@ucsc.edu [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
2013-04-10
The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.
A unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism
G. Stephenson; C. W. Kilmister
1953-01-01
Summary A unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is developed from the metrical properties of a non-Riemannian spacetime\\u000a structureS\\u000a 4. The equations of the geodesics inS\\u000a 4 are non-minimal curves in a Riemannian spaceR\\u000a 4 and are identical with the relativistic equations of motion of a test particle moving in a gravitational and electromagnetic\\u000a field. The Gaussian curvature of the
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Pengjie Zhang
2010-07-14
The galaxy intrinsic alignment is a severe challenge to precision cosmic shear measurement. We propose to self-calibrate the induced gravitational shear-galaxy intrinsic ellipticity correlation (the GI correlation, \\citealt{Hirata04b}) in weak lensing surveys with photometric redshift measurement. (1) We propose a method to extract the intrinsic ellipticity-galaxy density cross correlation (I-g) from the galaxy ellipticity-density measurement in the same redshift bin. (2) We also find a generic scaling relation to convert the extracted I-g correlation to the demanded GI correlation. We perform concept study under simplified conditions and demonstrate its capability to significantly reduce the GI contamination. We discuss the impact of various complexities on the two key ingredients of the self-calibration technique, namely the method to extract the I-g correlation and the scaling relation between the I-g and the GI correlation. We expect none of them is likely able to completely invalidate the proposed self-calibration technique.
Turbulent Diffusion of Magnetic Fields in Weakly Ionized Gas
Eun-jin Kim; P. H. Diamond
2002-09-25
The diffusion of uni-directional magnetic fields by two dimensional turbulent flows in a weakly ionized gas is studied. The fields here are orthogonal to the plane of fluid motion. This simple model arises in the context of the decay of the mean magnetic flux to mass ratio in the interstellar medium. When ions are strongly coupled to neutrals, the transport of a large--scale magnetic field is driven by both turbulent mixing and nonlinear, ambipolar drift. Using a standard homogeneous and Gaussian statistical model for turbulence, we show rigorously that a large-scale magnetic field can decay on at most turbulent mixing time scales when the field and neutral flow are strongly coupled. There is no enhancement of the decay rate by ambipolar diffusion. These results extend the Zeldovich theorem to encompass the regime of two dimensional flows and orthogonal magnetic fields, recently considered by Zweibel (2002). The limitation of the strong coupling approximation and its implications are discussed.
Non-Newtonian Dynamic Gravitational Field from The Longitudinally Asymmetric Rotating Objects
Eue Jin Jeong
1997-06-16
The dynamic shift of the center of mass for a rotating hemisphere prompts us the question of what might be its physical consequences. Despite the fact that accelerating object is known to create gravitational field, there is no known external dynamic gravitational force from a rotating sphere where the individual mass components are in constant acceleration. However, Thirring's `induced centrifugal force' and the component of the force along the longitudinal axis inside a rotating spherical shell indicate that they are non-radiative dynamic forces which depend on $\\omega^2$. In this report, Thirring's force is derived by considering the component-wise acceleration of the rotating hemisphere in the weak field approximation. This new analytic solution provides the gravitational explanation of the jet phenomena observed from the fast rotating cosmological bodies, which demands a major revision in our understanding of the universe since it suggests there exists a strong, long ranged, non-Newtonian dynamic gravitational force in our universe. This also raises an interesting question of how the strength of the dipole moment can be maximized for a given mass by configuring the specific geometrical shape of the rotating source.
Influence of weak electric fields on the flame structure
Andrei Starikowskii; Michael Skoblin; Thomas Hammer
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional numerical model of a laminar premixed methane-air flame affected by weak direct-current electric field has been built based on the ANSYS CFX hydrodynamic solver. The chemical transformations in the model are described by the GRI-Mech scheme and are solved within the CHEMKIN package. Both packages exchange data during the runtime via ANSYS CFX programming interface. The steady-state simulations
Weak-field quantum Hall transition: microscopic verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh; Kagalovsky, Victor; Raikh, Mikhail
2010-03-01
Levitation scenario: the higher is the Fermi level the lower is the magnetic field at which transition into ?xy=1 quantum Hall phase takes place, was put forward by Khmelnitskii more than 25 years ago. It was based on field-theoretical arguments. While zero-field complete localization of 2D electron states even at high energies was confirmed by numerical treatment of the Anderson Hamiltonian, no microscopic description of low-field quantum Hall transition existed so far. We constructed a weakly-chiral network model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 066801 (2009)] which, depending on node parameters, captures both the Anderson insulator (?xy=0 ) phase and the quantum Hall (?xy=1) phase. Numerical analysis of this model, as well as analytical treatment of its classical limit, are in full agreement with each other; they both reveal delocalization transition in non- quantizing magnetic field, where electron trajectories are only slightly curved. At low-field transition, electron states can be viewed as two weakly coupled by disorder Chalker-Coddington networks, with opposite chiralities.
M. A. Troxel; Mustapha Ishak
2014-12-07
The wealth of incoming and future cosmological observations will allow us to map out the structure and evolution of the observable universe to an unprecedented level of precision. Among these observations is the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies, e.g., cosmic shear that measures the minute distortions of background galaxy images by intervening cosmic structure. Weak lensing and cosmic shear promise to be a powerful probe of astrophysics and cosmology, constraining models of dark energy, measuring the evolution of structure in the universe, and testing theories of gravity on cosmic scales. However, the intrinsic alignment of galaxies -- their shape and orientation before being lensed -- may pose a great challenge to the use of weak gravitational lensing as an accurate cosmological probe, and has been identified as one of the primary physical systematic biases in cosmic shear studies. Correlations between this intrinsic alignment and the lensing signal can persist even for large physical separations, and isolating the effect of intrinsic alignment from weak lensing is not trivial. A great deal of work in the last two decades has been devoted to understanding and characterizing this intrinsic alignment, which is also a direct and complementary probe of structure formation and evolution in its own right. In this review, we report in a systematic way the state of our understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, with a particular emphasis on its large-scale impact on weak lensing measurements and methods for its isolation or mitigation. (Abridged)
Relativistic Motion of Spinning Particles in a Gravitational Field
C. Chicone; B. Mashhoon; B. Punsly
2005-05-24
The relative motion of a classical relativistic spinning test particle is studied with respect to a nearby free test particle in the gravitational field of a rotating source. The effects of the spin-curvature coupling force are elucidated and the implications of the results for the motion of rotating plasma clumps in astrophysical jets are discussed.
The Kerr metric and stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
S. Chandrasekhar
1978-01-01
A treatment of Einstein's equations governing vacuum gravitational fields which are stationary and axisymmetric is shown to divide itself into three parts: a part essentially concerned with a choice of gauge (which can be chosen to ensure the occurrence of an event horizon exactly as in the Kerr metric); a part concerned with two of the basic metric functions which
A new approach to magnetic and gravitational potential field computation
Wooil Moon; Patrick Lui
1981-01-01
The computation of the magnetic and gravitational potential field for a given body with continuously varying magnetization or density has been modelled by discrete uniform blocks. A new approach using piecewise continuous basis functions is tested to handle the continuous variation of material properties. Examples show that this new approach is much more accurate and computationally very efficient. This approach
Torsionally-gravitating charged matter fields and quanta
Luca Fabbri
2015-03-17
In the present article we shall consider the torsional completion of a gravitational background that is filled with electrodynamically interacting material fields, taken to be of fermionic type, eventually deriving properties like the impossibility of singularities and the possibility of confinement, both necessary for a correct quantum description.
The Gravitational Field of a Twisted Skyrmion String
Miftachul Hadi; Malcolm Anderson; Andri Husein
2015-07-13
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, mkz, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
Weak-field spherically symmetric solutions in f (T ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca; Radicella, Ninfa
2015-05-01
We study weak-field solutions having spherical symmetry in f (T ) gravity; to this end, we solve the field equations for a nondiagonal tetrad, starting from Lagrangian in the form f (T )=T +? Tn , where ? is a small constant, parametrizing the departure of the theory from general relativity. We show that the classical spherically symmetric solutions of general relativity, i.e., the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions, are perturbed by terms in the form ?r2 -2 n and discuss the impact of these perturbations in observational tests.
Strong field gravitational lensing in stringy black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, En-Kun; Duan, Peng-Fei
2015-06-01
In this paper, we studied the strong gravitational lensing due to the stringy black hole using the strong field limit approach. Modeling the supermassive object at the galactic center as stringy black hole, the numerical values of the strong field limit coefficients and the observables were estimated. Moreover, by measuring the observables, one can get the strong field limit coefficients to reconstruct the full expansion of the deflection angle for the strong field gravitational lensing in stringy black hole. Comparing our results with that of Schwarzschild black hole, it is easy to find that all the values in stringy black hole diverge from those of Schwarzschild spacetime under the influence of the parameter ?, which gives us an alternative way to distinguish the stringy black hole from the Schwarzschild black hole. In our model, with the parameter ? increasing, the angular position ? ? increases and the relative magnitudes decreases.
Magnetic field induced rearrangement of the electric field domains in weakly coupled superlattices
W. H. M. Feu; D. C. Elias; L. A. Cury; G. S. Vieira; M. P. Pires; S. M. Landi; P. L. Souza
2007-01-01
We present an investigation of the electric field domain configuration in the sequential tunneling regime in weakly coupled superlattices in the presence of a magnetic field applied parallel to the quantum well layers. We show that, for an applied bias such that two electric field domains are present in the sample, as the magnetic field is increased a succession of
Tail terms in gravitational radiation reaction via effective field theory
S. Foffa; R. Sturani
2012-12-24
Gravitational radiation reaction affects the dynamics of gravitationally bound binary systems. Here we focus on the leading "tail" term which modifies binary dynamics at fourth post-Newtonian order, as first computed by Blanchet and Damour. We re-produce this result using effective field theory techniques in the framework of the Lagrangian formalism suitably extended to include dissipation effects. We recover the known logarithmic tail term, consistently with the recent interpretation of the logarithmic tail term in the mass parameter as a renormalization group effect of the Bondi mass of the system.
Effects of very weak magnetic fields on radical pair reformation.
Adair, R K
1999-01-01
We can expect that biological responses to very weak ELF electromagnetic fields will be masked by thermal noise. However, the spin of electrons bound to biologically important molecules is not strongly coupled to the thermal bath, and the effects of the precession of those spins by external magnetic fields is not bounded by thermal noise. Hence, the known role of spin orientation in the recombination of radical pairs (RP) may constitute a mechanism for the biological effects of very weak fields. That recombination will generally take place only if the valence electrons in the two radicals are in a singlet state and the effect of the magnetic field is manifest through differential spin precessions that affect the occupation of that state. Because the spin relaxation times are of the order of microseconds, any effects must be largely independent of frequency up to values of a few megahertz. Using exact calculations on an appropriately general model system, we show that one can expect small, but significant, modifications of the recombination rate by a 50 microT field only under a narrow range of circumstances: the cage time during which the two elements are together must be exceptionally long--of the order of 50 ns or longer; the hyperfine field of either radical must not be so great as to generate a precession period greater than the cage containment time; and the characteristic recombination time of the radical pair in the singlet state must be about equal to the containment time. Thus, even under such singularly favorable conditions, fields as small as 5 microT (50 milligauss) cannot change the recombination rate by as much as 1%. Hence, we conclude that environmental magnetic fields much weaker than the earth's field cannot be expected to affect biology significantly by modifying radical pair recombination probabilities. PMID:10230939
Field equations and conservation laws in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory
J. Légaré; J. W. Moffat
1995-01-01
The field equations in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory are derived from a Lagrangian density using a first-order formalism. Using the general covariance of the Lagrangian density, conservation laws and tensor identities are derived. Among these are the generalized Bianchi identities and the law of energy-momentum conservation. The Lagrangian density is expanded to second-order, and treated as an Einstein plus fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos ? 0 flux (after counteract contrary direction ? 0 ). f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The origin problem of the basis geo-electric and geomagnetic fields can be solved with the positive-negative charge center separation caused by f QF T , but cannot by f GR . The de Broglie wavelength of an electron is longer than that of a nucleon, and the section is larger, so is the net ? 0 flux pressure. The pressures difference between ? 0 flux on the electron and on the nucleon is as an extra pressure solely exerted on the electrons by ? 0 flux, which causes a gravitational polarization of the positive-negative charge center separation and increases the static electric force from the nucleus to the electrons along the opposite direction of ? 0 flux to offset the extra pressure on the electrons. At the same time, there must be a polarized static electric reaction force from the electrons to the nucleus along ? 0 flux direction, just like transferring the extra ? 0 flux pressure of the electrons to the nucleus. Therefore, the extra ? 0 flux pressure exerted on the whole atom is not actually offset by the static electric force from the positive-negative charge separation, i.e., the gravitation will be dependent of the com-position of matter. That is certainly true in the interaction between two isolated mass-points. But nothing can exist without environment. The masses tested in Cavendish's experiment, Eotvos's experiment and other precise gravitational experiments are not isolated mass-points. The electric polarization by ? 0 flux makes the testing mass and around (brackets, walls, houses) become the electric dipoles. In a way of relays the polarization of charge separation will be transported to the edge of the body, and make it become the electric dipole with the positive and negative charge on its two surfaces and the electric neutrality in the center. The interaction between the electric dipoles finally transfers the extra ? 0 flux pressure on the electrons from a body being tested onto the bodies around, i.e., the static electric force from the polarization of the bodies around offsets the extra ? 0 flux pressure on the electrons of testing mass. Because the electromagnetic force is 30 more orders of magnitude stronger than the ? 0 flux weak force, the slightly polarization of the bodies around can completely offset the extra ? 0 flux pressure on the electrons. The compensating action of the static forces between electric dipoles is equiv-alent to the equal section in unit mass of an electron and a nucleon. That is to say, the ? 0 flux pressure gives the same force and displacement to the electron and nucleon just like no positive-negative charge separation. Therefore, for gravitation, the mass of an electron can be converted to a proton, which makes the atom like a particle of absolutely electric neutrality comprising all neutrons, i.e., the macro-gravitation of non-isolated bodies is corresponding to the section only contributed by nucleons in atom. Then no matter how many electrons there are in the atom, the force is always in direct proportion to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, J.
1984-11-01
Gravitational wave is produced whenever massive bodies accelerate under gravitational or nongravitational driving forces. The equations of Einstein's general theory of relativity have solutions in the weak field approximations which are very similar to those of electrodynamics. Analogies may be made between gravitational radiation and the electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charges although care has to be taken to recognize the limitations of such analogies. Because of the weakness of the Einstein's qravitational constant, the rate of energy radiated is normally very small. It is very desirable to be able to generate dynamic Newtonian gravitational field with sufficient intensity to be detected in the small laboratory. Experimental techniques used in generation and detection of dynamic Newtonian gravitational fields are reviewed and their application to Morse code communication in very near zone, as one approach to the gravitational wave technology.
Gravitational wave in Lorentz violating gravity
Xin Li; Zhe Chang
2012-04-01
By making use of the weak gravitational field approximation, we obtain a linearized solution of the gravitational vacuum field equation in an anisotropic spacetime. The plane-wave solution and dispersion relation of gravitational wave is presented explicitly. There is possibility that the speed of gravitational wave is larger than the speed of light and the casuality still holds. We show that the energy-momentum of gravitational wave in the ansiotropic spacetime is still well defined and conserved.
Multi-field formulation of gravitational particle production after inflation
Watanabe, Yuki
2015-01-01
We study multi-field inflation models that contain a non-trivial field-space metric and a non-minimal coupling between the gravity and inflaton sectors. In such models it is known that even in the absence of explicit interaction terms the inflaton sector can decay into matter as a result of its non-minimal coupling to gravity, thereby reheating the Universe gravitationally. Using the Bogoliubov approach we evaluate the gravitational decay rates of the inflaton fields into both scalars and fermions, and analyse the reheating dynamics. We also discuss how the interpretation of the reheating dynamics differs in the so-called Jordan and Einstein frames, highlighting that the calculation of the Bogoliubov coefficients is independent of the frame in which one starts.
Multi-field formulation of gravitational particle production after inflation
Yuki Watanabe; Jonathan White
2015-03-29
We study multi-field inflation models that contain a non-trivial field-space metric and a non-minimal coupling between the gravity and inflaton sectors. In such models it is known that even in the absence of explicit interaction terms the inflaton sector can decay into matter as a result of its non-minimal coupling to gravity, thereby reheating the Universe gravitationally. Using the Bogoliubov approach we evaluate the gravitational decay rates of the inflaton fields into both scalars and fermions, and analyse the reheating dynamics. We also discuss how the interpretation of the reheating dynamics differs in the so-called Jordan and Einstein frames, highlighting that the calculation of the Bogoliubov coefficients is independent of the frame in which one starts.
Optimal weak lensing tomography for CFHTLenS
Grocutt, Emma Liana
2012-11-28
Weak gravitational lensing is a powerful astronomical tool for constraining cosmological parameters that is entering its prime. Lensing occurs because gravitational fields deflect light rays and measuring this deflection ...
Diffusion of relativistic gas mixtures in gravitational fields
Gilberto M. Kremer
2013-03-26
A mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric is studied on the basis of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields. A BGK-type model equation of the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is used in order to compute the non-equilibrium distribution functions by the Chapman-Enskog method. The main focus of this work is to obtain Fick's law without the thermal-diffusion cross-effect. Fick's law has four contributions, two of them are the usual terms proportional to the gradients of concentration and pressure. The other two are of the same nature as those which appears in Fourier's law in the presence of gravitational fields and are related with an acceleration and gravitational potential gradient, but unlike Fourier's law these two last terms are of non-relativistic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the coefficients of diffusion depend on the gravitational potential and they become larger than those in the absence of it.
Jet deflection by very weak guide fields during magnetic reconnection.
Goldman, M V; Lapenta, G; Newman, D L; Markidis, S; Che, H
2011-09-23
Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended "outer electron diffusion regions." New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H(+) plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath. PMID:22026861
Jet Deflection by Very Weak Guide Fields during Magnetic Reconnection
Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Che, H. [Department of Physics and CIPS, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven (Belgium)
2011-09-23
Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended ''outer electron diffusion regions.'' New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H{sup +} plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath.
On the Theory of Gravitational Field in Finsler Spaces - III
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Satoshi
From the vector bundle-like standpoint, the Finslerian gravitational field is regarded as the total space of the vector bundle whose fibre is the internal (y)-field spanned by vectors {y} (i.e., the so-called internal space spanned by {y}) and whose base is the external (x)-field spanned by points {x} (i.e., the Einstein's gravitational field). Along this line, in this paper, different from a previous paper [1], the so-called mapping process of the (y)-field on the (x)-field is not taken into account and following Miron's method [2, 3], the Finslerian field equations will be derived from the Einstein's field equation for the total space. Some physical considerations will be made on those field equations.Translated AbstractZur Theorie des Gravitationsfeldes in Finslerschen Räumen. IIIVon einem vektorbündelähnlichen Standpunkt aus betrachtet, bilden die Gesamträume des Vektorbündels das Finslersche Gravitationsfeld, dessen Fasern das (y)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Vektoren {y} sind, und dessen Basis das äußere (x)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Punkte {x}, ist. {y} ist der sogenannte innere Raum und {x} das Einsteinsche Gravitationsfeld. Im Unterschied zu einer früheren Arbeit [1] wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit entsprechend dieser Auffassung der Abbildungsprozeß des (y)-auf das (x)-Feld nicht betrachtet, und der Methode von Miron [2, 3] gefolgt. Die Finslerschen Feldgleichungen werden aus den Einsteinschen Feldgleichungen für den Gesamtraum abgeleitet. Zu diesen Feldgleichungen werden physikalische Betrachtungen angestellt.
Dynamics of dark energy in the gravitational fields of matter inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Kulinich, Yurij; Tsizh, Maksym
2014-09-01
We study the dynamical properties and space distribution of dark energy in the weak and strong gravitational fields caused by inhomogeneities of matter in the static world of galaxies and clusters. We show that the dark energy in the weak gravitational fields of matter density perturbations can condense or dilute, but amplitudes of its perturbations remain very small on all scales. We illustrate also how the "accretion" of the phantom dark energy onto the matter overdensity forms the dark energy underdensity. We analyze the behavior of dark energy in the gravitational fields of stars and black holes with the Schwarzschild metric. It is shown that, in the case of stars, the static solution of the differential equations for energy-momentum conservation exists and describes the distribution of density of dark energy inside and outside of a star. We have found that for stars and galaxies its value differs slightly from the average and is a bit higher for the quintessential scalar field as dark energy and a bit lower for the phantom one. The difference grows with the decrease of the effective sound speed of dark energy and is large in the neighborhood of neutron stars. We obtain and analyze also the solutions of equations that describe the stationary accretion of the dark energy as a test component onto the Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the rate of change of mass of the dark energy is positive in the case of quintessential dark energy and is negative in the case of the phantom one.
Was the Earth's Magnetic Field Weak in the Late Devonian?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anwar, T.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Pavlov, V.
2014-12-01
Very few data exist to describe geomagnetic field behaviour in the Late Devonian (LD). Samples, which have recently been Ar-Ar dated to 364-377 Myr ago, of LD-aged volcanics and instrusives from the Viluy large igneous province in Siberia are investigated. These units have already demonstrated reliable, palaeomagnetic directions consistent with the retention of a primary remanence. Microwave Thellier-type palaeointensity experiments (mostly IZZI protocol with partial thermoremanent magnetization checks) were performed on 55 samples from 16 sites, of which, 12 samples from 4 sites provide satisfactory paleointensity data. Arai plots are strongly concave-up in shape but multiple lines of evidence support that this is caused by a strong component of magnetisation overprinting a weak primary magnetisation rather than by lab-induced alteration or multidomain behaviour. The samples display corresponding distinct directional components, positive pTRM checks and little or no zig-zagging of the Arai plot. Furthermore, the results of non-heating pseudo-Thellier experiments support the existence of a strong component overprinting a much weaker one. The site-mean paleointensities, ranging from 5.3-11.1 ?T and which correspond to a virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of (1.0-2.1) ×1022 Am2, indicate that the LD was a time of extremely weak magnetic field intensity. It provides the evidence that the superchron state, between ~310 and 265 Myr ago, is preceded by very weak field in the LD (~60 Myr before the superchron). If low dipole moment can be considered an indicator of high reversal frequency (as appears to be the case in the mid-Jurassic) then our results support that rapid transitions between reversal hyperactivity and superchron states are a recurring feature in the palaeomagnetic record, potentially linked to simultaneous episodes of true polar wander.
The emergence of weakly twisted magnetic fields in the sun
Archontis, V. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis 15784, Athens (Greece); Hood, A. W. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews KY169SS (United Kingdom); Tsinganos, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nymphon, Thissio 11810, Athens (Greece)
2013-11-20
We have studied the emergence of a weakly twisted magnetic flux tube from the upper convection zone into the solar atmosphere. It is found that the rising magnetized plasma does not undergo the classical, single ?-shaped loop emergence, but it becomes unstable in two places, forming two magnetic lobes that are anchored in small-scale bipolar structures at the photosphere, between the two main flux concentrations. The two magnetic lobes rise and expand into the corona, forming an overall undulating magnetic flux system. The dynamical interaction of the lobes results in the triggering of high-speed and hot jets and the formation of successive cool and hot loops that coexist in the emerging flux region. Although the initial emerging field is weakly twisted, a highly twisted magnetic flux rope is formed at the low atmosphere, due to shearing and reconnection. The new flux rope (hereafter post-emergence flux rope) does not erupt. It remains confined by the overlying field. Although there is no ejective eruption of the post-emergence rope, it is found that a considerable amount of axial and azimuthal flux is transferred into the solar atmosphere during the emergence of the magnetic field.
Differentiation of optical isomers through enhanced weak-field interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronowitz, S.
1980-01-01
The influence of weak field interaction terms due to the cooperative effects which arise from a macroscopic assemblage of interacting sites is studied. Differential adsorption of optical isomers onto an achiral surface is predicted to occur if the surface was continuous and sufficiently large. However, the quantity of discontinuous crystal surfaces did not enhance the percentage of differentiation and thus the procedure of using large quantities of small particles was not a viable technique for obtaining a detectable differentiation of optical isomers on an achiral surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troxel, M. A.; Ishak, Mustapha
2015-02-01
The wealth of incoming and future cosmological observations will allow us to map out the structure and evolution of the observable universe to an unprecedented level of precision. Among these observations is the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies, e.g., cosmic shear that measures the minute distortions of background galaxy images by intervening cosmic structure. Weak lensing and cosmic shear promise to be a powerful probe of astrophysics and cosmology, constraining models of dark energy, measuring the evolution of structure in the universe, and testing theories of gravity on cosmic scales. However, the intrinsic alignment of galaxies-their shape and orientation before being lensed-may pose a great challenge to the use of weak gravitational lensing as an accurate cosmological probe, and has been identified as one of the primary physical systematic biases in cosmic shear studies. Correlations between this intrinsic alignment and the lensing signal can persist even for large physical separations, and isolating the effect of intrinsic alignment from weak lensing is not trivial. A great deal of work in the last two decades has been devoted to understanding and characterizing this intrinsic alignment, which is also a direct and complementary probe of structure formation and evolution in its own right. In this review, we report in a systematic way the state of our understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, with a particular emphasis on its large-scale impact on weak lensing measurements and methods for its isolation or mitigation. We begin with an introduction to the use of cosmic shear as a probe for cosmology and describe the various physical contributions by intrinsic alignment to the shear or convergence 2- and 3-point correlations. We then review developments in the modeling of the intrinsic alignment signal, including a trend toward attempting to incorporate more accurate nonlinear and single halo effects. The impact on cosmological constraints by the intrinsic alignment of galaxies is also outlined based on these models. We then summarize direct measurements of the large-scale intrinsic alignment signal in various surveys and discuss their constraints on models of intrinsic alignment, as well as progress in utilizing numerical simulations of structure formation to further our understanding of intrinsic alignment. Finally, we outline the development of a variety of mitigation techniques for reducing the impact of the intrinsic alignment contamination on weak lensing signals both within a galaxy data set and between complementary probes of gravitational lensing. The methodology and projected impact of these techniques are discussed for both 2- and 3-point correlations. We conclude by presenting a summary and outlook on the state of intrinsic alignment study and its impact on ongoing and planned weak lensing surveys.
Gravitational Behaviour of an Effective Topological Field Theory
Giandomenico Palumbo
2015-06-07
Effective topological field theories describe the properties of Dirac fermions in the low-energy regime. In this work, we introduce a new emergent gravity model by considering Dirac fermions invariant under local de Sitter transformations in four-dimensional open manifolds. In the context of Cartan geometry, fermions couple to spacetime through a $Spin(5)$ Cartan connection that can be decomposed in spin connection and tetrads. In presence of a gravitational instanton background, we show that the corresponding effective topological field theory becomes equivalent to a dynamical gravitational theory with positive cosmological constant and Barbero-Immirzi parameter. At classical level and in absence of matter, this theory is compatible with general relativity.
Weak electric field interactions in the central nervous system.
Saunders, Richard D; Jefferys, John G R
2002-09-01
Exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields will induce electric fields and currents within the body, but these are almost always much lower than those that can stimulate peripheral nerve tissue. Guidance on exposure to such fields has been published by NRPB and ICNIRP, which is based on the avoidance of acute effects in the central nervous system. Weak electric field effects, below action potential thresholds, have been demonstrated in vitro in brain slice preparations; thresholds can be estimated to be above about 1 mV mm(-1) (around 100 mA m(-2), taking a brain tissue conductivity of around 0.1 S m(-1)), depending on stimulus conditions. Some studies suggest possible effects at lower induced field strengths. The intact nervous system might be expected to be more sensitive to induced electric fields and currents than in vitro preparations, due to a higher level of spontaneous activity and a greater number of interacting neurons. There is good evidence that electrically excitable cells in the retina can be affected in vivo by induced currents as low as 10 mA m(-2). It has been suggested that induced current densities above 10 mA m(-2) may have effects on other central nervous system functions but few studies have been carried out. Further research in experimental animals using both in vitro and in vivo approaches is needed to clarify this issue. PMID:12199550
Strong gravitational force induced by static electromagnetic fields
B. V. Ivanov
2004-07-13
It is argued that static electric or magnetic fields induce Weyl-Majumdar-Papapetrou solutions for the metric of spacetime. Their gravitational acceleration includes a term many orders of magnitude stronger than usual perturbative terms. It gives rise to a number of effects, which can be detected experimentally. Four electrostatic and four magnetostatic examples of physical set-ups with simple symmetries are proposed. The different ways in which mass sources enter and complicate the pure electromagnetic picture are described.
Electromagnetic waves in the gravitational field of massive dark halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hacyan, Shahen
2014-05-01
The propagation of plane electromagnetic waves in the gravitational field inside a rotating cloud of dark matter is analyzed. Formulas for the deflection and absorption of light and the rotation of the polarization plane are obtained in closed form in terms of the mass density and the angular velocity of the cloud. It is shown that the formulas can be considerably simplified for axisymmetric configurations. As an example, the formalism is applied to a rotating massive cloud described by a Plummer potential.
Branes as solutions of gauge theories in gravitational field
A. A. Zheltukhin
2014-09-21
The idea of the Gauss map is unified with the concept of branes as hypersurfaces embedded into $D$-dimensional Minkowski space. The map introduces new generalized coordinates of branes alternative to their world vectors $\\mathbf{x}$ and identified with the gauge and other massless fields. In these coordinates the Dirac $p$-branes realize extremals of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of a $(p+1)$-dimensional $SO(D-p-1)$ gauge-invariant action in a gravitational background
Defect Mass in Gravitational Field and Red Shift of Atomic and Nuclear Radiation Spectra
Kh. M. Beshtoev
2000-04-19
It is shown, that radiation spectrum of atoms (or nuclei) in the gravitational field has a red shift since the effective mass of radiating electrons (or nucleons) changes in this field. This red shift is equal to the red shift of radiation spectrum in the gravitational field measured in existence experiments. The same shift must arise when the photon (or $ \\gamma $ quantum) is passing through the gravitational field if it participates in gravitational interactions (photon has no rest mass). The absence of the double effect in the experiments, probably, means that photons (or $ \\gamma $ quanta) are passing through the gravitational field without interactions.
Thomas Peters; Dominik R. G. Schleicher; Ralf S. Klessen; Robi Banerjee; Christoph Federrath; Rowan J. Smith; Sharanya Sur
2012-09-26
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k rho^Gamma, with both sub-isothermal exponents Gamma 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For Gamma > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For Gamma < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Thomas; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Rowan J.; Sur, Sharanya
2012-12-01
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k??, with both sub-isothermal exponents ? < 1 and super-isothermal exponents ? > 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For ? > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For ? < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
The angular momentum of the gravitational field and the Poincare group
J. W. Maluf; S. C. Ulhoa; F. F. Faria; J. F. da Rocha-Neto
2006-09-06
We redefine the gravitational angular momentum in the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. In similarity to the gravitational energy-momentum, the new definition for the gravitational angular momentum is coordinate independent. By considering the Poisson brackets in the phase space of the theory, we find that the gravitational energy-momentum and angular momentum correspond to a representation of the Poincar\\'e group. This result allows us to define Casimir type invariants for the gravitational field.
Split octonion reformulation of generalized linear gravitational field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanyal, B. C.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we describe the properties of split octonions and their connection with the 2 × 2 Zorn vector matrix containing both scalar and vector components. Starting with a brief description of gravito-dyons, we reformulate the generalized linear gravitational field equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonion. We express the generalized gravito-Heavisidian (GH) potentials, fields, and various wave equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions variables. Accordingly, we demonstrate the work-energy theorem of classical mechanics reproducing the continuity equation for the case of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions. Further, we discuss the split octonionic form of linear momentum conservation law for gravito-dyons in the case of linear gravitational theory. We have summarized the various split octonion equations for the case of the generalized GH-field of gravito-dyons and the generalized electromagnetic field of dyons. The unified fields of dyons and gravito-dyons have been demonstrated and corresponding field equations are discussed in unique and consistent manner in terms of split octonions.
Weak Gravitational Lensing S. Pires, J.-L. Starck, A. Leonard and A. Refregier
Starck, Jean-Luc
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4 2D mapping of the dark matter 14 4.1 Inversion problem. Figure 2: Strong Gravitational Lensing effect observed in the Abell 2218 cluster (W. Couch et al, 1975
New Techniques for Analysing Axisymmetric Gravitational Systems. 1. Vacuum Fields
Chris Doran; Anthony Lasenby
2002-11-21
A new framework for analysing the gravitational fields in a stationary, axisymmetric configuration is introduced. The method is used to construct a complete set of field equations for the vacuum region outside a rotating source. These equations are under-determined. Restricting the Weyl tensor to type D produces a set of equations which can be solved, and a range of new techniques are introduced to simplify the problem. Imposing the further condition that the solution is asymptotically flat yields the Kerr solution uniquely. The implications of this result for the no-hair theorem are discussed. The techniques developed here have many other applications, which are described in the conclusions.
The size of a gravitational field model for Topex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, O. L.
1985-01-01
The radial accuracy of the ephemeris of TOPEX depends, to a large extent, on that of the potential coefficients of the gravitational field model used to compute the orbit. Only better estimates of coefficients up to degree 36 may be needed, because the effect of higher degree ones are unlikely to affect the orbit significantly. To estimate the coefficients below degree 36 one must use many measurements that contain substantial information on the field well above the degree; unless smoothed out, this extra information may become aliased in the estimated coefficients to an unacceptable level.
Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auričre, Michel; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-François; Wade, Gregg A.
2014-08-01
Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux hosts a close-in exoplanet, we suggest that the magnetic dipole of Pollux can be associated with two temperature and macroturbulent velocity spots which could be sufficient to produce the RV variations. We finally investigate the scenarii of the origin of the magnetic field which could explain the observed properties of Pollux.
Non-Relativistic Limit of Dirac Equations in Gravitational Field and Quantum Effects of Gravity
Ning Wu
2005-04-23
Based on unified theory of electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions, the non-relativistic limit of the equation of motion of a charged Dirac particle in gravitational field is studied. From the Schrodinger equation obtained from this non-relativistic limit, we could see that the classical Newtonian gravitational potential appears as a part of the potential in the Schrodinger equation, which can explain the gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments. And because of this Newtonian gravitational potential, a quantum particle in earth's gravitational field may form a gravitationally bound quantized state, which had already been detected in experiments. Three different kinds of phase effects related to gravitational interactions are discussed in this paper, and these phase effects should be observable in some astrophysical processes. Besides, there exists direct coupling between gravitomagnetic field and quantum spin, radiation caused by this coupling can be used to directly determine the gravitomagnetic field on the surface of a star.
Quantum limit on time measurement in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Supurna; Samuel, Joseph
2015-01-01
Good clocks are of importance both to fundamental physics and for applications in astronomy, metrology and global positioning systems. In a recent technological breakthrough, researchers at NIST have been able to achieve a stability of one part in 1018 using an ytterbium clock. This naturally raises the question of whether there are fundamental limits to time keeping. In this article we point out that gravity and quantum mechanics set a fundamental limit on the fractional frequency uncertainty of clocks. This limit comes from a combination of the uncertainty relation, the gravitational redshift and the relativistic time dilation effect. For example, a single ion aluminium clock in a terrestrial gravitational field cannot achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty better than one part in 1022. This fundamental limit explores the interaction between gravity and quantum mechanics on a laboratory scale.
Gravitational lenses and lens candidates identified from the COSMOS field
Neal Jackson
2008-06-23
A complete manual search has been carried out of the list of 285423 objects, nearly all of them galaxies, identified in the COSMOS field that are brighter than I=25. Two certain and one highly probable new gravitational lenses are found, in addition to the lenses and candidate lens systems previously found by Faure et al. (2008). A further list of 112 candidate lens systems is presented. Few of these are likely to be true gravitational lens systems, most being star-forming rings or pairs of companion galaxies. It is possible to examine of order 10^6 objects by eye in a reasonable time, although reliable detection of lenses by such methods is likely to be possible only with high-resolution data. The loss of completeness involved in a rapid search is estimated as up to a factor of 2, depending on the morphology of the lens candidate.
Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Pisa U., INFN-Pisa; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, MIchele [INFN-Pisa
2013-05-01
The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.
Proton-proton weak capture in chiral effective field theory.
Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M
2013-05-10
The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium ? decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030ą0.006)×10(-23) MeV fm(2), with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10(-23) MeV fm(2). The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence. PMID:23705703
Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcucci, L. E.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.
2013-05-01
The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium ? decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030ą0.006)×10-23MeVfm2, with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10-23MeVfm2. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence.
Mapping Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars with Electron Reflectometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.
2004-01-01
One of the great surprises of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission was the discovery of intensely magnetized crust. These magnetic sources are at least ten times stronger than their terrestrial counterparts, probably requiring large volumes of coherently magnetized material, very strong remanence, or both. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of these fields is their large scale coherence and organization into east-west stripes thousands of kilometers long. The anomalies were almost certainly created by thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) in the presence of a strong Martian dynamo. With few exceptions, the crustal fields are associated with the oldest terrain on Mars. Much of the northern lowlands appears to be non-magnetic, except for the relatively weak north polar anomalies and a few sources adja-cent to the dichotomy boundary, which appear to be associated with strongly magnetized crust south of the boundary. There is clear evidence for impact demagnetization of the Hellas, Argyre, and Isidis basins. Thus, Mars' crustal magnetic fields are among the oldest preserved geologic features on the planet.
Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-04-01
The alignment of Saturn's magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10 h 39 min 22.4 s (ref. 2). When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10 h 47 min 6 s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn's measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn's rotation period is thought to be between 10 h 32 min and 10 h 47 min, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10 h 32 min 45 s +/- 46 s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn's measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the constraints from its gravitational field, the rotation period can be inferred with a precision of several minutes. To validate our method, we applied the same procedure to Jupiter and correctly recovered its well-known rotation period.
Circular, elliptic and oval billiards in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Dettmann, Carl P.; Leonel, Edson D.
2015-05-01
We consider classical dynamical properties of a particle in a constant gravitational force and making specular reflections with circular, elliptic or oval boundaries. The model and collision map are described and a detailed study of the energy regimes is made. The linear stability of fixed points is studied, yielding exact analytical expressions for parameter values at which a period-doubling bifurcation occurs. The dynamics is apparently ergodic at certain energies in all three models, in contrast to the regularity of the circular and elliptic billiard dynamics in the field-free case. This finding is confirmed using a sensitive test involving Lyapunov weighted dynamics. In the last part of the paper a time dependence is introduced in the billiard boundary, where it is shown that for the circular billiard the average velocity saturates for zero gravitational force but in the presence of gravitational it increases with a very slow growth rate, which may be explained using Arnold diffusion. For the oval billiard, where chaos is present in the static case, the particle has an unlimited velocity growth with an exponent of approximately 1/6.
Gravitational field equations on and off a 3-brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, A. N.; Gümrükçüoglu, A. E.
2004-11-01
The effective gravitational field equations on and off a 3-brane world possessing a &Z_{2}; mirror symmetry and embedded in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime with cosmological constant were derived by Shiromizu, Maeda and Sasaki (SMS) in the framework of the Gauss Codazzi projective approach with the subsequent specialization to the Gaussian normal coordinates in the neighbourhood of the brane. However, the Gaussian normal coordinates imply a very special slicing of spacetime and clearly, the consistent analysis of the brane dynamics would benefit from complete freedom in the slicing of spacetime, pushing the layer surfaces in the fifth dimension at any rates of evolution and in arbitrary positions. We rederive the SMS effective gravitational field equations on a 3-brane and generalize the off-brane equations to the case where there is an arbitrary energy momentum tensor in the bulk. We use a more general setting to allow for acceleration of the normals to the brane surface through the lapse function and the shift vector in the spirit of Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. We show that the gravitational influence of the bulk spacetime on the brane may be described by a traceless second-rank tensor &W_{ij};, constructed from the 'electric' part of the bulk Riemann tensor. We also present the evolution equations for the tensor &W_{ij};, as well as for the corresponding 'magnetic' part of the bulk curvature. These equations involve terms determined by both the nonvanishing acceleration of normals in the nongeodesic slicing of spacetime and the presence of other fields in the bulk.
Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames
Obukhov, Yuri N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, Koeln 50923 (Germany); Silenko, Alexander J. [Research Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk 220080 (Belarus); Teryaev, Oleg V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)
2010-03-24
A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
Multipole structure of stationary gravitational fields at null infinity
Kundu, P.K.
1988-08-01
The multipole structure of the gravitational field produced by a stationary, isolated source at null infinity is investigated using a Bondi-type null polar coordinate system. The results are connected with the previous works of the author on the multipole expansion of stationary, asymptotically flat, vacuum solutions of the Einstein equations in the framework of the Geroch--Hansen one-point compactification scheme. The present work strongly suggests that all such solutions are analytic in the inverse luminosity distance r/sup -1/ in a Bondi chart.
Dynamics of extended spinning masses in a gravitational field
Mashhoon, Bahram; Singh, Dinesh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, 65211 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)
2006-12-15
We develop a first-order approximation method for the influence of spin on the motion of extended spinning test masses in a gravitational field. This approach is illustrated for approximately circular equatorial motion in the exterior Kerr spacetime. In this case, the analytic results for the first-order approximation are compared to the numerical integration of the exact system and the limitations of the first-order results are pointed out. Furthermore, we employ our analytic results to illustrate the gravitomagnetic clock effect for spinning particles.
Dynamics of Extended Spinning Masses in a Gravitational Field
Bahram Mashhoon; Dinesh Singh
2006-11-30
We develop a first-order approximation method for the influence of spin on the motion of extended spinning test masses in a gravitational field. This approach is illustrated for approximately circular equatorial motion in the exterior Kerr spacetime. In this case, the analytic results for the first-order approximation are compared to the numerical integration of the exact system and the limitations of the first-order results are pointed out. Furthermore, we employ our analytic results to illustrate the gravitomagnetic clock effect for spinning particles.
Effect of the Sun's Time-Retarded Transverse Gravitational Field on the Motion of Halley's Comet
Hafele, J C
2012-01-01
The neoclassical time-retarded transverse gravitational field theory, a theory based on the slow-speed weak-field approximation to general relativity theory, has been used to explain exactly the flyby anomaly for six Earth flybys and the observed increase of 38 mm/year in the radius of the Moon's orbit (arXiv:1105.3857v8 [physics.gen-ph] 7Nov2011). It is known by astronomers that comets have an unexpected early or delayed return of a few days. The change in the period for Halley's Comet caused by the Sun's time-retarded transverse gravitational field is calculated herein. The calculated speed change depends on the value used for the induction speed. The induction speed that explains the flyby anomaly and the change in the Moon's orbit is about 10 km/s. The predicted change in the period for Halley's Comet, using 10 km/s, is only a few minutes. If the induction speed is set to 20 m/s, the calculated speed change is about one day, but such a low value seems improbable. To confirm the time-retarded theory, it is...
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609
Far fields, from electrodynamics to gravitation, and the dark matter problem
Carati, Andrea
Far fields, from electrodynamics to gravitation, and the dark matter problem A. Carati1 , S. The main idea is that the missing gravitational action may be due to the external far galaxies of electrodynamics and those of gravitation theory, in order to understand the dominant role of the far galaxies. 1
Gravitational waves and scalar perturbations from spectator fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biagetti, Matteo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Fasiello, Matteo; Peloso, Marco
2015-04-01
The most conventional mechanism for gravitational waves (gw) production during inflation is the amplification of vacuum metric fluctuations. In this case the gw production can be uniquely related to the inflationary expansion rate H. For example, a gw detection close to the present experimental limit (tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 0.1) would indicate an inflationary expansion rate close to 1014 GeV. This conclusion, however, would be invalid if the observed gw originated from a different source. We construct and study one of the possible covariant formulations of the mechanism suggested in [1], where a spectator field ? with a sound speed cs ll 1 acts as a source for gw during inflation. In our formulation ? is described by a so-called P(X) Lagrangian and a non-minimal coupling to gravity. This field interacts only gravitationally with the inflaton, which has a standard action. We compute the amount of scalar and tensor density fluctuations produced by ? and find that, in our realization, r is not enhanced with respect to the standard result but it is strongly sensitive to cs, thus breaking the direct r leftrightarrow H connection.
Reentering the Gravitational Fringe Field of the Solar System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, P. C.
A 1998 proposal to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) described how to update an earlier proposal outline for an experiment involving a manned spacecraft that traveled to just outside the gravitational field of the solar system. The recent proposal briefly describes how to initiate a 25-year program to launch a seven-year mission. Very little thought has been given to astronomical/astrophysical investigations that might be carried out over seven years, but one or more generations of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder program might be included. Only a little serious thought has been given to how to reenter the solar system's gravitational fringe field, but access to several procedures and three-fold redundancy seems desirable. Some details of the proposed paper study will be given. Non-responsibility statement, from source document of calendar 1973. This document was prepared while the author was on an unpaid leave of absence from The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) of Palo Alto, California. The comments made herein are partly the results of experiments carried out over a number of years. For a portion of this time, both NASA and LMSC financed the author's space astronomy investigations. It may be that either or both these institutions may possess some proprietary rights to portions of the ideas and information presented. This work was supported by Ruffner Associates, Inc.
Detection of a filament connected to CL0016 with weak gravitational lensing
Higuchi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Sakurai, Junya
2015-01-01
We report on the weak lensing detection of a filament between two galaxy clusters at $z=0.55$, CL0015.9+1609 and RX J0018.3+1618. We conduct weak lensing analysis of deep multi-band Subaru/Suprime-Cam images with $Lensfit$. The weak lensing signals from the filament are contaminated by signals from the adjacent massive clusters and we statistically subtract the cluster component using two different methods. Both methods yield consistent shear profiles on the filament with $\\gtrsim2\\sigma$ significance and the average surface mass density of the filament is $=(3.20\\pm0.10)\\times10^{14}h$ M$_\\odot$Mpc$^{-2}$, which is in broad agreement with previous studies. On-going surveys such as Hyper Suprime-Cam will identify more filaments, which will serve as a new probe of structure formation in the Universe.
Classical Gravitational Interactions and Gravitational Lorentz Force
Ning Wu
2005-04-23
In quantum gauge theory of gravity, the gravitational field is represented by gravitational gauge field. The field strength of gravitational gauge field has both gravitational electric component and gravitational magnetic component. In classical level, gauge theory of gravity gives out classical Newtonian gravitational interactions in a relativistic form. Besides, it gives out gravitational Lorentz force which is the gravitational force on a moving object in gravitational magnetic field. The direction of gravitational Lorentz force does not along that of classical gravitational Newtonian force. Effects of gravitational Lorentz force should be detectable, and these effects can be used to discriminate gravitational magnetic field from ordinary electromagnetic magnetic field.
Ning Wu; Dahua Zhang
2005-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, the formulation of gauge theory of gravity in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates is given. Then in spherical coordinates system, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the Schwarzschild solution. In gauge theory of
Deep HST imaging of distant weak radio and field galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Windhorst, R. A.; Gordon, J. M.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Keel, W. C.; Burkey, J. M.; Dunlop, J. S.
1994-01-01
We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) V- and I-band images of three distant weak radio galaxies with z = 0.311-2.390 and seven field galaxies with z = 0.131-0.58. The images were deconvolved with both the Lucy and multiresolution CLEAN methods, which yield a restoring Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of less than or equal to 0.2 sec, (nearly) preserve photons and signal-to-noise ratio at low spatial frequencies, and produce consistent light profiles down to our 2 sigma surface brightness sensitivity limit of V approximately 27.2 and I approximately 25.9 mag/sq arcsec. Multi-component image modeling was used to provide deconvolution-independent estimates of structural parameters for symmetric galaxies. We present 12-band (m(sub 2750) UBVRIgriJHK) photometry for a subset of the galaxies and bootstrap the unknown FOC/48 zero point at 2750 A in three independent ways (yielding m(sub 2750) = 21.34 +/- 0.09 mag for 1.0 e(-)/s). Two radio galaxies with z = 0.311 and 0.528, as well as one field galaxy with z = 0.58, have the colors and spectra of early-type galaxies, and a(exp 1/4)-like light profiles in the HST images. The two at z greater than 0.5 have little or no color gradients in V - I and are likely giant ellipticals, while the z = 0.311 radio galaxy has a dim exponential disk and is likely an S0. Six of the seven field galaxies have light profiles that indicate (small) inner bulges following a(exp 1/4) laws and outer exponential disks, both with little or no color gradients. These are (early-type) spiral galaxies with z = 0.131-0.528. About half have faint companions or bars. One shows lumpy structure, possibly a merger. The compact narrow-line galaxy 53W002 at z = 2.390 has less than or = 30% +/- 10% of its HST V and I flux in the central kiloparsec (due to its weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN)). Most of its light (V approximately equal to 23.3) occurs in a symmetric envelope with a regular a(exp 1/4)-like profile of effective radius a approximately equal to 1.1 sec (approximately equal to 12 kpc for H(sub 0) = 50, q(sub 0) = 0.1. Its (HST) V - I color varies at most from approximately 0.3 mag at a approximately equal to 0.2 sec to approximately 1.2 mag at a approximately greater than 0.4 sec, and possibly to approximately greater than 2.2 mag at a approximately greater than 1.2 sec. Together with its I - K color (approximately equal to 2.5 mag for a approximately greater than 1.0 sec-2.0 sec), this is consistent with an aging stellar population approximately 0.3-0.5 Gyr old in the galaxy center (a approx. less than 2 kpc radius), and possibly approximately 0.5-1.0 Gyr old at a approximately greater than 10 kpc radius. While its outer part may thus have started to collapse at z = 2.5-4, its inner part still is aligned with its redshifted Ly(alpha) cloud and its radio axis, possibly caused by star formation associated with the radio jet, or by reflection from its AGN cone.
Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit
Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand) and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), P.le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)
2008-10-15
The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z < or approx. 0.25 the scale is found to coincide with the empirical acceleration scale of modified Newtonian dynamics. At larger redshifts the scale varies in a manner which is likely to be important for understanding dynamics of galaxy clusters, and structure formation. Although the relative deceleration, typically of order 10{sup -10} ms{sup -2}, is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.
Analysis of Biological Effects and Limits of Exposure to Weak Magnetic Fields
Halgamuge, Malka N.
Analysis of Biological Effects and Limits of Exposure to Weak Magnetic Fields Chathurika D,malka.nisha}@unimelb.edu.au Abstract--Adverse biological outcomes due to thermal effects of exposure to high power magnetic fields to weak, low frequency magnetic fields. This paper involves a critical analysis of the voluminous
DISCIPLE1: Interactive Apprentice System in Weak Theory Fields
Yves Kodratoff; Gheorghe Tecuci
1987-01-01
rj A WEAK THEORY DOMAIN The paper presents an interactive approach to learning apprentice sys tems for weak theory domains. The approach consists of a combination of teaming by analogy and learning by generalizing instances. One main point of this approach is that it uses the explanations drawn from an example, both to reduce the version space of me rules
Estimation of gravitational bending of light in the weak deflection limit
Arunava Bhadra
2010-01-01
After discussing some subtle issues concerning the computation of deflection angle, a general but simple expression of bending angle of light rays in weak deflection limit has been presented for a general static and spherically symmetric space-time. In this context the importance of proper choice of polar axis has been highlighted. Applying the prescribed method the explicit expression of bending
Slowly and Rapidly Propagating "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We consider the combustion, in a gravitational field, of a heterogeneous powder mixture compressed into a solid sample, in which the high temperature ahead of the reaction zone destroys the solid, due, e.g. to melting of some of components of the mixture. Thus, a suspension is formed, consisting of a liquid bath containing solid or liquid particles. Processes such as heat and mass transfer as well as chemical reactions in the suspension determine the structure of the combustion wave and its propagation velocity. Under the influence of gravitational forces there is the possibility of relative motion of the liquid and solid. Previous theoretical analyses considered the rate of beat transfer between the solid and liquid phases to be sufficiently large that their two distinct temperatures rapidly equilibrated to a single temperature. In addition to this case, we also consider the case when the rate of heat transfer is not so large and the model involves the separate temperatures of the solid and liquid phases. We find that multiplicity of traveling wave structures is possible. In particular, in addition to a low velocity structure, which is essentially the same as that obtained from the one temperature description, we find a high velocity structure, which does not exist in the one temperature description, but rather depends on the fact that the solid and fluid temperatures differ from each other. Both structures can exist for the same parameter values in a given range. We describe the dependence of the combustion characteristics of the two structures on gravitational forces and other factors. In particular, we compare the characteristics in gravity and microgravity environments.
Gravitational field around a screwed superconducting cosmic string in scalar-tensor theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Ferreira, C. N.
2002-04-01
We obtain the solution that corresponds to a screwed superconducting, bosonic cosmic string (SSCS) in the framework of a general scalar-tensor theory including torsion, using the weak field approximation. We investigate the metric of the SSCS in Brans-Dicke theory with torsion and analyze the case without torsion. We show that in the case with torsion the space-time background presents other properties different from those in which torsion is absent. When the spin vanishes, this torsion is a ? gradient and then it propagates outside of the string. We investigate the effect of torsion on the gravitational force and on the geodesics of a test particle moving around the SSCS. The accretion of matter by wakes formation when a SSCS moves with a speed v is investigated. We compare our results with those obtained for cosmic strings in the framework of scalar-tensor theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leauthaud, Alexie; J. Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca; L. Coil, Alison; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason
2015-01-01
Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter haloes in which they reside is key to constraining how black hole fuelling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modelling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to the fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies, irrespective of nuclear activity. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z < 1 from the COSMOS field, we report the first measurements of weak gravitational lensing from an X-ray-selected sample. Comparing this signal to predictions from the global SHMR, we find that, contrary to previous results, most X-ray AGN do not live in medium size groups - nearly half reside in relatively low mass haloes with M200b 1012.5 M?. The AGN occupation function is well described by the same form derived for all galaxies but with a lower normalization - the fraction of haloes with AGN in our sample is a few per cent. The number of AGN satellite galaxies scales as a power law with host halo mass with a power-law index ? = 1. By highlighting the relatively `normal' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy haloes, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fuelling modes for luminous quasars compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.
Gravitational waves from neutron stars with large toroidal B fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutler, Curt
2002-10-01
We show that NS's with large toroidal B fields tend naturally to evolve into potent gravitational-wave (GW) emitters. The toroidal field Bt tends to distort the NS into a prolate shape, and this magnetic distortion dominates over the oblateness ``frozen into'' the NS crust for Bt>~3.4×1012 G (?s/300 Hz)2. An elastic NS with frozen-in B field of this magnitude is clearly secularly unstable: the wobble angle between the NS's angular momentum Ji and the star's magnetic axis niB grows on a dissipation time scale until Ji and niB are orthogonal. This final orientation is clearly the optimal one for GW emission. The basic cause of the instability is quite general, so we conjecture that the same final state is reached for a realistic NS, with superfluid core. Assuming this, we show that for LMXB's with Bt~2×1012-2×1014 G, the spindown from GW's is sufficient to balance the accretion torque-supporting a suggestion by Bildsten. The spindown rates of most millisecond pulsars can also be attributed to GW emission sourced by toroidal B fields, and both these sources could be observed by LIGO II. While the first-year spindown of a newborn NS is most likely dominated by electromagnetic processes, reasonable values of Bt and the (external) dipolar field Bd can lead to detectable levels of GW emission, for a newborn NS in our own Galaxy.
Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-04-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion
A. N. Ivanov; M. Wellenzohn
2015-04-22
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. (Phys. Rev. D79, 044028 (2009)), A.-Ch. Davis et al. (Phys. Rev. D80, 064016 (2009), and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Constants of motion in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, C.
2014-07-01
The motion of test particles in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields is generally non-integrable unless a non-trivial constant of motion, in addition to energy and angular momentum along the symmetry axis, exists. The Carter constant in Kerr-de Sitter space-time is the only example known to date. Proposed astrophysical tests of the black hole no-hair theorem have often involved integrable gravitational fields more general than the Kerr family, but the existence of such fields has been a matter of debate. To elucidate this problem, we treat its Newtonian analogue by systematically searching for non-trivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta and obtain two theorems. First, solving a set of quadratic integrability conditions, we establish the existence and uniqueness of the family of stationary axisymmetric potentials admitting a quadratic constant. As in Kerr-de Sitter space-time, the mass moments of this class satisfy a `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +2 = a2M2l, and the constant is Noether related to a second-order Killing-Stäckel tensor. Second, solving a new set of quartic integrability conditions, we establish non-existence of quartic constants. Remarkably, a subset of these conditions is satisfied when the mass moments obey a generalized `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +4 = (a2 + b2)M2l +2 - a2b2M2l. The full set of quartic integrability conditions, however, cannot be satisfied non-trivially by any stationary axisymmetric vacuum potential.
Shape and gravitational field of the ellipsoidal satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, BuXi; Huang, Yong
2014-10-01
The shape and gravitational field of ellipsoidal satellites are studied by using the tidal theory. For ellipsoidal satellites, the following conclusions were obtained: Firstly, in the early stage of the satellite formation, strong tidal friction allowed the satellites move in a synchronous orbit and evolve into a triaxial ellipsoidal shape. Because the tidal potential from the associated primary and the centrifugal potential from the satellite spin are nearly fixed at the surface, the early satellites are the viscoelastic celestial body, and their surfaces are nearly in the hydrostatic equilibrium state. The deformation is fixed in the surface of the satellite. By using the related parameters of primary and satellite, the tidal height and the theoretical lengths of three primary radii of the ellipsoidal satellite are calculated. Secondly, the current ellipsoidal satellites nearly maintain their ellipsoidal shape from solidification, which happened a few billion years ago. According to the satellite shape, we estimated the orbital period and spinning angular velocity, and then determined the evolution of the orbit. Lastly, assuming an ellipsoidal satellite originated in the hydrostatic equilibrium state, the surface shape could be determined by tidal, rotation, and additional potentials. However, the shape of the satellite's geoid differs from its surface shape. The relationship between these shapes is discussed and a formula for the gravitational harmonic coefficients is presented.
[Two-phase Interfaces in Weak External Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Percus, J. K.
1996-01-01
Our aim has been that of understanding from first principles the behavior of two-phase interfaces in the absence of gravitational constraints. This is fundamental to our ability to deal with the fluid structures that abound in the real biological, chemical, and physical world. A substantial effort was mounted to determine how familiar hydrodynamic concepts have to be modified and interpreted to make them appropriate to the multi-level structure alluded to above. This was primarily in the context of the microscopic symmetric pressure tensor, which was, for the first time, expressed in the invaluable density functional format, and the used to follow the predictions of popular microscopic models of the energetics of interfacial systems. In the course of these investigations, the previous murky relation between pressure tensor and thermodynamics was completely clarified. The process of extending thermodynamic information to interfacial dynamics was initiated along two paths. One was from the viewpoint of an inertialess lattice gas, resulting in the surprising conclusion that at this level, all transport is governed by precisely the thermodynamic free energy, albeit with a non-trivial effective particle mobility. The other aimed at understanding the fashion in which slow macroscopic motions, accounted for by a time-varying microscopic energy, generate effective hydrodynamic parameters. By examining a solvable model system, it was found that all current procedures for doing so are deficient, and suitable alleviation suggested. The major effect of this project was to set the stage for the analysis of the substantial dynamical regimes in which extensive equilibrium information provides the dominant background. This produces a smooth junction to the models of Araki and Munakata, Giacomin and Lebowitz, and Oxtoby. It is also crucial to our understanding of the complex interfacial equilibrium configurations required for intermediate stages of two-phase separation, for which the "phase-field" techniques we have been developing are uniquely effective. And it puts us within striking range of the physical experiments that can provide incisive tests of the theoretical framework.
Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational self-forces in weakly curved spacetimes
Michael J. Pfenning; Eric Poisson
2002-01-01
We calculate the self-force experienced by a point scalar charge q, a point electric charge e, and a point mass m moving in a weakly curved spacetime characterized by a time-independent Newtonian potential Phi. We assume that the matter distribution responsible for this potential is bounded, so that Phi~-M\\/r at large distances r from the matter, whose total mass is
Roald Sosnovskiy
2009-01-16
The cause of an infringement in GR of a gravitational field energy conservation law is investigated . The equation of a gravitational field not contradicting to the energy conservation law is suggested. This equation satisfy to the Einstein,s requirement of equivalence of all energy kinds as sources of a gravitational field. This equation is solved in paper for cosmic objects. It is showed, that results for some objects - for black holes and gravitating strings-essentialy differ from such for Einstein,s equation, have the symple meaning and do not contradictions.
A rotating and magnetized three-dimensional hot plasma equilibrium in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catto, Peter J.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.
2015-06-01
A rotating and magnetized three-dimensional axisymmetric equilibrium for hot plasma confined by a gravitational field is found. The plasma density and current can exhibit strong equatorial plane localization, resulting in disk equilibria with open magnetic field lines. The associated equatorial plane pinching results in magnetic field flaring, implying a strong gravitational squeezing of the plasma carrying ambient magnetic field lines toward the gravitational source. At high plasma pressure, the magnetic field becomes strongly radial outside the disk. The model predicts the rotation frequency bound, the condition for a plasma disk, and the requirement for strong magnetic field flaring.
Probing Strong Gravitational Fields in X-ray Novae
Jeffrey E. McClintock
1998-02-06
Most X-ray novae (aka soft X-ray transients) contain black hole primaries. In particular, the large mass functions measured for six X-ray novae directly clinch the argument (within general relativity) that they contain black holes. These firm dynamical results are discussed, and the urgent need to determine precise masses for black holes is stressed. The dynamical evidence for black holes is convincing but it is indirect. Now it appears that direct evidence may be at hand. Three recent studies have revealed phenomena that very likely probe strong gravitational fields: (1) a comparison of the luminosities of black hole systems and neutron star systems has yielded compelling evidence for the existence of event horizons; (2) RXTE observations of fast, stable QPOs have probed the very inner accretion disks of two black holes; and (3) three different types of low energy spectra have been linked to different black-hole spin states (e.g. Kerr vs. Schwarzschild).
CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS
Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Karas, V., E-mail: petr.slany@fpf.slu.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II, Prague CZ-141 31 (Czech Republic)
2013-03-01
A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.
Fangyu Li; Jun Luo; Mengxi Tang
1994-01-01
Perturbed effect of high-frequency gravitational radiation produced by microwave electromagnetic (EM) cavity on static detecting EM field is investigated, and corresponding perturbation solutions have been given. It is found that the gravitational wave (GW) beam propagating along symmetric axis of the cavity is purely +type polarized in transverse traceless coordinate system, and it can make the static EM field generate
Gravitational spectra from direct measurements. [of surface field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.
1979-01-01
A simple rapid method is described for determining the spectrum of a surface field (in spherical harmonics) from harmonic analysis of direct (in situ) measurements along great circle arcs. The method is shown to give excellent overall trends (smoothed spectra) to very high degree from even a few short arcs of satellite data. Three examples are taken with perfect measurements of satellite tracking over a planet made up of hundreds of point masses using (1) altimetric heights from a low-orbiting spacecraft, (2) velocity (range rate) residuals between a low and a high satellite in circular orbits, and (3) range rate data between a station at infinity and a satellite in a highly eccentric orbit. In particular, the smoothed spectrum of the earth's gravitational field is determined to about degree 400(50-km half wavelength) from 1 x 1 deg gravimetry and the equivalent of 11 revolutions of GEOS 3 and Skylab altimetry. This measurement shows that there is about 46 cm of geoid height (rms worldwide) remaining in the field beyond degree 180.
Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness
Helled, Ravit; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-01-01
The alignment of Saturn's magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10h 39m 22.4s. When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10h 47m 6s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn's measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn's rotation period is thought to be between 10h 32m and 10h 47m, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10h 32m 45s +- 46s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn's measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the co...
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boynton, Paul; Moore, Michael; Newman, Riley; Berg, Eric; Bonicalzi, Ricco; McKenney, Keven
2014-06-01
Empirical tests of Einstein's metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton's theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under "classical" conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Baryon masses in the three-state Potts field theory in a weak magnetic field
Rutkevich, S B
2014-01-01
The 3-state Potts field theory describes the scaling limit of the 3-state Potts model on the two-dimensional lattice near its continuous phase transition point. In the presence of thermal and magnetic field perturbations, the 3-state Potts field theory in the ordered phase exhibits confinement of kinks, which allows both mesons and baryons. We calculate the masses of light baryons in this model in the weak confinement regime in leading order of the small magnetic field. In leading order of perturbation theory, the light baryons can be viewed as bound states of three quantum particles - the kinks, which move on a line and interact via a linear potential. We determine the masses of the lightest baryons by numerical solution of the associated non-relativistic one-dimensional quantum three-body problem.
Influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction
Forsberg, M.; Brodin, G. [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Papadopoulos, D. [Department of Physics, Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)
2010-07-15
The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the QED effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered due to the QED effects. The consequences of our results are discussed.
The influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction
Mats Forsberg; Demetrios Papadopoulos; Gert Brodin
2010-05-28
The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered due to the QED effects. The consequences of our results are discussed.
The HST Frontier Fields: Gravitational Lensing Models Release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coe, Dan A.; Lotz, J.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Zitrin, A.; Kneib, J.; Ebeling, H.; Sharon, K.; Johnson, T.; Limousin, M.; Bradac, M.; Hoag, A.; Cain, B.; Merten, J.; Williams, L. L.; Sebesta, K.; Meneghetti, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Barker, E. A.
2014-01-01
The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) is a Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) program to deeply observe up to six massive strong-lensing galaxy clusters and six "blank" fields in parallel. These complementary observations will yield magnified and direct images of some of the most distant galaxies yet observed. The strongly lensed images will be our deepest views of our universe to date. Interpretation of some (but not all) observed properties of the strongly lensed galaxies requires gravitational lens modeling. In order to maximize the value of this public dataset to the extragalactic community, STScI commissioned five teams funded by NASA to derive the best possible lens models from existing data. After coordinating to share observational constraints, including measured redshifts of strongly lensed galaxies, the teams independently derived lens models using robust, established methodologies. STScI released these models to the community in October before HFF observations of the first cluster, Abell 2744. Here we describe these models as well as a web tool which allows users to extract magnification estimates with uncertainties from all models for any galaxy strongly lensed by a HFF cluster. Inputs are the galaxy's coordinates (RA and Dec), redshift, and (optionally) observed radius. We also discuss ongoing work to study lens model uncertainties by modeling simulated clusters.
Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretorius, Frans
We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string theory and loop quantum gravity, and (2) that although CSMG is consistent with all present day tests of GR, it still allows for significant, near-horizon deformations in the geometry of rotating (Kerr) black holes. Here is a brief list of the steps and research methodology we will employ:?(i) Obtain the equivalent of the full Kerr solution in CSMG using numerical methods. (ii) Explore the structure of GWs emitted by EMRIs about the CS rotating black hole solution. Given simulated LISA noise curves, we can then address the questions posed above within the context of CSMG. (iii) Simulate the latter stages of comparable mass SMBH binary mergers in CSMG by numerically solving the full CSMG field equations to learn about highly dynamical, non- linear GR deformations. We can then repeat the analysis of (ii). (iv) Study whether CSMG GWs fit in the recently proposed parameterized post- Einsteinian (ppE) framework, to study generic deviations from GR in a statistical fashion. One can then repeat the analysis of (ii) but within the ppE scheme. We believe this proposed work is of significance and import to both the objectives of this solicitation, and the interests of NASA---knowing the nature of strong-field gravity will be one of the keys to unraveling the origin of the universe, and will tell us how black holes behave and interact with their environs, the details of which are important in understanding the formation and evolution of structure in the universe. Furthermore, these questions are best suited to be answered by LISA, a planned joint NASA-ESA mission. The ultimate success of LISA is very much dependent on (amongst other things) how well the community understands the complete nature of gravitational wave sources.
Inner-shell photoionization in weak and strong radiation fields
S. H. Southworth; R. W. Dunford; D. L. Ederer; E. P. Kanter; B. Krässig; L. Young
2004-01-01
The X-ray beams presently produced at synchrotron-radiation facilities interact weakly with matter, and the observation of double photoionization is due to electron-electron interactions. The intensities of future X-ray free-electron lasers are expected to produce double photoionization by absorption of two photons. The example of double K-shell photoionization of neon is discussed in the one- and two-photon cases. We also describe
Inner-shell photoionization in weak and strong radiation fields
S. H. Southworth; R. W. Dunford; D. L. Ederer; E. P. Kanter; B. Krässig; L. Young
2004-01-01
The X-ray beams presently produced at synchrotron-radiation facilities interact weakly with matter, and the observation of double photoionization is due to electronelectron interactions. The intensities of future X-ray free-electron lasers are expected to produce double photoionization by absorption of two photons. The example of double K-shell photoionization of neon is discussed in the one- and two-photon cases. We also describe
Polarization and trapping of weakly bound atoms in penning trap fields.
Kuzmin, S G; O'Neil, T M
2004-06-18
The ATHENA and ATRAP groups at CERN recently reported the production of weakly bound antihydrogen atoms in a non-neutral positron-antiproton plasma. This Letter derives an equation of motion for weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic fields of the plasma and trap. The atoms are polarized by the electric field and can be trapped radially in the edge region of the plasma where the electric field is maximum. PMID:15245082
Effect of magnetic field on Jeans instability of self gravitating strongly coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chhajlani, R. K.; Sharma, Prerana
2014-09-01
The effect of the magnetic field on the Jeans instability of self-gravitating strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated. The medium consists of extremely massive, negatively charged strongly correlated dust grains and weakly correlated Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions. The basic equations of the problem are constructed using generalized hydrodynamic model. In deriving dispersion relation the plane wave solutions are used on the linearized perturbation equations. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory. The dispersion relation is found to be affected due to the presence of viscoelastic effects and magnetic field. The dispersion relation is further reduced for hydrodynamic and kinetic regime of propagation. The condition of Jeans instability is also obtained for both the regimes of propagation. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of magnetic field and time relaxation parameter which is found to have stabilizing influence on growth rate of Jeans instability in strongly coupled dusty plasma. The condition of Jeans instability are compared in kinetic and hydrodynamic regime.
Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Massey, Richard J. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kitching, Thomas D. [Institute for Astronomy, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, 13013 Marseille (France); Jullo, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M., E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2012-04-20
Gravitational lensing can provide pure geometric tests of the structure of spacetime, for instance by determining empirically the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. This geometric test has been demonstrated several times using massive clusters which produce a large lensing signal. In this case, matter at a single redshift dominates the lensing signal, so the analysis is straightforward. It is less clear how weaker signals from multiple sources at different redshifts can be stacked to demonstrate the geometric dependence. We introduce a simple measure of relative shear which for flat cosmologies separates the effect of lens and source positions into multiplicative terms, allowing signals from many different source-lens pairs to be combined. Applying this technique to a sample of groups and low-mass clusters in the COSMOS survey, we detect a clear variation of shear with distance behind the lens. This represents the first detection of the geometric effect using weak lensing by multiple, low-mass groups. The variation of distance with redshift is measured with sufficient precision to constrain the equation of state of the universe under the assumption of flatness, equivalent to a detection of a dark energy component {Omega}{sub X} at greater than 99% confidence for an equation-of-state parameter -2.5 {<=} w {<=} -0.1. For the case w = -1, we find a value for the cosmological constant density parameter {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.85{sup +0.044}{sub -}0{sub .19} (68% CL) and detect cosmic acceleration (q{sub 0} < 0) at the 98% CL. We consider the systematic uncertainties associated with this technique and discuss the prospects for applying it in forthcoming weak-lensing surveys.
Revealing Saturn's Rotation Period from its Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-04-01
Knowledge of the rotation period of a giant planet is fundamental for constraining its internal structure and atmosphere dynamics. Until the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn, Saturn's rotation period was set to the Voyager 2 radio period, 10h 39m 22.4s that was derived from the periodicity in Saturn's kilometric radiation (SKR). Surprisingly, Cassini's SKR measured a rotation period of 10h 47m 6s using the exact same method. It was then realized that Saturn's rotation period is unknown to within a few minutes. We show that Saturn's rotation period can be determined from its measured gravitational field. We find that without imposing any constraints on the planetary shape and internal density profile the rotation rate can be determined to within several minutes, and is 10h 43m 10s ą 4m. If we include limits based on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles, the rotation period is found to be 10h 32m 45s ą 46s. The success of our method is confirmed by applying it for Jupiter and reproducing exactly its measured rotation period that is well constrained.
Improved Gravitation Field Algorithm and Its Application in Hierarchical Clustering
Zheng, Ming; Sun, Ying; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Background Gravitation field algorithm (GFA) is a new optimization algorithm which is based on an imitation of natural phenomena. GFA can do well both for searching global minimum and multi-minima in computational biology. But GFA needs to be improved for increasing efficiency, and modified for applying to some discrete data problems in system biology. Method An improved GFA called IGFA was proposed in this paper. Two parts were improved in IGFA. The first one is the rule of random division, which is a reasonable strategy and makes running time shorter. The other one is rotation factor, which can improve the accuracy of IGFA. And to apply IGFA to the hierarchical clustering, the initial part and the movement operator were modified. Results Two kinds of experiments were used to test IGFA. And IGFA was applied to hierarchical clustering. The global minimum experiment was used with IGFA, GFA, GA (genetic algorithm) and SA (simulated annealing). Multi-minima experiment was used with IGFA and GFA. The two experiments results were compared with each other and proved the efficiency of IGFA. IGFA is better than GFA both in accuracy and running time. For the hierarchical clustering, IGFA is used to optimize the smallest distance of genes pairs, and the results were compared with GA and SA, singular-linkage clustering, UPGMA. The efficiency of IGFA is proved. PMID:23173043
Do the Constants of Nature Couple to Strong Gravitational Fields?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preval, Simon P.; Barstow, Martin A.; Holberg, Jay B.; Barrow, John; Berengut, Julian; Webb, John; Dougan, Darren; Hu, Jiting
2015-06-01
Recently, white dwarf stars have found a new use in the fundamental physics community. Many prospective theories of the fundamental interactions of Nature allow traditional constants, like the fine structure constant ?, to vary in some way. A study by Berengut et al. (2013) used the Fe/Ni v line measurements made by Preval et al. (2013) from the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, in an attempt to detect any variation in ?. It was found that the Fe v lines indicated an increasing alpha, whereas the Ni v lines indicated a decreasing alpha. Possible explanations for this could be misidentification of the lines, inaccurate atomic data, or wavelength dependent distortion in the spectrum. We examine the first two cases by using a high S/N reference spectrum from the hot sdO BD+28°4211 to calibrate the Fe/Ni v atomic data. With this new data, we re-evaluate the work of Berengut et al. (2013) to derive a new constraint on the variation of alpha in a gravitational field.
Gravitational field models for the earth (GEM 1 and 2)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Andson, M. L.; Brownd, J. E.; Richardson, J. A.
1972-01-01
Two models of the earth's gravitational field have been computed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The first, Goddard Earth Model 1 (GEM 1), has been derived from satellite tracking data. The second, Goddard Earth Model 2 (GEM 2), has been derived from a combination of satellite tracking and surface gravimetric data. The geopotential models are represented in spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 16 for the combined solution and complete to degree and order 12 for the satellite solution. Both solutions include zonal terms to degree 21 and related satellite resonant coefficients to degree 22. The satellite data consisted primarily of optical data processed on 300 weekly orbital arcs for 25 close earth satellites. Surface gravity data were employed in the form of 5 deg x 5 deg mean free-air gravity anomalies providing about 70% world coverage. Station locations were obtained for 46 tracking sites by combining electronic, laser, and additional optical tracking data with the above satellite data. Analysis of the radial positions of these stations and a value of mean gravity on the geoid indicated a mean equatorial radius for the earth of about 6378145 meters. Results of geopotential tests on satellite data not used in the solution show that better agreement was obtained with the GEM 1 and GEM 2 models than with the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth 2 model.
Chiral imprint of a cosmic gauge field on primordial gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R.
2015-06-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left or right circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Bifurcation and fine structure phenomena in critical collapse of a self-gravitating $\\sigma$-field
Aichelburg, P C; Tabor, Z; Aichelburg, Peter C.; Bizon, Piotr; Tabor, Zbislaw
2006-01-01
Building on previous work on the critical behavior in gravitational collapse of the self-gravitating SU(2) $\\sigma$-field and using high precision numerical methods we uncover a fine structure hidden in a narrow window of parameter space. We argue that this numerical finding has a natural explanation within a dynamical system framework of critical collapse.
Self-adjoint wave equations for dynamical perturbations of self-gravitating fields
O. Sarbach; M. Heusler; O. Brodbeck
2000-10-19
It is shown that the dynamical evolution of linear perturbations on a static space-time is governed by a constrained wave equation for the extrinsic curvature tensor. The spatial part of the wave operator is manifestly elliptic and self-adjoint. In contrast to metric formulations, the curvature-based approach to gravitational perturbation theory generalizes in a natural way to self-gravitating matter fields. It is also demonstrated how to obtain symmetric pulsation equations for self-gravitating non-Abelian gauge fields, Higgs fields and perfect fluids. For vacuum fluctuations on a vacuum space-time, the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations are rederived.
On Axionic Field Ranges, Loopholes and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Brown, Jon; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo
2015-01-01
In this short note we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. We address in particular certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work (arXiv:1503.04783). We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. These new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.
Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.
Rothmayer, A P
2014-07-28
Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large. PMID:24936018
Weak-field quantum Hall transition: microscopic verification
Vagharsh Mkhitaryan; Victor Kagalovsky; Mikhail Raikh
2010-01-01
Levitation scenario: the higher is the Fermi level the lower is the magnetic field at which transition into sigmaxy=1 quantum Hall phase takes place, was put forward by Khmelnitskii more than 25 years ago. It was based on field-theoretical arguments. While zero-field complete localization of 2D electron states even at high energies was confirmed by numerical treatment of the Anderson
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
Dufaux, Jean-Francois [APC, UMR 7164 (CNRS-Universite Paris 7), 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Figueroa, Daniel G. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)
2010-10-15
Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves
G. Voyatzis; L. Vlahos; S. Ichtiaroglou; D. Papadopoulos
2005-12-07
The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.
Invariant dynamics of scalar perturbations of inflanton and gravitational fields
O. Lalakulich; L. Marochnik; G. Vereshkov
2001-03-28
A gauge-independent, invariant theory of linear scalar perturbations of inflation and gravitational fields has been created. This invariant theory allows one to compare gauges used in the work of other researchers and to find the unambiguous criteria to separate the physical and coordinate effects. It is shown, in particular, that the so-called longitudial gauge, commonly used when considering inflation instability, leads to a fundamental overestimation of the effect because of non-physical perturbations of the proper time in the frame of reference specified by this gauge. Back reaction theories employing this sort of gauge [1] also involve coordinate effects. The invariant theory created here shows that the classical Lifshitz (1946) [2] gauge does not lead to non-physical perturbations of the proper time and can be used to analyze the inflation regime and the back reaction of perturbations on this regime properly. The first theory of back reaction on background of all types of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) based on this gauge was published in 1975 [3] and has been applied recently to the inflation [4]. The investigation of long-length perturbations, which characterize the stability of the inflationary process, and quantum fluctuations, which form the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum at the end of inflation, is performed in the invariant form. The invariant theory proposed allows one to examine the effect of quantum fluctuations on the inflationary stage when the periodic regime changes to an aperiodic one. That only the invariant theory must be used to analyze space experiments is one of the conclusions of the present work.
Streamer Initiation from Hydrometeors in Weak Thundercloud Electric Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadighi, S.; Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.
2011-12-01
How atmospheric lightning initiates in thunderclouds has been a scientific puzzle for decades. One theory of air electrical breakdown that has been applied to explaining the initiation of lightning discharges is the conventional breakdown theory [e.g., MacGorman and Rust, p. 86, 1998; Rakov and Uman, p. 121, 2003]. A critical component of this theory is to demonstrate that streamers are able to form and propagate in the field with a magnitude similar to the observed thundercloud electric fields. The observed maximum value of this field varies from 0.13-0.3E_k [Stolzenburg et al., 2007], where E_k is the conventional breakdown threshold field. This value fails to provide a sufficient condition for the initiation of electron avalanches and then the electrical breakdown process. To overcome this obstacle, the theory of streamer initiation from thundercloud hydrometeors (water drops, ice crystals, etc.) was brought forward [e.g., Dawson, JGR, 74 (28), 6859, 1969; Griffiths and Latham, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 100, 163, 1974; Griffiths and Phelps, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 102, 4019, 1976]. Hydrometeors are abundant in thunderclouds and they can cause significant field enhancement in their vicinity. For this study, the streamer discharge model reported by Liu and Pasko [JGR, 109, A04301, 2004] is utilized and modified to investigate whether streamers can successfully originate from isolated hydrometeors in the thundercloud electric field. The thundercloud hydrometeors are modeled using a neutral plasma column. Our simulation results show successful formation of streamers from model hydrometeors in a uniform applied electric field below the conventional breakdown threshold field. We report detailed modeling results at thundercloud altitude for the applied electric fields close to the observed maximum thundercloud field. It is demonstrated that the dimensions, i.e., length and radius, of the plasma column have a critical effect on the initiation of streamers. The results also show that at lower applied electric fields for certain initial conditions, branching structures easily appear at the tip of the hydrometeor. To reduce the effects of branching, we investigate the possibility of using other geometries, specifically an ellipsoid, for the initial ionization column. So far, the minimum electric field value required for the stable formation of streamers from hydrometeors without the occurrence of branching structures has been observed to be 0.3E_k at 7 km from our modeling results.
Gravitational Fields with Sources, Regular Black Holes, Quasiblack Holes, and Analogue Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Pani, Paolo
2015-01-01
We discuss recent developments in gravitational fields with sources, regular black holes, quasiblack holes, and analogue black holes, related to the talks presented at the corresponding Parallel Session AT3 of the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting.
Resting potential of excitable neuroblastoma cells in weak magnetic fields
H. Sonnier; O. V. Kolomytkin
2000-01-01
The mechanism by which static and low-frequency magnetic fields are transduced into biological signals responsible for reported effects on brain electrical activity is not yet ascertained. To test the hypothesis that fields can cause a subthreshold change in the resting membrane potential of excitable cells, we measured changes in transmembrane current under voltage clamp produced in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, using
Numerical simulation of inviscid bubble dynamics in a centrally symmetric gravitational field
A. V. Vishnevskii; A. M. Oparin; N. N. Fimin; V. M. Chechetkin
2011-01-01
The motion of bubbles in a centrally symmetric gravitational field is numerically simulated using two-dimensional conservation\\u000a laws (Euler equations). The dynamics of bubbles with various numbers of modes in the initial perturbation are studied. The\\u000a numerical results reveal features that are substantially different from the plane case in a homogeneous gravitational field.\\u000a Bubble perturbations nearly do not interact at the
$\\mathrm H_2^+$ in a weak magnetic field
Héctor Medel Cobaxin; Alexander Alijah; Juan Carlos López Vieyra; Alexander V. Turbiner
2014-09-22
The electronic energy of $\\mathrm H_2^+$ in magnetic fields of up to $B=0.2B_0$ (or 4.7 $\\times 10^4$ Tesla) is investigated. Numerical values of the magnetic susceptibility for both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions are reported for arbitrary orientations of the molecule in the magnetic field. It is shown that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibilities grow with inclination, while paramagnetic susceptibility is systematically much smaller than the diamagnetic one. Accurate two-dimensional Born-Oppenheimer surfaces are obtained with special trial functions. Using these surfaces, vibrational and rotational states are computed and analysed for the isotopologues $\\mathrm H_2^+$ and $\\mathrm D_2^+$.
Computable Fields and Weak Truth-Table Reducibility
Rebecca M. Steiner
2010-01-01
For a computable field F, the splitting set S F of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which factor over F, and the root set R F of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which have a root in F.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The
Computable Fields and Weak Truth-Table Reducibility
Rebecca M. Steiner
2010-01-01
\\u000a For a computable field F, the splitting set\\u000a S\\u000a \\u000a F\\u000a of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which factor over F, and the root set\\u000a R\\u000a \\u000a F\\u000a of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which have a root in F.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results of Frohlich and Shepherdson in [3] imply that for a computable
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.
1980-01-01
Exact analytic solutions are presented for equilibrium states of a self-gravitating one-dimensional cloud of gas, embedded in an external gravitational field due to a plane of 'stars' being heated at a rate proportional to the local gas density, and cooling by thermal conduction. It is found that the general topology of the solutions is such that the gas density has a minimum on the plane of 'stars', rising to an infinite but integrable peak away from the plane so that the total mass of gas in the cloud is finite. The results may be of interest in investigations of interstellar molecular clouds and of filamentary structures in supernova remnants as well as in the modeling of gas distributions around 'cocoon' protostars.
Ion Collection from Photoionized Plasma with a Wire Electrode in a Weak Magnetic Field
Hajime Adachi; Koji Tamura; Koichi Ogura; Takemasa Shibata
1999-01-01
Ions were collected on electrodes from photoionized plasma witha wire electrode in a weak magnetic field. It was shown that ioncollection time using a wire electrode was hardly affected by magneticfields of up to 150 G. This method was effective even in the presenceof a magnetic field.
Chopping of a weak magnetic field by a saturable magnetic shield
Laurent Chiesi; Karim Haroud; John A Flanagan; Rade S Popovic
1997-01-01
A method for measuring a weak magnetic field with a Hall sensor is described. This method consists of chopping the magnetic field to be measured with a magnetic shield surrounding the Hall sensor. The magnetic shield is periodically driven into saturation by means of an excitation coil. Thus, the Hall device is alternately exposed to\\/shielded from the d.c. or slowly
Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields
Joseph L. Kirschvink; Atsuko Kobayashi-Kirschvink; Juan C. Diaz-Ricci; Steven J. Kirschvink
1992-01-01
Due to the apparent lack of a biophysical mechanism, the question of whether weak, low-frequency magnetic fields are able to influence living organisms has long been one of the most controversial subjects in any field of science. However, two developments during the past decade have changed this perception dramatically, the first being the discovery that many organisms, including humans, biochemically
Attempt at demonstrating the effect of a weak magnetic field on Taraxacum officinale
Josef Novák; Ladislav Válek
1965-01-01
The exposure ofTaraxacum officinale L. at flowering time to a weak magnetic field resulted in (1) retarded opening and the closing of the inflorescence, (2)\\u000a wilting and death after prolonged exposure. Controls were unchanged. Plants exposed to the effect of magnetic fields were\\u000a degenerated in subsequent year.
Alexander D. Dymnikov
2012-11-19
During the last century the tensor theory of the gravitational field was developed. We propose and develop the novel, pure mathematical, matrix theory of the field in n-dimensional metric space. The definition of the mathematical field matrix and the equations of motion of the mathematical point are given. The interpretation of the nature of the mathematical field and the mathematical points can be different and depends on our knowledge of the nature. It is shown that the equations of motion are different for symmetric and antisymmetric field matrices. In the matrix field theory the equations of the field are rigorously derived. This theory reveals that in the 4-dimensional metric space the field matrix is the electromagnetic-gravitational field matrix, where the antisymmetric part is the matrix of electromagnetic field and the symmetric part is the gravitational field matrix. The partial cases of this matrix are electric-gravitational, magnetic-gravitational and gravitational field matrices. It is shown that the elements of all obtained matrices are the Christoffel symbols of the first and the second order or their derivatives.
Gravitational waves from the evolution of magnetic field after electroweak epoch
Oleksandr Tomalak; Yuri Shtanov
2014-09-17
It was recently demonstrated that the evolution of helical magnetic field in the primordial plasma at temperatures $T\\gtrsim10$ MeV is affected by the phenomenon of chiral quantum anomaly in the electroweak model, leading to a possibility of self-sustained existence of magnetic field and chiral asymmetry in the electronic distribution. This may serve as a mechanism for generating primordial magnetic field in the early universe. Violent magnetic-field generation may lead to production of gravitational waves which, regardless of the fate of magnetic field itself, survive until today. We estimate the threshold value of the initial chiral asymmetry above which the generated gravitational waves would affect the big-bang nucleosynthesis and would show up in the current and future experiments on gravitational-wave detection.
Polarization and Trapping of Weakly Bound Atoms in Penning Trap Fields S. G. Kuzmin and T. M. O'Neil
California at San Diego, University of
Polarization and Trapping of Weakly Bound Atoms in Penning Trap Fields S. G. Kuzmin and T. M. O of weakly bound antihydrogen atoms in a non-neutral positron-antiproton plasma. This Letter derives an equation of motion for weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic fields of the plasma and trap
Mean-field universality class induced by weak hyperbolic curvatures.
Gendiar, Andrej; Danika, Michal; Kr?már, Roman; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2014-07-01
Order-disorder phase transition of the ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on a series of two-dimensional lattices that have negative Gaussian curvatures. Exceptional lattice sites of coordination number seven are distributed on the triangular lattice, where the typical distance between the nearest exceptional sites is proportional to an integer parameter n. Thus, the corresponding curvature is asymptotically proportional to -n(-2). Spontaneous magnetization and specific heat are calculated by means of the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. For all the finite n cases, we observe the mean-field-like phase transition. It is confirmed that the entanglement entropy at the transition temperature is linear in (c/6)ln n, where c = 1/2 is the central charge of the Ising model. The fact agrees with the presence of the typical length scale n being proportional to the curvature radius. PMID:25122266
Impurity-Assisted Tunneling Magnetoresistance under a Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Txoperena, Oihana; Song, Yang; Qing, Lan; Gobbi, Marco; Hueso, Luis E.; Dery, Hanan; Casanova, Fčlix
2014-10-01
Injection of spins into semiconductors is essential for the integration of the spin functionality into conventional electronics. Insulating layers are often inserted between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors for obtaining an efficient spin injection, and it is therefore crucial to distinguish between signatures of electrical spin injection and impurity-driven effects in the tunnel barrier. Here we demonstrate an impurity-assisted tunneling magnetoresistance effect in nonmagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic tunnel barriers. In both cases, the effect reflects on-off switching of the tunneling current through impurity channels by the external magnetic field. The reported effect is universal for any impurity-assisted tunneling process and provides an alternative interpretation to a widely used technique that employs the same ferromagnetic electrode to inject and detect spin accumulation.
Ning Wu; Dahua Zhang
2005-08-01
A systematic method is developed to study classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, the formulation of gauge theory of gravity in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates is given. Then in spherical coordinates system, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the Schwarzschild solution. In gauge theory of gravity, the equation of motion of a classical mass point in gravitational gauge field is given by Newton's second law of motion. A relativistic form of the gravitational force on a mass point is deduced in this paper. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and Newton's second law of motion, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity. From the study in this paper, an important qualitative conclusion on the nature of gravity is that gravity can be treated as a kind of physical interactions in flat Minkowski space-time, and the equation of motion of mass point in gravitational field can be given by Newton's second law of motion.
The stress-energy tensor of matter as a gravitational field source
A. A. Logunov; M. A. Mestvirishvili
1997-01-01
This article discusses the hypothesis that the universally conserved stress-energy tensor of matter is the source of the gravitational\\u000a field. From this hypothesis, it immediately follows that space-time must be Riemannian. In contrast to the general theory\\u000a of relativity, in the gravitational theory based on this hypothesis, the concept of an inertial coordinate system, acceleration\\u000a relative to space, and the
Fang-Pei Chen
2000-01-01
The debate on conservation laws in general relativity eighty years ago is reviewed and restudied. The physical meaning of the identities in the conservation laws for matter plus gravitational field is reexamined and new interpretations for gravitational wave are given. The conclusions of these studies are distinct from the prevalent views, it can be demonstrated that gravitational wave does not
Can the energy density of gravitational field be interpreted as dark energy?
V. Majernik
2008-07-31
After a brief review of the Maxwell-like approach to gravity we consider the issue of the negative energy of gravitational field which is a consequence of the field approach to the phenomenon of gravitation. Due to the existence of the negative field energy {\\it within} a mass body its total energy content is smaller than the positive energy assigned to its mass energy. We study the total energy content of a spherically symmetrical mass body having constant matter density, and show that its total energy content depends on its radius. We show that under certain circumstances, the total energy content of a mass body achieves negative values so that the force at its surface becomes repulsive. We apply this idea to the evolution of universe filled by matter and the negative energy density of its gravitational field. Since the negative energy density causes the negative pressure it might be considered as an agent which causes the acceleration of the universe.
GRAVITATIONAL STABILITY OF A CYLINDRICAL PLASMA WITH AN AZIMUTHAL AND AN AXIAL MAGNETIC FIELD
McLeman, J. A.; Wang, C. H.-T. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King's College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Bingham, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2012-09-10
We consider the gravitational stability of a current-carrying filamentary cloud in the presence of both axial and azimuthal magnetic fields using a simple analytic model. The azimuthal magnetic field is shown to give rise to a new contribution, dictated by Ampere's law, in the corresponding virial equation for magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. From this we obtain a computationally inexpensive guidance on the gravitational stability of current-carrying filamentary clouds. The approach not only provides a fresh insight into the essential physical mechanisms involved but also demonstrates clearly that, for sufficiently large and yet astronomically realistic currents, the azimuthal magnetic field can cause filamentary clouds to undergo instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-07-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a ? |? |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c ?+?. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Abril Suárez; Pierre-Henri Chavanis
2015-03-24
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a $\\lambda|\\varphi|^4$ potential. We study the evolution of the homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while pertubations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the pertubations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of pertubations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Gravitational potential energy and regional stress and strain rate fields for continental plateaus deformation Gravitational potential energy Lithospheric dynamics Altiplano Colorado Plateau The commonly gravitational potential energy (GPE) compared to the low GPE of the surrounding crust. While this conceptual
Directional role of weak magnetic field on the self-fabrication of ordered nickel chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xueliang; Han, Changlong
2007-11-01
Novel ordered nickel chains with diameter 250-500 nm and length more than 5 ?m were synthesized under weak magnetic field by hydrazine reducing in ethylene glycol. The phase, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microanalyzer (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results reveal that weak magnetic field leads to the fabrication of nickel chains paralleling each other with hierarchical structures. The growth mechanism and fabrication process of nickel magnetic nanocrystallites were discussed.
Anomalous Magnetic Properties of Y2Cu2O5 Compound in a Weak Magnetic Field
V. V. Moshchalkov; O. V. Snigirev; L. Z. Avdeev; N. B. Brandt; A. A. Volkozub; A. A. Gippius; I. G. Muttik; Yu. D. Tretiakov; I. E. Graboy; A. R. Kaul; V. V. Khanin; R. V. Shpanchenko; Ho Hyu Nyan
1988-01-01
Measurements of magnetic susceptibility chi(T, H0) of the single phase Y2Cu2O5 compound in weak H0{=}(0.052 Oe) and moderate (H0<=500 Oe) magnetic fields are reported. Quite surprisingly, in weak magnetic field H0{=}0.05 Oe, a diamagnetic chi(T) response of about 2% of chiideal(-1\\/4pi) is observed below T≈150 K. At temperatures T 13 K the Y2Cu2O5 diamagnetism is strongly enhanced up to chi(T{=}10
Generalized Kerr Schild metrics and the gravitational field of a massless particle on the horizon
Herbert Balasin
1999-09-27
We investigate the structure of the gravitational field generated by a massless particle moving on the horizon of an arbitrary (stationary) black hole. This is done by employing the generalized Kerr-Schild class where we take the null generators of the horizon as the geodetic null vector-field and a scalar function which is concentrated on the horizon.
Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, Difficulties and Prospects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradamante, F.; Viennot, L.
2007-01-01
This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9-11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of "mapping" two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and
High order well-balanced WENO scheme for the gas dynamics equations under gravitational fields
Shu, Chi-Wang
High order well-balanced WENO scheme for the gas dynamics equations under gravitational fields field, admit the hydro- static balance where the flux produced by the pressure is exactly canceled high order well-balanced finite difference WENO schemes to this system, which can preserve
I. M. Podgorny; A. I. Podgorny
2005-01-01
[1] Taking into account gravitation and the temperature gradient, three-dimensional MHD simulation of solar corona expansion in a dipole magnetic field was performed. Dissipation, compressibility, and anisotropy of thermal conductivity were taken into consideration. For calculations, the PERESVET code was used. It was been shown that a heliospheric current sheet having a normal component of magnetic field is formed. An
Lichnerowicz-Type Theorems for Self-gravitating Systems with Nonlinear Electromagnetic Fields
Li-Ming Cao; Yuxuan Peng; Jianfei Xu
2014-07-11
We consider a self-gravitating system containing a globally timelike Killing vector and a nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetic field and scalar fields. We prove that under certain boundary conditions (asymptotically flat/AdS) there can't be any nontrivial field configurations in the spacetime. To explore nontrivial solutions one should break any of the conditions we imposed. The case with another type of nonlinear electromagnetic field is also analyzed, and similar conclusions have been obtained under certain conditions.
Wu Ning; Zhang Da-Hua
2007-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of
Traveling-wave tubes and backward-wave oscillators with weak external magnetic fields
Abu-elfadl, T. M.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.; Antonsen, T. M.; Goebel, D.
2001-06-01
Recent development of plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators [Goebel IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. >22, 547 (1994)], microwave sources that operate without guiding magnetic fields, has stimulated interest in the theoretical analysis of such tubes. In principle, in the absence of guiding magnetic fields, due to the space charge forces and the radial electric field of the wave, the electrons may propagate radially outward which increases electron coupling to the slow wave whose field is localized near the slow-wave structure (SWS). This increases the wave growth rate and efficiency, and hence allows one to shorten the interaction region. So the radial electron motion can be beneficial for operation if it does not lead to interception of electrons by the SWS. To avoid this interception a weak external magnetic field can be applied. The theory developed describes the effect of weak magnetic fields on the operation of traveling-wave tubes and backward-wave oscillators with electrons moving not only axially but also transversely. This theory allows one to estimate the magnetic field required for protecting the SWS from electron bombardment at different power levels. Theoretical predictions of the efficiency enhancement due to the weak magnetic field are confirmed in experiments.
Wiggly tails: a gravitational wave signature of massive fields around black holes
Juan Carlos Degollado; Carlos A. R. Herdeiro
2014-08-12
Massive fields can exist in long-lived configurations around black holes. We examine how the gravitational wave signal of a perturbed black hole is affected by such `dirtiness' within linear theory. As a concrete example, we consider the gravitational radiation emitted by the infall of a massive scalar field into a Schwarzschild black hole. Whereas part of the scalar field is absorbed/scattered by the black hole and triggers gravitational wave emission, another part lingers in long-lived quasi-bound states. Solving numerically the Teukolsky master equation for gravitational perturbations coupled to the massive Klein-Gordon equation, we find a characteristic gravitational wave signal, composed by a quasi-normal ringing followed by a late time tail. In contrast to `clean' black holes, however, the late time tail contains small amplitude wiggles with the frequency of the dominating quasi-bound state. Additionally, an observer dependent beating pattern may also be seen. These features were already observed in fully non-linear studies; our analysis shows they are present at linear level, and, since it reduces to a 1+1 dimensional numerical problem, allows for cleaner numerical data. Moreover, we discuss the power law of the tail and that it only becomes universal sufficiently far away from the `dirty' black hole. The wiggly tails, by constrast, are a generic feature that may be used as a smoking gun for the presence of massive fields around black holes, either as a linear cloud or as fully non-linear hair.
A Test to Verify the Speed Change of Light in the Gravitational Field of the Earth
Mei Xiaochun
2006-12-03
Based on the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equation of gravitational field, it is proved that the speed of light speed would change and isotropy of light speed would be violated in gravitational field with spherical symmetry. On the surface of the earth, the speed of light vertical to the surface is 0.2m/s less than that parallel to the surface. It is suggested to use the method of the Michelson Morley interference to verify the change of light speed and the violation of isotropy in the gravitational field of the earth. In the proposed experiment, one arm of interferometer is vertical to the earth surface while another is parallel to the surface. When two arms are turned over 90 degree, the shift of about 0.07 interference stripe would be caused which can be observed directly. So this experiment can be considered as a new verification for general relativity in the gravitational field with spherical symmetry. If the experiment shows that gravitation would change the speed of light and violate the isotropy of light speed, the result would cause great effects on foundational physics, astrophysics and cosmolo
Wiggly tails: A gravitational wave signature of massive fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degollado, Juan Carlos; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.
2014-09-01
Massive fields can exist in long-lived configurations around black holes. We examine how the gravitational wave signal of a perturbed black hole is affected by such "dirtiness" within linear theory. As a concrete example, we consider the gravitational radiation emitted by the infall of a massive scalar field into a Schwarzschild black hole. Whereas part of the scalar field is absorbed/scattered by the black hole and triggers gravitational wave emission, another part lingers in long-lived quasibound states. Solving numerically the Teukolsky master equation for gravitational perturbations coupled to the massive Klein-Gordon equation, we find a characteristic gravitational wave signal, composed by a quasinormal ringing followed by a late time tail. In contrast to "clean" black holes, however, the late time tail contains small amplitude wiggles with the frequency of the dominating quasibound state. Additionally, an observer dependent beating pattern may also be seen. These features were already observed in fully nonlinear studies; our analysis shows they are present at linear level, and, since it reduces to a 1+1 dimensional numerical problem, allows for cleaner numerical data. Moreover, we discuss the power law of the tail and that it only becomes universal sufficiently far away from the dirty black hole. The wiggly tails, by constrast, are a generic feature that may be used as a smoking gun for the presence of massive fields around black holes, either as a linear cloud or as fully nonlinear hair.
Gravitational waves from stochastic relativistic sources: primordial turbulence and magnetic fields
Chiara Caprini; Ruth Durrer
2006-09-15
The power spectrum of a homogeneous and isotropic stochastic variable, characterized by a finite correlation length, does in general not vanish on scales larger than the correlation scale. If the variable is a divergence free vector field, we demonstrate that its power spectrum is blue on large scales. Accounting for this fact, we compute the gravitational waves induced by an incompressible turbulent fluid and by a causal magnetic field present in the early universe. The gravitational wave power spectra show common features: they are both blue on large scales, and peak at the correlation scale. However, the magnetic field can be treated as a coherent source and it is active for a long time. This results in a very effective conversion of magnetic energy in gravitational wave energy at horizon crossing. Turbulence instead acts as a source for gravitational waves over a time interval much shorter than a Hubble time, and the conversion into gravitational wave energy is much less effective. We also derive a strong constraint on the amplitude of a primordial magnetic field when the correlation length is much smaller than the horizon.
Gravitation and electromagnetism in theory of a unified four-vector field
Alexander A. Chernitskii
2006-09-28
A four-vector field in flat space-time, satisfying a gauge-invariant set of second-order differential equations, is considered as a unified field. The model variational principle corresponds to the general covariance idea and gives rise to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics. Thus the four-vector field is considered as an electromagnetic potential. It is suggested that space-localized (particle) solutions of the nonlinear field model correspond to material particles. Electromagnetic and gravitational interactions between field particles appear naturally when a many-particle solution is investigated with the help of a perturbation method. The electromagnetic interaction appears in the first order in the small field of distant particles. In the second order, there is an effective Riemannian space induced by the field of distant particles. This Riemannian space can be connected with gravitation.
Statistics of Experiments on Cluster Formation and Transport in a Gravitational Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1993-01-01
Metastable state relaxation in a gravitational field is investigated in the case of non-critical binary solutions. A relaxation description is presented in terms of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism for a non-conserved order parameter. A new ansatz for solution of the corresponding partial nonlinear stochastic differential equation is discussed. It is proved that, for the supersaturated solution under consideration, the metastable state relaxation in a gravitational field leads to formation of solute concentration gradients due to the sedimentation of subcritical solute clusters. The pure discussion of the possible methods to compare theoretical results and experimental data related to solute sedimentation in a gravitational field is presented. It is shown that in order to describe these experiments it is necessary to deal both with the value of the solute concentration gradient and with its formation rate. The stochastic nature of the sedimentation process is shown.
Short guide to direct gravitational field modelling with Hotine's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebera, Josef; Wagner, Carl A.; Bezd?k, Ale; Kloko?ník, Jaroslav
2013-03-01
This paper presents a unified approach to the least squares spherical harmonic analysis of the acceleration vector and Eötvös tensor (gravitational gradients) in an arbitrary orientation. The Jacobian matrices are based on Hotine's equations that hold in the Earth-fixed Cartesian frame and do not need any derivatives of the associated Legendre functions. The implementation was confirmed through closed-loop tests in which the simulated input is inverted in the least square sense using the rotated Hotine's equations. The precision achieved is at the level of rounding error with RMS about 10^{-12}{-}10^{-14} m in terms of the height anomaly. The second validation of the linear model is done with help from the standard ellipsoidal correction for the gravity disturbance that can be computed with an analytic expression as well as with the rotated equations. Although the analytic expression for this correction is only of a limited accuracy at the submillimeter level, it was used for an independent validation. Finally, the equivalent of the ellipsoidal correction, called the effect of the normal, has been numerically obtained also for other gravitational functionals and some of their combinations. Most of the numerical investigations are provided up to spherical harmonic degree 70, with degree 80 for the computation time comparison using real GRACE data. The relevant Matlab source codes for the design matrices are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wo?oszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.
2012-01-01
Influence of the weak electric field on the electronic structure of the Fibonacci superlattice is considered. The electric field produces a nonlinear dynamics of the energy spectrum of the aperiodic superlattice. Mechanism of the nonlinearity is explained in terms of energy levels anticrossings. The multifractal formalism is applied to investigate the effect of weak electric field on the statistical properties of electronic eigenfunctions. It is shown that the applied electric field does not remove the multifractal character of the electronic eigenfunctions, and that the singularity spectrum remains non-parabolic, however with a modified shape. Changes of the distances between energy levels of neighbouring eigenstates lead to the changes of the inverse participation ratio of the corresponding eigenfunctions in the weak electric field. It is demonstrated, that the local minima of the inverse participation ratio in the vicinity of the anticrossings correspond to discontinuity of the first derivative of the difference between marginal values of the singularity strength. Analysis of the generalized dimension as a function of the electric field shows that the electric field correlates spatial fluctuations of the neighbouring electronic eigenfunction amplitudes in the vicinity of anticrossings, and the nonlinear character of the scaling exponent confirms multifractality of the corresponding electronic eigenfunctions.
Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields
Kirschvink, J.L.; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A.; Diaz-Ricci, J.C.; Kirschvink, S.J. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States))
1992-01-01
Due to the apparent lack of a biophysical mechanism, the question of whether weak, low-frequency magnetic fields are able to influence living organisms has long been one of the most controversial subjects in any field of science. However, two developments during the past decade have changed this perception dramatically, the first being the discovery that many organisms, including humans, biochemically precipitate the ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). In the magnetotactic bacteria, the geomagnetic response is based on either biogenic magnetite or greigite (Fe3S4), and reasonably good evidence exists that this is also the case in higher animals such as the honey bee. Second, the development of simple behavioral conditioning experiments for training honey bees to discriminate magnetic fields demonstrates conclusively that at least one terrestrial animal is capable of detecting earth-strength magnetic fields through a sensory process. In turn, the existence of this ability implies the presence of specialized receptors which interact at the cellular level with weak magnetic fields in a fashion exceeding thermal noise. A simple calculation shows that magnetosomes moving in response to earth-strength ELF fields are capable of opening trans-membrane ion channels, in a fashion similar to those predicted by ionic resonance models. Hence, the presence of trace levels of biogenic magnetite in virtually all human tissues examined suggests that similar biophysical processes may explain a variety of weak field ELF bioeffects. 61 refs.
Claudio Nassif
2014-10-14
This seminal work aims to develop a fundamental approach in order to get a consistent coupling constant between electromagnetic and gravitational fields by using an electron that couples with a gravitational potential by means of its electromagnetic fields. We get a tiny value for such coupling, giving a possible explanation for the hierarchical problem. This coupling constant depends on the speed of light and also an invariant minimum speed which represents the lowest limit of speed for any particle with lower energy, thus leading to a doubly (symmetrical) special relativity with two invariant speeds given for higher and lower energies.
The global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory
Samuel Monnier
2013-05-10
We derive a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory on an arbitrary compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Along the way, we uncover interesting links between the theory of determinant line bundles of Dirac operators, Siegel theta functions and a functor constructed by Hopkins and Singer. We apply our result to type IIB supergravity and show that in the naive approximation where the Ramond-Ramond fields are treated as differential cohomology classes, the global gravitational anomaly vanishes on all 10-dimensional spin manifolds. We sketch a few other important physical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abanov, Alexander G.; Gromov, Andrey
2014-07-01
We compute electromagnetic, gravitational, and mixed linear response functions of two-dimensional free fermions in an external quantizing magnetic field at an integer filling factor. The results are presented in the form of the effective action and as an expansion of currents and stresses in wave vectors and frequencies of the probing electromagnetic and metric fields. In addition to the well-studied U (1) Chern-Simons and Wen-Zee terms we find a gravitational Chern-Simons term that controls the correction to the Hall viscosity due to the background curvature. We relate the coefficient in front of the term with the chiral central charge.
Electron velocity distribution in a weakly ionized plasma with an external electric field
A. V. Rokhlenko; J. L. Lebowitz
1993-01-01
The velocity distribution f(v) of the electron component of a weakly ionized plasma is investigated in a spatially homogeneous external electric field E. Both static and time-dependent E are considered. The time evolution of f is described by a Boltzmann equation in which the ions and neutral particles are assumed to have a Maxwellian distribution with apriori specified temperatures while
Mitin, Vladimir
) We develop an analytical device model for graphene bilayer field-effect transistors (GBL and the Poisson equation in the weak nonlocality approximation for the potential in the GBL-FET channel. The potential distributions in the GBL-FET channel are found analytically. The source-drain current in GBL
Form factor of a quantum graph in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, Taro; Saito, Keiji
2003-05-01
Using the periodic orbit theory, we evaluate the form factor of a quantum graph to which a very weak magnetic field is applied. The first correction to the diagonal approximation describing the transition between the universality classes is shown to be in agreement with Pandey and Mehta's formula of parametric random matrix theory.
Stellar explosion in the weak field approximation of the BransDicke theory
Victor H. Hamity; Daniel E. Barraco
2005-01-01
We treat a very crude model of an exploding star, in the weak field approximation of the BransDicke theory, in a scenario that resembles some characteristic data of a type Ia supernova. The most noticeable feature, in the electromagnetic component, is the relationship between the absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of the star and the decline rate in one magnitude
Stellar explosion in the weak field approximation of the Brans Dicke theory
Victor H. Hamity; Daniel E. Barraco
2005-01-01
We treat a very crude model of an exploding star, in the weak field approximation of the Brans Dicke theory, in a scenario that resembles some characteristic data of a type Ia supernova. The most noticeable feature, in the electromagnetic component, is the relationship between the absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of the star and the decline rate in one
The Nature of Gravitational Field and its Legitimate Energy-Momentum Tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Waldyr A.
2012-04-01
In this paper we show how a gravitational field generated by a given energy-momentum distribution (for all realistic cases) can be represented by distinct geometrical structures (Lorentzian, teleparallel and nonnull nonmetricity spacetimes) or that we even can dispense all those geometrical structures and simply represent the gravitational field as a field, in the Faraday sense, living in Minkowski spacetime. The explicit Lagrangian density for this theory is given and the field equations (which are a set of four Maxwell's-like equations) are shown to be equivalent to Einstein's equations. We also analyze whether the teleparallel formulation can give a mathematical meaning to "Einstein's most happy thought", i.e. the equivalence principle. Moreover we discuss the Hamiltonian formalism for our theory and its relation to one of the possible concepts for energy of the gravitational field which emerges from it and the concept of ADM energy. One of the main results of the paper is the identification in our theory of a legitimate energy-momentum tensor for the gravitational field expressible through a really nice formula.
Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes
Kolar, Ivan
2015-01-01
We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so called Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.
Detecting weak magnetic fields in the central stars of planetary nebulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, M.; Hubrig, S.; Todt, H.; Schöller, M.; Sandin, C.; Hamann, W.-R.; Schönberner, D.
2014-11-01
We have carried out low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with FORS 2, installed on the VLT, ESO, of a representative sample of 12 bright central stars of Planetary Nebulae (PNe) with different morphology. Two of the sample are hydrogen-deficient (Wolf-Rayet type) stars. Our measurements rule out the existence of strong global magnetic fields of the order of kG in any of the PN central stars of our sample. Even so, our data may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of a few hundred Gauss in the central stars of two elliptical nebulae, IC 418 and NGC 2392, and a very weak magnetic field of about 100 G in the Wolf-Rayet type central star Hen 2-113. However, the significance of these marginal detections depends on the method adopted for estimating the uncertainties in the magnetic-field measurements.
Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolá?, Ivan; Krtou, Pavel
2015-06-01
We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so-called Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.
Acoustic waves propagating in composite-particle gases under uniform gravitational fields
Chu, A.K.-H. [P.O. Box 39, Tou-Di-Ban, Road XiHong, Urumqi 830000 (China)
2005-05-15
The quantum discrete kinetic equations are solved to study the propagation of plane waves in a system of composite particles under the magnetic field which is subjected to the Beltrami field condition and particles being also under uniform external gravitational field. We compare the dispersion relations thus obtained by the relevant Pauli-blocking factor {theta} which describes the different-statistics particles for the quantum analog of the discrete Boltzmann system when {theta} is positive (say, {theta}=1 for Bose gases), zero (Boltzmann gases), and negative ({theta}=-1 for Fermi Gases). We found, as the effect of magnetic field being zero (using the Beltrami field condition), the gravitational field effect will induce anomalous dispersion relations (e.g., negative sound speed).0.
Magnetic fields and fluctuations in weakly Mn doped ZnGeP{sub 2}
Mengyan, P. W.; Lichti, R. L.; Baker, B. B. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79407-1051 (United States); Celebi, Y. G.; Catak, E. [Istanbul University, Beyazit, 34459 Istanbul (Turkey); Carroll, B. R. [Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72467 (United States); Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G. [BAE Systems, Advanced Systems and Technology, Nashua, NH 03061-0868 (United States)
2014-02-21
We report on our measurements of local and bulk magnetic features in weakly Mn doped ZnGeP{sub 2}. Utilizing muon spin rotation and relaxation measurements, we identify local ferromagnetic order and fluctuations in the local fields as sampled by an implanted muon (?{sup +}). We also report on field induced ferromagnetism occurring above the claimed paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub c} = 312 K)
Problems of Finslerian theory of gauge fields and gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aringazin, A. K.; Asanov, G. S.
1988-04-01
The present work makes an attempt to give a rather systematic, and sometimes elaborated, analysis of the post-Newtonian (PN) technique for the Finslerian extension of the gravity theory and its observational consequences. The orbital gravitational PN effects arising from special representations of the Finslerian S objects entering the general PN expansion of the Finslerian metric tensor are studied. The S objects prove to be responsible for the velocity-anisotropy of the space and may be treated as new additional PPN-type parameters. Using the astronomical evidence for the secular variations of the orbital elements of planets, we have obtained a set of restrictions on the size of the S objects. An attempt is made to generalize the Maxwell equations to the case of a (generalized) Finsler space. Using this, we calculate both orbital and light gravitational effects for an attractive class of Finsler metrics, namely, for the static even-power Finsler metrics. Strong experimental restrictions on the metric deviations from the Riemannian (quadratic) case have proved to arise. Next, the authors venture to apply the generalized Finsler space geometry to studying the PN effects implied by two remarkable generalized Finsler metrics. We calculate a "non-classical" test for the gravity theories, namely, the precession of a gyroscope which, when compared with the classical tests, is advantageous theoretically in that the Fermi-Walker equations governing the precession involve the total generalized Finsler connection coefficients. Finally, we give a short self-contained survey of the general Finslerian gauge techniques and conclude the article by evaluating the associated Lie derivatives.
Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van, E-mail: e.segarceanu@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A. [Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Pillen, Sigrid [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Biesma, Douwe H. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vogels, Oscar J.M. [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Alfen, Nens van [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2012-02-01
Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.
Analytical solution from vector potentials for the gravitational field of a general polyhedron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conway, John T.
2015-01-01
Closed form solutions in terms of elementary functions are given for the Newtonian gravitational field and potential of a general constant density polyhedron, using a gravitational vector potential formulation. The solution constants are given in terms of scalar and vector products involving the position vectors of the field point and the polyhedron's vertices, giving one analytical expression for each edge of the polyhedron. It is shown that in this vector potential formulation, the gravitational problem is related to the point-in-polygon problem of computational geometry. The solution is derived using a new vector theorem giving the integral over a flat surface of a scalar potential as a line integral of a vector potential around its boundary. The method is also valid in the interior of the polyhedron and can be extended to polyhedra with linear spatial variation of the density. Numerical results are compared with results in the literature and detailed results are given for the five regular Platonic polyhedra.
Extreme Ultraviolet Sources Generation by Using the Two-Color Multi-Cycle Weak Inhomogeneous Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Li-Qiang; Li, Wen-Liang
2015-01-01
An efficient method for attosecond extreme ultraviolet source generation under the two-color multi-cycle weak pulse has been theoretically presented by using the concept of the plasmonic field enhancement in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures. The results show that by properly choosing the inhomogeneity of the two-color multi-cycle (20 fs) weak pulse (1013 W/cm2), not only the harmonic cutoff has been extended, resulting in a broadband XUV continuum, but also the single short quantum path has been selected to contribute to the harmonic. As a result, two isolated XUV pulses with durations of 68as and 66as can be obtained.
Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozza, V.; Postiglione, A.
2015-06-01
The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as 1/rq has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.
Nonlinear spinor field equations in gravitational theory: spherical symmetric soliton-like solutions
V. Adanhounme; A. Adomou; F. P. Codo; M. N. Hounkonnou
2012-11-14
This paper deals with an extension of a previous work [Gravitation & Cosmology, Vol. 4, 1998, pp 107--113] to exact spherical symmetric solutions to the spinor field equations with nonlinear terms which are arbitrary functions of $S=\\bar{\\psi}\\psi $, taking into account their own gravitational field. Equations with power and polynomial nonlinearities are studied in detail. It is shown that the initial set of the Einstein and spinor field equations with a power nonlinearity has regular solutions with spinor field localized energy and charge densities. The total energy and charge are finite. Besides, exact solutions, including soliton - like solutions, to the spinor field equations are also obtained in flat space-time.
Ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: ? UMa and ? Leo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazčre, A.; Petit, P.; Ligničres, F.; Auričre, M.; Böhm, T.; Wade, G.
2014-12-01
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A (Petit et al. 2011). This signal was interpreted as a Zeeman signature related to a sub-gauss longitudinal magnetic field, constituting the first detection of a surface magnetic field in an Am star. We present here ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two other bright Am stars, ? UMa and ? Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. The line profiles of the two stars display circularly-polarized signatures similar in shape to the observations gathered for Sirius A. These new detections suggest that very weak magnetic fields may be present in the photospheres of a significant fraction of intermediate-mass stars, although the strongly asymmetric Zeeman signatures measured so far in Am stars (featuring a prominent positive lobe and no detected negative lobe) are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect.
Novikov, V V; She?man, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E
2014-01-01
It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 ?T) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage. PMID:25715625
Masato Akamatsu; Mitsuo Higano; Yoshio Takahashi; Hiroyuki Ozoe
2005-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical computations were carried out to clarify the influence of magnetizing force on quiescent air with thermal gradient in a vertical cylindrical container under both gravitational and nongravitational fields. Several sizes and axial positions of a circular electric coil were tested so that the magnetizing force depended on the magnetic gradient. Under both gravitational and nongravitational fields, the convection
A Solution of the Einstein Equation in a Stationary Gravitational Field Due to a Rotating Source
Osamu Tanimura; Shoichi Hori
1999-01-01
The stationary and axially symmetric gravitational field due to a rotating deformed source can be treated by the Ernst equation. We prove analytically the validity of the solution of the Ernst equation that was presented as a possible solution in a previous paper for arbitrary real values of the deformation parameter &delta. By means of analytic continuations of the solution
Bending of a light ray within a dispersive medium in a uniform gravitational field
Bernard Linet
2009-07-13
Recently, Dressel et al determined the vertical deflection of a light ray in a medium, with a strong frequency-dependent dispersion, at rest in a uniform gravitational field. We take up this question within the general relativistic theory of the propagation of light in a dispersive medium, due to Synge.
Portet, Stéphanie
Models of spatial and orientational self-organization of microtubules under the influence-organization of microtubules from purified tubulin solutions is sensitive to gravi- tational conditions. In this paper, we propose two models of spatial and orientational self-organization of microtubules in a gravitational field
Dmitriy Palatnik
2002-10-24
In this note one suggests a possibility of direct observation of the $\\theta$-parameter, introduced in the Born--Infeld theory of electroweak and gravitational fields, developed in quant-ph/0202024. Namely, one may treat $\\theta$ as a universal constant, responsible for correction to the Coulomb and Newton laws, allowing direct interaction between electrical charges and masses.
Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate
2007-01-01
Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through
Physics of the zero-point field: implications for inertia, gravitation and mass
BERNHARD HAISCH; Alfonson Rueda; H. E. Puthoff
1997-01-01
Previous studies of the physics of a classical electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) have implicated it as a possible basis for a number of quantum phenomena. Recent work implies that the ZPF may play an even more significant role as the source of inertia and gravitation of matter. Furthermore, this close link between electromagnetism and inertia suggests that it may be
Mathematical modeling of the gravitational field of a twisted Skyrmion string
Hadi, Miftachul; Husein, Andri
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model without a twist and the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, $mkz$, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
Mathematical modeling of the gravitational field of a twisted Skyrmion string
Miftachul Hadi; Malcolm Anderson; Andri Husein
2015-05-22
In this paper we study the gravitational field of a straight string generated from a class of nonlinear sigma models, specifically the Skyrme model without a twist and the Skyrme model with a twist (the twisted Skyrmion string). The twist term, $mkz$, is included to stabilize the vortex solution. To model the effects of gravity, we replace the Minkowski tensor, $\\eta^{\\mu\
Zonal Harmonics of the Earth's Gravitational Field and the Basic Hypothesis of Geodesy
John A. O'Keefe
1959-01-01
The basic hypothesis of geodesy as stated by Vening Meinesz and Heiskanen calls for an extremely smooth gravitational field for the earth as a whole, apart from local irregu- larities. From satellite measurements of zonal harmonics of orders 2, 3, and 4 it is shown that the actual roughness is about an order of magnitude greater than that demanded by
Gerardo Munoz; Preston Jones
2010-03-15
The relationship between uniformly accelerated reference frames in flat spacetime and the uniform gravitational field is examined in a relativistic context. It is shown that, contrary to previous statements in the pages of this journal, equivalence does not break down in this context. No restrictions to Newtonian approximations or small enclosures are necessary.
Shape of the Moon from the Orbiter Determination of its Gravitational Field
C. L. Goudas; Z. Kopal
1966-01-01
AN analysis of the perturbations of the American Orbiter 1, revolving since August 14 in a 200 min orbit close to the Moon, has led to a satisfactory determination of the principal characteristics of the lunar gravitational field1, and it is of interest to compare these with previous predictions based on plausible physical assumptions. In a previous investigation2 one of
Dynamical torsion in a gravitational theory coupled to first-order twist-tensor matter fields
Rosenbaum, M.; Ryan, M.P. Jr.; Urrutia, L.F.; Luehr, C.P.
1982-08-15
A gravity-matter theory is developed using twist tensors as bona fide matter fields which are minimally coupled to gravitation by means of a first-order matter Lagrangian. The main features of the theory are (i) torsion is generated dynamically by the matter fields and (ii) torsion is coupled to a scalar field via a nonzero spin density which arises from the first-order matter Lagrangian but nevertheless provides a vanishing integrated spin for the scalar field. The equations of motion for the fields are given and some solutions are discussed.
Vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations in the brane world model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.
2004-03-01
We consider some classes of solutions of the static, spherically symmetric gravitational field equations in the vacuum in the brane world scenario, in which our Universe is a three-brane embedded in a higher dimensional space-time. The vacuum field equations on the brane are reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations, which describe all the geometric properties of the vacuum as functions of the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (the projections of the Weyl curvature of the bulk, generating nonlocal brane stresses). Several classes of exact solutions of the vacuum gravitational field equations on the brane are derived. In the particular case of a vanishing dark pressure, the integration of the field equations can be reduced to the integration of an Abel type equation. A perturbative procedure, based on the iterative solution of an integral equation, is also developed for this case. Brane vacuums with particular symmetries are investigated by using Lie group techniques. In the case of a static vacuum brane admitting a one-parameter group of conformal motions, the exact solution of the field equations can be found, with the functional form of the dark radiation and pressure terms uniquely fixed by the symmetry. The requirement of the invariance of the field equations with respect to the quasihomologous group of transformations also imposes a unique, linear proportionality relation between the dark energy and dark pressure. A homology theorem for the static, spherically symmetric gravitational field equations in the vacuum on the brane is also proven.
Testing Weak-lensing Maps with Redshift Surveys: A Subaru Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtz, Michael J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Utsumi, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Fabricant, Daniel G.
2012-05-01
We use a dense redshift survey in the foreground of the Subaru GTO2deg2 weak-lensing field (centered at ?2000 = 16h04m44s; ?2000 = 43°11'24'') to assess the completeness and comment on the purity of massive halo identification in the weak-lensing map. The redshift survey (published here) includes 4541 galaxies; 4405 are new redshifts measured with the Hectospec on the MMT. Among the weak-lensing peaks with a signal-to-noise greater than 4.25, 2/3 correspond to individual massive systems; this result is essentially identical to the Geller et al. test of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS) field F2. The Subaru map, based on images in substantially better seeing than the DLS, enables detection of less massive halos at fixed redshift as expected. We demonstrate that the procedure adopted by Miyazaki et al. for removing some contaminated peaks from the weak-lensing map improves agreement between the lensing map and the redshift survey in the identification of candidate massive systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monarkha, V. Yu.; Paschenko, V. A.; Timofeev, V. P.
2013-02-01
The dynamics of Abrikosov vortices and their bundles was experimentally investigated in weak constant magnetic fields, in the range of Earth's magnetic field. Characteristics of the isothermal magnetization relaxation in YBCO single-crystal samples with strong pinning centers were studied for different sample-field orientation. The obtained values of normalized relaxation rate S allowed us to estimate the effective pinning potential U in the bulk of the YBCO sample and its temperature dependence, as well as the critical current density Jc. A comparison between the data obtained and the results of similar measurements in significantly higher magnetic fields was performed. To compare different techniques for evaluation of Jc, the magnetization loop measurements M(H), which relate the loop width to the critical current, were carried out. These measurements provided important parameters of the samples under study (penetration field Hp and first critical field Hc1), which involve the geometrical configuration of the samples.
Effects of the Electromagnetic Field on Five-dimensional Gravitational Collapse
M. Sharif; G. Abbas
2010-01-29
This paper investigates the five-dimensional(5D) spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with positive cosmological constant in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The junction conditions between the 5D non-static interior and the static exterior spacetimes are derived using the Israel criteria modified by Santos. We use the energy conditions to discuss solution to the field equations of the interior spacetime with a charged perfect fluid for the marginally bound and the non-marginally bound cases. We found that the range of apparent horizon was larger than that for 4D gravitational collapse with an electromagnetic field. This analysis gives the irreducible and the reducible extensions of 4D perfect fluid collapse with an electromagnetic field and 5D perfect fluid collapse, respectively. Moreover, for the later case, the results can be recovered under some restrictions.
Some Consequences of the Law of Local Energy Conservation in the Gravitational Field
Kh. M. Beshtoev
2001-07-22
At gravitational interactions of bodies and particles there appears the defect of masses, i.e. the energy yields since the bodies (or particles) are attracted. It is shown that this changing of the effective mass of the body (or the particle) in the external gravitational field leads to changes the measurement units: velocity and length (relative to the standard measurement units). The expression describing the advance of the perihelion of the planet (the Mercury) has been obtained. This expression is mathematically identical to Einstein's equation for the advance of the perihelion of the Mercury.
Delia Ionescu
2002-02-17
The generalization of the concept of homogeneous gravitational field from Classical Mechanics was considered in the framework of Einstein's General Relativity by Bogorodskii. In this paper, I look for such a generalization in the framework of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation. There exist a substantial difference between the solutions in these two theories. Unfortunately, the solution obtained according to the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation can't be accepted because it doesn't fulfill the Causality Principle in this theory. So, it remains open in RTG the problem of finding a generalization of the classical concept of homogeneous gravitational field.
EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing
Bhuvnesh Jain
2007-01-01
Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace
Thermoelectric Magnetohydrodynamic Flow During Crystal Growth with a Moderate or Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This paper treats a steady, axisymmetric melt motion in a cylindrical ampoule with a uniform, axial magnetic field and with an electric current due to a radial temperature variation along the crystal-melt interface, where the values of the absolute thermoelectric power for the crystal and melt are different. The radial component of the thermoelectric current in the melt produces an azimuthal body force, and the axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal motion drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. For moderate magnetic field strengths, the azimuthal velocity and magnetic field produce a radial induced electric field which partially cancels the Seebeck electromotive force in the melt, so that the thermoelectric current and the melt motion are coupled. For weak magnetic fields, the thermoelectric current is decoupled from the melt motion, which is an ordinary hydrodynamic flow driven by a known azimuthal body force. The results show how the flow varies with the strength of the magnetic field and with the magnitude of the temperature variation along the crystal-melt interface. They also define the parameter ranges for which the simpler weak-field decoupled analysis gives accurate predictions.
The prevalence of weak magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars: The case of PDS2
Hubrig, S; Schöller, M; Ilyin, I
2015-01-01
Models of magnetically driven accretion and outflows reproduce many observational properties of T Tauri stars, but the picture is much less clear for the Herbig Ae/Be stars, due to the poor knowledge of their magnetic field strength and topology. The Herbig Ae star PDS2 was previously included in two magnetic studies based on low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Only in one of these studies the presence of a weak mean longitudinal magnetic field was reported. In the present study, for the first time, high-resolution HARPS spectropolarimetric observations of PDS2 are used to investigate the presence of a magnetic field. A firm detection of a weak longitudinal magnetic field is achieved using the multi-line singular value decomposition method for Stokes profile reconstruction (=33+-5G). To gain better knowledge of typical magnetic field strengths in late Herbig Be and Herbig Ae stars, we compiled previous magnetic field measurements, revealing that only very few stars have fields stronger than 200G,...
Abele, H.; Jenke, T.; Leeb, H.; Schmiedmayer, J. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)
2010-03-15
We propose to apply Ramsey's method of separated oscillating fields to the spectroscopy of the quantum states in the gravity potential above a horizontal mirror. This method allows a precise measurement of quantum mechanical phaseshifts of a Schroedinger wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the Earth. Measurements with ultracold neutrons will offer a sensitivity to Newton's law or hypothetical short-ranged interactions, which is about 21 orders of magnitude below the energy scale of electromagnetism.
Gravitational field-flow fractionation for the characterisation of active dry wine yeast
R Sanz; L Puignou; P Reschiglian; M. T Galceran
2001-01-01
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) is applied to the fractionation of active dry wine yeast. An experimental approach to the analysis of the effects that field variation by changing mobile phase composition and flow-rate have on the fractionation process of standard particles (polystyrene) was first developed to further obtain effective fractionation of wine yeast by GrFFF. Scanning electron microscopy and Coulter
Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: towards a self-gravitating quantum field theory
Karim Noui
2007-01-01
In a companion paper, we have emphasized the role of the Drinfeld double DSU(2) in the context of three-dimensional Riemannian loop quantum gravity coupled to massive spinless point particles. We make use of this result to propose a model for a self-gravitating quantum field theory (massive spinless non-causal scalar field) in three-dimensional Riemannian space. We start by constructing the Fock
Next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling in an effective field theory approach
Levi, Michele [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2010-11-15
We use an effective field theory (EFT) approach to calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) gravitational spin-orbit interaction between two spinning compact objects. The NLO spin-orbit interaction provides the most computationally complex sector of the NLO spin effects, previously derived within the EFT approach. In particular, it requires the inclusion of nonstationary cubic self-gravitational interaction, as well as the implementation of a spin supplementary condition (SSC) at higher orders. The EFT calculation is carried out in terms of the nonrelativistic gravitational field parametrization, making the calculation more efficient with no need to rely on automated computations, and illustrating the coupling hierarchy of the different gravitational field components to the spin and mass sources. Finally, we show explicitly how to relate the EFT derived spin results to the canonical results obtained with the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) Hamiltonian formalism. This is done using noncanonical transformations, required due to the implementation of covariant SSC, as well as canonical transformations at the level of the Hamiltonian, with no need to resort to the equations of motion or the Dirac brackets.
Temporal variations of the earth's gravitational field from satellite laser ranging to LAGEOS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Au, A. Y.; Chan, J. C.; Klosko, S. M.; Pavlis, N. K.; Williamson, R. G.
1993-01-01
Monthly values of the J2 and J3 earth gravitational coefficients were estimated using LAGEOS satellite laser ranging data collected between 1980 and 1989. Monthly variations in gravitational coefficients caused by atmospheric mass redistribution were calculated using measurements of variations in surface atmospheric pressure. Results for correlation studies of the two time series are presented. The LAGEOS and atmospheric J2 time series agree well and it appears that variations in J2 can be attributed to the redistribution of atmospheric mass. Atmospheric and LAGEOS estimates for J3 show poorer agreement, J3 estimates appear to be very sensitive to unmodeled forces acting on the satellite. Results indicate that the LAGEOS data can be used to detect small variations in the gravitational field.
Molecular alignment and filamentation: Comparison between weak- and strong-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berti, N.; Béjot, P.; Wolf, J.-P.; Faucher, O.
2014-11-01
The impact of nonadiabatic laser-induced molecular alignment on filamentation is numerically studied. Weak- and strong-field models of impulsive molecular alignment are compared in the context of nonlinear pulse propagation. It is shown that the widely used weak-field model describing the refractive index modification induced by impulsive molecular alignment accurately reproduces the propagation dynamics providing that only a single pulse is involved during the experiment. On the contrary, it fails at reproducing the nonlinear propagation experienced by an intense laser pulse traveling in the wake of a second strong laser pulse. The discrepancy depends on the relative delay between the two pulses and is maximal for delays corresponding to half the rotational period of the molecule.
Gravitational radiation from collapsing magnetized dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Shijun; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2007-04-01
In this article we study the influence of magnetic fields on the axial gravitational waves emitted during the collapse of a homogeneous dust sphere. We found that while the energy emitted depends weakly on the initial matter perturbations it has strong dependence on the strength and the distribution of the magnetic field perturbations. The gravitational wave output of such a collapse can be up to an order of magnitude larger or smaller calling for detailed numerical 3D studies of collapsing magnetized configurations.
Localization of scalar fields on self-gravitating thick branes
Andrianov, Alexander A; Novikov, Oleg O
2013-01-01
The model of a domain wall ("thick" brane) in noncompact five-dimensional space-time is considered with geometries of $AdS_5$ type generated by self-interacting scalar matter. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with O(2) symmetric self interaction. One of them is mixed with gravity scalar modes and plays role of the brane formation mode (due to a kink background) and another one is of a Higgs-field type. The interplay between soft breaking of O(2) symmetry and gravity influence is thoroughly investigated around the critical point of spontaneous $\\tau$ symmetry breaking when the v.e.v. of the Higgs-type scalar field occurs. The possibility of (quasi)localization of scalar modes on such thick branes is examined.
Optical Orientation of Mn2+ Ions in GaAs in Weak Longitudinal Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akimov, I. A.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.
2011-04-01
We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B?100mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins.
Spectral form factor for chaotic dynamics in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Nagao, Taro
2006-04-01
Using semiclassical periodic orbit theory for a chaotic system in a weak magnetic field, we obtain the form factor predicted by Pandey and Mehta's two matrix model up to the third order. The third order contribution has a peculiar term which exists only in the intermediate crossover domain between the GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble) and the GUE (Gaussian unitary ensemble) universality classes. The exact expression is obtained by taking account of the contribution from encounter regions where orbit loops are connected.
On the weak field approximation of Brans-Dicke theory of gravity
A. Barros; C. Romero
1997-12-18
It is shown that in the weak field approximation solutions of Brans-Dicke equations are simply related to the solutions of General Relativity equations for the same matter distribution. A simple method is developed which permits to obtain Brans-Dicke solutions from Einstein solutions when both theories are considered in their linearized forms. To illustrate the method some examples found in the literature are discussed.
S. -Y. Wang
2006-06-20
In a recent article, Ayala et al. [Phys. Rev. D 73, 105009 (2006)] have studied the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in strongly coupled QED in the presence of weak magnetic fields. We argue that the results and conclusions of the article are not reliable as they are subject to gauge dependent artifacts resulting from an inconsistent truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations.
Gravitational field models for study of Earth mantle dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The tectonic forces or stresses due to the small scale mantle flow under the South American plate are detected and determined by utilizing the harmonics of the geopotential field model. The high degree harmonics are assumed to describe the small scale mantle convection patterns. The input data used in the derivation of this model is made up of 840,000 optical, electronic, and laser observations and 1,656 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air anomalies. Although there remain some statistically questionable aspects of the high degree harmonics, it seems appropriate now to explore their implications for the tectonic forces or stress field under the crust.
Conserved charges in gravitational theories: contribution from scalar fields
Glenn Barnich
2002-01-01
In order to illustrate a recently derived covariant formalism for computing asymptotic symmetries and asymptotically conserved superpotentials in gauge theories, the case of gravity with minimally coupled scalar fields is considered and the matter contribution to the asymptotically conserved superpotentials is computed.
Fang-Pei Chen
2000-03-02
The debate on conservation laws in general relativity eighty years ago is reviewed and restudied. The physical meaning of the identities in the conservation laws for matter plus gravitational field is reexamined and new interpretations for gravitational wave are given. The conclusions of these studies are distinct from the prevalent views, it can be demonstrated that gravitational wave does not transmit energy (and momentum) but only transmits informations. An experimental test is offered to decide which conservation laws are correct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pohánka, Vladimír
2011-01-01
We calculate the gravitational intensity and potential of a homogeneous body with the shape of the rotational ellipsoid. The calculation is performed in ellipsoidal coordinates and uses the properties of harmonic functions expressed as ellipsoidal harmonics. The resulting formulae for the internal and external fields are expressed in ellipsoidal coordinates and (in the case of external field) also in spherical coordinates. The results are used in the calculation of the gravitational field of a layered body whose layer boundaries are rotational ellipsoids with common centre and rotational axis; the density in each layer is constant. The equilibrium of such a layered rotating body is examined: it is found that there is no equilibrium for such a body except the case that the body is homogeneous (thus proving once more the important, but rarely mentioned, fact).
Radiation reaction and gravitational waves in the effective field theory approach
Chad R. Galley; Manuel Tiglio
2009-03-05
We compute the contribution to the Lagrangian from the leading order (2.5 post-Newtonian) radiation reaction and the quadrupolar gravitational waves emitted from a binary system using the effective field theory (EFT) approach of Goldberger and Rothstein. We use an initial value formulation of the underlying (quantum) framework to implement retarded boundary conditions and describe these real-time dissipative processes. We also demonstrate why the usual scattering formalism of quantum field theory inadequately accounts for these. The methods discussed here should be useful for deriving real-time quantities (including radiation reaction forces and gravitational wave emission) and hereditary terms in the post-Newtonian approximation (including memory, tail and other causal, history-dependent integrals) within the EFT approach. We also provide a consistent formulation of the radiation sector in the equivalent effective field theory approach of Kol and Smolkin.
Numerical estimation of the curvature of a light wavefront in a weak gravitational field
Miguel, A San; Pascual-Sanchez, J -F
2009-01-01
The geometry of a light wavefront evolving in the 3--space associated with a post-Newtonian relativistic spacetime from a flat wavefront is studied numerically by means of the ray tracing method. For a discretization of the bidimensional wavefront the surface fitting technique is used to determine the curvature of this surface at each vertex of the mesh. The relationship between the curvature of a wavefront and the change of the arrival time at different points on the Earth is also numerically discussed.
Numerical estimation of the curvature of a light wavefront in a weak gravitational field
A. San Miguel; F. Vicente; J. -F. Pascual-Sanchez
2009-10-23
The geometry of a light wavefront evolving in the 3--space associated with a post-Newtonian relativistic spacetime from a flat wavefront is studied numerically by means of the ray tracing method. For a discretization of the bidimensional wavefront the surface fitting technique is used to determine the curvature of this surface at each vertex of the mesh. The relationship between the curvature of a wavefront and the change of the arrival time at different points on the Earth is also numerically discussed.
Humphreys, Eugene
Cenozoic slab windows beneath the western United States ABSTRACT The weak lithosphere and high sweeps across the western U.S. Each sweep represents the opening of a slab-free window. The southern window is associated with the northern propagation of the Mendocino fracture zone during development
Weak-Field Spherically Symmetric Solutions in $f(T)$ gravity
Matteo Luca Ruggiero; Ninfa Radicella
2015-04-21
We study weak-field solutions having spherical symmetry in $f(T)$ gravity; to this end, we solve the field equations for a non diagonal tetrad, starting from Lagrangian in the form $f(T)=T+\\alpha T^{n}$, where $\\alpha$ is a small constant, parameterizing the departure of the theory from GR. We show that the classical spherically symmetric solutions of GR, i.e. the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions, are perturbed by terms in the form $\\propto r^{2-2n}$ and discuss the impact of these perturbations in observational tests.
Searching for Complex, Weak or Tangled Magnetic Fields in the Blue Supergiant Rigel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Manset, N.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J.; Guinan, E.; Hanes, D.; Mimes Collaboration
Seventy-eight high-resolution Stokes V, Q and U spectra of the B8 Iae supergiant Rigel were obtained with the ESPaDOnS instrument at the CFHT, and its clone NARVAL at the TBL in the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Large Program, with the aim of scrutinizing this core-collapse supernova progenitor for direct evidence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. In this paper we describe the reduction and analysis of the data, the constraints obtained on any magnetic field present in the stellar photosphere, and the variability of photospheric and wind lines.
Searching for weak or complex magnetic fields in polarized spectra of Rigel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, Matthew; Wade, Gregg A.; Neiner, Coralie; Manset, Nadine; Petit, Véronique; Grunhut, Jason H.; Guinan, Edward; Hanes, David A.; Hanes
2011-07-01
Seventy-eight high-resolution Stokes V, Q and U spectra of the B8Iae supergiant Rigel were obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at CFHT and its clone NARVAL at TBL in the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Large Program, in order to scrutinize this core-collapse supernova progenitor for evidence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. In this paper we describe the reduction and analysis of the data, the constraints obtained on any photospheric magnetic field, and the variability of photospheric and wind lines.
Locality of Gravitational Systems from Entanglement of Conformal Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jennifer; Marcolli, Matilde; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan
2015-06-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi formula relates the entanglement entropy in a conformal field theory to the area of a minimal surface in its holographic dual. We show that this relation can be inverted for any state in the conformal field theory to compute the bulk stress-energy tensor near the boundary of the bulk spacetime, reconstructing the local data in the bulk from the entanglement on the boundary. We also show that positivity, monotonicity, and convexity of the relative entropy for small spherical domains between the reduced density matrices of any state and of the ground state of the conformal field theory are guaranteed by positivity conditions on the bulk matter energy density. As positivity and monotonicity of the relative entropy are general properties of quantum systems, this can be interpreted as a derivation of bulk energy conditions in any holographic system for which the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription applies. We discuss an information theoretical interpretation of the convexity in terms of the Fisher metric.
Gravitational Field Equations and Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang
2012-07-11
The main objective of this article is to derive a new set of gravitational field equations and to establish a new unified theory for dark energy and dark matter. The new gravitational field equations with scalar potential $\\varphi$ are derived using the Einstein-Hilbert functional, and the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is a natural outcome of the divergence-free constraint of the variational elements. Gravitation is now described by the Riemannian metric $g_{ij}$, the scalar potential $\\varphi$ and their interactions, unified by the new gravitational field equations. Associated with the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is the scalar potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi=\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} g^{ij}D_iD_j \\varphi$, which represents a new type of energy caused by the non-uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The negative part of this potential energy density produces attraction, and the positive part produces repelling force. This potential energy density is conserved with mean zero: $\\int_M \\Phi dM=0$. The sum of this new potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi$ and the coupling energy between the energy-momentum tensor $T_{ij}$ and the scalar potential field $\\varphi$ gives rise to a new unified theory for dark matter and dark energy: The negative part of this sum represents the dark matter, which produces attraction, and the positive part represents the dark energy, which drives the acceleration of expanding galaxies. In addition, the scalar curvature of space-time obeys $R=\\frac{8\\pi G}{c^4} T + \\Phi$. Furthermore, the new field equations resolve a few difficulties encountered by the classical Einstein field equations.
Gravity field contribution analysis of GOCE gravitational gradient components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, W.; Gruber, Th.; Rummel, R.
2012-04-01
A gravity field model is estimated from the four accurate components of GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometer, combined with kinematic orbit measurements, and some moderate constraint (or stabilization) in the polar areas where no observation from GOCE is available due to the orbit geometry. The normal matrix of each component is computed individually in order to study its contribution to the combined solution. The results show that the contribution of V zz is the largest, with an average value of 32.74%; the second and the third largest are V xx and V yy, with average values of 28.04% and 26.08%, respectively; the component V xz contributes with 11.81%. Validation with external data shows that all components have some values from the combined solution and their specificities, and the information content of the component V xz is not negligible and should be included for gravity field recovery. The high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST-hl) part contributes almost exclusively to the coefficients below degree and order (d/o) 20. The mean value of the contribution of the polar stabilization is the smallest with a value of 0.22%. In addition to the contribution analysis in terms of the normal matrices, the measurements of each individual component of the gradiometer are combined with SST and polar stabilization, to give a set of single-component gravity field models. These partially combined solutions are compared to the fully combined solution in terms of geoid differences. They show that the partially combined solution of V zz is closest to the complete solution. In addition to the GOCE-only solution, a GOCE-GRACE combined gravity field model is derived and the information content of GOCE and GRACE is investigated. Results show that, as expected, GOCE contributes mainly to the short-wavelength part above d/o 120 with average value of 70% and GRACE mostly to the long- and medium-wavelength part with 30%.
Do weak magnetic fields prevent hydrogen from accreting onto metal-line white dwarf stars?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, S.; Jordan, S.; Koester, D.
2004-09-01
The widely accepted assumption is that metals detected in the spectra of a few cool helium-rich white dwarfs cannot be of primordial origin and therefore must be accreted from the interstellar medium. However, the observed abundances of hydrogen are much too low to be compatible with the high accretion rates inferred from metal accretion. Hydrogen accretion is therefore suppressed compared to metal accretion. The hypothesis most widely discussed as cause for this ``hydrogen screening'' is the propeller mechanism: Metals are accreted in the form of grains onto a slowly rotating, weakly magnetized white dwarf, whereas ionized hydrogen is repelled at the Alfvén radius. We have obtained circular polarization spectra of the helium-rich white dwarfs GD 40 (WD0300-013) and L745-46A (WD0738-172) - which both show strong metal lines as well as hydrogen - in order to search for signatures of a weak magnetic field. The magnetic field strengths necessary for the propeller mechanism to work in these stars are at least 144 000 G and 3000 G, respectively. Whereas L745-46A might have a magnetic field of about -6900 G no magnetic field could be found with an upper limit for the field strength of 4000 G (with 99% confidence) for GD 40. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme 66.D-0541).
Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana
Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina
2009-01-01
Background Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions. Results An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen. Conclusion Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at magnetic field strengths weak enough, to occur occasionally in our all day environment. PMID:19405943
Detecting the presence of weak magnetic fields using nitrogen-vacancy centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhry, Adam Zaman
2015-06-01
We show how nitrogen-vacancy centers can be used to detect the presence of weak magnetic fields, that is, to find out whether a magnetic field, about which we may not have complete information, is actually present or not. The solution to this problem comes from quantum state discrimination theory. The effect of decoherence is taken into account to optimize the time over which the nitrogen-vacancy center is allowed to interact with the magnetic field before making a measurement. We also find the optimum measurement that should be performed. We then show how multiple measurements reduce the error in detecting the magnetic field. Finally, a major limitation of the measurement process, namely, limited photon detection efficiency, is taken into account. Our proposals should be implementable with current experimental technology.
Charged particle motion in weakly varying electromagnetic fields: A multi-scale approach
Sortland, D S
2014-01-01
The motion of charged particles in weakly varying electromagnetic fields is described using a perturbation method. This provides a systematic and physically transparent description of the particle motion on fast and slow spatio-temporal scales, associated with gyration and drift motions, respectively. A detailed discussion is given of the guiding center concept and the non-inertial frame of reference. An algebraic expression is obtained for the drift motion across the magnetic field, while a differential equation describes the particle motion along the field. The fictitious forces and associated energy transfer between gyration and drift motion parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are described. The relation between conservation of magnetic moment and angular momentum is elucidated.
Galaxy dynamics predictions in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory
J. W. Moffat; I. Yu. Sokolov
1996-01-01
In the weak field approximation, the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) has, in addition to the Newtonian gravitational potential, a Yukawa-like potential produced by the exchange of a spin 1+ boson between fermions. If the range r0 = ??1 is 25 kpc, then this additional potential due to the interaction with matter in the halos of galaxies can explain the flat
Charged particles in higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field: self-energy and self-force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei
2014-10-01
A problem of self-energy and self-force for a charged point-like particle in a higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field is considered. We study two cases, when a particle has the usual electric charge, and when it has a scalar charge, which is a source of a scalar massless minimally coupled field. We assume that a particle is at rest in the gravitational field, so that its motion is not geodesic, and it has an acceleration a directed away from the horizon. The self-energy of a point charge is divergent and the strength of the divergence grows with the number of dimensions. In order to obtain a finite contribution to the self-energy, we use a covariant regularization method which is a modification of the proper time cut-off and other covariant regularizations. We analyze the relation between the self-energy and the self-force and obtain explicit expressions for the self-forces for the electric and the scalar charge in spacetimes with the number of dimensions up to eight. General expressions for the case of higher dimensions are also obtained. We discuss special logarithmic factors ln a, which are present in both the self-energy and the self-force in odd dimensions. Finally, we compare the obtained results with the earlier known results both for the homogeneous gravitational field and for particles near black holes.
Charged particles in higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field: Self-energy and self-force
Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei Zelnikov
2014-09-11
A problem of self-energy and self-force for a charged point-like particle in a higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field is considered. We study two cases, when a particle has usual electric charge and a case when it has a scalar charge, which is a source of a scalar massless minimally coupled field. We assume that a particle is at rest in the gravitational field, so that its motion is not geodesic and it has an acceleration a directed from the horizon. The self-energy of a point charge is divergent and the strength of the divergence grows with the number of dimensions. In order to obtain a finite contribution to the self- energy we use a covariant regularization method which is a modification of the proper time cut-off and other covariant regularizations. We analyze a relation between the self-energy and self-force and obtain explicit expressions for the self-forces for the electric and scalar charge in the spacetimes with the number of dimensions up to eight. General expressions for the case of higher dimensions are also obtained. We discuss special logarithmic factors ln(a), which are present both in the self-energy and self-force in odd dimensions. Finally, we compare the obtained results with the earlier known results both for the homogeneous gravitational field and for particles near black holes.
N. Sadooghi; K. Sohrabi Anaraki
2008-01-01
Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor Pimunu(k0,k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k0-->0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k0-->0, k-->0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit,
Thick branes from self-gravitating scalar fields
Novikov, Oleg O.; Andrianov, Vladimir A. [V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaya, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Andrianov, Alexander A. [V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaya, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia and Institut de Cičncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí Franqučs, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-07-23
The formation of a domain wall ('thick brane') induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin brane defect is considered in noncompact five-dimensional space-time with warped AdS type geometry. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with softly broken O(2) symmetry and minimal coupling to gravity. The nonperturbative effects in the invariant mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are investigated for different values of the tension of the thin brane defect. Especially interesting is the case of the thin brane with negative tension when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk.
Thick branes from self-gravitating scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, Oleg O.; Andrianov, Alexander A.; Andrianov, Vladimir A.
2014-07-01
The formation of a domain wall ("thick brane") induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin brane defect is considered in noncompact five-dimensional space-time with warped AdS type geometry. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with softly broken O(2) symmetry and minimal coupling to gravity. The nonperturbative effects in the invariant mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are investigated for different values of the tension of the thin brane defect. Especially interesting is the case of the thin brane with negative tension when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk.
M. Sharif; M. Azam
2013-05-31
In this paper, we discuss the effects of electromagnetic field on the dynamical instability of a spherically symmetric expansionfree gravitational collapse. Darmois junction conditions are formulated by matching interior spherically symmetric spacetime to exterior Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m spacetime. We investigate the role of different terms in the dynamical equation at Newtonian and post Newtonian regimes by using perturbation scheme. It is concluded that instability range depends upon pressure anisotropy, radial profile of energy density and electromagnetic field, but not on the adiabatic index $\\Gamma$. In particular, the electromagnetic field reduces the unstable region.
The proton-proton weak capture reaction within chiral effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcucci, Laura E.
2014-07-01
We review the results of the most recent calculation for the astrophysical S-factor of the weak proton-proton capture reaction, over a range for the center-of-mass relative energy of 0-100 keV. The so-called chiral effective field theory approach is used, where the chiral two- nucleon potential is derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order and is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A = 3 binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium ?-decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S-factor at zero energy is found to be ~1% larger than the value reported in the literature, mostly due to the P-waves contributions.
Properties of Weak Lensing Clusters Detected on Hyper Suprime-Cams 2.3 deg2 field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miller, Lance; Utsumi, Yousuke; Komiyama, Yutaka; Furusawa, Hisanori; Sakurai, Junya; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Koike, Michitaro; Tomono, Daigo; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Karoji, Hiroshi; Aihara, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Takada, Masahiro
2015-07-01
We present properties of moderately massive clusters of galaxies detected by the newly developed Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope using weak gravitational lensing. Eight peaks exceeding a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 4.5 are identified on the convergence S/N map of a 2.3 deg2 field observed during the early commissioning phase of the camera. Multi-color photometric data are used to generate optically selected clusters using the Cluster finding algorithm based on the Multiband Identification of Red-sequence galaxies algorithm. The optical cluster positions were correlated with the peak positions from the convergence map. All eight significant peaks have optical counterparts. The velocity dispersion of clusters is evaluated by adopting the Singular Isothemal Sphere fit to the tangential shear profiles, yielding virial mass estimates, {M}{500c}, of the clusters which range from 2.7 × 1013 to 4.4 × 10 {}14 {M}? . The number of peaks is considerably larger than the average number expected from ?CDM cosmology but this is not extremely unlikely if one takes the large sample variance in the small field into account. We could, however, safely argue that the peak count strongly favors the recent Planck result suggesting a high {? }8 value of 0.83. The ratio of stellar mass to the dark matter halo mass shows a clear decline as the halo mass increases. If the gas mass fraction, fg, in halos is universal, as has been suggested in the literature, the observed baryon mass in stars and gas shows a possible deficit compared with the total baryon density estimated from the baryon oscillation peaks in anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background.
Uniqueness and self-conjugacy of Dirac Hamiltonians in arbitrary gravitational fields
Gorbatenko, M. V.; Neznamov, V. P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Mira 37, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)
2011-05-15
Proofs of two statements are provided in this paper. First, the authors prove that the formalism of the pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics allows for describing the Dirac particles motion in arbitrary stationary gravitational fields. Second, it is proved that using the Parker weight operator and the subsequent transition to the {eta} representation gives the transformation of the Schroedinger equation for the nonstationary metric, when the evolution operator becomes self-conjugate. The scalar products in the {eta} representation are flat, which makes possible the use of a standard apparatus for the Hermitian quantum mechanics. Based on the results of this paper the authors draw a conclusion about solution of the problem of uniqueness and self-conjugacy of Dirac Hamiltonians in arbitrary gravitational fields including those dependent on time. The general approach is illustrated by the example of Dirac Hamiltonians for several stationary metrics, as well as for the cosmologically flat and the open Friedmann models.
Weak lensing and gravity theories
Viviana Acquaviva; Carlo Baccigalupi; Francesca Perrotta
2004-09-05
We present the theory of weak gravitational lensing in cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a non-minimally coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the new contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing observables are affected by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of the anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a non-minimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. We derive the generalized expressions for the convergence power spectrum, and illustrate phenomenologically the new effects in Extended Quintessence scenarios, where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy.
Myers-Perry black hole in an external gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya
2015-03-01
We obtain a new exact solution of the 5D Einstein equations in vacuum describing a distorted Myers-Perry black hole with a single angular momentum. Locally, the solution is interpreted as a black hole distorted by a stationary U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetric distribution of external matter. Technically, the solution is constructed by applying a twofold Bäcklund transformation on a 5D distorted Minkowski spacetime as a seed. The physical quantities of the solution are calculated, and a local Smarr-like relation on the black hole horizon is derived. It possesses the same form as the Smarr-like relation for the asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black hole. It is demonstrated that in contrast to the asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black hole, the ratio of the horizon angular momentum and the mass J2/M3 is unbounded, and can grow arbitrarily large. We study the properties of the ergoregion and the horizon surface. The external field does not influence the horizon topology. The horizon geometry however is distorted, and any regular axisymmetric geometry is possible.
The strong field gravitational lensing in the Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string
Jingyun Man; Huawen Wang; Hongbo Cheng
2015-06-24
In this work the gravitational lensing in the strong field limit around the Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string is studied. We find that the deflection angle and the time delay of the relativistic images depend on the tension of cosmic string. It is interesting that the deflection angle is greater when the tension of cosmic string is stronger. The time delay between two images is more obvious in the case of weaker tension.
An effect predicted by a unified theory of gravitational and electroweak fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batakis, N. A.
1985-05-01
In the context of a recent unified theory for the gravitational and electroweak fields we present a new result which, in principle, could be tested experimentally. The effect involves a phase shift in a coherent photon beam, in a manner resembling the Aharanov-Bohm effect for neutrons Part of this work was completed while the author was visiting the Theory Division of CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
Renormalizations in the calculation of vacuum quantum effects in gravitational fields
Mamaev, S.G.; Mostepanenko, V.M.
1983-05-01
The geometrical structure of the infinite expressions which are subtracted from the vacuum stress-energy tensor according to the n-wave procedure is found with the help of the dimensional-regularization method. This procedure is shown to be exactly equivalent to renormalizations of coupling constants in the bare Lagrangian of the gravitational field. The final results are given for the mass-dependent terms of the vacuum stress-energy tensor for fermions.
Dark matter annihilation in the gravitational field of a black hole
A. N. Baushev
2009-10-08
In this paper we consider dark matter particle annihilation in the gravitational field of black holes. We obtain exact distribution function of the infalling dark matter particles, and compute the resulting flux and spectra of gamma rays coming from the objects. It is shown that the dark matter density significantly increases near a black hole. Particle collision energy becomes very high affecting relative cross-sections of various annihilation channels. We also discuss possible experimental consequences of these effects.
Gravitational Lensing Analyzed by Graded Refractive Index of Vacuum
Xing-Hao Ye; Qiang Lin
2008-02-13
We found strong similarities between the gravitational lensing and the conventional optical lensing. The similarities imply a graded refractive index description of the light deflection in gravitational field. We got a general approach to this refractive index in a static spherically symmetric gravitational field and obtained its exterior and interior solutions exactly through the general relativity. In weak field case, the two solutions come to a simple unified exponential function of the gravitational potential. With these results, the gravitational lensing can be analyzed in a convenient optical way. Especially, the long puzzling problem of the central image missing can be solved easily. We also pointed out that the graded refraction property of the gravitational spacetime is related to the vacuum influenced by the gravitational matter.
Antimatter gravity and the weak equivalence principle
Holzscheiter, M.H.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holtkamp, D.B.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Schauer, M.M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A. (Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)); Midzor, M.; Oakley, D.; Ristinen, R. (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)); Witteborn, F.C. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94305 (United States))
1991-08-05
Ideas are presented for an experiment to compare the acceleration, g, of antiprotons in the Earth's gravitational field with that of particles of normed matter, such as protons or hydrogen ions. The experiments will test whether antiprotons obey the weak equivalence principle.(AIP)
Fast Gravitational Field Model Using Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Younes, A.; Macomber, B.; Woollands, R.; Probe, A.; Bai, X.; Junkins, J.
2013-09-01
Recent research has addressed the issue that high degree and order gravity expansions involve tens of thousands of terms in a theoretically infinite order spherical harmonic expansion (some gravity models extend to degree and order 200 with over 30,000 terms) which in principle must be computed at every integration step to obtain the acceleration consistent with the gravity model. We propose to evaluate these gravity model interpolation models and use them in conjunction with the modified Picard path approximation methods. It was decided to consider analogous orthogonal approximation methods to interpolate, an FEM model, high (degree, order) gravity fields, by replacing the global spherical harmonic series by a family of locally precise orthogonal polynomial approximations for efficient computation. Our preliminary results showed that time to compute the state of the art (degree and order 200) spherical harmonic gravity is reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude while maintaining > 9 digits of accuracy. Most of the gain is due to adopting the orthogonal FEM approach, but radial adaptation of the approximation degree gains an additional order of magnitude speedup. The efficient data base storage/access of the local coefficients is studied, which utilizes porting the algorithm to the NVIDIA GPU. This paper will address the accuracy and efficiency in both a C++ serial PC architecture as well as a PC/GPU architecture. The Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Gravity Model (AOFEGM) is expected to have broad potential for speeding the trajectory propagation algorithms; for example, used in conjunction with orthogonal Finite Element Model (FEM) gravity approximations, the Chebyshev-Picard path approximation enables truly revolutionary speedups in orbit propagation without accuracy loss.
Nonlocal effective gravitational field equations and the running of Newton's constant G
Hamber, H.W.; Williams, R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Girton College, Cambridge CB3 0JG, United Kingdom and Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2005-08-15
Nonperturbative studies of quantum gravity have recently suggested the possibility that the strength of gravitational interactions might slowly increase with distance. Here a set of generally covariant effective field equations are proposed, which are intended to incorporate the gravitational, vacuum-polarization induced, running of Newton's constant G. One attractive feature of this approach is that, from an underlying quantum gravity perspective, the resulting long-distance (or large time) effective gravitational action inherits only one adjustable parameter {xi}, having the units of a length, arising from dimensional transmutation in the gravitational sector. Assuming the above scenario to be correct, some simple predictions for the long-distance corrections to the classical standard model Robertson-Walker metric are worked out in detail, with the results formulated as much as possible in a model-independent framework. It is found that the theory, even in the limit of vanishing renormalized cosmological constant, generally predicts an accelerated power-law expansion at later times t{approx}{xi}{approx}1/H.
Gorbatenko, M. V.; Neznamov, V. P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Mira 37, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)
2010-11-15
The authors prove that the dynamics of spin 1/2 particles in stationary gravitational fields can be described using an approach, which builds upon the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians. The proof consists in the analysis of three expressions for Hamiltonians, which are derived from the Dirac equation and describe the dynamics of spin 1/2 particles in the gravitational field of the Kerr solution. The Hamiltonians correspond to different choices of tetrad vectors and differ from each other. The differences between the Hamiltonians confirm the conclusion known from many studies that the Hamiltonians derived from the Dirac equation are nonunique. Application of standard pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics rules to each of these Hamiltonians produces the same Hermitian Hamiltonian. The eigenvalue spectrum of the resulting Hamiltonian is the same as that of the Hamiltonians derived from the Dirac equation with any chosen system of tetrad vectors. For description of the dynamics of spin 1/2 particles in stationary gravitational fields can be used not only the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians but also an alternative approach, which employs the Parker scalar product. The authors show that the alternative approach is equivalent to the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians.
Stellar explosion in the weak field approximation of the Brans-Dicke theory
Victor H. Hamity; Daniel E. Barraco
2005-08-11
We treat a very crude model of an exploding star, in the weak field approximation of the Brans-Dicke theory, in a scenario that resembles some characteristics data of a Type Ia Supernova. The most noticeable feature, in the electromagnetic component, is the relationship between the absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of the star and the decline rate in one magnitude from that maximum. This characteristic has become one of the most accurate method to measure luminosity distances to objects at cosmological distances. An interesting result is that the active mass associated with the scalar field is totally radiated to infinity, representing a mass loss in the ratio of the "tensor" component to the scalar component of 1 to $(2 \\omega + 3)$ ($\\omega$ is the Brans-Dicke parameter), in agreement with a general result of Hawking. Then, this model shows explicitly, in a dynamical case, the mechanism of radiation of scalar field, which is necessary to understand the Hawking result.
Experiments on the critical ionization velocity interaction in weak magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenning, N.
1980-11-01
The critical ionization velocity interaction was studied in a configuration with a magnetized plasma stream colliding with a stationary neutral gas cloud. An electrodeless plasma gun of the conical pinch type was used. In all previous experiments of this kind the magnetic field has had a component transverse to the plasma flow and has been strong in the sense that the electron gyro frequency has exceeded or been approximately equal to the plasma frequency. Both these conditions play an important role in existing theories of the critical velocity interaction. A determination whether or not such interaction is possible when one of these conditions is not fulfilled, namely when the magnetic field is weak, was sought. Experiments were performed both with a transverse and longitudinal (aligned with the plasma flow) magnetic field. It is found that in both cases the critical ionization velocity effect either disappears or becomes too small to be distinguishable among classical collisional processes.
YY Draconis and V709 Cassiopeiae: two intermediate polars with weak magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norton, A. J.; Beardmore, A. P.; Allan, A.; Hellier, C.
1999-07-01
We present data from long ROSAT HRI observations of the intermediate polars YY Dra and V709 Cas which show that V709 Cas, like YY Dra, exhibits a double-peaked X-ray pulse profile. Neither system shows evidence for X-ray beat period or orbital modulation, so both must be disc-fed accretors seen at low inclination angles. We argue that the short spin periods of the white dwarfs in these objects indicate that they have weak magnetic fields, so the radius at which material is captured by the field lines is relatively small. Consequently the footprints of the disc-fed accretion curtains on the white dwarf surface are large. The optical depths to X-ray emission within the accretion curtains are therefore lowest in the direction along the magnetic field lines, and highest in the direction parallel to the white dwarf surface, such that the emission from the two poles conspires to produce double-peaked X-ray pulse profiles. We emphasise that such a pulse profile is not a unique indicator of two-pole accretion however. Indeed, two-pole accretion onto smaller regions of the white dwarf surface may be considered the `normal' mode of behaviour in a disc-fed intermediate polar with a longer white dwarf spin period (and therefore a higher field strength), resulting in a single-peaked pulse profile. Collating data on other intermediate polars, we may classify them into two subsets. Fast rotators, with relatively weak fields, show double-peaked pulse profiles (AE Aqr, DQ Her, XY Ari, GK Per, V709 Cas, YY Dra, V405 Aur), whilst slower rotators, with larger fields and therefore larger magnetospheres, have been seen to exhibit an X-ray beat period modulation at some time (FO Aqr, TX Col, BG CMi, AO Psc, V1223 Sgr, RX J1712.6-2414).
Detection of a weak surface magnetic field on Sirius A: are all tepid stars magnetic ?
Petit, P; Auričre, M; Wade, G A; Alina, D; Ballot, J; Böhm, T; Jouve, L; Oza, A; Paletou, F; Théado, S
2011-01-01
We aim at conducting a highly sensitive search for weak magnetic fields in main sequence stars of intermediate mass, scanning classes of stars with no previously reported magnetic members. After the detection of a weak magnetic field on the normal, rapidly rotating A-type star Vega, we concentrate here on the bright star Sirius A, taken as a prototypical chemically peculiar, moderately rotating Am star. We employ the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high resolution spectropolarimeters to collect 442 circularly polarized spectra, complemented by 60 linearly polarized spectra. Using a list of about 1,100 photospheric spectral lines, we compute from every spectrum a cross correlation line profile, leading to a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 30,000 in the polarized profile. We report the repeated detection of circularly polarized signatures in the line profiles, interpreted as Zeeman signatures of a large-scale photospheric magnetic field, with a line-of-sight component equal to $0.2 \\pm 0.1$ G. The polarized signatures are h...
Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A
2014-02-01
Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50?Hz frequency and ?500?ľT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22?°C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16?°C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22?°C and 13-16?°C. PMID:24123065
Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field
Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Massey, R. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Taylor, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Spinelli, P. F. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Cięncias Atmosféricas (IAG), Rua do Matăo, 1226 Cidade Universitária 05508-090, Săo Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tanaka, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ilbert, O. [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, F-13013 Marseille (France); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: kimmo.kettula@iki.fi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2013-11-20
The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub ?0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.
Optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in GaAs in weak longitudinal magnetic fields.
Akimov, I A; Dzhioev, R I; Korenev, V L; Kusrayev, Yu G; Sapega, V F; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M
2011-04-01
We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B?100??mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins. PMID:21561222
Shear Viscosity in Weakly Coupled N-Component Scalar Field Theories
Jiunn-Wei Chen; Mei Huang; Chang-Tse Hsieh; Han-Hsin Lin
2010-11-18
The rich phenomena of the shear viscosity (eta) to entropy density (s) ratio, eta/s, in weakly coupled N-component scalar field theories are studied. eta/s can have a "double dip" behavior due to resonances and the phase transition. If an explicit goldstone mass term is added, then eta/s can either decrease monotonically in temperature or, as seen in many other systems, reach a minimum at the phase transition. We also show how to go beyond the original variational approach to make the Boltzmann equation computation of eta systematic.
Gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and a rotating mass ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sano, Yasumichi; Tagoshi, Hideyuki
2014-08-01
The linear perturbation of the Kerr black hole has been discussed by using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and the perturbed Weyl scalars, ?0 and ?4 can be obtained from the Teukolsky equation. In order to obtain the other Weyl scalars and the perturbed metric, a formalism was proposed by Chrzanowski and by Cohen and Kegeles to construct these quantities in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential. As a simple example of the construction of the perturbed gravitational field with this formalism, we consider the gravitational field produced by a rotating circular ring around a Schwarzschild black hole. In the method by Chrzanowski, Cohen, and Kegeles, the metric is constructed in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential, which is obtained from the solution of the Teukolsky equation. Since the solutions ?0 and ?4 of the Teukolsky equations are spin-2 quantities, the Hertz potential is determined up to its monopole and dipole modes. Without these lower modes, the constructed metric and Newman-Penrose Weyl scalars have unphysical jumps on the spherical surface at the radius of the ring. We find that the jumps of the imaginary parts of the Weyl scalars are cancelled when we add the angular momentum perturbation to the Hertz potential. Finally, by adding the mass perturbation and choosing the parameters which are related to the gauge freedom, we obtain the perturbed gravitational field which is smooth except on the equatorial plane outside the ring. We discuss the implication of these results to the problem of the computation of the gravitational self-force to the point particles in a radiation gauge.
V. Majernik
2004-08-19
In this Letter we point out to the possibility that the cloud of the vacuum energy excitations in gravitation fields surrounding galaxies forms a component of dark matter. These clouds of the vacuum energy excitations interact gravitationally with the baryonic matter of galaxies changing their dynamical and kinematical properties. In four model galaxies we show that the dynamic changes due to the vacuum energy excitations of these galaxies are comparable with data. This shows that vacuum energy excitations created in the gravitation field of galaxies may be considered as one of the candidates of dark matter.
Y. J. Choi; C. L. Zhang; N. Lee; S.-W. Cheong
2010-01-01
From our investigation of magnetoelectric properties of a multiferroic phase in Eu0.75Y0.25MnO3 competing with a weak-ferromagnetic phase in magnetic fields, we found intriguing hysteretic behaviors of physical properties with variation of temperature and magnetic field. These hysteretic behaviors arise from the kinetic arrest (dearrest) processes of the first-order multiferroic-weak-ferromagnetic transition, resulting in frozen (melted) magnetoelectric glass states with coexisting two
N. Sadooghi; K. Sohrabi Anaraki
2008-01-01
Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor {sub }{sub }(k,k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k0, k0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic
Bashinsky, Sergei
2015-01-01
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...
Recent results on the mass, gravitational field and moments of inertia of the moon.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michael, W. H., Jr.; Blackshear, W. T.
1972-01-01
Use of Doppler tracking data from the Lunar Orbiter series of spacecraft in an analysis of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the lunar gravitational field through thirteenth degree and order. The value obtained for the mass of the moon, GM = 4902.84 cu km/sec/sec, is in good agreement with previous results and with results obtained by alternate procedures. Acceleration contour plots, derived from the gravitational coefficients, show correlations with surface features on the near side of the moon, but are of questionable validity for the far side because of the lack of direct tracking data on the far side. Based on the most recent gravitational field data, the current estimate for the polar moment of inertia of the moon is C/Ma squared = 0.4019 super + 0.004 sub - 0.002. This value indicates that the interior of the moon can be homogeneous, but some results presented strongly suggest that the moon is differentiated, with an excess of mass in the direction toward the earth.
W H M Feu; J M Villas-Bôas; L A Cury; P S S Guimarăes; G S Vieira; R Y Tanaka; A Passaro; M P Pires; S M Landi; P L Souza
2009-01-01
A study of magnetotunnelling in weakly coupled multi-quantum wells reveals a new phenomenon which constitutes a kind of memory effect in the sense that the electrical resistance of the sample after application of the magnetic field is different from before and contains the information that a magnetic field was applied previously. The change in the electric field domain configuration triggered
W. H. M. Feu; J. M. Villas-Bôas; L. A. Cury; P. S. S. Guimarăes; G. S. Vieira; R. Y. Tanaka; A. Passaro; M. P. Pires; S. M. Landi; P. L. Souza
2009-01-01
A study of magnetotunnelling in weakly coupled multi-quantum wells reveals a new phenomenon which constitutes a kind of memory effect in the sense that the electrical resistance of the sample after application of the magnetic field is different from before and contains the information that a magnetic field was applied previously. The change in the electric field domain configuration triggered
Pehr Granqvist; Mats Fredrikson; Patrik Unge; Andrea Hagenfeldt; Sven Valind; Dan Larhammar; Marcus Larsson
2005-01-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with weak (micro Tesla) complex waveform fields have been claimed to evoke the sensed presence of a sentient being in up to 80% in the general population. These findings have had a questionable neurophysiological foundation as the fields are approximately six orders of magnitude weaker than ordinary TMS fields. Also, no independent replication has been reported.
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick
2005-12-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
O. Titov; A. Girdiuk
2015-02-25
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
Enhancing weak magnetic fabrics using field-impressed anisotropy: application to the Chinese loess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qingsong; Yu, Yongjae; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang
2005-08-01
The anisotropy of the low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS), alternating-field-treated AMS (AF-AMS), and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) have been systematically examined for a sandwich sequence of loess/palaeosols crossing the upper loess unit L2 (Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6, MIS6) to the last interglacial maximum (palaeosol unit S1S3, MIS5e) from the Yuanbao section, northwestern China. Results show that a weak, but detectable, magnetic lineation is controlled by coarse-grained aeolian Fe3O4 (magnetite). Because the long axes of the coarse-grained magnetites are statistically parallel to the palaeowind directions, the declination of the maximum susceptibility principal axis of AMS can be used as an indicator of palaeowind direction. In contrast, fine-grained pedogenic magnetic particles are responsible for the magnetic foliation. We found that AF-AMS can indicate the domain state of the magnetic particles, which is consistent with Potter & Stephenson's earlier model. We also found that AF demagnetization can significantly alter the AMS. In conclusion, the angular dependence of AF-AMS can enhance the weak AMS fabrics.
Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu; Tsumura, Koji
2015-07-01
We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU (2)L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX ? 4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.
Theory of tunneling ionization of molecules: Weak-field asymptotics including dipole effects
Tolstikhin, Oleg I. [National Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'', Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Morishita, Toru [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofu-ga-oka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Madsen, Lars Bojer [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark)
2011-11-15
The formulation of the parabolic adiabatic expansion approach to the problem of ionization of atomic systems in a static electric field, originally developed for the axially symmetric case [Phys. Rev. A 82, 023416 (2010)], is generalized to arbitrary potentials. This approach is used to rederive the asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization in the weak-field limit. In the atomic case, the resulting formulas for the ionization rate coincide with previously known results. In addition, the present theory accounts for the possible existence of a permanent dipole moment of the unperturbed system and, hence, applies to polar molecules. Accounting for dipole effects constitutes an important difference of the present theory from the so-called molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov theory. The theory is illustrated by comparing exact and asymptotic results for a set of model polar molecules and a realistic molecular ion HeH{sup 2+} in the 2p{sigma} state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melek, M.
2002-10-01
It is pointed out that there exist real discrepancies between the used theories and experimental measurements in two phenomena on astronomical and laboratory scales. Those two phenomena are concerned with the motion of spinning particles in gravitational fields. A thurough review is presented on different theoretical possibilities of searching for a feasable solution for the existing puzzling discrepancies. One theoretical possibility; in which one may find an interpretation for these discrepancies; is exposed. This possibility is based upon taking into considerations, spin- gravity interaction when spinning particles are moving in gravitational fields. The obtained results; due to such possibility; are applied to calculate the effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the wave lengths of photons carrying information between two points having different gravitational potential.
Origin of Magnetic Fields in the Universe Due to Nonminimal Gravitational-Electromagnetic Coupling
R. Opher; U. F. Wichoski
1997-01-28
Basically the only existing theories for the creation of a magnetic field B in the Universe are the creation of a seed field of order 10^{-20} G in spiral galaxy which is subsequently supposedly amplified up to the observed 10^{-6} - 10^{-5} G by a dynamo process or a seed intergalactic field of magnitude 10^{-12} - 10^{-10} G which is amplified by collapse and differential rotation. No satisfactory dynamo theory, however, exists today. We show that a 10^{-6} - 10^{-5} G magnetic field in spiral galaxies is directly obtained from a nonminimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling, without the need of significant dynamo amplification.
Gravitational self-force in non-vacuum spacetimes: an effective field theory derivation
Peter Zimmerman
2015-07-13
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in non-vacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic-censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the non-vacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in non-vacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and non-gravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for non-vacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] and Linz, Friedmann, Wiseman [2]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in an scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals that depend on the past history of the particle.
Gravitational self-force in non-vacuum spacetimes: an effective field theory derivation
Peter Zimmerman
2015-05-14
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in non-vacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic-censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the non-vacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in non-vacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and non-gravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for non-vacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] and Linz, Friedmann, Wiseman [2]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [1] to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in an scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals that depend on the past history of the particle.
A. N. Ivanov; R. Höllwieser; T. Jenke; M. Wellenzohen; H. Abele
2012-07-02
We calculate the chameleon field potential for ultracold neutrons, bouncing on top of one or between two neutron mirrors in the gravitational field of the Earth. For the resulting non--linear equations of motion we give approximate analytical solutions and compare them with exact numerical ones for which we propose the analytical fit. The obtained solutions may be used for the quantitative analysis of contributions of a chameleon field to the transition frequencies of quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons bound in the gravitational field of the Earth.
Unified quantum jump superoperator for optical fields from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit
Haeyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Post Office Box 12200, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland)
2010-06-15
We derive a generalized quantum jump superoperator that can be used in the quantum trajectory description of single photon detectors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. Our model describes an optical single-mode cavity field coupled to a reservoir through a two-state quantum system and includes three physical parameters: the coupling of the field to the two-state system, the coupling of the two-state system to the reservoir, and the cavity loss rate. In this setup, the two-state system can act as a photodetector or as an energy-adding mechanism. In the first case, we assume that the reservoir acts as a damping mechanism for an ideal cavity and derive reduced field operators describing the photon detection events. Our model coincides with the commonly known quantum trajectory based photon counting models at the weak- and strong-coupling limits and is, furthermore, also applicable between their validity regimes. In the second case, we assume that the reservoir injects energy into a lossy cavity through the two-state system. Again we derive the reduced field operators describing photon creation events into the lossy cavity. We show that this setup can act as an LED or as a laser depending on the strength of the injection. We also investigate how the setup operates at the close proximity of the lasing threshold.
Chaotic transport in hamiltonian systems perturbed by a weak turbulent wave field.
Abdullaev, S S
2011-08-01
Chaotic transport in a hamiltonian system perturbed by a weak turbulent wave field is studied. It is assumed that a turbulent wave field has a wide spectrum containing up to thousands of modes whose phases are fluctuating in time with a finite correlation time. To integrate the hamiltonian equations a fast symplectic mapping is derived. It has a large time-step equal to one full turn in angle variable. It is found that the chaotic transport across tori caused by the interactions of small-scale resonances have a fractal-like structure with the reduced or zero values of diffusion coefficients near low-order rational tori thereby forming transport barriers there. The density of rational tori is numerically calculated and its properties are investigated. It is shown that the transport barriers are formed in the gaps of the density of rational tori near the low-order rational tori. The dependencies of the depth and width of transport barriers on the wave field spectrum and the correlation time of fluctuating turbulent field (or the Kubo number) are studied. These numerical findings may have importance in understanding the mechanisms of transport barrier formation in fusion plasmas. PMID:21929078
Synchronization dynamics induced on pairs of neurons under applied weak alternating magnetic fields.
Azanza, María J; del Moral, A; Calvo, A C; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Junquera, C
2013-12-01
Pairs of Helix aspersa neurons show an alternating magnetic field dependent frequency synchronization (AMFS) when exposed to a weak (amplitude B0 between 0.2 and 150 Gauss (G)) alternating magnetic field (AMF) of extremely low frequency (ELF, fM = 50 Hz). We have compared the AMFS patterns of discharge with: i) the synaptic activity promoted by glutamate and acetylcholine; ii) the activity induced by caffeine; iii) the bioelectric activity induced on neurons interconnected by electric synapses. AMFS activity reveals several specific features: i) a tight coincidence in time of the pattern and frequency, f, of discharge; ii) it is induced in the time interval of field application; iii) it is dependent on the intensity of the sinusoidal applied magnetic field; iv) elicited biphasic responses (excitation followed by inhibition) run in parallel for the pair of neurons; and v) some neuron pairs either spontaneously or AMF synchronized can be desynchronized under applied higher AMF. Our electron microscopy studies reveal gap-like junctions confirming our immunocytochemistry results about expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) in 4.7% of Helix neurons. AMF and carbenoxolone did not induce any significant effect on spontaneous synchronization through electric synapses. PMID:24012769
On inhomogeneous magnetic seed fields and gravitational waves within the MHD limit
Caroline Zunckel; Gerold Betschart; Peter K S Dunsby; Mattias Marklund
2006-02-09
In this paper we apply second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory to investigate the possibility that the non-linear coupling between gravitational waves (GW) and a large scale inhomogeneous magnetic field acts as an amplification mechanism in an `almost' Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe. The spatial inhomogeneities in the magnetic field are consistently implemented using the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation, which yields an additional source term due to the interaction of the magnetic field with velocity perturbations in the plasma. Comparing the solutions with the corresponding results in our previous work indicates that, on super-horizon scales, the interaction with the spatially inhomogeneous field in the dust regime induces the same boost as the case of a homogeneous field, at least in the ideal MHD approximation. This is attributed to the observation that the MHD induced part of the generated field effectively only contributes on scales where the coherence length of the initial field is less than the Hubble scale. At sub-horizon scales, the GW induced magnetic field is completely negligible in relation to the MHD induced field. Moreover, there is no amplification found in the long-wavelength limit.
Separation of polystyrene microbeads using dielectrophoretic/gravitational field-flow-fractionation.
Wang, X B; Vykoukal, J; Becker, F F; Gascoyne, P R
1998-01-01
The characterization of a dielectrophoretic/gravitational field-flow-fractionation (DEP/G-FFF) system using model polystyrene (PS) microbeads is presented. Separations of PS beads of different surface functionalization (COOH and none) and different sizes (6, 10, and 15 microm in diameter) are demonstrated. To investigate the factors influencing separation performance, particle elution times were determined as a function of particle suspension conductivity, fluid flow rate, and applied field frequency and voltage. Experimental data were analyzed using a previously reported theoretical model and good agreement between theory and experiment was found. It was shown that separation of PS beads was based on the differences in their effective dielectric properties. Particles possessing different dielectric properties were positioned at different heights in a fluid-flow profile in a thin chamber by the balance of DEP and gravitational forces, transported at different velocities under the influence of the fluid flow, and thereby separated. To explore hydrodynamic (HD) lift effects, velocities of PS beads were determined as a function of fluid flow rate in the separation chamber when no DEP field was applied. In this case, particle equilibrium height positions were governed solely by the balance of HD lift and gravitational forces. It was concluded that under the experimental conditions reported here, the DEP force was the dominant factor in controlling particle equilibrium height and that HD lift force played little role in DEP/G-FFF operation. Finally, the influence of various experimental parameters on separation performance was discussed for the optimization of DEP/G-FFF. PMID:9591693
Liu, Men-Quan
2012-01-01
Solving Newtonian steady-state wind equations with accurate weak interaction rates and magnetic fields (MFs) of young neutron stars considered, we study the dynamics and nucleosynthesis of neutrino-driven winds (NDWs) from proto neutron stars (PNSs). For a typical 1.4 M$_{\\odot}$ PNS model, we find the nucleosynthesis products are closely related to the luminosity of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The lower the luminosity is, the larger effect to the NDWs caused by weak interactions and MFs is. At a high anti-neutrino luminosity of typically $8\\times 10^{51}$ erg s$^{-1}$, neutrinos and anti-neutrinos dominate the processes in a NDW and the MFs hardly change the wind's properties. While at a low anti-neutrino luminosity of $10^{51}$ erg s$^{-1}$ at the late stage of a NDW, the mass of product and nucleosynthesis are changed significantly in the strong MFs, they are less important than those in the early stage when the anti-neutrino luminosity is high. Therefore for the most models considered for the NDWs from ...
Spin dynamics in gravitational fields of rotating bodies and the equivalence principle
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V. [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Research Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk 220080 (Belarus); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)
2009-09-15
We discuss the quantum and classical dynamics of a particle with spin in the gravitational field of a rotating source. A relativistic equation describing the motion of classical spin in curved spacetimes is obtained. We demonstrate that the precession of the classical spin is in a perfect agreement with the motion of the quantum spin derived from the Foldy-Wouthuysen approach for the Dirac particle in a curved spacetime. We show that the precession effect depends crucially on the choice of a tetrad. The results obtained are compared to the earlier computations for different tetrad gauges.
Spin dynamics in gravitational fields of rotating bodies and the equivalence principle
Yuri N. Obukhov; Alexander J. Silenko; Oleg V. Teryaev
2009-09-12
We discuss the quantum and classical dynamics of a particle with spin in the gravitational field of a rotating source. A relativistic equation describing the motion of classical spin in curved spacetimes is obtained. We demonstrate that the precession of the classical spin is in a perfect agreement with the motion of the quantum spin derived from the Foldy-Wouthuysen approach for the Dirac particle in a curved spacetime. We show that the precession effect depends crucially on the choice of a tetrad. The results obtained are compared to the earlier computations for different tetrad gauges.
Spin dynamics in gravitational fields of rotating bodies and the equivalence principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2009-09-01
We discuss the quantum and classical dynamics of a particle with spin in the gravitational field of a rotating source. A relativistic equation describing the motion of classical spin in curved spacetimes is obtained. We demonstrate that the precession of the classical spin is in a perfect agreement with the motion of the quantum spin derived from the Foldy-Wouthuysen approach for the Dirac particle in a curved spacetime. We show that the precession effect depends crucially on the choice of a tetrad. The results obtained are compared to the earlier computations for different tetrad gauges.
Effects of Electromagnetic Field on Energy Density Inhomogeneity in Self-Gravitating Fluids
M. Sharif; Neelum Bashir
2012-09-25
This paper is devoted to study the effects of electromagnetic field on the energy density inhomogeneity in the relativistic self-gravitating fluids for spherically symmetric spacetime. Two important equations of the Weyl tensor are formulated which help to analyze the energy density inhomogeneity in this scenario. We investigate two types of fluids, i.e., non-dissipative and dissipative. The non-dissipative fluid further includes dust, locally isotropic, and locally anisotropic charged fluids. We explore the effects of different factors on energy density inhomogeneity in all these cases, in particular, the effect of charge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Ferreira, C. N.; Fonseca-Neto, J. B.; Sobreira, A. A.
2003-12-01
In this paper we obtain a space-time generated by a timelike current-carrying superconducting screwed cosmic string (TCSCS). This gravitational field is obtained in a modified scalar-tensor theory in the sense that torsion is taken into account. We show that this solution is compatible with a torsion field generated by the scalar field ?. The analysis of the gravitational effects of a TCSCS shows up that the torsion effects that appear in the physical frame of Jordan-Fierz type can be described in a geometric form given by contorsion term plus a symmetric part which contains the scalar gradient. As an important application of this solution, we consider the linear perturbation method developed by Zeldovich, investigate the accretion of cold dark matter due to the formation of wakes when a TCSCS moves with speed v, and discuss the role played by torsion. Our results are compared with those obtained for cosmic strings in the framework of scalar-tensor theories without taking torsion into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharifi, M. A.; Seif, M. R.
2011-09-01
The analytical methods have nearly been replaced by the numerical methods due to their higher accuracy and accessibility of computation facilities. The semi-analytical Lagrange method of orbit propagation using f and g series is a competitive alternative to the numerical integration technique if the Lagrange coefficients are derived in a full gravitational field. In this paper, a generalization of the Lagrange method of orbit propagation is introduced. In other words, we introduce a complete form of the Lagrange coefficients in all force fields developed in the spherical harmonics for example full gravitational field of the Earth. The method is numerically compared with the numerical integration technique. In order to show the numerical performance of the method, it has been implemented for orbit propagation of a GPS-like MEO and CHAMP-like LEO satellites. Discrepancy at centimeter level for CHAMP-like and sub-millimeter accuracy for GPS-like satellites shows relatively high performance of the developed algorithm. Compared to integration method, the proposed Lagrange method is nearly faster by a factor two for small Nmax and four for large Nmax.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombeau, M.
2015-06-01
We construct a family of classical continuous functions S(x, y, z, t, ?) which tend to satisfy asymptotically the system of selfgravitating pressureless fluids when ? ? 0. This produces a weak asymptotic method in the sense of Danilov, Omel'yanov, and Shelkovich. The construction is based on a family of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) (one for the continuity equation and one for the Euler equation) in classical Banach spaces of continuous functions. This construction applies to 3-D self-gravitating pressureless fluids even in presence of point and string concentrations of matter. The method is constructive which permits to check numerically from standard methods for ODEs that these functions tend to the known or admitted solutions when the latter exist. As a direct application, we present a simulation of formation and evolution of a planetary system from a rotating disk of dust: a theorem in this paper asserts that the observed results are a depiction of functions that satisfy the system with arbitrary precision.
Observing optical coherence across Fock layers with weak-field homodyne detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donati, Gaia; Bartley, Tim J.; Jin, Xian-Min; Vidrighin, Mihai-Dorian; Datta, Animesh; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A.
2014-11-01
Quantum properties of optical modes are typically assessed by observing their photon statistics or the distribution of their quadratures. Both particle- and wave-like behaviours deliver important information and each may be used as a resource in quantum-enhanced technologies. Weak-field homodyne (WFH) detection provides a scheme that combines the wave- and particle-like descriptions. Here we show that it is possible to observe a wave-like property such as the optical coherence across Fock basis states in the detection statistics derived from discrete photon counting. We experimentally demonstrate these correlations using two WHF detectors on each mode of two classes of two-mode entangled states. Furthermore, we theoretically describe the response of WHF detection on a two-mode squeezed state in the context of generalized Bell inequalities. Our work demonstrates the potential of this technique as a tool for hybrid continuous/discrete-variable protocols on a phenomenon that explicitly combines both approaches.
Temperature and magnetic field dependence of a Kondo system in the weak coupling regime
Zhang, Yong-hui; Kahle, Steffen; Herden, Tobias; Stroh, Christophe; Mayor, Marcel; Schlickum, Uta; Ternes, Markus; Wahl, Peter; Kern, Klaus
2013-01-01
The Kondo effect arises due to the interaction between a localized spin and the electrons of a surrounding host. Studies of individual magnetic impurities by scanning tunneling spectroscopy have renewed interest in Kondo physics; however, a quantitative comparison with theoretical predictions remained challenging. Here we show that the zero-bias anomaly detected on an organic radical weakly coupled to a Au (111) surface can be described with astonishing agreement by perturbation theory as originally developed by Kondo 60 years ago. Our results demonstrate that Kondo physics can only be fully conceived by studying both temperature and magnetic field dependence of the resonance. The identification of a spin 1/2 Kondo system is of relevance not only as a benchmark for predictions for Kondo physics but also for correlated electron materials in general. PMID:23817525
Temperature and magnetic field dependence of a Kondo system in the weak coupling regime.
Zhang, Yong-hui; Kahle, Steffen; Herden, Tobias; Stroh, Christophe; Mayor, Marcel; Schlickum, Uta; Ternes, Markus; Wahl, Peter; Kern, Klaus
2013-01-01
The Kondo effect arises due to the interaction between a localized spin and the electrons of a surrounding host. Studies of individual magnetic impurities by scanning tunneling spectroscopy have renewed interest in Kondo physics; however, a quantitative comparison with theoretical predictions remained challenging. Here we show that the zero-bias anomaly detected on an organic radical weakly coupled to a Au (111) surface can be described with astonishing agreement by perturbation theory as originally developed by Kondo 60 years ago. Our results demonstrate that Kondo physics can only be fully conceived by studying both temperature and magnetic field dependence of the resonance. The identification of a spin 1/2 Kondo system is of relevance not only as a benchmark for predictions for Kondo physics but also for correlated electron materials in general. PMID:23817525
Choi, Y J; Zhang, C L; Lee, N; Cheong, S-W
2010-08-27
From our investigation of magnetoelectric properties of a multiferroic phase in Eu0.75Y0.25MnO3 competing with a weak-ferromagnetic phase in magnetic fields, we found intriguing hysteretic behaviors of physical properties with variation of temperature and magnetic field. These hysteretic behaviors arise from the kinetic arrest (dearrest) processes of the first-order multiferroic-weak-ferromagnetic transition, resulting in frozen (melted) magnetoelectric glass states with coexisting two phases. Tipping the delicate balance of two competing phases by applying electric and magnetic fields leads to a remarkable control of magnetization and electric polarization. PMID:20868188
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Nagendra; Srivastava, Krishna M.; Mittal, R. C.
1993-01-01
The problem of gravitational instability of an infinite homogeneous self-gravitating medium carrying a uniform magnetic field in the presence of Hall effect has been investigated to include the effect due to rotation. The dispersion relation has been obtained. It has been found that the Jeans's criterion for the instability remains unaffected even when the effect due to rotation is considered in the presence of Hall effect carrying a uniform magnetic.
Alexander Pazur
2004-01-01
BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate altered metabolism and enzyme kinetics for various organisms, as well as changes of neuronal functions and behaviour of higher animals, when they were exposed to specific combinations of weak static and alternating low frequency electromagnetic fields. Field strengths and frequencies, as well as properties of involved ions were related by a linear equation, known as the
Hanle effect in the solar Ba II D2 line: a diagnostic tool for chromospheric weak magnetic fields
M. Faurobert; M. Derouich; V. Bommier; J. Arnaud
2009-01-03
The physics of the solar chromosphere depends in a crucial way on its magnetic structure. However there are presently very few direct magnetic field diagnostics available for this region. Here we investigate the diagnostic potential of the Hanle effect on the Ba II D2 line resonance polarization for the determination of weak chromospheric turbulent magnetic fields......
The magnetic field and spectral variability of the He-weak star HR 2949
Shultz, M; Folsom, C P; Wade, G A; Townsend, R H D; Sikora, J; Grunhut, J; Stahl, O
2015-01-01
We analyze a high resolution spectropolarimetric dataset collected for the He-weak B3p IV star HR 2949. The Zeeman effect is visible in the circularly polarized component of numerous spectral lines. The longitudinal magnetic field varies between approximately $-650$ and $+150$ G. The polar strength of the surface magnetic dipole is calculated to be 2.4$^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ kG. The star has strong overabundances of Fe-peak elements, along with extremely strong overabundances of rare-earth elements; however, He, Al, and S are underabundant. This implies that HR 2949 is a chemically peculiar star. Variability is seen in all photospheric lines, likely due to abundance patches as seen in many Ap/Bp stars. Longitudinal magnetic field variations measured from different spectral lines yield different results, likely a consequence of uneven sampling of the photospheric magnetic field by the abundance patches. Analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data for both HR 2949 and its companion star, HR 2948, suggests a revisio...
Castello, Pablo R; Hill, Iain; Sivo, Frank; Portelli, Lucas; Barnes, Frank; Usselman, Robert; Martino, Carlos F
2014-12-01
This study presents experimental data for the effects of weak radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and cellular growth rates of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in vitro. Cells were exposed either to 45 ľT static magnetic fields (SMFs)-oriented vertical to the plane of growth or to SMFs combined with weak 5 and 10 MHz RF magnetic fields of 10 ľTRMS intensity perpendicular to the static field. Cell numbers were reduced up to 30% on Day 2 for the cells exposed to the combination of SMF and a 10 MHz RF magnetic field compared with the SMF control cells. In addition, cells exposed to 10 MHz RF magnetic fields for 8 h increased H2O2 production by 55%. The results demonstrate an overall magnetic field-induced biological effect that shows elevated H2O2 levels with accompanying decrease in cellular growth rates. PMID:25251337
Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.
Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-07-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593
SELF-GRAVITATING BODY WITH AN INTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD. I. NEW ANALYTICAL EQUILIBRIA
Aly, J.-J. [AIM-Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS-Universite Paris VII-UMR no. 7158, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Amari, T., E-mail: jean-jacques.aly@cea.fr [CNRS, Centre de Physique Theorique de l'Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2012-05-01
We construct exact analytical solutions of the equations describing the equilibrium of a self-gravitating magnetized fluid body, possibly rigidly rotating, by superposing two solutions of finite energy defined in the whole space, one describing a non-magnetized gravitating equilibrium (ST1) and the other describing a magnetized non-gravitating equilibrium (ST2). A large number of ST1s can be found in the literature and directly used for our constructions, and we thus concentrate on ST2s, which are difficult to obtain. We derive some of their general properties and exhibit two explicit classes of axisymmetric 'elementary' such equilibria. The first one is extracted from the stellar models proposed by Prendergast and by Kutvitskii and Solov'ev, respectively. The second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which the magnetic pressure is constant on each flux surface. Both types of ST2s have their magnetic field confined within a bounded region, respectively, of spherical and toroidal shapes. A much more general ST2 can be obtained by juxtaposing n+q elementary ST2s, with n of the first type and q of the second type, in such a way that the magnetic regions do not pairwise overlap. The specific equilibria we obtain by superposition thus have no external field extending to infinity, and may be three dimensional (3D), which invalidates a recent nonexistence conjecture. Moreover, they may be arranged to contain force-free regions. Our superposition method can be considered as a 3D generalization of the axisymmetric splitting method previously developed by Kutvitskii and Solov'ev.
Self-gravitating Body with an Internal Magnetic Field. I. New Analytical Equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aly, J.-J.; Amari, T.
2012-05-01
We construct exact analytical solutions of the equations describing the equilibrium of a self-gravitating magnetized fluid body, possibly rigidly rotating, by superposing two solutions of finite energy defined in the whole space, one describing a non-magnetized gravitating equilibrium (ST1) and the other describing a magnetized non-gravitating equilibrium (ST2). A large number of ST1s can be found in the literature and directly used for our constructions, and we thus concentrate on ST2s, which are difficult to obtain. We derive some of their general properties and exhibit two explicit classes of axisymmetric "elementary" such equilibria. The first one is extracted from the stellar models proposed by Prendergast and by Kutvitskii & Solov'ev, respectively. The second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which the magnetic pressure is constant on each flux surface. Both types of ST2s have their magnetic field confined within a bounded region, respectively, of spherical and toroidal shapes. A much more general ST2 can be obtained by juxtaposing n+q elementary ST2s, with n of the first type and q of the second type, in such a way that the magnetic regions do not pairwise overlap. The specific equilibria we obtain by superposition thus have no external field extending to infinity, and may be three dimensional (3D), which invalidates a recent nonexistence conjecture. Moreover, they may be arranged to contain force-free regions. Our superposition method can be considered as a 3D generalization of the axisymmetric splitting method previously developed by Kutvitskii & Solov'ev.
Multi-field DBI inflation: introducing bulk forms and revisiting the gravitational wave constraints
David Langlois; Sebastien Renaux-Petel; Daniele A. Steer
2009-02-17
We study multi-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation models, taking into account the NS-NS and R-R bulk fields present in generic flux compactifications. We compute the second-order action, which governs the behaviour of linear cosmological perturbations, as well as the third-order action, which can be used to calculate non-Gaussianities in these models. Remarkably, for scalar-type perturbations, we show that the contributions due to the various form fields exactly cancel in both the second- and third-order actions. Primordial perturbations and their non-Gaussianities are therefore unaffected by the presence of form fields and our previous results are unmodified. We also study vector-type perturbations associated with the U(1) gauge field confined on the D3-brane, and discuss whether their quantum fluctuations can be amplified. Finally, we revisit the gravitational wave constraints on DBI inflation and show that an ultra-violet DBI multi-field scenario is still compatible with data, in contrast with the single field case, provided there is a transfer from entropy into adiabatic perturbations.
Multi-field DBI inflation: introducing bulk forms and revisiting the gravitational wave constraints
Langlois, David; Renaux-Petel, Sebastien; Steer, Daniele A., E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: renaux@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC (Astroparticules et Cosmologie), UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7), 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2009-04-15
We study multi-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation models, taking into account the NS-NS and R-R bulk fields present in generic flux compactifications. We compute the second-order action, which governs the behaviour of linear cosmological perturbations, as well as the third-order action, which can be used to calculate non-Gaussianities in these models. Remarkably, for scalar-type perturbations, we show that the contributions due to the various form fields exactly cancel in both the second- and third-order actions. Primordial perturbations and their non-Gaussianities are therefore unaffected by the presence of form fields and our previous results are unmodified. We also study vector-type perturbations associated with the U(1) gauge field confined on the D3-brane, and discuss whether their quantum fluctuations can be amplified. Finally, we revisit the gravitational wave constraints on DBI inflation and show that an ultra-violet DBI multi-field scenario is still compatible with data, in contrast with the single field case, provided there is a transfer from entropy into adiabatic perturbations.
Gravitational instabilities in a proto-planetary disk including the effects of magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noh, Hyerim; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Cochran, William D.
1994-01-01
We investigate the gravitational instability of a thin, Keplerian protoplanetary disk including the effects of a largely azimuthal magnetic field. The model follows that of our previous work (Noh, Vishniac, & Cochran 1991) except for the inclusion of a magnetic field. The disk is assumed to consist of neutral and ionized gas and neutral dust which are coupled by gravity and friction. The growth rates and eigenfunctions are calculated numerically using nonaxisymmetric linear perturbation methods. The results show that the growth rate has a maximum at some intermediate azimuthal number m, but for each value of m it is reduced relative to the unmagnetized case. The effects of the magnetic field appear more strongly on small scales. As the strength of the equilibrium magnetic field increases the growth rates decrease, and the maximum instability occurs at a lower value on m due to the increasing magnetic pressure. The response of each component to the magnetic field is discussed using the behavior of the eigenfunctions in the radial direction. With the inclusion of the magnetic field, the effects of the ionization fraction and friction on the growth rates also appear to be important for high m modes. Increasing the ionization fraction or the friction suppresses instability, but only slightly changes the maximally unstable azimuthal scales. The enhanced growth rates due to a dust component for which thermal pressure is negligible are somewhat reduced by the inclusion of a magnetic field. The effects of different boundary conditions (reflecting and transmitting) on the growth rates are also shown.
Explaining atomic clock behavior in a gravitational field with only 1905 Relativity
Rafael A. Valls Hidalgo-Gato; Natalio Svarch Scharager
2010-09-27
Supported only in the two 1905 Einstein's papers on Relativity and a very rigid respect for the historical context, an analysis is done of the derivation of the universal mass-energy relationship. It is found, contrary to the today accepted Physics knowledge, that a body's Rest Mass measures its Potential Energy in the 1905 context. After emphasizing the difference between 1905 Relativity (1905R) and Special Relativity (SR), the developing of a 1905R relativistic gravity is started for a small mass m material point moving in the central gravitational field of a great mass M one. A formula for the rest mass m_0 as a function of its distance r from M is obtained. Finally, those results are applied to an atomic clock in a gravitational field, reaching a factor to obtain the clock time rate change very close to the GR one. The factors from 1905R and GR are compared, emphasizing the absent of a singularity in 1905R. In the conclusions, a new road for the development of a 1905R relativistic mechanics is declared, related with the discovery that Rest Mass measures Potential Energy, done by 1905 Einstein even if not realizing it.
Gravitational field of a hedgehog and the evolution of vacuum bubbles
Guendelman, E.I. (Department of Nuclear Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)); Rabinowitz, A. (Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel))
1991-11-15
The gravitational field produced by a spherically symmetric hedgehog'' configuration in scalar field theories with global SO(3) symmetry (or higher) is studied in the limit in which these models become nonlinear {sigma} models. The same gravitational effect can be generated by a set of cosmic strings intersecting at a point, in the limit that one considers a continuous distribution of such intersecting strings in a spherically symmetric configuration (to be referred to as the string hedgehog''). When the energy densities associated with the hedgehog are small, we obtain a static geometry, but for higher values, the resulting geometry is that of an anisotropic cosmology. The evolution of bubbles joining two phases, one of which contains a hedgehog (as defined above) is investigated. The role of such configurations in processes that lead to classical false-vacuum destabilization and in the evolution of inflationary bubbles is discussed. The generalization of our results to the gauged case, i.e., to magnetic-monopole hedgehogs, is discussed.
Gravitational field of a hedgehog and the evolution of vacuum bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guendelman, E. I.; Rabinowitz, A.
1991-11-01
The gravitational field produced by a spherically symmetric ``hedgehog'' configuration in scalar field theories with global SO(3) symmetry (or higher) is studied in the limit in which these models become nonlinear ? models. The same gravitational effect can be generated by a set of cosmic strings intersecting at a point, in the limit that one considers a continuous distribution of such intersecting strings in a spherically symmetric configuration (to be referred to as the ``string hedgehog''). When the energy densities associated with the hedgehog are small, we obtain a static geometry, but for higher values, the resulting geometry is that of an anisotropic cosmology. The evolution of bubbles joining two phases, one of which contains a hedgehog (as defined above) is investigated. The role of such configurations in processes that lead to classical false-vacuum destabilization and in the evolution of inflationary bubbles is discussed. The generalization of our results to the gauged case, i.e., to magnetic-monopole hedgehogs, is discussed.
Gas-Phase Influence on Quasisteady "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We consider the SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) process for synthesizing materials. In this process a powder mixture of reactants is cold pressed into a sample, which is ignited at one end. A high temperature combustion wave then propagates through the sample converting reactants to the desired product material. In this process, melting of some or all the components is often observed. Therefore, we study combustion waves propagating through a high caloricity inorganic powder mixture whose combustion temperature exceeds the melting temperatures of many components. The solid matrix is thus destroyed by the propagating combustion wave due to melting ahead of the reaction zone, and a liquid bath is formed which contains gaseous bubbles. The waves propagate in the presence of a gravitational field. Due to the effect of gravity, there is relative motion between the rising bubbles and the descending bath, which affects the composition of the medium, its thermophysical properties, the 'liquid flame' structure, and the propagation velocity. To enhance our understanding of phenomena associated with the interaction of the relative motion with the propagating combustion wave we formulate and analyze a relatively simple mathematical model of liquid flames in a gravitational field. We describe the wave structure and combustion characteristics including the combustion velocity. We compare our results to existing experimental observations and suggest new experiments to be performed. We consider the effects of gravity and, in particular, examine both microgravity and large gravity conditions.
Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks by Singular Value Decomposition and Gravitation Field Algorithm
Zheng, Ming; Wu, Jia-nan; Huang, Yan-xin; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is of utmost interest and has become a challenge computational problem in system biology. However, every existing inference algorithm from gene expression profiles has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of every previous algorithm is not high enough. In this work, we proposed a novel inference algorithm from gene expression data based on differential equation model. In this algorithm, two methods were included for inferring GRNs. Before reconstructing GRNs, singular value decomposition method was used to decompose gene expression data, determine the algorithm solution space, and get all candidate solutions of GRNs. In these generated family of candidate solutions, gravitation field algorithm was modified to infer GRNs, used to optimize the criteria of differential equation model, and search the best network structure result. The proposed algorithm is validated on both the simulated scale-free network and real benchmark gene regulatory network in networks database. Both the Bayesian method and the traditional differential equation model were also used to infer GRNs, and the results were used to compare with the proposed algorithm in our work. And genetic algorithm and simulated annealing were also used to evaluate gravitation field algorithm. The cross-validation results confirmed the effectiveness of our algorithm, which outperforms significantly other previous algorithms. PMID:23226565
Binary-Pulsar Tests of Strong-Field Gravity and Gravitational Radiation Damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito-Farese, Gilles
2006-02-01
This talk reviews the constraints imposed by binary-pulsar data on gravity theories, focusing on "tensor-scalar" ones which are the best motivated alternatives to general relativity. We recall that binary-pulsar tests are qualitatively different from solar-system experiments, because of nonperturbative strong-field effects which can occur in compact objects like neutron stars, and because one can observe the effect of gravitational radiation damping. Some theories which are strictly indistinguishable from general relativity in the solar system are ruled out by binary-pulsar observations. During the last months, several impressive new experimental data have been published. Today, the most constraining binary pulsar is no longer the celebrated (Hulse-Taylor) PSR B1913+16, but the neutron star-white dwarf system PSR J1141-6545. In particular, in a region of the "theory space", solar-system tests were known to give the tightest constraints; PSR J1141-6545 is now almost as powerful. We also comment on the possible scalar-field effects for the detection of gravitational waves with future interferometers. The presence of a scalar partner to the graviton might be detectable with the LISA space experiment, but we already know that it would have a negligible effect for LIGO and VIRGO, so that the general relativistic wave templates can be used securely for these ground interferometers.
Formation of graded vanadium oxide (V-O compound) under strong gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira; Mashimo, Tsutomu
2015-05-01
Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397 × 106 G at 400 °C for 24 h) on a V2O5 polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO2 and V2O3 phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V2O5 phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09 eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.
Spin entanglement of two spin-1/2 particles in a classical gravitational field
Bahram Nasr Esfahani
2010-10-25
The effect of a classical gravitational field on the spin entanglement of a system of two spin-1/2 particles moving in the curved spacetime is discussed. The system is described by a two-particle Gaussian wave packet represented in the momentum space and both the acceleration of the system and the curvature of the spacetime cause to produce a Wigner rotation acting on the wave packet as it moves along a path in the curved spacetime. By calculating the reduced density operator at a final point, we focus on the spin entanglement of the system. In a spherically symmetric and static gravitational field, for example a charged black hole, there can be particular paths on which the Wigner rotation is trivial and so the initial reduced density matrix remains intact. This causes the spin entanglement to be invariant during the motion. The spin entanglement descends to zero by increasing the angular velocity of the mean centroid of the system as well increasing the proper time during which the centroid moves on its circular path around the center.
Spin entanglement of two spin-1/2 particles in a classical gravitational field
Esfahani, Bahram Nasr
2010-01-01
The effect of a classical gravitational field on the spin entanglement of a system of two spin-1/2 particles moving in the curved spacetime is discussed. The system is described by a two-particle Gaussian wave packet represented in the momentum space and both the acceleration of the system and the curvature of the spacetime cause to produce a Wigner rotation acting on the wave packet as it moves along a path in the curved spacetime. By calculating the reduced density operator at a final point, we focus on the spin entanglement of the system. In a spherically symmetric and static gravitational field, for example a charged black hole, there can be particular paths on which the Wigner rotation is trivial and so the initial reduced density matrix remains intact. This causes the spin entanglement to be invariant during the motion. The spin entanglement descends to zero by increasing the angular velocity of the mean centroid of the system as well increasing the proper time during which the centroid moves on its cir...
Hans-Juergen Busack; Wulfsdorfer Weg
2007-01-01
All anomalous velocity increases until now observed during the Earth flybys of the spacecrafts Galileo, NEAR, Rosetta, Cassini and Messenger have been correctly calculated by computer simulation using an asymmetric field term in addition to the Newtonian gravitational field. The specific characteristic of this term is the lack of coupling to the rotation of the Earth or to the direction
The magnetic field and spectral variability of the He-weak star HR 2949
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, M.; Rivinius, Th.; Folsom, C. P.; Wade, G. A.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Sikora, J.; Grunhut, J.; Stahl, O.; MiMeS Collaboration
2015-06-01
We analyse a high-resolution spectropolarimetric data set collected for the He-weak B3p IV star HR 2949. The Zeeman effect is visible in the circularly polarized component of numerous spectral lines. The longitudinal magnetic field varies between approximately -650 and +150 G. The polar strength of the surface magnetic dipole is calculated to be 2.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2} kG. The star has strong overabundances of Fe-peak elements, along with extremely strong overabundances of rare-earth elements; however, He, Al, and S are underabundant. This implies that HR 2949 is a chemically peculiar star. Variability is seen in all photospheric lines, likely due to abundance patches as seen in many Ap/Bp stars. Longitudinal magnetic field variations measured from different spectral lines yield different results, likely a consequence of uneven sampling of the photospheric magnetic field by the abundance patches. Analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data for both HR 2949 and its companion star, HR 2948, suggests a revision of HR 2949's fundamental parameters: in particular, it is somewhat larger, hotter, and more luminous than previously believed. There is no evidence of optical or ultraviolet emission originating in HR 2949's magnetosphere, despite its moderately strong magnetic field and relatively rapid rotation; however, when calculated using theoretical and empirical boundaries on the initial rotational velocity, the spin-down age is compatible with the stellar age. With the extensive phase coverage presented here, HR 2949 will make an excellent subject for Zeeman Doppler imaging.
A search for weak or complex magnetic fields in the B3V star ? Herculis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, G. A.; Folsom, C. P.; Petit, P.; Petit, V.; Ligničres, F.; Auričre, M.; Böhm, T.
2014-11-01
We obtained 128 high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V spectra of the B3V star ? Her on five consecutive nights in 2012 with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with the aim of searching for the presence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) mean profiles were computed from individual spectra, averaged over individual nights and over the entire run. No Zeeman signatures are detected in any of the profiles. The longitudinal magnetic field in the grand average profile was measured to be -0.24 ą 0.32 G, as compared to -0.22 ą 0.32 G in the null profile. Our observations therefore provide no evidence for the presence of Zeeman signatures analogous to those observed in the A0V star Vega by Ligničres et al. We interpret these observations in three ways. First, we compare the LSD profiles with synthetic Stokes V profiles corresponding to organized (dipolar) magnetic fields, for which we find an upper limit of about 8 G on the polar strength of any surface dipole present. Secondly, we compare the grand average profile with calculations corresponding to the random magnetic spot topologies of Kochukhov & Sudnik, inferring that spots, if present, of 2° radius with strengths of 2-4 G and a filling factor of 50 per cent should have been detected in our data. Finally, we compare the observations with synthetic V profiles corresponding to the surface magnetic maps of Vega (Petit et al.) computed for the spectral characteristics of ? Her. We conclude that while it is unlikely we would have detected a magnetic field identical to Vega's, we would have likely detected one with a peak strength of about 30 G, i.e. approximately four times as strong as that of Vega.
Equilibrium of a system of superconducting rings in a uniform gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishaev, A. M.; Bush, A. A.; Gavrikov, M. B.; Gordeev, I. S.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Savel'ev, V. V.; Sigov, A. S.
2013-05-01
To construct a plasma trap with levitating magnetic coils in the thin ring approximation, we derive the expression for the potential energy of a system of several superconducting rings (one of which is fixed) capturing the preset flows in the uniform gravitational field as a function of the coordinates of the free ring (or rings). Calculations performed in the Mathcad system show that the potential energy of such a system has a local minimum for certain values of parameters. Stable levitation of a superconducting ring in the position corresponding to calculations is realized in the field of another superconducting ring, and this leads to the conclusion that a magnetic Galatea trap can be prepared on the basis of a levitating quadrupole.
Scalar particle in general inertial and gravitational fields and conformal invariance revisited
Silenko, Alexander J
2013-01-01
The new manifestation of conformal invariance for a massless scalar particle in a non-Minkowskian spacetime is found. Conformal transformations conserve the Hamiltonian and wave function in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. Similarity of conformal transformations for massless scalar and Dirac particles is proved. Exact FW Hamiltonians are derived for both massive and massless scalar particles in general static inertial and gravitational fields and for particles in a frame rotating in the field of a rotating source. The latter case covers an observer on the ground of the Earth or on a satellite and takes into account not only the rotation but also the Lense-Thirring effect. High-precision formulas are obtained for an arbitrary spacetime metric. General quantum-mechanical equations of motion are derived. Their classical limit coincides with corresponding classical equations.
A null-tetrad approach to Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in matter
Udeschini, E.B.; Magli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica del Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Matematica del Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
1996-11-01
The null tetrad formalism is used to investigate the structure of the Einstein field equations for Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in the presence of an elastic solid source. It is shown that such equations may be reduced to five nonlinear partial differential equations for five variables. It turns out that, when the interior solutions admit the same preferred null congruence of the vacuum ones and some compatibility conditions hold, it is possible to reduce them to a linear system and to develop a method of solution which closely resembles the {open_quote}{open_quote}variation of the arbitrary constants{close_quote}{close_quote} for ordinary differential equations. In the present paper, the above technical framework is developed in general and applied to two simple examples, deferring to future work the approach to the Kerr{endash}interior problem. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses: The Redshift Catalog
Momcheva, Ivelina; Cool, Richard J; Keeton, Charles R; Zabludoff, Ann I
2015-01-01
We present the spectroscopic redshift catalog from a wide-field survey of the fields of 28 galaxy-mass strong gravitational lenses. We discuss the acquisition and reduction of the survey data, collected over 40 nights of 6.5m MMT and Magellan time, employing four different multi-object spectrographs. We determine that no biases are introduced by combining datasets obtained with different instrument/spectrograph combinations. Special care is taken to determine redshift uncertainties using repeat observations. The redshift catalog consists of 9768 new and unique galaxy redshifts. 82.4% of the catalog redshifts are between z=0.1 and z=0.7, and the catalog median redshift is z=0.36. The data from this survey will be used to study the lens environments and line-of-sight structures to gain a better understanding of the effects of large scale structure on lens statistics and lens-derived parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudskikh, V. V.
2014-05-01
Magnetorotational instability of a weakly ionized accretion disk with an admixture of charged dust grains in a magnetic field with the axial and toroidal components is analyzed. The dispersion relation for perturbations perpendicular to the disk plane is derived with allowance for both the Hall current and the finite transverse plasma conductivity. It is shown that dust grains play an important role in the disk magnetic dynamics. Due to the effect of dust grains, the Hall current can reverse its direction as compared to the case of electron-ion plasma. As a result, the instability threshold shifts toward the short-wavelength range. Under certain conditions, electromagnetic fluctuations of any length can become unstable. It is established that the instability criterion for waves of any scale length is satisfied within a finite interval of the density ratio between the dust and electron plasma components. The width of this interval and the instability growth rate as functions of the plasma parameters and the configuration of the magnetic field in the disk are analyzed.
Classical and Quantum Decay of Oscillatons: Oscillating Self-Gravitating Real Scalar Field Solitons
Don N. Page
2003-10-02
The oscillating gravitational field of an oscillaton of finite mass M causes it to lose energy by emitting classical scalar field waves, but at a rate that is non-perturbatively tiny for small GMm, where m is the scalar field mass: d(GM)/dt ~ -3797437.776333015 e^[-39.433795197160163/(GMm)]/(GMm)^2. Oscillatons also decay by the quantum process of the annihilation of scalarons into gravitons, which is only perturbatively small in GMm, giving by itself d(GM)/dt ~ - 0.008513223934732692 G m^2 (GMm)^5. Thus the quantum decay is faster than the classical one for Gmm < 39.4338/[ln(1/Gm^2)}-7ln(GMm)+19.9160]. The time for an oscillaton to decay away completely into free scalarons and gravitons is ~ 2/(G^5 m^11) ~ 10^324 yr (1 meV/m)^11. Oscillatons of more than one real scalar field of the same mass generically asymptotically approach a static-geometry U(1) boson star configuration with GMm = GM_0 m, at the rate d(GM/c^3)/dt ~ [(C/(GMm)^4)e^{-alpha/(GMm)}+Q(m/m_{Pl})^2(GMm)^3] [(GMm)^2-(GM_0 m)^2], with GM_0 m depending on the magnitudes and relative phases of the oscillating fields, and with the same constants C, alpha, and Q given numerically above for the single-field case that is equivalent to GM_0 m = 0.
Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study
Libersky, Matthew Murray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-09-04
The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.
Improved mapping of planetary gravitational field with an electrostatic accelerometer/gradiometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulon, Bernard; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Francoise; Christophe, Bruno; Hardy, Emilie; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy
2015-04-01
ONERA has a proven record spanning several years in developing the most accurate accelerometers for geodesy missions. They are still operational in the GRACE mission and their successors for the GRACE-FO mission will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has shown the benefit of using a gradiometer for the direct measurement of the gravity field. Now, ONERA proposes a new accelerometer design, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary missions. This design based on the same technology as for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, with the notable addition of a bias rejection system, has a reduced mass and consumption. The accelerometer is embarked on Uranus Pathfinder (mission proposal for Cosmic M4) as up-scope instrument to achieve two scientific objectives: 1) to determine the gravity fields of Uranus and the satellites, allowing for a better understanding of the planet interior composition, 2) to test gravity at the largest possible length scales to search for deviations from General Relativity. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science field. The poster details the accuracy which can be achieved on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations. It describes the instrument and its integration inside an interplanetary probe. Finally, it explains the benefit of using this electrostatic accelerometer complementary to radio science technology for improved planetary gravitational field measurements.
Miroslav Sukenik; Jozef Sima; Julius Vanko
2000-01-01
Applying the Vaidya metrics in the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe (ENU) leads to compatibility of the ENU model both with the classic Newton gravitational theory and the general theory of relativity in weak fields
Miroslav Sukenik; Jozef Sima; Julius Vanko
2000-04-20
Applying the Vaidya metrics in the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe (ENU) leads to compatibility of the ENU model both with the classic Newton gravitational theory and the general theory of relativity in weak fields
S. Donev
1985-01-01
A generalization of Newton's gravitational theory to time-dependent gravitational fields is presented. A conservation law is derived in which a nonzero divergence of the full energy-momentum tensor leads to creation or annihilation of rest mass sources. Newton's theory is obtained as a linear static approximation. The main weakness of the model is that it cannot describe naturally the deflection of
High frequency gravitational wave of a composite toroidal electromagnetic resonant system
Tang Meng-xi; Li Fang-yu; Luo Jun
1997-01-01
Starting with the Einstein equation of weak gravitational field, a new scheme of generating high frequency gravitational wave by composite toroidal electromagnetic resonant system is discussed. The system is a composite toroidal electromagnetic resonant cavity consisting of a vacuum and a dielectric regions. In the focal region of the cavity under the condition of allowable ohmic losses in the cavity
Subtle consequences of exposure to weak microwave fields: Are there non-thermal effects?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovely, R. H.; Mizumori, S. J. Y.; Johnson, R. B.; Guy, A. W.
When we speak of subtle consequences of exposure we mean only that the effects were observed in the absence of changes in core temperature due to microwave exposure. When we measure + delta T degree C in core temperature consequent to microwave exposure, we are witnessing a breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanisms. Short of this event, the exposed subject makes a number of thermoregulatory and metabolic accommodations to maintain a constant body temperature and to deal effectively with the energy being deposited in its tissues. These latter changes should interest us for they are the subtle consequences exposure to weak microwave fields. The long-term accommodations, which accompany subchronic exposure, can lead to a number of interesting effects some of which are described below. Two fundamentally different types of experimental protocol were employed. In Experiment 1A, independent groups of male rats were either exposed or sham-exposed to 915 MHz microwaves for 10 hr/night for up to 4 mo. In Experiment 1B, independent groups of rats were similarly exposed, or sham-exposed, to 2450 MHz microwaves for 10 hr/night for 4 mo. In Experiment 2, using a different type of protocol, pregnant female rats were exposed for 20 hr/day for 19 days of gestation. Control groups were either sham-exposed or served as caged controls. The main focus of the study attended to assessment of various functions and the developmental status of the gravid rats' progeny.
A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David
2013-04-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.
Frilot, C; Carrubba, S; Marino, A A
2014-01-31
Subliminal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) triggered nonlinear evoked potentials in awake but not anesthetized animals, and increased glucose metabolism in the hindbrain. Field detection occurred somewhere in the head and possibly was an unrecognized function of sensory neurons in facial skin, which synapse in the trigeminal nucleus and project to the thalamus via glutamate-dependent pathways. If so, anesthetic agents that antagonize glutamate neurotransmission would be expected to degrade EMF-evoked potentials (EEPs) to a greater extent than agents having different pharmacological effects. We tested the hypothesis using ketamine which blocks N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs), and xylazine which is an ??-adrenoreceptor agonist. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of rats were examined using recurrence analysis to observe EEPs in the presence and absence of ketamine and/or xylazine anesthesia. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) served as positive controls. The frequency of observation of evoked potentials in a given condition (wake or anesthesia) was compared with that due to chance using the Fisher's exact test. EEPs were observed in awake rats but not while they were under anesthesia produced using a cocktail of xylazine and ketamine. In another experiment each rat was measured while awake and while under anesthesia produced using either xylazine or ketamine. EEPs and AEPs were detected during wake and under xylazine (P<0.05 in each of the four measurements). In contrast, neither EEPs nor AEPs were observed when anesthesia was produced partly or wholly using ketamine. The duration and latency of the EEPs was unaltered by xylazine anesthesia. The afferent signal triggered by the transduction of weak EMFs was likely mediated by NMDAR-mediated glutamate neurotransmission. PMID:24239718
Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments.
Craven, Galen T; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-02-21
Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates predicted by stability analysis and rates obtained through numerical calculation of the reactive flux. We also show that the optimal dividing surface and the resulting reaction rate for a reactive system driven by weak thermal noise can be approximated well using the transition state geometry of the underlying deterministic system. This agreement persists as long as the thermal driving strength is less than the order of that of the periodic driving. The power of this result is its simplicity. The surprising accuracy of the time-dependent noise-free geometry for obtaining transition state theory rates in chemical reactions driven by periodic fields reveals the dynamics without requiring the cost of brute-force calculations. PMID:25702003
Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitĂ¤t, MĂźnchen
Kondo effect in a one-electron double quantum dot: Oscillations of the Kondo current in a weak December 2006 We present transport measurements of the Kondo effect in a double quantum dot charged quasiperiodic oscillation of the Kondo conductance as a function of a small perpendicular magnetic field B 50 m
Sergey Edward Lyshevski
2008-01-01
We study phenomena and effects which can be utilized to sense weak magnetic fields by engineered systems. Possible mechanisms and phenomena utilized by living systems are outlined and discussed. Assuming the macroscopic device physics, it is found that only fluidic engineered devices can typify a magnetoreception premise believed be utilized by some living systems. It is found that the mechanical
Ng, Chung-Sang
Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind Flight Center Turbulent plasmas in the solar wind and the interstellar medium of- ten contain a large to be in agreement. The scaling of density uctuations with Mach number are compared with solar wind data from Helios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nisbet, John S.
1988-01-01
General equations for the Reynolds number of a variety of types of ice crystals and water drops are given in terms of the Davies, Bond, and Knudsen numbers. The equations are in terms of the basic physical parameters of the system and are valid for calculating velocities in gravitational and electric fields over a very wide range of sizes and atmospheric conditions. The equations are asymptotically matched at the bottom and top of the size spectrum, useful when checking large computer codes. A numerical system for specifying the dimensional properties of ice crystals is introduced. Within the limits imposed by such variables as particle density, which have large deviations, the accuracy of velocities appears to be within 10 percent over the entire range of sizes of interest.
Strong field limit analysis of gravitational lensing in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E; Yang, Ke, E-mail: weishw@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuche08@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangke09@lzu.edu.cn [Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2012-10-01
In this paper, we study numerically the quasi-equatorial lensing by the stationary, axially-symmetric black hole in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime in the strong field limit. The deflection angle of light ray and other strong deflection limit coefficients are obtained numerically and they are found to be closely dependent on the NUT charge n and spin a. We also compute the magnification and the positions of the relativistic images. The caustics are studied and the results show that these caustics drift away from the optical axis, which is quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole case. Moreover, the intersections of the critical curves on the equatorial plane are obtained and it is shown that they increase with the NUT charge. These results show that there is a significant effect of the NUT charge on the strong gravitational lensing.
Anomalies of density, stresses, and the gravitational field in the interior of mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuikova, N. A.; Nasonova, L. P.; Maksimova, T. G.
2012-03-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Investigation of red blood cell fractionation by gravitational field-flow fractionation.
Urbánková, E; Vacek, A; Nováková, N; Matulík, F; Chmelík, J
1992-11-27
Gravitational field-flow fractionation is used for the separation of particles according to their sizes in the range 1-100 microns: larger particles elute before smaller ones. This phenomenon can be explained as a result of the steric exclusion of the particles from the vicinity of the channel walls, and/or hydrodynamic effects supposedly associated with the inertia of the liquid. The method was used for the investigation of red blood cells. The dependence of the retention ratio on the flow-rate, sample volume, concentration of blood and relaxation time was studied. Analysis of fifteen individual fractions by Coulter counter and reinjection of three other fractions were studied in order to verify fractionation of red blood cells. PMID:1484089
An improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Christodoulidis, D. C.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Smith, D. E.; Klosko, S. M.; Martin, T. V.; Pavlis, E. C.
1987-01-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, C.
1983-01-01
Under the influence of a spiral gravitational field, there should be differences among the mean motions of different types of objects with different dispersion velocities in a spiral galaxy. The old stars with high dispersion velocity should have essentially no mean motion normal to the galactic rotation. On the other hand, young objects and interstellar gas may be moving relative to the old stars at a velocity of a few kilometer per second in both the radial (galacto-centric), and circular directions, depending on the spiral model adopted. Such a velocity is usually referred as the systematic motion or the streaming motion. The conventionally adopted local standard of rest is indeed co-moving with the young objects of the solar vicinity. Therefore, it has a net systematic motion with respect to the circular motion of an equilibrium galactic model, defined by the old stars. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24443
Geodesic synchrotron radiation. [emission by freely falling particles in gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breuer, R. A.; Chrzanowksi, P. L.; Hughes, H. G., III; Misner, C. W.
1973-01-01
This paper presents the results and methods of computing the high-frequency radiation emitted by freely falling particles moving in circular geodesic orbits in a spherically symmetric gravitational field. The high-frequency radiation, to which the methods of this paper apply, is the principal part of radiated energy only in the case of a particle moving in a highly relativistic, and therefore unstable, circular geodesic. The geodesic synchrotron radiation emitted in this case shows excitation of high-frequency harmonics and a narrow angular distribution. A Green's-function solution of the scalar wave equation is obtained using WKB methods. For application to relativistic circular orbits, a parabolic WKB approximation is required and yields solutions in terms of parabolic cylinder functions.
Variations of Mars gravitational field and rotation due to seasonal CO2 exchange
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; Rubincam, David Parry
1990-01-01
About a quarter of the Martian atmospheric mass is exchanged between the atmosphere and the polar caps in the course of a Martian year: CO2 condenses to form (or add to) the polar caps in winter and sublimes into the atmosphere in summer. This paper studies the effect of this CO2 mass redistribution on Martian rotation and gravitational field. Two mechanisms are examined: (1) the waxing and waning of solid CO2 in the polar caps and (2) the geographical distribution of gaseous CO2 in the atmosphere. In particular, the net peak-to-peak changes in J2 and J3 over a Martian year are both found to be as much as about 6 x 10 to the -9th. A simulation suggests that these changes may be detected by the upcoming Mars Observer under favorable but realistic conditions.
Wave convection regimes in a binary mixture in a modulated gravitational field
Myznikova, B. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mechanics of Continuous Media, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Smorodin, B. L., E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru [Perm State University (Russian Federation)
2011-03-15
Nonlinear wave convection regimes are studied in a horizontal layer of an incompressible binary mixture with anomalous thermal diffusion in the gravitational field modulated with an arbitrary amplitude and finite frequency. Oscillation regimes are numerically simulated by the finite difference method for the case of a layer with impenetrable rigid boundaries, which better corresponds to experimental laboratory conditions. A qualitative difference is found in the dynamics of nonlinear quasi-periodic and subharmonic oscillations appearing in the initially stratified mixture and behaving as modulated and regular standing waves. The dependences of the intensity of convective flows on the modulation amplitude are obtained. The results of nonlinear calculations are compared with data on the boundaries of the equilibrium stability found from the linear theory. It is shown that a region of parameters exists where alternating action suppresses the convective motion.
Coupling Between the Spin and Gravitational Field and the Equation of Motion of the Spin
Ning Wu
2006-03-27
In general relativity, the equation of motion of the spin is given by the equation of parallel transport, which is a result of the space-time geometry. Any result of the space-time geometry can not be directly applied to gauge theory of gravity. In gauge theory of gravity, based on the viewpoint of the coupling between the spin and gravitational field, an equation of motion of the spin is deduced. In the post Newtonian approximation, it is proved that this equation gives out the same result as that of the equation of parallel transport. So, in the post Newtonian approximation, gauge theory of gravity gives out the same prediction on the precession of orbiting gyroscope as that of general relativity.
Improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
Marsh, J.G.; Lerch, F.J.; Christodoulidis, D.C.; Putney, B.H.; Felsentreger, T.L.; Sanchez, B.V.; Smith, D.E.; Klosko, S.M.; Martin, T.V.; Pavlis, E.C.
1987-07-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
Gemma De Angelis; Gaetano Panariello; Antonio Scaglione
1999-01-01
In the analysis of weakly guiding single-mode optical fibers, Gaussian and modified-Gaussian approximations appear inadequate to obtain accurate results at low normalized frequency for general refractive index profiles. To overcome such limitations we propose an expansion in terms of Laguerre-Gauss functions to represent the field in the fiber core. A modified Bessel function is instead used to describe the field
Ioannis Kourakis; P. K. Shukla
2004-01-01
The weakly nonlinear regime of transverse paramagnetic dust grain oscillations in dusty (complex) plasma crystals is discussed. The nonlinearity, which is related to the sheath electric\\/magnetic field(s) and to the intergrain (electrostatic\\/magnetic dipole) interactions, is shown to lead to the generation of phase harmonics and, in the case of propagating transverse dust-lattice modes, to the modulational instability of the carrier
Lossless Kerr-phase gate in a quantum-well system via tunneling interference effect for weak fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y. L.; Huang, Y. C.; Wu, J. X.; Zhu, C. J.; Xu, J. P.; Yang, Y. P.
2015-06-01
We examine a lossless Kerr-phase gate in a semiconductor quantum-well system via the tunneling interference effect for weak fields. We show that there exists a magic detuning for the signal field, at which the absorption or amplification for the probe field can be eliminated by increasing the tunneling interference effect. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -? phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a lossless Kerr-phase gate is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, M.; Will, C. M.
1980-01-01
An argument is presented to determine the accuracy with which a solution of Einstein's field equations of gravitation must be approximated in order to describe the dominant effects of gravitational radiation emission from weak-field systems. Several previous calculations are compared in the light of this argument, and some apparent discrepancies among them are resolved. The majority of these calculations support the 'quadrupole formulae' for gravitational radiation energy loss and radiation reaction.
Gravitational and higher-derivative interactions of a massive spin 5/2 field in (A)dS space
Metsaev, R. R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2008-01-15
Using an on shell gauge invariant formulation of relativistic dynamics I study the interaction vertices for a massive spin 5/2 Dirac field propagating in (anti-)de Sitter [(A)dS] space of dimension greater than or equal to four. The gravitational interaction vertex for the massive spin 5/2 field and all cubic vertices for the massive spin 5/2 field and massless spin 2 field with two and three derivatives are obtained. In dimension greater than four, I demonstrate that the gravitational vertex of the massive spin 5/2 field involves, in addition to the standard minimal gravitational vertex, contributions with two and three derivatives. I find that for the massive spin 5/2 and massless spin 2 fields one can build two higher-derivative vertices with two and three derivatives. Limits of massless and partial massless spin 5/2 fields in (A)dS space and limits of massive and massless spin 5/2 fields in flat space are discussed.
Gravitational and higher-derivative interactions of massive spin 5/2 field in (A)dS space
R. R. Metsaev
2007-09-10
Using on-shell gauge invariant formulation of relativistic dynamics we study interaction vertices for a massive spin 5/2 Dirac field propagating in (A)dS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Gravitational interaction vertex for the massive spin 5/2 field and all cubic vertices for the massive spin 5/2 field and massless spin 2 field with two and three derivatives are obtained. In dimension greater that four, we demonstrate that the gravitational vertex of the massive spin 5/2 field involves, in addition to the standard minimal gravitational vertex, contributions with two and three derivatives. We find that for the massive spin 5/2 and massless spin 2 fields one can build two higher-derivative vertices with two and three derivatives. Limits of massless and partial massless spin 5/2 fields in (A)dS space and limits of massive and massless spin 5/2 fields in flat space are discussed.
Schlaufman, K
2004-10-11
Atmospheric turbulence can mimic the effects of weak lensing in astronomical images, so it is necessary to understand to what degree turbulence affects weak lensing measurements. In particular, we studied the ellipticity induced upon the point-spread functions (PSFs) of a grid of simulated stars separated by distances (d {approx} 1{prime}) that will be characteristic of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) images. We observe that atmospherically induced ellipticity changes on small scales (d < 0.5{prime}) and use linear interpolation between stars separated by d = 0.5{prime} to determine the induced ellipticity everywhere in the field-of-view.
Chad R. Galley; B. L. Hu; Shih-Yuin Lin
2006-03-24
We provide a quantum field theoretical derivation of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) equation, describing the motion of an electric point charge sourcing an electromagnetic field, which back-reacts on the charge as a self-force, and the Mino-Sasaki-Tanaka-Quinn-Wald (MSTQW) equation describing the motion of a point mass with self-force interacting with the linearized metric perturbations caused by the mass off an otherwise vacuous curved background spacetime. We regularize the formally divergent self-force by smearing the direct part of the retarded Green's function and using a quasilocal expansion. We also derive the ALD-Langevin and the MSTQW-Langevin equations with a classical stochastic force accounting for the effect of the quantum fluctuations in the field, which causes small fluctuations on the particle trajectory. These equations will be useful for studying the stochastic motion of charges and small masses under the influence of both quantum and classical noise sources, derived either self-consistently or put in by hand phenomenologically. We also show that history-dependent noise-induced drift motions could arise from such stochastic sources on the trajectory that could be a hidden feature of gravitational wave forms hitherto unknown.
The R.I. Pimenov unified gravitation and electromagnetism field theory as semi-Riemannian geometry
Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.r [Komi Science Center UrD RAS, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)
2009-05-15
More than forty years ago R.I. Pimenov introduced a new geometry-semi-Riemannian one-as a set of geometrical objects consistent with a fibering pr: M{sub n} {yields} M{sub m}. He suggested the heuristic principle according to which the physically different quantities (meter, second, Coulomb, etc.) are geometrically modelled as space coordinates that are not superposed by automorphisms. As there is only one type of coordinates in Riemannian geometry and only three types of coordinates in pseudo-Riemannian one, a multiple-fibered semi-Riemannian geometry is the most appropriate one for the treatment of more than three different physical quantities as unified geometrical field theory. Semi-Euclidean geometry {sup 3}R{sub 5}{sup 4} with 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5} and 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time as a base is naturally interpreted as classical electrodynamics. Semi-Riemannian geometry {sup 3}V{sub 5}{sup 4} with the general relativity pseudo-Riemannian space-time {sup 3}V{sub 4}, and 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5}, responsible for the electromagnetism, provides the unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Unlike Kaluza-Klein theories, where the fifth coordinate appears in nondegenerate Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometry, the theory based on semi-Riemannian geometry is free from defects of the former. In particular, scalar field does not arise.
The R.I. Pimenov unified gravitation and electromagnetism field theory as semi-Riemannian geometry
N. A. Gromov
2008-10-02
More then forty years ago R.I. Pimenov introduced a new geometry -- semi-Riemannian one -- as a set of geometrical objects consistent with a fibering $ pr: M_n \\to M_m.$ He suggested the heuristic principle according to which the physically different quantities (meter, second, coulomb etc.) are geometrically modelled as space coordinates that are not superposed by automorphisms. As there is only one type of coordinates in Riemannian geometry and only three types of coordinates in pseudo-Riemannian one, a multiple fibered semi-Riemannian geometry is the most appropriate one for the treatment of more then three different physical quantities as unified geometrical field theory. Semi-Euclidean geometry $^{3}R_5^4$ with 1-dimensional fiber $x^5$ and 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time as a base is naturally interpreted as classical electrodynamics. Semi-Riemannian geometry $^{3}V_5^4$ with the general relativity pseudo-Riemannian space-time $^{3}V^4,$ and 1-dimensional fiber $x^5,$ responsible for the electromagnetism, provides the unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Unlike Kaluza-Klein theories, where the 5-th coordinate appears in nondegenerate Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometry, the theory based on semi-Riemannian geometry is free from defects of the former. In particular, scalar field does not arise. PACS: 04.50.Cd, 02.40.-k, 11.10.Kk
Osamu Tanimura; Shoichi Hori
1999-01-01
We present a systematic and analytic solution of the Ernst equation in stationary and axially symmetric gravitational fields due to a rotating deformed source. This solution is transformed by means of an analytic continuation so as to be valid for any type and magnitude of deformation of the source and for any velocity of the rotation. It is clarified how
Osamu Tanimura; Shoichi Hori
1998-01-01
Starting with the Weyl solution that is known to be valid for any real value of the deformation parameter delta, the solution of the Ernst equation in an axially symmetric gravitational field caused by a rotating source is given in a perturbative expansion of the variables lambda(= q2\\/p2) and b(= y2 - 1) for a real value of delta. The
Large-Field Inflation with Multiple Axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Daniel Junghans
2015-04-14
In this note, we discuss the implications of the weak gravity conjecture (WGC) for general models of large-field inflation with a large number of axions $N$. We first show that, from the bottom-up perspective, such models admit a variety of different regimes for the enhancement of the effective axion decay constant, depending on the amount of alignment and the number of instanton terms that contribute to the scalar potential. This includes regimes of no enhancement, power-law enhancement and exponential enhancement with respect to $N$. As special cases, we recover the Pythagorean enhancement of $N$-flation, the $N$ and $N^{3/2}$ enhancements derived by Bachlechner, Long and McAllister and the exponential enhancement by Choi, Kim and Yun. We then analyze which top-down constraints are put on such models from the requirement of consistency with quantum gravity. In particular, the strong version of the WGC implies that the enhancement of the effective axion decay constant must not grow parametrically with $N$ for $N \\gg 1$. On the other hand, recent works proposed that axions might be able to violate the conjecture under certain circumstances. Our general expression for the enhancement allows us to translate this possibility into a condition on the number of instantons that couple to the axions. We argue that, at large $N$, any model consistent with quantum gravity must either be able to violate the WGC bound or have an enormous, possibly even exponentially large, number of unsuppressed instanton terms in the scalar potential.
Activating persulfate by Fe? coupling with weak magnetic field: performance and mechanism.
Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong
2014-10-01
Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. PMID:24934323
Effect of an atom on a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating cavity
Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)
2010-02-15
We study the interaction of an atom with a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) cavity. We present an effective Hamiltonian and derive the density-matrix equations for the combined atom-cavity system. We calculate the mean photon number, the second-order photon correlation function, and the atomic excited-state population. We show that due to the confinement of the guided cavity field in the fiber cross-section plane and in the space between the FBG mirrors, the presence of the atom in the FBG cavity can significantly affect the mean photon number and the photon statistics even though the cavity finesse is moderate, the cavity is long, and the probe field is weak.
Weak Lensing from Space I: Instrumentation and Survey Strategy
Jason Rhodes; Alexandre Refregier; Richard Massey; Justin Albert; David Bacon; Gary Bernstein; Richard Ellis; Bhuvnesh Jain; Alex Kim; Mike Lampton; Tim McKay; C. Akerlof; G. Aldering; R. Amanullah; P. Astier; E. Barrelet; C. Bebek; L. Bergstrom; J. Bercovitz; M. Bester; A. Bonissent; C. Bower; W. Carithers; E. Commins; C. Day; S. Deustua; R. DiGennaro; A. Ealet; M. Eriksson; A. Fruchter; J.-F. Genat; G. Goldhaber; A. Goobar; D. Groom; S. Harris; P. Harvey; H. Heetderks; S. Holland; D. Huterer; A. Karcher; W. Kolbe; B. Kreiger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; M. Levi; D. Devin; E. Linder; S. Loken; R. Malina; S. McKee; R. Miquel; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; S. Mufson; J. Musser; P. Nugent; H. Oluseyi; R. Pain; N. Palaio; D. Pankow; S. Perlmutter; R. Pratt; E. Prieto; K. Robinson; N. Roe; M. Sholl; M. Schubnell; G. Smadja; G. Smoot; A. Spadafora; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; D. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; G. Wang
2003-01-01
A wide field space-based imaging telescope is necessary to fully exploit the technique of observing dark matter via weak gravitational lensing. This first paper in a three part series outlines the survey strategies and relevant instrumental parameters for such a mission. As a concrete example of hardware design, we consider the proposed Supernova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Using SNAP engineering models, we
Measurement of the deformation field associated with fracture propagation in weak snowpack layers
A. van Herwijnen; J. Schweizer; J. Heierli
2010-01-01
Dry snow slab avalanches release as a result of the failure of a weakly bonded layer located below a slab-like layer of cohesive snow. Traditionally the failure of the weak layer was attributed to the formation and propagation of volume-conserving simple shear cracks. Over the past decade, however, evidence for slope-normal subsidence associated with fracture propagation in snow has accumulated,