Weak Gravitational Field and Casimir Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanhayi, M. R.; Pirmoradian, R.
2016-02-01
In this paper we consider the effect of a weak gravitation field on the Casimir energy. Under a weak perturbation of a metric, we first obtain the linear energy-momentum tensor of a scalar field in a generic background and then the corrected energy of a scalar filed which satisfies the Dirichlet boundary condition is calculated up to first order of the metric perturbation. We show that our results coincide to the previous related works e.g., the Casimir effect when studied in Fermi coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukamoto, Naoki; Kitamura, Takao; Nakajima, Koki; Asada, Hideki
2014-09-01
The gravitational lensing effects in the weak gravitational field by exotic lenses have been investigated intensively to find nonluminous exotic objects. Gravitational lensing based on 1/rn fall-off metric, as a one-parameter model that can treat by hand both the Schwarzschild lens (n =1) and the Ellis wormhole (n =2) in the weak field, has been recently studied. Only for n=1 case, however, it has been explicitly shown that effects of relativistic lens images by the strong field on the light curve can be neglected. We discuss whether relativistic images by the strong field can be neglected for n>1 in the Tangherlini spacetime which is one of the simplest models for our purpose. We calculate the divergent part of the deflection angle for arbitrary n and the regular part for n=1, 2 and 4 in the strong field limit, the deflection angle for arbitrary n under the weak gravitational approximation. We also compare the radius of the Einstein ring with the radii of the relativistic Einstein rings for arbitrary n. We conclude that the images in the strong gravitational field have little effect on the total light curve and that the time-symmetric demagnification parts in the light curve will appear even after taking account of the images in the strong gravitational field for n>1.
Weber's gravitational force as static weak field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiandho, Yuant
2016-02-01
Weber's gravitational force (WGF) is one of gravitational model that can accommodate a non-static system because it depends not only on the distance but also on the velocity and the acceleration. Unlike Newton's law of gravitation, WGF can predict the anomalous of Mercury and gravitational bending of light near massive object very well. Then, some researchers use WGF as an alternative model of gravitation and propose a new mechanics theory namely the relational mechanics theory. However, currently we have known that the theory of general relativity which proposed by Einstein can explain gravity with very accurate. Through the static weak field approximation for the non-relativistic object, we also have known that the theory of general relativity will reduce to Newton's law of gravity. In this work, we expand the static weak field approximation that compatible with relativistic object and we obtain a force equation which correspond to WGF. Therefore, WGF is more precise than Newton's gravitational law. The static-weak gravitational field that we used is a solution of the Einstein's equation in the vacuum that satisfy the linear field approximation. The expression of WGF with ξ = 1 and satisfy the requirement of energy conservation are obtained after resolving the geodesic equation. By this result, we can conclude that WGF can be derived from the general relativity.
Interaction of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos with weak gravitational fields
Menon, A.; Thalapillil, Arun M.
2008-12-01
In this paper the interaction of high energy neutrinos with weak gravitational fields is briefly explored. The form of the graviton-neutrino vertex is motivated from Lorentz and gauge invariance and the nonrelativistic interpretations of the neutrino-gravitational form factors are obtained. We comment on the renormalization conditions, the preservation of the weak equivalence principle and the definition of the neutrino mass radius. We associate the neutrino-gravitational form factors with specific angular momentum states. Based on Feynman diagrams, spin-statistics, CP invariance and symmetries of the angular momentum states in the graviton-neutrino vertex, we deduce differences between the Majorana and Dirac cases. It is then proved that in spite of the theoretical differences between the two cases, as far as experiments are considered, they would be virtually indistinguishable for any space-time geometry satisfying the weak-field condition. We then calculate the transition gravitational form factors for the neutrino by evaluating the relevant Feynman diagrams at 1-loop and estimate a neutrino transition mass radius. The form factor is seen to depend on the momentum transfer very weakly. It is also seen that the neutrino transition mass radius is smaller than the typical neutrino charge radius by a couple of orders of magnitude.
Discreteness of space from GUP in a weak gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Soumen; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.
2016-04-01
Quantum gravity effects modify the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Earlier work showed that the GUP-induced corrections to the Schrödinger equation, when applied to a non-relativistic particle in a one-dimensional box, led to the quantization of length. Similarly, corrections to the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations, gave rise to length, area and volume quantizations. These results suggest a fundamental granular structure of space. In this work, it is investigated how spacetime curvature and gravity might influence this discreteness of space. In particular, by adding a weak gravitational background field to the above three quantum equations, it is shown that quantization of lengths, areas and volumes continue to hold. However, it should be noted that the nature of this new quantization is quite complex and under proper limits, it reduces to cases without gravity. These results suggest that quantum gravity effects are universal.
Casimir effect of two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari, Borzoo
2015-10-01
We calculate the finite vacuum energy density of the scalar and electromagnetic fields inside a Casimir apparatus made up of two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field. The metric of the weak gravitational field has a small deviation from flat spacetime inside the apparatus, and we find it by expanding the metric in terms of small parameters of the weak background. We show that the metric found can be transformed via a gauge transformation to the Fermi metric. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation exactly and find mode frequencies in Fermi spacetime. Using the fact that the electromagnetic field can be represented by two scalar fields in the Fermi spacetime, we find general formulas for the energy density and mode frequencies of the electromagnetic field. Some well-known weak backgrounds are examined and consistency of the results with the literature is shown.
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perlick, Volker
2014-01-01
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat's principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
Perlick, Volker
2014-01-14
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat’s principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
On slow flows of a weakly stratified relativistic fluid in a static gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, V. P.
2014-04-01
Simplified equations for slow flows of a weakly stratified (in entropy) fluid inside or near a massive astrophysical object have been derived from the variational formulation of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics under the conditions that the gravitational field in the leading order is centrosymmetric and static and that the effect of a magnetic field is negligibly small. Internal waves and vortices in such systems are soft modes as compared to sound. This circumstance allows the formulation of a "soundproof" Hamiltonian model. This model is an analog of nonrelativistic hydrodynamic anelastic models, which are widely used in studies of internal waves and/or convection in spatially inhomogeneous compressible media in atmospheric physics, geophysics, and astrophysics.
The generation of gravitational waves. 1. Weak-field sources: A plug-in-and-grind formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.; Kovacs, S. J.
1974-01-01
A plug-in-and-grind formalism is derived for calculating the gravitational waves emitted by any system with weak internal gravitational fields. If the internal fields have negligible influence on the system's motions, then the formalism reduces to standard linearized theory. Whether or not gravity affects the motions, if the motions are slow and internal stresses are weak, then the new formalism reduces to the standard quadrupole-moment formalism. In the general case the new formalism expresses the radiation in terms of a retarded Green's function for slightly curved spacetime, and then breaks the Green's-function integral into five easily understood pieces: direct radiation, produced directly by the motions of the sources; whump radiation, produced by the the gravitational stresses of the source; transition radiation, produced by a time-changing time delay (Shapiro effect) in the propagation of the nonradiative, 1/r field of the source; focussing radiation produced when one portion of the source focusses, in a time-dependent way, the nonradiative field of another portion of the source, and tail radiation, produced by backscatter of the nonradiative field in regions of focussing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, M.
2015-12-01
In the current article, the classical analog of the minimal photon sector in the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model extension (SME) is investigated. The analysis is based on describing a photon classically by a geometric ray that satisfies the eikonal equation. The action principle, which leads to the eikonal equation in conventional optics, is demonstrated to work in most (but not all) Lorentz-violating cases as well. Furthermore it is found that the integrands of the action functional correspond to Finsler structures. Based on these results, Lorentz-violating light rays in a weak gravitational background are treated through the use of the minimal-coupling principle. This allows for obtaining sensitivities on Lorentz violation in the photon sector by measurements of light bending at massive bodies such as the Sun. The computations are carried out for the currently running ESA mission GAIA and the planned NASA/ESA mission LATOR. Finally, a range of aspects of explicit Lorentz violation for photons is discussed in the Finsler setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowland, David R.
2015-06-01
Galaxy rotation curves are generally analyzed theoretically using Newtonian physics; however, two groups of authors have claimed that for self-gravitating dusts, general relativity (GR) makes significantly different predictions to Newtonian physics, even in the weak field, low velocity limit. One group has even gone so far as to claim that nonlinear general relativistic effects can explain flat galactic rotation curves without the need for cold dark matter. These claims seem to contradict the well-known fact that the weak field, low velocity, low pressure correspondence limit of GR is Newtonian gravity, as evidenced by solar system tests. Both groups of authors claim that their conclusions do not contradict this fact, with Cooperstock and Tieu arguing that the reason is that for the solar system, we have test particles orbiting a central gravitating body, whereas for a galaxy, each star is both an orbiting body and a contributor to the net gravitational field, and this supposedly makes a difference due to nonlinear general relativistic effects. Given the significance of these claims for analyses of the flat galactic rotation curve problem, this article compares the predictions of GR and Newtonian gravity for three cases of self-gravitating dusts for which the exact general relativistic solutions are known. These investigations reveal that GR and Newtonian gravity are in excellent agreement in the appropriate limits, thus supporting the conventional use of Newtonian physics to analyze galactic rotation curves. These analyses also reveal some sources of error in the referred to works.
Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandelbaum, R.
2015-05-01
We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements.
Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi
2016-03-01
The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.
Weak Gravitational Lensing Systematics from Image Combination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, C.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Goodsall, T.; Hirata, C.; Fucik, J.; Rhodes, J.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.
2013-12-01
Extremely accurate shape measurements of galaxy images are needed to probe dark energy properties with weak gravitational lensing surveys. To increase survey area with a fixed observing time and pixel count, images from surveys such as the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) or Euclid will necessarily be undersampled and therefore distorted by aliasing. Oversampled, unaliased images can be obtained by combining multiple, dithered exposures of the same source with a suitable reconstruction algorithm. Any such reconstruction must minimally distort the reconstructed images for weak lensing analyses to be unbiased. In this paper, we use the image combination (IMCOM) algorithm of Rowe, Hirata, and Rhodes to investigate the effect of image combination on shape measurements (size and ellipticity). We simulate dithered images of sources with varying amounts of ellipticity and undersampling, reconstruct oversampled output images from them using IMCOM, and measure shape distortions in the output. Our simulations show that IMCOM creates no significant distortions when the relative offsets between dithered images are precisely known. Distortions increase with the uncertainty in those offsets, but become problematic only with relatively poor astrometric precision; e.g., for images similar to those from the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (AFTA) implementation of WFIRST, combining eight undersampled images (sampling ratio Q = 1) with highly pessimistic uncertainty in astrometric registration (σd ~ 10-3 pixels) yields an rms shear error of O(10-4). Our analysis pipeline is adapted from that of the Precision Projector Laboratory—a joint project between NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Caltech that characterizes image sensors using laboratory emulations of astronomical data.
Baryons, neutrinos, feedback and weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2015-06-01
The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OverWhelmingly Large hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for z < 1.5, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than 2 per cent for scales k < 10 h Mpc-1 and better than 5 per cent for 10 < k < 100 h Mpc-1. Equipped with this precise tool, this paper presents the first constraint on baryonic feedback models using gravitational lensing data, from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). In this analysis, we show that the effect of neutrino mass on the mass power spectrum is degenerate with the baryonic feedback at small angular scales and cannot be ignored. Assuming a cosmology precision fixed by WMAP9, we find that a universe with massless neutrinos is rejected by the CFHTLenS lensing data with 85-98 per cent confidence, depending on the baryon feedback model. Some combinations of feedback and non-zero neutrino masses are also disfavoured by the data, although it is not yet possible to isolate a unique neutrino mass and feedback model. Our study shows that ongoing weak gravitational lensing surveys (KiDS, HSC and DES) will offer a unique opportunity to probe the physics of baryons at galactic scales, in addition to the expected constraints on the total neutrino mass.
Probing satellite haloes with weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillis, Bryan R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Hilbert, Stefan; Hartlap, Jan
2013-02-01
We demonstrate the possibility of detecting tidal stripping of dark matter subhaloes within galaxy groups using weak gravitational lensing. We have run ray-tracing simulations on galaxy catalogues from the Millennium Simulation to generate mock shape catalogues. The ray-tracing catalogues assume a halo model for galaxies and groups using various models with different distributions of mass between galaxy and group haloes to simulate different stages of group evolution. Using these mock catalogues, we forecast the lensing signals that will be detected around galaxy groups and satellite galaxies, as well as test two different methods for isolating the satellites' lensing signals. A key challenge is to determine the accuracy to which group centres can be identified. We show that with current and ongoing surveys, it will possible to detect stripping in groups of mass 1012-1015 M⊙.
Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data
Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2005-12-14
We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.
Weak gravitational lensing by compact objects in fourth order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horváth, Zsolt; Gergely, László Á.; Hobill, David; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2013-09-01
We discuss weak lensing characteristics in the gravitational field of a compact object in the low-energy approximation of fourth order f(R)-gravity theory. The particular solution is characterized by a gravitational strength parameter σ and a distance scale rc much larger than the Schwarzschild radius. Above rc gravity is strengthened and as a consequence weak lensing features are modified compared to the Schwarzschild case. We find a critical impact parameter (depending upon rc) for which the behavior of the deflection angle changes. Using the Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation we improve the computation of the image positions, Einstein ring radii, magnification factors and the magnification ratio. We demonstrate that the magnification ratio as function of image separation obeys a power law depending on the parameter σ, with a double degeneracy. No σ≠0 value gives the same power as the one characterizing Schwarzschild black holes. As the magnification ratio and the image separation are the lensing quantities most conveniently determined by direct measurements, future lensing surveys will be able to constrain the parameter σ based on this prediction.
Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas Moniz, P.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quantum vacua directly implied by the wave function of a gravitational configuration characterized by the presence of an apparent horizon, namely the Vaidya space-time solution. Spherical symmetry is a main feature of this configuration, with a scalar field constituting a source [a Klein-Gordon geon or Berger-Chitre-Moncrief-Nutku (BCMN) type model]. The subsequent analysis requires solving a Wheeler-DeWitt equation near the apparent horizon (following the guidelinesintroduced by A. Tomimatsu,18; M. Pollock, 19 and developed by A. Hosoya and I. Oda20,21) with the scalar field herein expanded in terms of S2 spherical harmonics: midisuperspace quantization. The main results present in this paper are as follows. It is found that the mass function characteristic of the Vaidya metric is positive definite within this quantum approach. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous matter sector determines a descrip-tion in terms of open quantum (sub)systems, namely in the form of an harmonic oscillator whose frequency depends on the mass function. For this open (sub)system, a twofold approach is employed. On the one hand, an exact invariant observable is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian for the inhomogeneous matter modes. It is shown that this invariant admits a set of discrete eigenvalues which depend on the mass function. The corresponding set of eigenstates is constructed from a particular vacuum state. On the other hand, exact solutions are found for the Schrädinger equation associated with the inhomogeneous matter modes. This paper is concluded with a discussion, where two other issues are raised: (i) the possible application to realistic black hole dynamics of the results obtained for a simplified (BCMN) model and (ii) whether such vacuum states could be related with others defined instead within scalar field theories constructed in classical backgrounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further falling and till reach the equilibrium of stable spatial charge distribution, which is just the cause of the geomagnetic field and the geo-electric field (the observational value on the earth surface is about 120 V/m downward equivalent to 500000 Coulomb negative charges in the earth surface). All celestial bodies are gravitation sources and attract the molecules and ions in space to its circumference by the gravitation of own and other celestial bodies, e.g., all planets in the solar system have their own atmospheres. Therefore, the origin mechanism of geo-electric and geomagnetic fields caused by gravitation is very universal, at least it is appli-cable to all the planets in the solar system. For planets, the joint result of the gravitations of the planets and the sun makes the negative charges and dipolar charges distributed in the surfaces of the celestial bodies. The quicker the rotation is, the larger the angular momentum U is, then larger the accompanying current and magnetic moment P, it accord a experiential law found by subsistent observational data of all celestial bodies in solar system: P = -G 1/2 U cos θ / c (1), θ is the angle between the net ν 0 flux direction (mark by CMB) and the rotational axis of celestial body (Chen Shao-Guang, Chinese Science Bulletin, 26,233,1981). Uranian and Neptunian P predicted with Eq.(1) in 1981 are about -3.4•1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.9•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (use new rotate speed measured by Voyager 2). The P measured by Voyager 2 in 1986 and 1989 are about -1.9 •1028 Gs•cm3 and 1.5•1028 Gs•cm3 respectively (the contribution of quadrupole P is converted into the contribution of dipole P alone). The neutron star pos-sesses much high density and rotational speed because of the conservation of the mass and the angular momentum during the course of the formation, then has strong gravity and largerU. From Eq.(1) there is a larger P and extremely strong surface magnetic field in neutron star. The origin mechanism of basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies will affect directly all fields referring to the electromagnetic characteristics in space science, e.g., it predict that the spin speed of the sunspot is in direct proportion to its magnetic moment.
Caution: Strong Gravitational Field Present
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reif, Marc
2014-01-01
I came up with a new way to introduce the concept of a constant gravitational field near the surface of the Earth. I made "g-field detectors" (see Fig. 1 ) and suspended them by strings from the ceiling in a regular spacing. The detectors are cardstock arrows with a hole punched out of them and the letter "g" in the center.
The gravitational field of Phobos
Chao, B.F.; Rubincam, D.P. )
1989-08-01
The external gravitational field produced by a rigid body of uniform density but irregular shape is formulated in terms of spherical harmonics. The formalism is applied to the Martian satellite Phobos. Based on a 3-dimensional shape model of Phobos by Duxbury, the gravitational coefficients up to degree and order 4 for a homogeneous Phobos are computed. In particular, the authors find J{sub 2} = 0.105. The in-plane liberation amplitude of a homogeneous Phobos is predicted to be 0.97{degree}, within the rather large uncertainty of the observed value of 0.78 {plus minus} 0.4{degree}.
Combining Strong and Weak Gravitational Lensing in Abell 1689
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limousin, Marceau; Richard, Johan; Jullo, Eric; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Fort, Bernard; Soucail, Genevive; Elasdttir, rds; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ellis, Richard S.; Smail, Ian; Czoske, Oliver; Smith, Graham P.; Hudelot, Patrick; Bardeau, Sbastien; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Knudsen, Kirsten K.
2007-10-01
We present a reconstruction of the mass distribution of galaxy cluster Abell 1689 at z=0.18 using detected strong lensing features from deep ACS observations and extensive ground based spectroscopy. Earlier analyses have reported up to 32 multiply imaged systems in this cluster, of which only 3 were spectroscopically confirmed. In this work, we present a parametric strong lensing mass reconstruction using 34 multiply imaged systems of which 24 have newly determined spectroscopic redshifts, which is a major step forward in building a robust mass model. In turn, the new spectroscopic data allows a more secure identification of multiply imaged systems. The resultant mass model enables us to reliably predict the redshifts of additional multiply imaged systems for which no spectra are currently available, and to use the location of these systems to further constrain the mass model. Using our strong lensing mass model, we predict on larger scale a shear signal which is consistent with that inferred from our large scale weak lensing analysis derived using CFH12K wide field images. Thanks to a new method for reliably selecting a well defined background lensed galaxy population, we resolve the discrepancy found between the NFW concentration parameters derived from earlier strong and weak lensing analysis. The derived parameters for the best fit NFW profile is found to be c200=7.6+/-1.6 and r200=2.16+/-0.10 h-170 Mpc (corresponding to a 3D mass equal to M200=[1.32+/-0.2]1015 h70 Msolar). The large number of new constraints incorporated in this work makes Abell 1689 the most reliably reconstructed cluster to date. This well calibrated mass model, which we here make publicly available, will enable us to exploit Abell 1689 efficiently as a gravitational telescope, as well as to potentially constrain cosmology. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (programs 9289 and 10150) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
Weak Gravitational Lensing from Regular Bardeen Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffarnejad, Hossein; niad, Hassan
2016-03-01
In this article we study weak gravitational lensing of regular Bardeen black hole which has scalar charge g and mass m. We investigate the angular position and magnification of non-relativistic images in two cases depending on the presence or absence of photon sphere. Defining dimensionless charge parameter q= {g}/{2m} we seek to disappear photon sphere in the case of |q|>{24√5}/{125} for which the space time metric encounters strongly with naked singularities. We specify the basic parameters of lensing in terms of scalar charge by using the perturbative method and found that the parity of images is different in two cases: (a) The strongly naked singularities is present in the space time. (b) singularity of space time is weak or is eliminated (the black hole lens).
Weak shear study of galaxy clusters by simulated gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coss, David
Gravitational lensing has been simulated for numerical galaxy clusters in order to characterize the effects of substructure and shape variations of dark matter halos on the weak lensing properties of clusters. In order to analyze realistic galaxy clusters, 6 high-resolution Adaptive Refinement Tree N-body simulations of clusters with hydrodynamics are used, in addition to a simulation of one group undergoing a merger. For each cluster, the three-dimensional particle distribution is projected perpendicular to three orthogonal lines of sight, providing 21 projected mass density maps. The clusters have representative concentration and mass values for clusters in the concordance cosmology. Two gravitational lensing simulation methods are presented. In the first method, direct integration is used to calculate deflection angles. To overcome computational constraints inherent in this method, a distributed computing project was created for parallel computation. In addition to its use in gravitational lensing simulation, a description of the setup and function of this distributed computing project is presented as an alternative to in-house computing clusters, which has the added benefit of public enrollment in science and low cost. In the second method, shear maps are created using a fast Fourier transform method. From these shear maps, the effects of substructure and shape variation are related to observational gravitational lensing studies. Average shear in regions less than and greater than half of the virial radius demonstrates distinct dispersion, varying by 24% from the mean among the 21 maps. We estimate the numerical error in shear calculations to be of the order of 5%. Therefore, this shear dispersion is a reliable consequence of shape dispersion, correlating most strongly with the ratio of smallest-to-largest principal axis lengths of a cluster isodensity shell. On the other hand, image ellipticities, which are of great importance in mass reconstruction, are shown to have very little variance. However, tangential alignment of average image distortion is quite strong, making mass density peak locations easily resolvable.
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs in weakly lithified sediment
Hampton, M.A.
2002-01-01
Gravitational failure of sea cliffs eroded into weakly lithified sediment at several sites in California involves episodic stress-release fracturing and cantilevered block falls. The principal variables that influence the gravitational stability are tensional stresses generated during the release of horizontal confining stress and weakening of the sediment with increased saturation levels. Individual failures typically comprise less than a cubic meter of sediment, but large areas of a cliff face can be affected by sustained instability over a period of several days. Typically, only the outer meter or so of sediment is removed during a failure episode. In-place sediment saturation levels vary over time and space, generally being higher during the rainy season but moderate to high year-round. Laboratory direct-shear tests show that sediment cohesion decreases abruptly with increasing saturation level; the decrease is similar for all tested sediment if the cohesion is normalized by the maximum, dry-sediment cohesion. Large failures that extend over most or all of the height of the sea cliff are uncommon, but a few large wedge-shaped failures sometimes occur, as does separation of large blocks at sea cliff-gully intersections.
Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.
Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-21
By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field. PMID:24702338
On the consequences of the weak field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laubenstein, John
2013-04-01
General Relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity within the appropriate limit. But, what is that limit? The conventional response is that of the weak field approximation in which the gravitating source is weak and velocities are low. But, this is a far cry from a quantitative statement. In that regard, the weak field may be defined more quantitatively as one in which any error introduced is far beyond the level of precision required. Since the field can always be made incrementally weaker there is no limit as to the degree of precision that can be achieved. In this regard, GR reduces exactly to Newtonian gravity at the limit where velocity goes to zero. It is only out of convenience that we extend this to include those conditions where v << c with the argument that any error is arbitrarily small. However, in practice GR can be shown to reduce to an exact Newtonian expression at v > 0. How can this observation fit with the quantitative definition of the weak field? This paper explores the consequences of the weak field approximation and the fact that GR reduces directly to Newtonian gravity within the weak field as opposed to the more specific condition where v = zero.
Induced gravitation in nonlinear field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernitskii, Alexander A.
2016-03-01
The description of gravitation in the framework of soliton interaction is considered for two nonlinear field models. These models are Born — Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics and so-called Born — Infeld type scalar field model. The last model can also be called the extremal space-time film one because of the specific form of the appropriate variational principle. Gravitational interaction is considered in the context of unification for all interactions of material particles. It is shown that long-range interaction of solitons of the models appears as force one and metrical one. The force interaction can be interpreted as electromagnetic one. The metrical interaction can be interpreted as gravitational one.
Weak gravitational lensing systematic errors in the dark energy survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plazas, Andres Alejandro
Dark energy is one of the most important unsolved problems in modern Physics, and weak gravitational lensing (WL) by mass structures along the line of sight ("cosmic shear") is a promising technique to learn more about its nature. However, WL is subject to numerous systematic errors which induce biases in measured cosmological parameters and prevent the development of its full potential. In this thesis, we advance the understanding of WL systematics in the context of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We develop a testing suite to assess the performance of the shapelet-based DES WL measurement pipeline. We determine that the measurement bias of the parameters of our Point Spread Function (PSF) model scales as (S/N )-2, implying that a PSF S/N > 75 is needed to satisfy DES requirements. PSF anisotropy suppression also satisfies the requirements for source galaxies with S/N ≳ 45. For low-noise, marginally-resolved exponential galaxies, the shear calibration errors are up to about 0.06% (for shear values ≲ 0.075). Galaxies with S/N ≳ 75 present about 1% errors, sufficient for first-year DES data. However, more work is needed to satisfy full-area DES requirements, especially in the high-noise regime. We then implement tests to validate the high accuracy of the map between pixel coordinates and sky coordinates (astrometric solution), which is crucial to detect the required number of galaxies for WL in stacked images. We also study the effect of atmospheric dispersion on cosmic shear experiments such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the four griz bands. For DES (LSST), we find systematics in the g and r (g, r, and i) bands that are larger than required. We find that a simple linear correction in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r ( i) band for DES (LSST). More complex corrections will likely reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. However, g-band dispersion effects remain large enough for induced systematics to dominate the statistical error of both surveys, so cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.
Statistical properties of the convergence due to weak gravitational lensing by non-linear structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valageas, P.
2000-04-01
Density fluctuations in the matter distribution lead to distortions of the images of distant galaxies through weak gravitational lensing effects. This provides an efficient probe of the cosmological parameters and of the density field. In this article, we investigate the statistical properties of the convergence due to weak gravitational lensing by non-linear structures (i.e. we consider small angular windows theta <~ 1'). Previous studies have shown how to relate the second and third order moments of the convergence to those of the density contrast while models based on the Press-Schechter prescription provide an estimate of the tail of P(kappa ). Here we present a method to obtain an estimate of the full p.d.f. of the convergence kappa. It is based on a realistic description of the density field which applies to overdense as well as underdense regions. We show that our predictions agree very well with the results of N-body simulations for the convergence. This could allow one to derive the cosmological parameters (Omega_m ,Omega_mega Lambda ) as well as the full p.d.f. P(delta_R ) of the density contrast itself in the non-linear regime from observations. Hence this gives a very powerful tool to constrain scenarios of structure formation.
The Equivalence of Time and Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruk?i?a, Ilija
The relationship between energy, time and space is still not solved in an appropriate manner. According to Newton's concept of time and space, both have to be taken as absolute. If we follow Leibniz and his arguments, space and time are relative. Since Einstein's theory of relativity we know at least that energy, time and space are deeply related. Albert Einstein originally predicted that time is nothing absolute but something relative, time changes and can change. Especially, time and gravitational field are related somehow even in detail if we still don't know how. According to the gravitational time dilation, the lower the gravitational potential, the more slowly time passes and vice versa. Somehow, it appears to be that the behaviour of time is directly linked to the behaviour of the gravitational field. The aim of this publication is to work out the interior logic between time and gravitational field and to make the proof that time is equivalent to the gravitational field and vice versa.
On the Bel radiative gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio
2012-04-01
We analyze the concept of intrinsic radiative gravitational fields defined by Bel and we show that the three radiative types, N, III and II, correspond with the three following different physical situations: pure radiation, asymptotic pure radiation and generic (non-pure, non-asymptotic pure) radiation. We introduce the concept of observer at rest with respect to the gravitational field and that of proper super-energy of the gravitational field and we show that, for non-radiative fields, the minimum value of the relative super-energy density is the proper super-energy density, which is acquired by the observers at rest with respect to the field. Several super-energy inequalities are also examined.
Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hacyan, Shahen
2012-01-01
The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.
Bacterial Growth in Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Samina
2015-03-01
We study the growth of bacteria in a weak magnetic field. Computational analysis of experimental data shows that the growth rate of bacteria is affected by the magnetic field. The effect of magnetic field depends on the strength and type of magnetic field. It also depends on the type of bacteria. We mainly study gram positive and gram negative bacteria of rod type as well as spherical bacteria. Preliminary results show that the weak magnetic field enhances the growth of rod shape gram negative bacteria. Gram positive bacteria can be even killed in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.
Galilean-invariant scalar fields can strengthen gravitational lensing.
Wyman, Mark
2011-05-20
The mystery of dark energy suggests that there is new gravitational physics on long length scales. Yet light degrees of freedom in gravity are strictly limited by Solar System observations. We can resolve this apparent contradiction by adding a Galilean-invariant scalar field to gravity. Called Galileons, these scalars have strong self-interactions near overdensities, like the Solar System, that suppress their dynamical effect. These nonlinearities are weak on cosmological scales, permitting new physics to operate. In this Letter, we point out that a massive-gravity-inspired coupling of Galileons to stress energy can enhance gravitational lensing. Because the enhancement appears at a fixed scaled location for dark matter halos of a wide range of masses, stacked cluster analysis of weak lensing data should be able to detect or constrain this effect. PMID:21668215
Probing the dark side of the Universe with weak gravitational lensing effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Li-Ping; Fan, Zu-Hui
2014-09-01
Arising from gravitational deflections of light rays by large-scale structures in the Universe, weak-lensing effects have been recognized as one of the most important probes in cosmological studies. In this paper, we review the main progress in weak-lensing analyses, and discuss the challenges in future investigations aiming to understand the dark side of the Universe with unprecedented precisions.
Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational self-forces in weakly curved spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfenning, Michael J.; Poisson, Eric
2002-04-01
We calculate the self-force experienced by a point scalar charge q, a point electric charge e, and a point mass m moving in a weakly curved spacetime characterized by a time-independent Newtonian potential Φ. We assume that the matter distribution responsible for this potential is bounded, so that Φ~-M/r at large distances r from the matter, whose total mass is M; otherwise, the Newtonian potential is left unspecified. (We use units in which G=c=1.) The self-forces are calculated by first computing the retarded Green's functions for scalar, electromagnetic, and (linearized) gravitational fields in the weakly curved spacetime, and then evaluating an integral over the particle's past world line. The self-force typically contains both a conservative and a nonconservative (radiation-reaction) part. For the scalar charge, the conservative part of the self-force is equal to 2ξq2Mr^/r3, where ξ is a dimensionless constant measuring the coupling of the scalar field to the spacetime curvature, and r^ is a unit vector pointing in the radial direction. For the electric charge, the conservative part of the self-force is e2Mr^/r3. For the massive particle, the conservative force vanishes. For the scalar charge, the radiation-reaction force is 1/3q2dg/dt, where g=-∇Φ is the Newtonian gravitational field. For the electric charge, the radiation-reaction force is 2/3e2dg/dt. For the massive particle, the radiation-reaction force is -11/3m2dg/dt. Our result for the gravitational self-force is disturbing: a radiation-reaction force should not appear in the equations of motion at this level of approximation, and it should certainly not give rise to radiation antidamping. In the last section of the paper we prove that while a massive particle in a vacuum spacetime is subjected only to its self-force, it is also subjected to a matter-mediated force when it moves in a spacetime that contains matter; this force originates from the changes in the matter distribution that are induced by the presence of the particle. We show that the matter-mediated force contains a radiation-damping term that precisely cancels out the antidamping contribution from the gravitational self-force. When both forces are combined, the equations of motion are conservative, and they agree with the appropriate limit of the standard post-Newtonian equations of motion.
Influence of electric field on weak localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Gerd
1982-06-01
The influence of an electric field on weak localization is investigated. The conductance of thin Au and Ag films is measured for different applied electric fields. The electronic temperature of the conduction electrons is directly measured by the magneto-conductance of the films. The electric field does not alter the conductance and discriminates between the theories by Altshuler et al. and Tsuzuki.
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp
2009-05-15
We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}
Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com
2014-06-01
We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH{sup †}HR, with H the Higgs doublet and R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1−30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian
2014-06-01
We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH†HScript R, with H the Higgs doublet and Script R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at Script O(1-30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.
What is a mean gravitational field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debbasch, F.
2003-01-01
The equations of General Relativity are non-linear. This makes their averaging non-trivial. The notion of mean gravitational field is defined and it is proven that this field obeys the equations of General Relativity if the unaveraged field does. The workings of the averaging procedure on Maxwell’s field and on perfect fluids in curved space-times are also discussed. It is found that Maxwell’s equations are still verified by the averaged quantities but that the equation of state for other kinds of matter generally changes upon average. In particular, it is proven that the separation between matter and gravitational field is not scale-independent. The same result can be interpreted by introducing a stress-energy tensor for a mean-vacuum. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed. Finally, the work presented in this article also suggests that the signature of the metric might be scale-dependent too.
Evolution of weak solar magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zirin, H.
1985-01-01
The present evaluation of Big Bear videomagnetograph studies of the evolution of weak solar magnetic fields notes that the general weak network fields are the remnants of ephemeral regions which also play a role in the field diffusion as proposed by Marsh (1978). The intranetwork elements show a shorter lifetime and much more rapid motion than the network elements. They are in some cases noted to stream into existing network elements and may merge to form new elements, but need also show no preferential motion to the network edges. There seem to be fewer ephemeral regions in magnetically active areas.
Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.
Dai, Liang
2014-01-31
When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection. PMID:24580435
Constraining modified gravitational theories by weak lensing with Euclid
Martinelli, Matteo; Calabrese, Erminia; De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Scaramella, Roberto
2011-01-15
Future proposed satellite missions such as Euclid can offer the opportunity to test general relativity on cosmic scales through mapping of the galaxy weak-lensing signal. In this paper we forecast the ability of these experiments to constrain modified gravity scenarios such as those predicted by scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. We find that Euclid will improve constraints expected from the Planck satellite on these modified theories of gravity by 2 orders of magnitude. We discuss parameter degeneracies and the possible biases introduced by modifications to gravity.
Shell sources of stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babala, D.
1986-02-01
A number of solutions for material shell sources of stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields are presented. Explicit solutions are found for shells lying on equipotential hypersurfaces (gtt - const) and generating static 'monopole' fields in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates (Zipoy-Voorhees fields). Numerical solutions are found for shells lying on hypersurfaces of constant gphi-t/g sub phi-phi and generating Kerr- and Tomimatsu-Sato (delta = 2) fields. The shells have minimum areas allowed by the energy conditions of Hawking and Ellis.
A weak combined magnetic field changes root gravitropism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyum, E. L.; Bogatina, N. I.; Kalinina, Ja. M.; Sheykina, N. V.
Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell. The polar arrangement of organelles is maintained by means of the cytoskeleton. On the Kholodny-Went's, theory the root bending is provided by the polar movement of auxin from a root cap to the elongation zone. It is also known that gravistimulation initiates a rapid Ca2+ redistribution in a root apex. Calcium ions modify an activity of many cytoskeletal proteins and clustering of calcium channels may be directed by actin microfilaments. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence with regard to the participation of cytoskeletal elements and calcium ions in these processes is therefore substantial but still circumstantial and requires new experimental data. Roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector. It was first shown by us that roots change the direction of a gravitropic reaction under gravistimulation in the weak combined magnetic field with a frequency of 32 Hz. 2-3-day old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in moist chambers, which are placed in μ-metal shields. Inside μ -metal shields, combined magnetic fields have been created. Experiments were performed in darkness at temperature 20±10C. Measurements of the magnitude of magnetic fields were carried out with a flux-gate magnetometer. Cress roots reveal negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the opposite direction to a gravitational vector, during 2 h of gravistimulation and then roots begin to grow more or less parallel to the Earth's surface, i.e. they reveal plagiotropism. Since such combined magnetic field is adjusted to the cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions, these observations demonstrate the participation of calcium ions in root gravitropism. Cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions is the formal frequency of ion rotation in the static magnetic field. Simultaneous applying the altering magnetic field with the same frequency can provoke auto-oscillation in the system and consequently change the rate and/or the direction of Ca2+ ion flow in a root under gravistimulation. The data of light, electron, and confocal laser microscopy and kinetics of a gravitropic reaction, which have been obtained on such the new original model, are discussed in the light of current concepts of root gravitropism.
Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field
Fukushima, Toshio
2014-06-01
As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ∞. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4π fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| ≤ 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.
Geometrical structure of gravitation and matter fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Leopold
1994-02-01
Einstein's requirement of a unified geometrical description of gravitational fields and their matter sources is shown to become possible (at least for certain matter sources) by relaxing his other requirement of a minimal interaction of gravitation with matter. Arguments are presented to demonstrate that Schrödinger's discovery of pair creation by gravitational fields and the associated effects of virtual pairs make the relaxation of the latter requirement inevitable in order to obtain a complete macroscopic description (which needs no separate insertion to take account of averaged quantum effects). The gravitational field equations in case of a nonminimal interaction need higher derivatives of the metric than the second. The author's gauge theory on the manifold of the anti-de Sitter group SO(3, 2) with the subgroup SO(3, 1) (proper Lorentz group) as gauge group and the factor space of the two group manifolds as space-time manifold gives rise to a Yang-Mills field which can be interpreted to be composed of Riemannian curvature and a tensor formed out of torsion. Einstein's equations with a cosmological member are satisfied by the Cartan-Killing metric on the group manifold so that the generalization to a Kaluza-Klein theory results in a minimal disturbance of the group symmetry. The separation of the Yang-Mills field results in a part of its energy-momentum tensor becoming purely Riemannian; this part may be interpreted to be due to the contribution of virtual matter, whereas the part with torsion is due to real matter and its interaction with curvature. The Yang-Mills field equations have a third-order derivative purely metric part, which is equivalent to the field equations suggested by Yang (in the latter, however, torsion should be inseparably present and has been ignored). The torsion part is the “matter source” of this term and it is tempting to relate it to elementary particle spin. The theory can be regarded as a gauge theory of space-time geometry. It needs generalizations to geometrize matter with an energy-momentum tensor of nonvanishing trace. The equations, however, already considerably modify the problem of gravitational collapse. Further developments should serve to eliminate the “absurdity of relativity”—the collapse to a point (of which Einstein himself never became convinced).
Weak gravity strongly constrains large-field axion inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Rudelius, Tom
2015-12-01
Models of large-field inflation based on axion-like fields with shift symmetries can be simple and natural, and make a promising prediction of detectable primordial gravitational waves. The Weak Gravity Conjecture is known to constrain the simplest case in which a single compact axion descends from a gauge field in an extra dimension. We argue that the Weak Gravity Conjecture also constrains a variety of theories of multiple compact axions including N-flation and some alignment models. We show that other alignment models entail surprising consequences for how the mass spectrum of the theory varies across the axion moduli space, and hence can be excluded if further conjectures hold. In every case that we consider, plausible assumptions lead to field ranges that cannot be parametrically larger than M Pl. Our results are strongly suggestive of a general inconsistency in models of large-field inflation based on compact axions, and possibly of a more general principle forbidding super-Planckian field ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhiman, Joginder Singh; Sharma, Rajni
2016-03-01
The self-gravitating instability of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic medium permeated with non uniform magnetic field and rotation is studied for both the strongly coupled plasma (SCP) and weakly coupled plasma (WCP). The non uniform magnetic field and rotation are considered to act along the axial direction of the cylinder. The normal mode method of perturbations is applied to obtain the dispersion relation. The condition for the onset of gravitational instability has been derived from the dispersion relation under both strongly and weakly coupling limits. It is found that the Jeans criterion for gravitational collapse gets modified due to the presence of shear and bulk viscosities for the SCP, however, the magnetic field and rotation whether uniform or non uniform has no effect on the Jeans criterion of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of a self-gravitating viscoelastic medium.
Generating Functional for the Gravitational Field:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerasti, Erika; Montani, Giovanni
We provide a generating functional for the gravitational field that is associated with the relaxation of the primary constraints by extending to the quantum sector. This requirement of the theory relies on the assumption that a suitable time variable exists, when taking the T-products of the dynamical variables. More precisely, we start from the gravitational field equations written in the Hamiltonian formalism and expressed via Misner-like variables; hence we construct the equation to which the T-products of the dynamical variables obey and transform this paradigm in terms of the generating functional, as taken on the theory phase-space. We show how the relaxation of the primary constraints (which corresponds to the breakdown of the invariance of the quantum theory under the four-diffeomorphisms) is summarized by a free functional taken on the Lagrangian multipliers, accounting for such constraints in the classical theory. The issue of our analysis is equivalent to a Gupta-Bleuler approach on the quantum implementation of all the gravitational constraints; in fact, in the limit of small ℏ, the quantum dynamics is described by a Schrödinger equation as soon as the mean values of the momenta, associated to the lapse function and the shift vector, are not vanishing. Finally we show how, in the classical limit, the evolutionary quantum gravity reduces to General Relativity in the presence of an Eckart fluid, which corresponds to the classical counterpart of the physical clock, introduced in the quantum theory.
What is a mean gravitational field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debbasch, F.
2004-01-01
The equations of General Relativity are non-linear. This makes their averaging non-trivial. The notion of mean gravitational field is defined and it is proven that this field obeys the equations of General Relativity if the unaveraged field does. The workings of the averaging procedure on Maxwell's field and on perfect fluids in curved space-times are also discussed. It is found that Maxwell's equations are still verified by the averaged quantities but that the equation of state for other kinds of matter generally changes upon average. In particular, it is proven that the separation between matter and gravitational field is not scale-independent. The same result can be interpreted by introducing a stress-energy tensor for a mean-vacuum. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed. Finally, the work presented in this article also suggests that the signature of the metric might be scale-dependent too. 04.40.Nr Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields
Theory of microemulsions in a gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeng, J. F.; Miller, Clarence A.
1989-01-01
A theory of microemulsions developed previously is extended to include the effect of a gravitational field. It predicts variation with position of drop size, drop volume fraction, and area per molecule in the surfactant films within a microemulsion phase. Variation in volume fraction is greatest and occurs in such a way that oil content increases with increasing elevation, as has been found experimentally. Large composition variations are predicted within a middle phase microemulsion near optimal conditions because inversion from the water-continuous to the oil-continuous arrangement occurs with increasing elevation. Generally speaking, gravity reduces solubilization within microemulsions and promotes separation of excess phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-05-01
A gravitational gauge theory with a spin-affine connection (Lorentz connection) as a rotational gauge potential (fundamental dynamical variable) is suggested for reformulating the theory of Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang gravity, in which the Einstein field equation of gravity is a first-integral solution of a spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation. A heavy intermediate field φ that accompanies a matter field \\varphi is introduced in order to remove the conventional dimensionful gravitational coupling. Such a \\varphi -φ coupling can lead to dimensionless gravitational coupling (i.e., the gravitational constant is dimensionless) in the present gravitational gauge field theory. A low-energy effective Lagrangian density for the matter field can be obtained by integrating out the accompanying heavy field in generating functional of path integral formalism, and therefore, a dimensionful gravitational coupling coefficient (Einstein gravitational constant) emerges. Such a dimensionless coupling of gravity, where the dimensionful coupling is emergent at low energies, is considered for scalar and spinor fields, which serve as gravitating matter fields (gravitational source). Though there are higher derivatives (e.g., third- and fourth-order partial derivatives) of the scalar and spinor fields in the low-energy effective Lagrangian densities, the ordinary equations of motion of the scalar and spinor fields can also be emergent from the present gravitational gauge theory. Therefore, the Einstein gravity can be recovered from the present gravitational gauge theory. In addition to the gravitational Lagrangian of the spacetime-rotational gauge potential (i.e., spin-affine connection), the Lagrangian of a spacetime-translational gauge potential (i.e., vierbein) is also constructed. Thus, the present dimensionless gravitational gauge coupling preserves local rotational and translational gauge symmetries. Since the spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation is a third-order differential equation of metric (the Einstein field equation of gravity is a first-integral solution), it could provide a new route to the vacuum energy cosmological constant problem.
On seasonal variations of Mars' gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; Rubincam, David P.
1987-01-01
A great quantity of CO2 is exchanged between the Martian atmosphere and polar caps in the course of a Martian year. This exchange occurs in seasonal cycles: CO2 condenses to form the polar caps in winter and sublimes into the atmosphere in summer. The mass involved is about 25% of the total mass of the Martian atmosphere. This paper studies the effects of the CO2 mass redistribution on the Mars' gravitational field. Two mechanisms are examined: (1) the waxing and waning of solid CO2 in the polar caps, and (2) the geographical distribution of gaseous CO2 in the atmosphere. The maximum changes produced by (1) in the low-degree zonal J sub l harmonics in the Mars gravitational field are found to be as much as 7.5 x 10 to the-9 power for J sub 2 (corresponding to 1.1 cm change in the geoid), and about half as much for J sub 3. The effect of (2) on some most prominent low-degree harmonics (for l =1-3) in the effective topography (defined as the departure of the true topography from the geoid) is also evaluated. Their magnitudes are large by Earth standards. Whether they can be observed by the upcoming Mars Observer is still uncertain.
Large field inflation and gravitational entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-02-01
Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number N of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large N . If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem when we correctly renormalize models with many light species, taking the physical Planck scale to be Mpl 2≳N MUV2 , where MUV is the cutoff for the quantum field theory coupled to semiclassical quantum gravity. The number of light species then cancels out of the gravitational entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with N scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong coupling scale for the axion dynamics, we show that it is not in general the cutoff of 4d semiclassical gravity. After renormalizing the two point function of the inflaton, we note that it is also controlled by scales much below the cutoff. We revisit N -flation and Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi-type compactifications in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it.
Gravitational Descendants in Symplectic Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabert, Oliver
2011-02-01
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown using the ideas in Okounkov and Pandharipande (Ann Math 163(2):517-560, 2006) that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we follow the ideas in Cieliebak and Latschev (
Gravitational Goldstone fields from affine gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tresguerres, Romualdo; Mielke, Eckehard W.
2000-08-01
In order to facilitate the application of standard renormalization techniques, gravitation should be described, in the pure connection formalism, as a Yang-Mills theory of a certain spacetime group, say the Poincaré or the affine group. This embodies the translational as well as the linear connection. However, the coframe is not the standard Yang-Mills-type gauge field of the translations, since it lacks the inhomogeneous gradient term in the gauge transformations. By explicitly restoring this ``hidden'' piece within the framework of nonlinear realizations, the usual geometrical interpretation of the dynamical theory becomes possible, and in addition one can avoid the metric or coframe degeneracy which would otherwise interfere with the integrations within the path integral. We claim that nonlinear realizations provide the general mathematical scheme for the foundation of gauge theories of spacetime symmetries. When applied to construct the Yang-Mills theory of the affine group, tetrads become identified with nonlinear translational connections; the anholonomic metric no longer constitutes an independent gravitational potential, since its degrees of freedom reveal a correspondence to eliminateable Goldstone bosons. This may be an important advantage for quantization.
Symmetries in tetrad theories. [of gravitational fields and general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinea, F. J.
1988-01-01
The isometry conditions for gravitational fields are given directly at the tetrad level, rather than in terms of the metric. As an illustration, an analysis of the curvature collineations and Killing fields for a twisting type-N vacuum gravitational field is made.
Wormholes, emergent gauge fields, and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Daniel
2016-01-01
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Consequences of Coupled Electromagnetic-Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, Larry
2002-01-01
In the late 1980s there was a flurry of activities involving the newly discovered high Tc superconductors in the development of new devices such as more efficient current transmission, transformers, generators, and motors. One such developmental project by Podkletnov in 1992 noted some small, anomalous gravitational behaviors. A following unpublished paper by Podkletnov 1995 provided data with larger effects using a larger (approx. 25 cm) superconducting disk. Unfortunately this disk was extremely fragile and was broken beyond repair. To date, these experiments have not been successfully repeated because of the difficulties of producing stable, durable (and fired) superconducting disks. This problem with firing these disks has been solved by Li. What remains is to install the disk in "motor", at superconducting temperatures in the presence of appropriately tailored magnetic fields.
Gravitational properties of light—the gravitational field of a laser pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rätzel, Dennis; Wilkens, Martin; Menzel, Ralf
2016-02-01
The gravitational field of a laser pulse of finite lifetime, is investigated in the framework of linearized gravity. Although the effects are very small, they may be of fundamental physical interest. It is shown that the gravitational field of a linearly polarized light pulse is modulated as the norm of the corresponding electric field strength, while no modulations arise for circular polarization. In general, the gravitational field is independent of the polarization direction. It is shown that all physical effects are confined to spherical shells expanding with the speed of light, and that these shells are imprints of the spacetime events representing emission and absorption of the pulse. Nearby test particles at rest are attracted towards the pulse trajectory by the gravitational field due to the emission of the pulse, and they are repelled from the pulse trajectory by the gravitational field due to its absorption. Examples are given for the size of the attractive effect. It is recovered that massless test particles do not experience any physical effect if they are co-propagating with the pulse, and that the acceleration of massless test particles counter-propagating with respect to the pulse is four times stronger than for massive particles at rest. The similarities between the gravitational effect of a laser pulse and Newtonian gravity in two dimensions are pointed out. The spacetime curvature close to the pulse is compared to that induced by gravitational waves from astronomical sources.
Tropical cyclogenesis and the gravitational field of Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapochkin, Borys; Mikhaylov, Valery; Kucherenko, Nataliya; Dilya, Vadim
2010-05-01
Anomalies of the gravitational field of the Earth form anomalies of the atmospheric pressure field. Tropical cyclones are formed in subtropical zones of high atmospheric pressure. The increase of the gravitational field of the ground in tropical zone causes the increase of quantity and capacity of tropical cyclones. Thorough availability of the data in real time (and their archives) of such projects as Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRСE), Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE) will give us an opportunity to study deeply and comprehensively the questions of the gravitational field influence on the circulation of the atmosphere, and particularly tropical cyclogenesis.
Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter
Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.
2010-12-15
The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.
Gravitational consequences of modern field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
1989-01-01
Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.
Casimir effect due to a slowly rotating source in the weak-field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Mota, H. F.; Muniz, C. R.
2014-02-01
We calculate the renormalized vacuum energy density for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates formed by ideal uncharged conductors, placed very close to the surface of a rotating spherical gravitational source with mass M, radius R and angular momentum J, at the equatorial region. We consider that the source rotates slowly and that the gravitational field is weak. Corrections to the Casimir energy density induced by the gravitational field generated by this source are calculated up to M/R2 order. The results obtained show us that there is an important modification in the Casimir energy only in this order of approximation, which depends on the surface gravity as well as on the rotation of the source. Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy found are also calculated in all these orders.
On the super-energy radiative gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio
2013-05-01
We extend our recent analysis (Ferrando J J and Sáez J A 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 075012) on the Bel radiative gravitational fields to the super-energy radiative gravitational fields defined by García-Parrado (2008 Class. Quantum Grav. 25 015006). We give an intrinsic characterization of the new radiative fields and consider some distinguished classes of both radiative and non-radiative fields. Several super-energy inequalities are improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielinski, Janusz. B.
2015-01-01
The external gravitational field of the Earth is not axially symmetric but is irregular, described by series of the spherical harmonic functions. In the local inertial coordinate system the field is rotating following the rotation of the Earth. In the Newtonian interpretation the field is rotating stiffly with the Earth but according to the Einstein's General Relativity interpretation the propagation speed of the gravitation is finite and the gravitational anomalies are propagated in space with the speed of light. Consequently the anomalous field at the altitude h should be twisted by angle α = h ω/cg comparing to the ground level (ω - the speed of the Earth's rotation, cg - speed of the gravitational signal). This effect is difficult to measure because of the decreasing of anomaly values with the distance. However, with the modern techniques like GNSS positioning and gradiometry the torsion could be measured.
Vacuum polarization in gravitational and electromagnetic fields around a superconducting string
Mankiewicz, L. ); Misiak, M.
1989-09-15
We have calculated the polarization current induced in the physical vacuum around a superconducting cosmic string taking into account the gravitational field of the string. The current can be calculated as an expansion in powers of the inverse of the electron mass. In the region far from the string, where it is justified to keep only the lowest term of this expansion, the polarization current turns out to screen the original current in the string, but the effect is very weak. A direct calculation of terms due to the presence of the gravitational field shows that they are dominated, for realistic string parameters, by the purely electromagnetic contribution.
A gravitational field model for the earth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.
1973-01-01
Two models of the earth's gravitational field have been computed. The first, Goddard Earth Model 1 (GEM 1), has been derived from satellite tracking data. The second, Goddard Earth Model 2 (GEM 2), has been derived from a combination of satellite tracking and surface gravimetric data. The satellite data consisted primarily of optical data processed on 300 weekly orbital arcs for 25 close earth satellites. Surface gravity data were employed in the form of 5 x 5 deg mean free-air gravity anomalies providing about 70% world coverage. Station locations were obtained for 46 tracking sites by combining electronic, laser, and additional optical tracking data with the above satellite data. Analysis of the radial positions of these stations and a value of mean gravity on the geoid indicated a mean equatorial radius for the earth of about 6378.145 meters. Results of geopotential tests on satellite data not used in the solution show that better agreement was obtained with the GEM 1 and GEM 2 models than with the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth II model.
Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.
2010-03-15
The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.
Computing Gravitational Fields of Finite-Sized Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quadrelli, Marco
2005-01-01
A computer program utilizes the classical theory of gravitation, implemented by means of the finite-element method, to calculate the near gravitational fields of bodies of arbitrary size, shape, and mass distribution. The program was developed for application to a spacecraft and to floating proof masses and associated equipment carried by the spacecraft for detecting gravitational waves. The program can calculate steady or time-dependent gravitational forces, moments, and gradients thereof. Bodies external to a proof mass can be moving around the proof mass and/or deformed under thermoelastic loads. An arbitrarily shaped proof mass is represented by a collection of parallelepiped elements. The gravitational force and moment acting on each parallelepiped element of a proof mass, including those attributable to the self-gravitational field of the proof mass, are computed exactly from the closed-form equation for the gravitational potential of a parallelepiped. The gravitational field of an arbitrary distribution of mass external to a proof mass can be calculated either by summing the fields of suitably many point masses or by higher-order Gauss-Legendre integration over all elements surrounding the proof mass that are part of a finite-element mesh. This computer program is compatible with more general finite-element codes, such as NASTRAN, because it is configured to read a generic input data file, containing the detailed description of the finiteelement mesh.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, A. S.; Krechet, V. G.
2012-10-01
Within the framework of the five-dimensional geometric theory, the problem of gravitational interaction of a vortex gravitational and scalar fields is investigated. A solution of the five-dimensional Einstein vacuum equations is derived. The results obtained are compared with those obtained previously within the framework of the four-dimensional theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-09-01
We analyze a nonrelativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)], and apply the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and nonminimal couplings.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan E-mail: daniel.figueroa@uam.es E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es
2009-10-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω{sub GW}(f) ∝ f{sup 3} with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη{sub *} << 1), enters the horizon, for kη ∼> 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information.
Fermat principle in arbitrary gravitational fields
Kovner, I. )
1990-03-01
The Fermat principle is reviewed and used to derive the zigzag path constructed for massive and massless particles in order to determine if these paths are a suitable approximation to the first order of the gravitational lens effect. It is found that such paths are suitable for thin comoving gravitational lenses to the first order in the lens effect, and also if there is a nonstationary perturbation. As an example, the Fermat principle is applied to a perturbation by gravitational waves, and the transverse velocity of the caustic motion is derived. This velocity creates difficulty for the proposal by McBreen and Metcalfe (1988) that gamma-ray bursts come from small, hot BL Lac cores crossed by microcaustics. 23 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhodes, Jason
The nature of dark energy, thought to be driving the accelerating expansion of the Universe, is one of the most compelling mysteries in all of science. Determining the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1% accuracy is currently a leading goal for many planned cosmological surveys and numerical simulations of structure formation are required to make predictions and help mitigate systematics for upcoming surveys such as NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), ESA’s Euclid and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We propose to: 1) Enhance our weak lensing simulation pipeline, SUNGLASS, to include galaxy intrinsic alignments 2) Develop and test intrinsic alignment mitigation techniques 3) Generate high precision covariance matrices and determine the precision required to measure the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1% 4) Develop a covariance emulator Our SUNGLASS pipeline (Simulated UNiverses for Gravitational Lensing Analysis and Shear Surveys; Kiessling et al. 2011a) is able to produce Monte Carlo suites of numerical simulations and rapidly generates mock weak lensing galaxy shear catalogues. We propose to enhance the SUNGLASS pipeline to include realistic galaxy properties using the Galacticus software (Benson 2012). With the realistic galaxy properties made available from Galacticus, we will be able to place realistic intrinsic alignment (IA) signals, where galaxy shapes are correlated due to their physical proximity, into the mock catalogues. Using the SUNGLASS/Galacticus catalogues, we propose to reduce the degrees of freedom in a plausible IA model and find optimal methods of controlling IA through removal techniques and modeling. It is currently unknown how accurate a covariance matrix needs to be in order to measure the equation-of-state of dark energy to 1%. We will directly generate the matrices with 10^4 independent N-body realizations for a LCDM cosmology to test how errors propagate through the non-linear modes and compare results with Gaussian estimates. We will also determine how accurate the inverse covariance matrix needs to be to measure dark energy to 1%. Future missions will require cosmology dependent covariance matrices, so we will need simulations at up to 10^4 points in parameter space. The ~10^8 simulations needed (10^4 realizations at up to 10^4 points in parameter space) would take a prohibitively large amount of time and computing resources. To reduce the number of realizations required in the future, while sampling the plausible parameter space, we will develop and test an emulator that does not compromise on the accuracy of the inverse covariance matrix. The developments and investigations proposed here are absolutely essential for the success of future telescope missions in determining the dark energy equation-of-state to an accuracy of 1%. The SUNGLASS pipeline is uniquely placed to tackle all of these problems in a rapid and computationally efficient way and the developments proposed will result in a pipeline that is able to drive a cosmology telescope mission from the development phase all the way through to accurate data analysis.
An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.
2016-04-01
We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong (2014, BA14), extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded image of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies/second/core with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multi-band observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.
Neutron interference in the gravitational field of a ring laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Robert D.; Mallett, Ronald L.
2015-07-01
The neutron split-beam interferometer has proven to be particularly useful in measuring Newtonian gravitational effects such as those studied by Colella, Overhauser, and Werner (COW). The development of the ring laser has led to numerous applications in many areas of physics including a recent general relativistic prediction of frame dragging in the gravitational field produced by the electromagnetic radiation in a ring laser. This paper introduces a new general technique based on a canonical transformation of the Dirac equation for the gravitational field of a general linearized spacetime. Using this technique it is shown that there is a phase shift in the interference of two neutron beams due to the frame-dragging nature of the gravitational field of a ring laser.
Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.
Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang
2015-01-01
How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A.
There are several well known GR tests in a weak gravitational field limit however some of these tests could could be fitted by alternative theories of gravitation On the other hand there is very little information about GR tests in the strong gravitational field We calculated shapes of shadows mirages forming just near BH horizons and discuss a possibility to evaluate inclination angle spin and charge of black hole In 2007 the Radioastron space telescope will be launched and it will be a generalization of VLBI technique using the space -- ground base Using this interferometer one could evaluate parameters parameters of the supermassive black holes in particular parameters of the black hole in the Galactic Centre
Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields
Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang
2015-01-01
How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944
Nonlinear superposition of strong gravitational field of compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to QFT it is deduced that the gravitation is likely to originate from the polarization effect of Dirac vacuum fluctuation (Chen Shao-Guang, Nuovo Cimento B 104, 611, 1989) . In Dirac vacuum the lowest-energy virtual neutrinos nu possess most number, which exert isotropic colliding pressure to isolated mass-point A (m) , the net force on A is zero. For another mass-point B (M) near A to obstruct nu flux shooting to A, the nu number along the line connecting A and B will decrease and destroy isotropic distribution of nu , which leads to not only the change in momentum P (produces net nu flux and net force Fp) but also the change in energy E or rest mass m (produces net force Fm) because in QFT the rest mass is not the bare mass but the physical mass of renormalization which contains nu with energy. From the definition of force: F ≡ d (m v) /d t = m ( d v / d t ) + v (d m / d t ) = Fp + Fm (1) , on A (or B) net force (quasi-Casimir pressure of weak interaction) is: F Q = Fp + Fm = - K (m M /r 2 )((r /r ) + (v /c )) (2). According to the change in masses caused by Bondi's inductive transfer of energy in GR (H. Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990) and Eq. (1) a new gravitational formula is deduced: F G = Fp +Fm = - G (m M /r 2 )( (r /r ) + (v /c )) (3). F G is equivalent to Einstein's equation. Then we can solve the multi-bodies gravitational problems. K calculated from the weak-electromagnetism unified theory (W-EUT) has the same order of magnitude as experimental gravitational constant G. F G and F Q as a bridge joins QFT and GR. If K ≡ G, gravitational theory would be merged into W-EUT. The gravitational laws predicted by FG and F Q are identical except that F Q has quantum effects but F G has not, F G has Lense-Thirring effect but F Q has not. The change in masses of A and B caused by the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation or by mass renormalization of QFT will influence their forces on third object C (as self-shielding effect of gravities among objects or each parts of a object): F = - G∞ m M (1 - q ) r / r 3 = - G (r ) m M r / r 3 (4). Here G (r ) = G∞ (1 - q ), q = k M / r 2 = k D L S / r 2 . q is a positive shielding coefficient, G∞ is the gravitational constant when infinite distance between mass-point A and object B (q = 0 ). M / r 2 is the gravitational field strength of B in the place of A, D and L are the density and the thickness respectively, S is the cross section of B. S / r 2 is the solid angle of B subtends to A , k is a constant determined by experiments and called as the section of unit mass. From Stacey et al's experimental results kmu of nucleons to virtual neutrino mu is 4.7×10-19 cm2 g-1 .The section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1×10-43 cm2 which divided by nucleon-mass is the section of unit mass kmue ≈6.6×10-20 cm2 g-1 . For the earth (L ≈104 km) as a obstructing layer qmue = 4.6×10-10 ; qmu = 3.3×10-9 . Therefore, the self-shielding effect of gravity can be generally ignored, but can not for the compact stars: A spherical shell of neutron (D large than 1014 g cm-3 ) as obstructing layer, when S / r 2 =1 and L=1 km then qmue =1 and qmu large than 1 (completely obstruct mue and mu ), i.e., the gravity from its inside and exterior will be completely shielded. It makes that a neutron star likes a empty shell then it may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of masses and radii, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated at the surface of cooling and/or rapidly rotating compact stars.
Constraining Horava-Lifshitz gravity by weak and strong gravitational lensing
Horvath, Zsolt; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Keresztes, Zoltan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2011-10-15
We discuss gravitational lensing in the Kehagias-Sfetsos space-time emerging in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. In weak lensing, we show that there are three regimes, depending on the value of {lambda}=1/{omega}d{sup 2}, where {omega} is the Horava-Lifshitz parameter and d characterizes the lensing geometry. When {lambda} is close to zero, light deflection typically produces two images, as in Schwarzschild lensing. For very large {lambda}, the space-time approaches flatness, therefore there is only one undeflected image. In the intermediate range of {lambda}, only the upper focused image is produced due to the existence of a maximal deflection angle {delta}{sub max}, a feature inexistent in the Schwarzschild weak lensing. We also discuss the location of Einstein rings, and determine the range of the Horava-Lifshitz parameter compatible with present-day lensing observations. Finally, we analyze in the strong lensing regime the first two relativistic Einstein rings and determine the constraints on the parameter range to be imposed by forthcoming experiments.
NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2014-01-01
In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.
Equilibrium of self-gravitating tori in spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trova, A.; Karas, V.; Slan, P.; Kov?, J.
2015-12-01
We investigate a new model for equilibria of self-gravitating fluid tori with electric charge that are embedded in gravitational potential and a dipolar magnetic field produced by the central mass. We find that the shape and the vertical structure of the massive torus are influenced by effects of self-gravity which were neglected in our previous work tep{slany13}. We show the impact of self-gravity on the morphology of figures of equilibrium, depending on the rotation of the fluid and the strength of the magnetic field.
Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, G.
1981-03-01
Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.
WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AS A PROBE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN DARK MATTER HALOS
Shirasaki, Masato
2015-02-01
We propose a novel method to select satellite galaxies in outer regions of galaxy groups or clusters using weak gravitational lensing. The method is based on the theoretical expectation that the tangential shear pattern around satellite galaxies would appear with negative values at an offset distance from the center of the main halo. We can thus locate the satellite galaxies statistically with an offset distance of several lensing smoothing scales by using the standard reconstruction of surface mass density maps from weak lensing observation. We test the idea using high-resolution cosmological simulations. We show that subhalos separated from the center of the host halo are successfully located even without assuming the position of the center. For a number of such subhalos, the characteristic mass and offset length can be also estimated on a statistical basis. We perform a Fisher analysis to show how well upcoming weak lensing surveys can constrain the mass density profile of satellite galaxies. In the case of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope with a sky coverage of 20,000 deg{sup 2}, the mass of the member galaxies in the outer region of galaxy clusters can be constrained with an accuracy of ∼0.1 dex for galaxy clusters with mass 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉} at z = 0.15. Finally we explore the detectability of tidal stripping features for subhalos having a wide range of masses of 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}.
Gravitational vacuum polarization phenomena due to the Higgs field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onofrio, Roberto
2012-05-01
In the standard model the mass of elementary particles is considered as a dynamical property emerging from their interaction with the Higgs field. We show that this assumption implies peculiar deviations from the law of universal gravitation in its distance and mass dependence, as well as from the superposition principle. The experimental observation of the predicted deviations from the law of universal gravitation seems out of reach. However, we argue that a new class of experiments aimed at studying the influence of surrounding masses on the gravitational force—similar to the ones performed by Quirino Majorana almost a century ago—could be performed to test the superposition principle and to give direct limits on the presence of nonminimal couplings between the Higgs field and the spacetime curvature. From the conceptual viewpoint, the violation of the superposition principle for gravitational forces due to the Higgs field creates a conflict with the notion that gravitational potentials, as assumed in Newtonian gravitation or in post-Newtonian parameterizations of metric theories, are well-defined concepts to describe gravity in their non-relativistic limit.
Residual symmetries of the gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Velázquez-Rodríguez, Gerardo
2016-02-01
We develop a geometric criterion that unambiguously characterizes the residual symmetries of a gravitational Ansatz. It also provides a systematic and effective computational procedure for finding all the residual symmetries of any gravitational Ansatz. We apply the criterion to several examples starting with the Collinson Ansatz for circular stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. We reproduce the residual symmetries already known for this Ansatz including their conformal symmetry, for which we identify the corresponding infinite generators spanning the two related copies of the Witt algebra. We also consider the noncircular generalization of this Ansatz and show how the noncircular contributions on the one hand break the conformal invariance and on the other hand enhance the standard translation symmetries of the circular Killing vectors to supertranslations depending on the direction along which the circularity is lost. As another application of the method, the well-known relation defining conjugate gravitational potentials introduced by Chandrasekhar, which makes possible the derivation of the Kerr black hole from a trivial solution of the Ernst equations, is deduced as a special point of the general residual symmetry of the Papapetrou Ansatz. In this derivation we emphasize how the election of Weyl coordinates, which determines the Papapetrou Ansatz, breaks also the conformal freedom of the stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. Additionally, we study AdS waves for any dimension generalizing the residual symmetries already known for lower dimensions and exhibiting a very complex infinite-dimensional Lie algebra containing three families: two of them span the semidirect sum of the Witt algebra and scalar supertranslations and the third generates vector supertranslations. Independently of this complexity we manage to comprehend the true meaning of the infinite connected group as the precise diffeomorphisms subgroup allowing to locally deform the AdS background into AdS waves.
Spin Hall effect induced by a gravitational field
Dartora, C.A.; Cabrera, G.G.
2010-06-15
The experiment by Collela et al. (1975) evidenced in a striking manner how the gravitational field appears in quantum mechanics. Within the modern framework of gauge theories, one can ascribe such effect as due to gauge fields originated from fundamental symmetries of spacetime: local transformations of the Lorentz-Poincare group. When this gauge principle is applied to the Dirac equation, we obtain kinematical correlations between the gravitational field and the spin of the particles. The phenomenon is similar to the spin Hall effect found in condensed matter systems, although much smaller in magnitude. Actual measurements may require highly precision interferometric techniques with spin-polarized neutrons.
Contributions of Spherical Harmonics to Magnetic and Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roithmayr, Carlos M.
2004-01-01
Gravitational forces are of cardinal importance in the dynamics of spacecraft; magnetic attractions sometime play a significant role also, as was the case with the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and as is now true for the first segment of Space Station Freedom. Both satellites depend on gravitational moment and a device known as a magnetic damper to stabilize their orientation. Magnetic fields are mathematically similar to gravitational fields in one important respect: each can be regarded as a gradient of a potential function that, in turn, can be described as an infinite series of spherical harmonics. Consequently, the two fields can be computed, in part, with quantities that need only be evaluated once, resulting in a savings of time when both fields are needed. The objective of this material is to present magnetic field and gravitational force expressions, and point out the terms that belong to both this is accomplished in Section 1 and 2. Section 3 contains the deductive reasoning with which one obtains the expressions of interest. Finally, examples in Section 4 show these equations can be used to reproduce others that arise in connection with special cases such as the magnetic field produced by a tilted dipole, and gravitational force exerted by an oblate spheroid. The mathematics are discussed in the context of terrestrial fields; however, by substituting appropriate constants, the results can be made applicable to fields belonging to other celestial bodies. The expressions presented here share the characteristics of algorithms set forth for computing gravitational force. In particular, computation is performed speedily by means of recursion formulae, and the expressions do not suffer from the shortcoming of a singularity when evaluated at points that lie on the polar axis.
Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.
2016-02-01
In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.
Using Gravitational Analogies to Introduce Elementary Electrical Field Theory Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saeli, Susan; MacIsaac, Dan
2007-01-01
Since electrical field concepts are usually unfamiliar, abstract, and difficult to visualize, conceptual analogies from familiar gravitational phenomena are valuable for teaching. Such analogies emphasize the underlying continuity of field concepts in physics and support the spiral development of student understanding. We find the following four…
Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... feel weak but have no real loss of strength. This is called subjective weakness. It may be ... flu. Or, you may have a loss of strength that can be noted on a physical exam. ...
Probing Dark Energy via Weak Gravitational Lensing with the Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP)
Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN
2005-08-08
SNAP is a candidate for the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) that seeks to place constraints on the dark energy using two distinct methods. The first, Type Ia SN, is discussed in a separate white paper. The second method is weak gravitational lensing, which relies on the coherent distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass structures. The excellent spatial resolution and photometric accuracy afforded by a 2-meter space-based observatory are crucial for achieving the high surface density of resolved galaxies, the tight control of systematic errors in the telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF), and the exquisite redshift accuracy and depth required by this project. These are achieved by the elimination of atmospheric distortion and much of the thermal and gravity loads on the telescope. The SN and WL methods for probing dark energy are highly complementary and the error contours from the two methods are largely orthogonal. The nominal SNAP weak lensing survey covers 1000 square degrees per year of operation in six optical and three near infrared filters (NIR) spanning the range 350 nm to 1.7 {micro}m. This survey will reach a depth of 26.6 AB magnitude in each of the nine filters and allow for approximately 100 resolved galaxies per square arcminute, {approx} 3 times that available from the best ground-based surveys. Photometric redshifts will be measured with statistical accuracy that enables scientific applications for even the faint, high redshift end of the sample. Ongoing work aims to meet the requirements on systematics in galaxy shape measurement, photometric redshift biases, and theoretical predictions.
Zhang Pengjie
2010-09-10
The galaxy intrinsic alignment is a severe challenge to precision cosmic shear measurement. We propose self-calibrating the induced gravitational shear-galaxy intrinsic ellipticity correlation (the GI correlation) in weak lensing surveys with photometric redshift measurements. (1) We propose a method to extract the intrinsic ellipticity-galaxy density cross-correlation (I-g) from the galaxy ellipticity-density measurement in the same redshift bin. (2) We also find a generic scaling relation to convert the extracted I-g correlation to the necessary GI correlation. We perform a concept study under simplified conditions and demonstrate its capability to significantly reduce GI contamination. We discuss the impact of various complexities on the two key ingredients of the self-calibration technique, namely the method for extracting the I-g correlation and the scaling relation between the I-g and the GI correlation. We expect that none of them will likely be able to completely invalidate the proposed self-calibration technique.
Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2016-01-01
Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472
Axisymmetric plasma equilibrium in gravitational and magnetic fields
Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Catto, P. J.
2015-12-15
Plasma equilibria in gravitational and open-ended magnetic fields are considered for the case of topologically disconnected regions of the magnetic flux surfaces where plasma occupies just one of these regions. Special dependences of the plasma temperature and density on the magnetic flux are used which allow the solution of the Grad–Shafranov equation in a separable form permitting analytic treatment. It is found that plasma pressure tends to play the dominant role in the setting the shape of magnetic field equilibrium, while a strong gravitational force localizes the plasma density to a thin disc centered at the equatorial plane.
Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyavskaya, N. A.
2004-01-01
Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.
Spin Hall effect of photons in a static gravitational field
Gosselin, Pierre; Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve
2007-04-15
Starting from a Hamiltonian description of the photon within the set of Bargmann-Wigner equations we derive new semiclassical equations of motion for the photon propagating in a static gravitational field. These equations which are obtained in the representation diagonalizing the Hamiltonian at the order ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), present the first order corrections to the geometrical optics. The photon Hamiltonian shows a new kind of helicity-torsion coupling. However, even for a torsionless space-time, photons do not follow the usual null geodesic as a consequence of an anomalous velocity term. This term is responsible for the gravitational birefringence phenomenon: photons with distinct helicity follow different geodesics in a static gravitational field.
Field theory on R× S 3 topology. VI: Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Malin, S.
1987-04-01
We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between them are pointed out. The problem of motion is discussed, and the equations of motion of a rigid body are developed and given explicitly. One result which is worth emphazing is that while general relativity theory yields Newton's law of motion in the lowest approximation, our theory gives Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body in its lowest approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after counteract contrary direction ν 0 ). f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The origin problem of the basis geo-electric and geomagnetic fields can be solved with the positive-negative charge center separation caused by f QF T , but cannot by f GR . The de Broglie wavelength of an electron is longer than that of a nucleon, and the section is larger, so is the net ν 0 flux pressure. The pressures difference between ν 0 flux on the electron and on the nucleon is as an extra pressure solely exerted on the electrons by ν 0 flux, which causes a gravitational polarization of the positive-negative charge center separation and increases the static electric force from the nucleus to the electrons along the opposite direction of ν 0 flux to offset the extra pressure on the electrons. At the same time, there must be a polarized static electric reaction force from the electrons to the nucleus along ν 0 flux direction, just like transferring the extra ν 0 flux pressure of the electrons to the nucleus. Therefore, the extra ν 0 flux pressure exerted on the whole atom is not actually offset by the static electric force from the positive-negative charge separation, i.e., the gravitation will be dependent of the com-position of matter. That is certainly true in the interaction between two isolated mass-points. But nothing can exist without environment. The masses tested in Cavendish's experiment, Eotvos's experiment and other precise gravitational experiments are not isolated mass-points. The electric polarization by ν 0 flux makes the testing mass and around (brackets, walls, houses) become the electric dipoles. In a way of relays the polarization of charge separation will be transported to the edge of the body, and make it become the electric dipole with the positive and negative charge on its two surfaces and the electric neutrality in the center. The interaction between the electric dipoles finally transfers the extra ν 0 flux pressure on the electrons from a body being tested onto the bodies around, i.e., the static electric force from the polarization of the bodies around offsets the extra ν 0 flux pressure on the electrons of testing mass. Because the electromagnetic force is 30 more orders of magnitude stronger than the ν 0 flux weak force, the slightly polarization of the bodies around can completely offset the extra ν 0 flux pressure on the electrons. The compensating action of the static forces between electric dipoles is equiv-alent to the equal section in unit mass of an electron and a nucleon. That is to say, the ν 0 flux pressure gives the same force and displacement to the electron and nucleon just like no positive-negative charge separation. Therefore, for gravitation, the mass of an electron can be converted to a proton, which makes the atom like a particle of absolutely electric neutrality comprising all neutrons, i.e., the macro-gravitation of non-isolated bodies is corresponding to the section only contributed by nucleons in atom. Then no matter how many electrons there are in the atom, the force is always in direct proportion to the number of nucleons in the atom or to the total mass of all the electrons and the nucleus of this atom, i.e., the gravitation to be independent of the composition of matter (or the kind of atom).
Perturbations of the Sun's gravitational field due to solar oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, H. A.
1987-10-01
Considerable evidence has been presented for the detection of low-degree internal gravity modes of the Sun. By combining the observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and at SCLERA, a number of the modes have been classified with respect to their spatial properties. The number of such classifications has been extended in a subsequent gravity-mode project by Gu and Hill. These mode classifications have been tested using three additional sets of independent observations. Positive results have been obtained. These low-degree modes lead to oscillatory perturbations of the Sun's gravitational field. The amplitudes of these perturbations at the Earth are inferred from the observed temperature eigenfunctions. For the l = 2 modes with frequencies near 100 microHerz, it is projected that these perturbations in the gravitational field will produce strains of the order of 1.0E-18 in gravitational radiation detectors based on free masses. The signals are expected to have coherence times of hundreds or more years. The detection of these signals by gravitational radiation detectors would make available a new technique for use in solar seismological studies which could be quite useful. The detection of these signals could also serve as a way of monitoring the performance of a given set of gravitational radiation detectors.
The physical effects in the gravitational field of black holes
Markov, M.A.
1987-01-01
This book contains five sections each with several chapters. The section headings are: The Physical Effects in the Gravitational Field of Black Holes, Vacuum Polarization of Massless Fields in Black Holes, Certain Properties of a Nonsingular Model of a Black Hole, The Quantum Effect of Scalar Field Radiation by an Accerlerated Body with a Mirror Boundary, and One-Loop Calculations of Photon Splitting in Relativistic Quantum Plasma by Green's Function Technique.
Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, A.; Yurgens, A.
2015-09-01
Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements of graphene.
Propagation of light in the stationary field of multipole gravitational lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, S. M.
1997-05-01
A rigorous mathematical formalism for calculating the propagation of light rays in the stationary post-Newtonian field of an isolated celestial body (or system of bodies) considered as a gravitational lens having a complex multipole structure is developed. Symmetric trace-free tensors are used in the definition of gravitational multipoles instead of the less convenient (in general situations) scalar and vector spherical harmonics. Two types of perturbations of light rays, caused correspondingly by the mass and spin multipoles, are analyzed in full detail. A new simple method of integration for the equations of light propagation is proposed. This method enables us for the first time to obtain complete expressions both for the relativistic time delay and for the angle of the total deflection of light in any order of multipole perturbations without restriction. The results thus obtained can be applied to the interpretation of the secondary weak gravitational lens effects produced by the solar system bodies, stars, binary pulsars, and galaxies where the influence of higher-order multipoles on the propagation of null rays may be important and measurable. The methods developed in the paper can be also applied to physical optics of multipole electromagnetic lenses and for calculation of propagation of gravitational waves through the curved space-time. As a particular application of the method the generalized equation for a multipole gravitational lens is derived using Cartesian coordinates and symmetric transverse-traceless tensors.
Scalar field as a time variable during gravitational evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Lewandowski, Jerzy
2015-09-01
Using a scalar field as an intrinsic "clock" while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems has been successfully pursued in various researches on the border between classical and quantum gravity. The objective of our research was to check explicitly whether the scalar field can serve as a time variable during dynamical evolution of the matter-geometry system, especially in regions of high curvature, which are essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. For this purpose, we analyzed a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting scalar field within the framework of general relativity. The obtained results indicated that the hypersurfaces of constant scalar field are spacelike in dynamical regions nearby the singularities formed during the investigated process. The scalar field values change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Effective action for hard thermal loops in gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francisco, R. R.; Frenkel, J.; Taylor, J. C.
2016-05-01
We examine, through a Boltzmann equation approach, the generating action of hard thermal loops in the background of gravitational fields. Using the gauge and Weyl invariance of the theory at high temperature, we derive an explicit closed-form expression for the effective action.
Nbody Simulations and Weak Gravitational Lensing using new HPC-Grid resources: the PI2S2 project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becciani, U.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Costa, A.; Comparato, M.
2008-08-01
We present the main project of the new grid infrastructure and the researches, that have been already started in Sicily and will be completed by next year. The PI2S2 project of the COMETA consortium is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research and will be completed in 2009. Funds are from the European Union Structural Funds for Objective 1 regions. The project, together with a similar project called Trinacria GRID Virtual Laboratory (Trigrid VL), aims to create in Sicily a computational grid for e-science and e-commerce applications with the main goal of increasing the technological innovation of local enterprises and their competition on the global market. PI2S2 project aims to build and develop an e-Infrastructure in Sicily, based on the grid paradigm, mainly for research activity using the grid environment and High Performance Computer systems. As an example we present the first results of a new grid version of FLY a tree Nbody code developed by INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, already published in the CPC program Library, that will be used in the Weak Gravitational Lensing field.
Weighing the Giants: Galaxy Cluster Cosmology Anchored by Weak Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantz, Adam; Von Der Linden, Anja; Allen, Steven W.; Applegate, Douglas; Kelly, Patrick; Morris, Glenn; Rapetti, David; Schmidt, Robert; Ebeling, Harald
2014-08-01
The gas mass fractions and the distribution in mass and redshift of the galaxy cluster population provide powerful probes of cosmology, constraining the cosmic matter density (Ωm), the amplitude of the matter power spectrum (σ8), properties of dark energy, and the mass of neutrinos, among other parameters. Historically, these tests have been limited by the absolute accuracy of cluster mass determinations. Here, mass measurements from weak lensing (made in the right way) have an advantage over estimates based on observations of the intracluster medium (ICM), because the former are nearly unbiased and can be straightforwardly tested against simulations. I will report new cosmological constraints obtained from an analysis of X-ray selected cluster samples, incorporating extensive gravitational lensing data from the Weighing the Giants project -- the first cluster cosmology study to consistently integrate a lensing mass calibration, including a rigorous quantification of all systematic uncertainties. Compared with earlier work, which had to incorporate larger systematic allowances associated with an ICM-based mass calibration, our joint constraints on Ωm and σ8 are improved by a factor of 2. Including Cosmic Microwave Background and other cosmological probes in the analysis, we find no evidence for non-zero neutrino mass in the current data. This result is directly dependent on the absolute cluster mass calibration, and conflicts with some recent cluster results using ICM-based masses, highlighting the need for an accurate mass calibration (such as lensing provides). We also obtain tight constraints on dark energy models; for flat models with a constant equation of state (w), the cluster data alone yield w=-0.98±0.15. Our data, and their combination with other leading cosmological data sets, remain consistent with the concordance model of cosmology, with zero global curvature, dark energy as a non-evolving cosmological constant (w=-1), minimal neutrino mass, and gravity described by General Relativity.
Conformal transformations and weak field limit of scalar-tensor gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stabile, A.; Stabile, An.; Capozziello, S.
2013-12-01
The weak-field limit of scalar-tensor theories of gravity is discussed in view of conformal transformations. Specifically, we consider how physical quantities—such as gravitational potentials derived in the Newtonian approximation for the same scalar-tensor theory—behave in the Jordan and Einstein frames. The approach allows one to discriminate features that are invariant under conformal transformations and gives contributions to the debate of how to select the true physical frame. As a particular example, the case of f(R) gravity is considered.
Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.
2016-03-01
The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.
Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere.
Zhang, T L; Baumjohann, W; Russell, C T; Luhmann, J G; Xiao, S D
2016-01-01
The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234
Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere
Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.
2016-01-01
The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, J.
1984-11-01
Gravitational wave is produced whenever massive bodies accelerate under gravitational or nongravitational driving forces. The equations of Einstein's general theory of relativity have solutions in the weak field approximations which are very similar to those of electrodynamics. Analogies may be made between gravitational radiation and the electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charges although care has to be taken to recognize the limitations of such analogies. Because of the weakness of the Einstein's qravitational constant, the rate of energy radiated is normally very small. It is very desirable to be able to generate dynamic Newtonian gravitational field with sufficient intensity to be detected in the small laboratory. Experimental techniques used in generation and detection of dynamic Newtonian gravitational fields are reviewed and their application to Morse code communication in very near zone, as one approach to the gravitational wave technology.
E.coli in weak magnetic field in different media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Samina
We study the growth of E-coli in a weak magnetic field, both in a liquid and a solid medium. We use LB broth for that purpose at the room temperature and study the growth in different types of magnetic field. We grow it over the bar magnets and within the magnetic field generated by the Helmholtz coils. It has been clearly noticed that the growth of bacteria is clearly affected with the magnetic field and the different types of magnetic field affect differently.
Constraints on the shapes of galaxy dark matter haloes from weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Uitert, E.; Hoekstra, H.; Schrabback, T.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.
2012-09-01
We study the shapes of galaxy dark matter haloes by measuring the anisotropy of the weak gravitational lensing signal around galaxies in the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). We determine the average shear anisotropy within the virial radius for three lens samples: the "all" sample, which contains all galaxies with 19 < mr' < 21.5, and the "red" and "blue" samples, whose lensing signals are dominated by massive low-redshift early-type and late-type galaxies, respectively. To study the environmental dependence of the lensing signal, we separate each lens sample into an isolated and clustered part and analyse them separately. We address the impact of several complications on the halo ellipticity measurement, including PSF residual systematics in the shape catalogues, multiple deflections, and the clustering of lenses. We estimate that the impact of these is small for our lens selections. Furthermore, we measure the azimuthal dependence of the distribution of physically associated galaxies around the lens samples. We find that these satellites preferentially reside near the major axis of the lenses, and constrain the angle between the major axis of the lens and the average location of the satellites to ⟨θ⟩ = 43.7° ± 0.3° for the "all" lenses, ⟨θ⟩ = 41.7° ± 0.5° for the "red" lenses and ⟨θ⟩ = 42.0° ± 1.4° for the "blue" lenses. We do not detect a significant shear anisotropy for the average "red" and "blue" lenses, although for the most elliptical "red" and "blue" galaxies it is marginally positive and negative, respectively. For the "all" sample, we find that the anisotropy of the galaxy-mass cross-correlation function ⟨f - f45⟩ = 0.23 ± 0.12, providing weak support for the view that the average galaxy is embedded in, and preferentially aligned with, a triaxial dark matter halo. Assuming an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we find that the ratio of the dark matter halo ellipticity and the galaxy ellipticity fh = eh/eg = 1.50-1.01+1.03, which for a mean lens ellipticity of 0.25 corresponds to a projected halo ellipticity of eh = 0.38-0.25+0.26 if the halo and the lens are perfectly aligned. For isolated galaxies of the "all" sample, the average shear anisotropy increases to ⟨f-f45⟩ = 0.51-0.25+0.26 and fh = 4.73-2.05+2.17, whilst for clustered galaxies the signal is consistent with zero. These constraints provide lower limits on the average dark matter halo ellipticity, as scatter in the relative position angle between the galaxies and the dark matter haloes is expected to reduce the shear anisotropy by a factor ~2.
Validation of Global Gravitational Field Models in Norway
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pettersen, B. R.; Sprlak, M.; Gerlach, C.
2015-03-01
We compare global gravitational field models obtained from GOCE to terrestrial datasets over Norway. Models based on the time-wise and the direct approaches are validated against height anomalies, free-air gravity anomalies, and deflections of the vertical. The spectral enhancement method is employed to overcome the spectral inconsistency between the gravitational models and the terrestrial datasets. All models are very similar up to degree/order 160. Higher degrees/orders improved systematically as more observations from GOCE were made available throughout five releases of data. Release 5 models compare well with EGM2008 up to degree/order 220. Validation by height anomalies suggests possible GOCE improvements to the gravity field over Norway between degree/order 100-200.
New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.
2012-01-01
DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.
Why are living things sensitive to weak magnetic fields?
Liboff, Abraham R
2014-09-01
There is evidence for robust interactions of weak ELF magnetic fields with biological systems. Quite apart from the difficulties attending a proper physical basis for such interactions, an equally daunting question asks why these should even occur, given the apparent lack of comparable signals in the long-term electromagnetic environment. We suggest that the biological basis is likely to be found in the weak (∼50 nT) daily swing in the geomagnetic field that results from the solar tidal force on free electrons in the upper atmosphere, a remarkably constant effect exactly in phase with the solar diurnal change. Because this magnetic change is locked into the solar-derived everyday diurnal response in living things, one can argue that it acts as a surrogate for the solar variation, and therefore plays a role in chronobiological processes. This implies that weak magnetic field interactions may have a chronodisruptive basis, homologous to the more familiar effects on the biological clock arising from sleep deprivation, phase-shift employment and light at night. It is conceivable that the widespread sensitivity of biological systems to weak ELF magnetic fields is vestigially derived from this diurnal geomagnetic effect. PMID:23915203
Improved routing strategy based on gravitational field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hai-Quan; Guo, Jin
2015-10-01
Routing and path selection are crucial for many communication and logistic applications. We study the interaction between nodes and packets and establish a simple model for describing the attraction of the node to the packet in transmission process by using the gravitational field theory, considering the real and potential congestion of the nodes. On the basis of this model, we propose a gravitational field routing strategy that considers the attractions of all of the nodes on the travel path to the packet. In order to illustrate the efficiency of proposed routing algorithm, we introduce the order parameter to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from a free flow phase to a congested phase, and study the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulations show that, compared with the shortest path routing strategy, the gravitational field routing strategy considerably enhances the throughput of the network and balances the traffic load, and nearly all of the nodes are used efficiently. Project supported by the Technology and Development Research Project of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X007-D) and the Key Program of Technology and Development Research Foundation of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X003-A).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troxel, M. A.; Ishak, Mustapha
2015-02-01
The wealth of incoming and future cosmological observations will allow us to map out the structure and evolution of the observable universe to an unprecedented level of precision. Among these observations is the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies, e.g., cosmic shear that measures the minute distortions of background galaxy images by intervening cosmic structure. Weak lensing and cosmic shear promise to be a powerful probe of astrophysics and cosmology, constraining models of dark energy, measuring the evolution of structure in the universe, and testing theories of gravity on cosmic scales. However, the intrinsic alignment of galaxies-their shape and orientation before being lensed-may pose a great challenge to the use of weak gravitational lensing as an accurate cosmological probe, and has been identified as one of the primary physical systematic biases in cosmic shear studies. Correlations between this intrinsic alignment and the lensing signal can persist even for large physical separations, and isolating the effect of intrinsic alignment from weak lensing is not trivial. A great deal of work in the last two decades has been devoted to understanding and characterizing this intrinsic alignment, which is also a direct and complementary probe of structure formation and evolution in its own right. In this review, we report in a systematic way the state of our understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, with a particular emphasis on its large-scale impact on weak lensing measurements and methods for its isolation or mitigation. We begin with an introduction to the use of cosmic shear as a probe for cosmology and describe the various physical contributions by intrinsic alignment to the shear or convergence 2- and 3-point correlations. We then review developments in the modeling of the intrinsic alignment signal, including a trend toward attempting to incorporate more accurate nonlinear and single halo effects. The impact on cosmological constraints by the intrinsic alignment of galaxies is also outlined based on these models. We then summarize direct measurements of the large-scale intrinsic alignment signal in various surveys and discuss their constraints on models of intrinsic alignment, as well as progress in utilizing numerical simulations of structure formation to further our understanding of intrinsic alignment. Finally, we outline the development of a variety of mitigation techniques for reducing the impact of the intrinsic alignment contamination on weak lensing signals both within a galaxy data set and between complementary probes of gravitational lensing. The methodology and projected impact of these techniques are discussed for both 2- and 3-point correlations. We conclude by presenting a summary and outlook on the state of intrinsic alignment study and its impact on ongoing and planned weak lensing surveys.
Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields
Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio
2014-01-01
Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402
The MOG weak field approximation and observational test of galaxy rotation curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.; Rahvar, S.
2013-12-01
As an alternative to dark matter models, Modified Gravity (MOG) theory is a covariant modification of Einstein gravity. The theory introduces two additional scalar fields and one vector field. The aim is to explain the dynamics of astronomical systems based only on their baryonic matter. The effect of the vector field in the theory resembles a Lorentz force where each particle has a charge proportional to its inertial mass. The weak field approximation of MOG is derived by perturbing the metric and the fields around Minkowski space-time. We obtain an effective gravitational potential which yields the Newtonian attractive force plus a repulsive Yukawa force. This potential, in addition to the Newtonian gravitational constant, GN, has two additional constant parameters ? and ?. We use The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey catalogue of galaxies and fix the two parameters ? and ? of the theory to be ? = 8.89 0.34 and ? = 0.042 0.004 kpc-1. We then apply the effective potential with the fixed universal parameters to the Ursa Major catalogue of galaxies and obtain good fits to galaxy rotation curve data with an average value of
PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS
Krumholz, Mark R.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.
2013-04-10
The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.
Apparatus and method for producing an artificial gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccanna, Jason (Inventor)
1993-01-01
An apparatus and method is disclosed for producing an artificial gravitational field in a spacecraft by rotating the same around a spin axis. The centrifugal force thereby created acts as an artificial gravitational force. The apparatus includes an engine which produces a drive force offset from the spin axis to drive the spacecraft towards a destination. The engine is also used as a counterbalance for a crew cabin for rotation of the spacecraft. Mass of the spacecraft, which may include either the engine or crew cabin, is shifted such that the centrifugal force acting on that mass is no longer directed through the center of mass of the craft. This off-center centrifugal force creates a moment that counterbalances the moment produced by the off-center drive force to eliminate unwanted rotation which would otherwise be precipitated by the offset drive force.
Hubble Frontier Fields : ``A New Era for Gravitational Lensing''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauzac, Mathilde; Eckert, Dominique; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Limousin, Marceau; Atek, Hakim; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Rexroth, Markus
2015-08-01
The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) initiative constitutes the largest commitment ever of HST time to the exploration of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters.I will present the new gravitational lensing pictures of the first HFF complex clusters. We have demonstrated that we are now able to `weight’ these clusters' cores down to the percent level precision (recently published works), serving our quest for the high-redshift Universe.However, while the depth of these dataset makes these clusters amazing Cosmic Telescopes, it also enables us to get an unprecedented understanding of the cluster physics.Therefore, presenting the case of MACSJ0416 and Abell 2744, I will demonstrate the importance of such high-quality data to analyse the merging/dynamical history of the cluster itself while comparing dark matter, light and gas distributions.
Nematic ordering of rigid rods in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baulin, Vladimir A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.
1999-09-01
The isotropic-to-nematic transition in an athermal solution of long rigid rods subject to a gravitational (or centrifugal) field is theoretically considered in the Onsager approximation. The new feature emerging in the presence of gravity is a concentration gradient that coupled with the nematic ordering. For rodlike molecules this effect becomes noticeable at centrifugal acceleration g~103-104 m/s2, while for biological rodlike objects, such as tobacco mosaic virus, the effect is important even for normal gravitational acceleration conditions. Rods are concentrated near the bottom of the vessel, which sometimes leads to gravity induced nematic ordering. The concentration range corresponding to phase separation increases with increasing g. In the region of phase separation the local rod concentration, as well as the order parameter, follow a step function with height.
Unfolding the matter distribution using three-dimensional weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, P.; Taylor, A. N.; Hartlap, J.
2009-10-01
Combining redshift and galaxy shape information offers new exciting ways of exploiting the gravitational lensing effect for studying the large scales of the cosmos. One application is the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the matter density distribution which is explored in this paper. We give a generalization of an already known minimum-variance estimator of the 3D matter density distribution that facilitates the combination of thin redshift slices of sources with samples of broad redshift distributions for an optimal reconstruction; sources can be given individual statistical weights. We show how, in principle, intrinsic alignments of source ellipticities or shear/intrinsic alignment correlations can be accommodated, albeit these effects are not the focus of this paper. We describe an efficient and fast way to implement the estimator on a contemporary desktop computer. Analytic estimates for the noise and biases in the reconstruction are given. Some regularization (Wiener filtering) of the estimator, adjustable by a tuning parameter, is necessary to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to a sensible level and to suppress oscillations in radial direction. This, however, introduces as side effect a systematic shift and stretch of structures in radial direction. This bias can be expressed in terms of a radial point-spread function (PSF) comprising the limitations of the reconstruction due to given source shot noise and a lack of knowledge of the exact source redshifts. We conclude that a 3D mass-density reconstruction on galaxy cluster scales (~1Mpc) is feasible but, for foreseeable surveys, a map with a S/N >~ 3 threshold is limited to structures with M200 >~ 1 × 1014 or 7 × 1014Msolarh-1, at low to moderate redshifts (z = 0.1 or 0.6). However, we find that a heavily smoothed full-sky map of the very large-scale density field may also be possible as the S/N of reconstructed modes increases towards larger scales. Future improvements of the method may be obtained by including higher order lensing information (flexion) which could also be implemented into our algorithm.
Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, M.; Hubrig, S.; Todt, H.; Schöller, M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Sandin, C.; Schönberner, D.
2014-10-01
Context. It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion, stellar or substellar, can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. Aims: In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping planetary nebulae, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. Methods: We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 installed on the Antu telescope of the VLT for a sample of 12 bright central stars of PNe with different morphologies, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. Results: For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical planetary nebula IC 418 as well as in the Wolf-Rayet type central star of the bipolar nebula Hen 2-113 and the weak emission line central star of the elliptical nebula Hen 2-131. A clear detection of a 250 G mean longitudinal field is achieved for the A-type companion of the central star of NGC 1514. Some of the central stars show a moderate night-to-night spectrum variability, which may be the signature of a variable stellar wind and/or rotational modulation due to magnetic features. Conclusions: Since our analysis indicates only weak fields, if any, in a few targets of our sample, we conclude that strong magnetic fields of the order of kG are not widespread among PNe central stars. Nevertheless, simple estimates based on a theoretical model of magnetized wind bubbles suggest that even weak magnetic fields below the current detection limit of the order of 100 G may well be sufficient to contribute to the shaping of the surrounding nebulae throughout their evolution. Our current sample is too small to draw conclusions about a correlation between nebular morphology and the presence of stellar magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program No. 088.D-0425(A)).
Circular, elliptic and oval billiards in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Dettmann, Carl P.; Leonel, Edson D.
2015-05-01
We consider classical dynamical properties of a particle in a constant gravitational force and making specular reflections with circular, elliptic or oval boundaries. The model and collision map are described and a detailed study of the energy regimes is made. The linear stability of fixed points is studied, yielding exact analytical expressions for parameter values at which a period-doubling bifurcation occurs. The dynamics is apparently ergodic at certain energies in all three models, in contrast to the regularity of the circular and elliptic billiard dynamics in the field-free case. This finding is confirmed using a sensitive test involving Lyapunov weighted dynamics. In the last part of the paper a time dependence is introduced in the billiard boundary, where it is shown that for the circular billiard the average velocity saturates for zero gravitational force but in the presence of gravitational it increases with a very slow growth rate, which may be explained using Arnold diffusion. For the oval billiard, where chaos is present in the static case, the particle has an unlimited velocity growth with an exponent of approximately 1/6.
Symmetry restoration at finite temperature with weak magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, Jorge; Sánchez, Angel; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena; Ayala, Alejandro; Piccinelli, Gabriella
2010-12-01
We study symmetry restoration at finite temperature in the standard model during the electroweak phase transition in the presence of a weak magnetic field. We compute the finite temperature effective potential up to the contribution of ring diagrams, using the broken phase degrees of freedom, and keep track of the gauge parameter dependence of the results. We show that under these conditions, the phase transition becomes stronger first order.
On the Theory of Gravitational Field in Finsler Spaces - III
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Satoshi
From the vector bundle-like standpoint, the Finslerian gravitational field is regarded as the total space of the vector bundle whose fibre is the internal (y)-field spanned by vectors {y} (i.e., the so-called internal space spanned by {y}) and whose base is the external (x)-field spanned by points {x} (i.e., the Einstein's gravitational field). Along this line, in this paper, different from a previous paper [1], the so-called mapping process of the (y)-field on the (x)-field is not taken into account and following Miron's method [2, 3], the Finslerian field equations will be derived from the Einstein's field equation for the total space. Some physical considerations will be made on those field equations.Translated AbstractZur Theorie des Gravitationsfeldes in Finslerschen Räumen. IIIVon einem vektorbündelähnlichen Standpunkt aus betrachtet, bilden die Gesamträume des Vektorbündels das Finslersche Gravitationsfeld, dessen Fasern das (y)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Vektoren {y} sind, und dessen Basis das äußere (x)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Punkte {x}, ist. {y} ist der sogenannte innere Raum und {x} das Einsteinsche Gravitationsfeld. Im Unterschied zu einer früheren Arbeit [1] wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit entsprechend dieser Auffassung der Abbildungsprozeß des (y)-auf das (x)-Feld nicht betrachtet, und der Methode von Miron [2, 3] gefolgt. Die Finslerschen Feldgleichungen werden aus den Einsteinschen Feldgleichungen für den Gesamtraum abgeleitet. Zu diesen Feldgleichungen werden physikalische Betrachtungen angestellt.
Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness.
Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2015-04-01
The alignment of Saturn's magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10h39min22.4s (ref. 2). When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10h 47min6s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn's measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn's rotation period is thought to be between 10h32min and 10h47min, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10h32min45s46s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn's measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the constraints from its gravitational field, the rotation period can be inferred with a precision of several minutes. To validate our method, we applied the same procedure to Jupiter and correctly recovered its well-known rotation period. PMID:25807487
Two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in magnetic and gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löwen, H.; Horn, T.; Neuhaus, T.; ten Hagen, B.
2013-11-01
This mini-review is concerned with two-dimensional colloidal mixtures exposed to various kinds of external fields. By a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles which give rise to repulsive interactions leading to complex crystalline alloys in the composition-asymmetry diagram. A quench in the magnetic field induces complex crystal nucleation scenarios. If exposed to a gravitational field, these mixtures exhibit a brazil-nut effect and show a boundary layering which is explained in terms of a depletion bubble picture. The latter persists for time-dependent gravity ("colloidal shaking"). Finally, we summarize crystallization effects when the second species is frozen in a disordered matrix which provides obstacles for the crystallizing component.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eby, P. B.
1978-01-01
The construction of a clock based on the beta decay process is proposed to test for any violations by the weak interaction of the strong equivalence principle bu determining whether the weak interaction coupling constant beta is spatially constant or whether it is a function of gravitational potential (U). The clock can be constructed by simply counting the beta disintegrations of some suitable source. The total number of counts are to be taken a measure of elapsed time. The accuracy of the clock is limited by the statistical fluctuations in the number of counts, N, which is equal to the square root of N. Increasing N gives a corresponding increase in accuracy. A source based on the electron capture process can be used so as to avoid low energy electron discrimination problems. Solid state and gaseous detectors are being considered. While the accuracy of this type of beta decay clock is much less than clocks based on the electromagnetic interaction, there is a corresponding lack of knowledge of the behavior of beta as a function of gravitational potential. No predictions from nonmetric theories as to variations in beta are available as yet, but they may occur at the U/sg C level.
Saturn's gravitational field, internal rotation, and interior structure.
Anderson, John D; Schubert, Gerald
2007-09-01
Saturn's internal rotation period is unknown, though it must be less than 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 22 seconds, as derived from magnetic field plus kilometric radiation data. By using the Cassini spacecraft's gravitational data, along with Pioneer and Voyager radio occultation and wind data, we obtain a rotation period of 10 hours, 32 minutes, and 35 +/- 13 seconds. This more rapid spin implies slower equatorial wind speeds on Saturn than previously assumed, and the winds at higher latitudes flow both east and west, as on Jupiter. Our related Saturn interior model has a molecular-to-metallic hydrogen transition about halfway to the planet's center. PMID:17823351
Effects of very weak magnetic fields on radical pair reformation.
Adair, R K
1999-01-01
We can expect that biological responses to very weak ELF electromagnetic fields will be masked by thermal noise. However, the spin of electrons bound to biologically important molecules is not strongly coupled to the thermal bath, and the effects of the precession of those spins by external magnetic fields is not bounded by thermal noise. Hence, the known role of spin orientation in the recombination of radical pairs (RP) may constitute a mechanism for the biological effects of very weak fields. That recombination will generally take place only if the valence electrons in the two radicals are in a singlet state and the effect of the magnetic field is manifest through differential spin precessions that affect the occupation of that state. Because the spin relaxation times are of the order of microseconds, any effects must be largely independent of frequency up to values of a few megahertz. Using exact calculations on an appropriately general model system, we show that one can expect small, but significant, modifications of the recombination rate by a 50 microT field only under a narrow range of circumstances: the cage time during which the two elements are together must be exceptionally long--of the order of 50 ns or longer; the hyperfine field of either radical must not be so great as to generate a precession period greater than the cage containment time; and the characteristic recombination time of the radical pair in the singlet state must be about equal to the containment time. Thus, even under such singularly favorable conditions, fields as small as 5 microT (50 milligauss) cannot change the recombination rate by as much as 1%. Hence, we conclude that environmental magnetic fields much weaker than the earth's field cannot be expected to affect biology significantly by modifying radical pair recombination probabilities. PMID:10230939
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jee, Myungkook James
2006-06-01
Clusters of galaxies, the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, are useful tracers of cosmic evolution, and particularly detailed studies of still-forming clusters at high-redshifts can considerably enhance our understanding of the structure formation. We use two powerful methods that have become recently available for the study of these distant clusters: spaced- based gravitational weak-lensing and high-resolution X-ray observations. Detailed analyses of five high-redshift (0.8 < z < 1.3) clusters are presented based on the deep Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Chandra X-ray images. We show that, when the instrumental characteristics are properly understood, the newly installed ACS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) can detect subtle shape distortions of background galaxies down to the limiting magnitudes of the observations, which enables the mapping of the cluster dark matter in unprecedented high-resolution. The cluster masses derived from this HST /ACS weak-lensing study have been compared with those from the re-analyses of the archival Chandra X-ray data. We find that there are interesting offsets between the cluster galaxy, intracluster medium (ICM), and dark matter centroids, and possible scenarios are discussed. If the offset is confirmed to be uniquitous in other clusters, the explanation may necessitate major refinements in our current understanding of the nature of dark matter, as well as the cluster galaxy dynamics. CL0848+4452, the highest-redshift ( z = 1.27) cluster yet detected in weak-lensing, has a significant discrepancy between the weak- lensing and X-ray masses. If this trend is found to be severe and common also for other X-ray weak clusters at redshifts beyond the unity, the conventional X-ray determination of cluster mass functions, often inferred from their immediate X-ray properties such as the X-ray luminosity and temperature via the so-called mass-luminosity (M-L) and mass-temperature (M-T) relations, will become highly unstable in this redshift regime. Therefore, the relatively unbiased weak-lensing measurements of the cluster mass properties can be used to adequately calibrate the scaling relations in future high-redshift cluster investigations.
Effects of the Interaction of a Rotating Ideal Liquid with a Vortical Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krechet, V. G.; Oshurko, V. B.; Rodichev, S. V.
2015-07-01
Stationary configurations of self-gravitating, rotating liquids with barotropic equation of state are considered within the framework of GTR. It is shown that such a rotating self-gravitating continuous medium can induce the formation of a vortical gravitational field, which can lead to the appearance of a geometry of spacetime with nontrivial topology, for example wormholes.
Consistent temperature and field dependence in weak localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Gerd
1983-07-01
The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the resistivity of thin Mg and Au films are measured. The parameters of weak localization such as the inelastic lifetime τi(T) and the spin-orbit (so) coupling time τso are evaluated. The Mg film which has a small spin-orbit coupling can be changed into a strong spin-orbit coupler by covering it with 0.25 monolayers of Au. Since the inelastic lifetime is not affected by the small amount of Au only one parameter is changed. This does not only alter the magnetoresistance but also the temperature dependence of the film resistance. The whole set of magnetoresistance curves is well described by the theory. The change of the spin-orbit coupling essentially allows one to separate the temperature-dependent resistance caused by weak localization from other temperature-dependent contributions. It is consistent with the theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Yuichi; Shirasaki, Masato
2016-04-01
We study the effect of f(R) gravity on the statistical properties of various large-scale structures which can be probed in weak gravitational lensing measurements. A set of ray-tracing simulations of gravitational lensing in f(R) gravity enables us to explore cosmological information on (i) stacking analyses of weak lensing observables and (ii) peak statistics in reconstructed lensing mass maps. For the f(R) model proposed by Hu & Sawicki, the measured lensing signals of dark matter haloes in the stacking analysis would show a ≲ 10% difference between the standard ΛCDM and the f(R) model when the additional degree of freedom in f(R) model would be |fR0| ˜ 10-5. Among various large-scale structures to be studied in stacking analysis, troughs, i.e, underdensity regions in projected plane of foreground massive haloes, could be promising to constrain the model with |fR0| ˜ 10-5, while stacking analysis around voids is found to be difficult to improve the constraint of |fR0| even in future lensing surveys with a sky coverage of ˜1000 square degrees. On the peak statistics, we confirm the correspondence between local maxima and dark matter haloes along the line of sight, regardless of the modification of gravity in our simulation. Thus, the number count of high significance local maxima would be useful to probe the mass function of dark matter haloes even in the f(R) model with |f_R0| ≲ 10^{-5}. We also find that including local minima in lensing mass maps would be helpful to improve the constant on f(R) gravity down to |fR0| = 10-5 in ongoing weak lensing surveys.
Weak magnetic fields in early-type stars: failed fossils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braithwaite, Jonathan; Cantiello, Matteo
2013-02-01
Weak magnetic fields have recently been detected in Vega and Sirius. Here, we explore the possibility that these fields are the remnants of some field inherited or created during or shortly after star formation and are still evolving dynamically as we observe them. The time-scale of this evolution is given in terms of the Alfvn time-scale and the rotation frequency by ?evol ?2A ?, which is then comparable to the age of the star. According to this theory, all intermediate- and high-mass stars should contain fields of at least the strength found so far in Vega and Sirius. Faster rotators are expected to have stronger magnetic fields. Stars may experience an increase in surface field strength during their early main sequence, but for most of their lives field strength will decrease slowly. The length scale of the magnetic structure on the surface may be small in very young stars but should quickly increase to at least very approximately a fifth of the stellar radius. The field strength may be higher at the poles than at the equator.
Gravitation field algorithm and its application in gene cluster
2010-01-01
Background Searching optima is one of the most challenging tasks in clustering genes from available experimental data or given functions. SA, GA, PSO and other similar efficient global optimization methods are used by biotechnologists. All these algorithms are based on the imitation of natural phenomena. Results This paper proposes a novel searching optimization algorithm called Gravitation Field Algorithm (GFA) which is derived from the famous astronomy theory Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM) of planetary formation. GFA simulates the Gravitation field and outperforms GA and SA in some multimodal functions optimization problem. And GFA also can be used in the forms of unimodal functions. GFA clusters the dataset well from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Conclusions The mathematical proof demonstrates that GFA could be convergent in the global optimum by probability 1 in three conditions for one independent variable mass functions. In addition to these results, the fundamental optimization concept in this paper is used to analyze how SA and GA affect the global search and the inherent defects in SA and GA. Some results and source code (in Matlab) are publicly available at http://ccst.jlu.edu.cn/CSBG/GFA. PMID:20854683
Reentering the Gravitational Fringe Field of the Solar System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, P. C.
A 1998 proposal to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) described how to update an earlier proposal outline for an experiment involving a manned spacecraft that traveled to just outside the gravitational field of the solar system. The recent proposal briefly describes how to initiate a 25-year program to launch a seven-year mission. Very little thought has been given to astronomical/astrophysical investigations that might be carried out over seven years, but one or more generations of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder program might be included. Only a little serious thought has been given to how to reenter the solar system's gravitational fringe field, but access to several procedures and three-fold redundancy seems desirable. Some details of the proposed paper study will be given. Non-responsibility statement, from source document of calendar 1973. This document was prepared while the author was on an unpaid leave of absence from The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) of Palo Alto, California. The comments made herein are partly the results of experiments carried out over a number of years. For a portion of this time, both NASA and LMSC financed the author's space astronomy investigations. It may be that either or both these institutions may possess some proprietary rights to portions of the ideas and information presented. This work was supported by Ruffner Associates, Inc.
Variations in Gravitational Field, Tidal Force, Electromagnetic Waves and Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasser, Valentino
2010-12-01
This paper is the report on an experiment carried out between the month of December 2009 and the month of April 2010 between the Venetian Lagoon and the Northern Apennines in Italy, to check on a potential relationship between earthquakes and variations in the local gravitational field, the effect on the tide exercised by the interaction between the moon and the Sun, the appearance of anomalous light effects in the atmosphere ("Earth lights"), and the emission of radio waves caused by stresses in the Earth's crust. The cases studied show that there is indeed some concomitance between the periodic rising and falling of the sea level and the terrestrial tide effect, due to the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun on the Earth. In fact, changes in the local force of gravity coincided with the cycle of high and low tides and, in certain cases, with a variation in the electromagnetic field that preceded the occurrence of a seismic event by just a few hours. The o! bservations in the article are limited to the magnitude range discussed in the paper.
Was the Earth's Magnetic Field Weak in the Late Devonian?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anwar, T.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Pavlov, V.
2014-12-01
Very few data exist to describe geomagnetic field behaviour in the Late Devonian (LD). Samples, which have recently been Ar-Ar dated to 364-377 Myr ago, of LD-aged volcanics and instrusives from the Viluy large igneous province in Siberia are investigated. These units have already demonstrated reliable, palaeomagnetic directions consistent with the retention of a primary remanence. Microwave Thellier-type palaeointensity experiments (mostly IZZI protocol with partial thermoremanent magnetization checks) were performed on 55 samples from 16 sites, of which, 12 samples from 4 sites provide satisfactory paleointensity data. Arai plots are strongly concave-up in shape but multiple lines of evidence support that this is caused by a strong component of magnetisation overprinting a weak primary magnetisation rather than by lab-induced alteration or multidomain behaviour. The samples display corresponding distinct directional components, positive pTRM checks and little or no zig-zagging of the Arai plot. Furthermore, the results of non-heating pseudo-Thellier experiments support the existence of a strong component overprinting a much weaker one. The site-mean paleointensities, ranging from 5.3-11.1 μT and which correspond to a virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of (1.0-2.1) ×1022 Am2, indicate that the LD was a time of extremely weak magnetic field intensity. It provides the evidence that the superchron state, between ~310 and 265 Myr ago, is preceded by very weak field in the LD (~60 Myr before the superchron). If low dipole moment can be considered an indicator of high reversal frequency (as appears to be the case in the mid-Jurassic) then our results support that rapid transitions between reversal hyperactivity and superchron states are a recurring feature in the palaeomagnetic record, potentially linked to simultaneous episodes of true polar wander.
The emergence of weakly twisted magnetic fields in the sun
Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.
2013-11-20
We have studied the emergence of a weakly twisted magnetic flux tube from the upper convection zone into the solar atmosphere. It is found that the rising magnetized plasma does not undergo the classical, single Ω-shaped loop emergence, but it becomes unstable in two places, forming two magnetic lobes that are anchored in small-scale bipolar structures at the photosphere, between the two main flux concentrations. The two magnetic lobes rise and expand into the corona, forming an overall undulating magnetic flux system. The dynamical interaction of the lobes results in the triggering of high-speed and hot jets and the formation of successive cool and hot loops that coexist in the emerging flux region. Although the initial emerging field is weakly twisted, a highly twisted magnetic flux rope is formed at the low atmosphere, due to shearing and reconnection. The new flux rope (hereafter post-emergence flux rope) does not erupt. It remains confined by the overlying field. Although there is no ejective eruption of the post-emergence rope, it is found that a considerable amount of axial and azimuthal flux is transferred into the solar atmosphere during the emergence of the magnetic field.
Weak gravitational lensing due to large-scale structure of the universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaroszynski, Michal; Park, Changbom; Paczynski, Bohdan; Gott, J. Richard, III
1990-01-01
The effect of the large-scale structure of the universe on the propagation of light rays is studied. The development of the large-scale density fluctuations in the omega = 1 universe is calculated within the cold dark matter scenario using a smooth particle approximation. The propagation of about 10 to the 6th random light rays between the redshift z = 5 and the observer was followed. It is found that the effect of shear is negligible, and the amplification of single images is dominated by the matter in the beam. The spread of amplifications is very small. Therefore, the filled-beam approximation is very good for studies of strong lensing by galaxies or clusters of galaxies. In the simulation, the column density was averaged over a comoving area of approximately (1/h Mpc)-squared. No case of a strong gravitational lensing was found, i.e., no 'over-focused' image that would suggest that a few images might be present. Therefore, the large-scale structure of the universe as it is presently known does not produce multiple images with gravitational lensing on a scale larger than clusters of galaxies.
Differentiation of optical isomers through enhanced weak-field interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronowitz, S.
1980-01-01
The influence of weak field interaction terms due to the cooperative effects which arise from a macroscopic assemblage of interacting sites is studied. Differential adsorption of optical isomers onto an achiral surface is predicted to occur if the surface was continuous and sufficiently large. However, the quantity of discontinuous crystal surfaces did not enhance the percentage of differentiation and thus the procedure of using large quantities of small particles was not a viable technique for obtaining a detectable differentiation of optical isomers on an achiral surface.
Stability of Rotating Self-Gravitating Filaments: Effects of Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadhukhan, Shubhadeep; Mondal, Surajit; Chakraborty, Sagar
2016-04-01
We have performed systemmatic local linear stability analysis on a radially stratified infinite self-gravitating cylinder of rotating plasma under the influence of magnetic field. In order to render the system analytically tractable, we have focussed solely on the axisymmetric modes of perturbations. Using cylindrical coordinate system, we have derived the critical linear mass density of a non-rotating filament required for gravitational collapse to ensue in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field. Moreover, for such filaments threaded by axial magnetic field, we show that the growth rates of the modes having non-zero radial wavenumber are reduced more strongly by the magnetic field than that of the modes having zero radial wavenumber. More importantly, our study contributes to the understanding of the stability property of rotating astrophysical filaments that are more often than not influenced by magnetic fields. In addition to complementing many relevant numerical studies reported the literature, our results on filaments under the influence of magnetic field generalize some of the very recent analytical works (e.g., Freundlich, Jog & Combes (2014), etc.). For example, here we prove that even a weak magnetic field can play a dominant role in determining stability of the filament when the rotation timescale is larger than the free fall timescale. A filamentary structure with faster rotation is, however, comparatively more stable for the same magnetic field. The results reported herein, due to strong locality assumption, are strictly valid for the modes for which one can ignore the radial variations in the density and the magnetic field profiles.
Weak-field general relativistic dynamics and the Newtonian limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooperstock, F. I.
2016-01-01
We show that the generally held view that the gravity of weak-field nonrelativistic-velocity sources being invariably almost equivalent to Newtonian gravity (NG) (the “Newtonian limit” approach) is in some instances misleading and in other cases incorrect. A particularly transparent example is provided by comparing the Newtonian and general relativistic analyses of a simple variant of van Stockum’s infinite rotating dust cylinder. We show that some very recent criticisms of our work that had been motivated by the Newtonian limit approach were incorrect and note that no specific errors in our work were found in the critique. In the process, we underline some problems that arise from inappropriate coordinate transformations. As further support for our methodology, we note that our weak-field general relativistic treatment of a model galaxy was vindicated recently by the observations of Xu et al. regarding our prediction that the Milky Way was 19-21 kpc in radius as opposed to the commonly held view that the radius was 15 kpc.
Effective field theory of weakly coupled inflationary models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sypsas, Spyros
2013-04-01
The application of Effective Field Theory (EFT) methods to inflation has taken a central role in our current understanding of the very early universe. The EFT perspective has been particularly useful in analyzing the self-interactions determining the evolution of co-moving curvature perturbations (Goldstone boson modes) and their influence on low-energy observables. However, the standard EFT formalism, to lowest order in spacetime differential operators, does not provide the most general parametrization of a theory that remains weakly coupled throughout the entire low-energy regime. Here we study the EFT formulation by including spacetime differential operators implying a scale dependence of the Goldstone boson self-interactions and its dispersion relation. These operators are shown to arise naturally from the low-energy interaction of the Goldstone boson with heavy fields that have been integrated out. We find that the EFT then stays weakly coupled all the way up to the cutoff scale at which ultraviolet degrees of freedom become operative. This opens up a regime of new physics where the dispersion relation is dominated by a quadratic dependence on the momentum ω ~ p2. In addition, provided that modes crossed the Hubble scale within this energy range, the predictions of inflationary observables — including non-Gaussian signatures — are significantly affected by the new scales characterizing it.
Effective field theory of weakly coupled inflationary models
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sypsas, Spyros E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl E-mail: spyridon.sypsas@kcl.ac.uk
2013-04-01
The application of Effective Field Theory (EFT) methods to inflation has taken a central role in our current understanding of the very early universe. The EFT perspective has been particularly useful in analyzing the self-interactions determining the evolution of co-moving curvature perturbations (Goldstone boson modes) and their influence on low-energy observables. However, the standard EFT formalism, to lowest order in spacetime differential operators, does not provide the most general parametrization of a theory that remains weakly coupled throughout the entire low-energy regime. Here we study the EFT formulation by including spacetime differential operators implying a scale dependence of the Goldstone boson self-interactions and its dispersion relation. These operators are shown to arise naturally from the low-energy interaction of the Goldstone boson with heavy fields that have been integrated out. We find that the EFT then stays weakly coupled all the way up to the cutoff scale at which ultraviolet degrees of freedom become operative. This opens up a regime of new physics where the dispersion relation is dominated by a quadratic dependence on the momentum ω ∼ p{sup 2}. In addition, provided that modes crossed the Hubble scale within this energy range, the predictions of inflationary observables — including non-Gaussian signatures — are significantly affected by the new scales characterizing it.
Constants of motion in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, C.
2014-07-01
The motion of test particles in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields is generally non-integrable unless a non-trivial constant of motion, in addition to energy and angular momentum along the symmetry axis, exists. The Carter constant in Kerr-de Sitter space-time is the only example known to date. Proposed astrophysical tests of the black hole no-hair theorem have often involved integrable gravitational fields more general than the Kerr family, but the existence of such fields has been a matter of debate. To elucidate this problem, we treat its Newtonian analogue by systematically searching for non-trivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta and obtain two theorems. First, solving a set of quadratic integrability conditions, we establish the existence and uniqueness of the family of stationary axisymmetric potentials admitting a quadratic constant. As in Kerr-de Sitter space-time, the mass moments of this class satisfy a `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +2 = a2M2l, and the constant is Noether related to a second-order Killing-Stäckel tensor. Second, solving a new set of quartic integrability conditions, we establish non-existence of quartic constants. Remarkably, a subset of these conditions is satisfied when the mass moments obey a generalized `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +4 = (a2 + b2)M2l +2 - a2b2M2l. The full set of quartic integrability conditions, however, cannot be satisfied non-trivially by any stationary axisymmetric vacuum potential.
A weak combined magnetic field changes root gravitropism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyum, E. L.; Bogatina, N. I.; Kalinina, Ya. M.; Sheykina, N. V.
Although gravitropism has been studied for many decades, many questions on plant gravitropism, including the participation of Ca 2+ ions in graviperception and signal transduction, remain open and require new experiments. We have studied gravistimulation and root gravitropism in the presence of the weak, alternating magnetic field that consisted of a sinusoidal frequency of 32 Hz inside a μ-metal shield. We discovered that this field changes normally positively gravitropic cress root to exhibit negative gravitropism. Because the combined magnetic field was adjusted to the cyclotron frequency of Ca 2+ ions, the obtained data suggest that calcium ion participate in root gravitropism. Simultaneous application of the oscillating magnetic field of the same frequency ion induce oscillation of Ca 2+ ions and can change the rate and/or the direction of Ca 2+ ion flux in roots. Control and magnetic field-exposed roots were examined for change in the distribution of amyloplasts and cellular organelles by light, electron, and confocal laser microscopy.
Charged Tori in Spherical Gravitational and Dipolar Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaný, P.; Kovář, J.; Stuchlík, Z.; Karas, V.
2013-03-01
A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.
Neutron Interference in the Gravitational Field of a Ring Laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Robert
2013-04-01
A number of analyses of neutron interference effects due to various metric perturbations have been found in the literature [1,2]. However, the approach of each author depends on a specific metric. I will present a new general technique giving the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformed Hamiltonian for a Dirac particle in the most general linearized space-time metric. I will then apply this new technique to calculate the phase shift on a neutron beam interferometer due to the gravitational field of a ring laser [3].[4pt] [1] D. M Greenberger and A. W. Overhauser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 43--78 (1979).[0pt] [2] F. W. Hehl and W. T. Ni, Phys. Rev. D, vol 42, no. 6, pp. 2045-2048, 1990.[0pt] [3] R. L. Mallett, Phys. Lett. A 269, 214 (2000).
CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS
Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z.; Karas, V.
2013-03-01
A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.
Geodesics in the field of a rotating deformed gravitational source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boshkayev, K. A.; Quevedo, H.; Abutalip, M. S.; Kalymova, Zh. A.; Suleymanova, Sh. S.
2016-01-01
We investigate equatorial geodesics in the gravitational field of a rotating and deformed source described by the approximate Hartle-Thorne metric. In the case of massive particles, we derive within the same approximation analytic expressions for the orbital angular velocity, the specific angular momentum and energy, and the radii of marginally stable and marginally bound circular orbits. Moreover, we calculate the orbital angular velocity and the radius of lightlike circular geodesics. We study numerically the frame dragging effect and the influence of the quadrupolar deformation of the source on the motion of test particles. We show that the effects originating from the rotation can be balanced by the effects due to the oblateness of the source.
Perturbations of the Sun's gravitational field due to solar oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, H. A.
Considerable evidence has been presented for the detection of low-degree internal gravity modes of the Sun. By combining the observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and at SCLERA, a number of the modes have been classified with respect to their spatial properties. The number of such modes classified has been extended in a subsequent gravity-mode classification project by Gu and Hill. These mode classifications have been tested using three additional sets of independent observations. Positive results have been obtained in each of these tests. These low-degree modes lead to oscillatory perturbations of the Sun's gravitational field. The amplitudes of these perturbations at the earth are inferred from the observed temperature eigenfunctions.
Optimized formulas for the gravitational field of a tesseroid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grombein, Thomas; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard
2013-07-01
Various tasks in geodesy, geophysics, and related geosciences require precise information on the impact of mass distributions on gravity field-related quantities, such as the gravitational potential and its partial derivatives. Using forward modeling based on Newton's integral, mass distributions are generally decomposed into regular elementary bodies. In classical approaches, prisms or point mass approximations are mostly utilized. Considering the effect of the sphericity of the Earth, alternative mass modeling methods based on tesseroid bodies (spherical prisms) should be taken into account, particularly in regional and global applications. Expressions for the gravitational field of a point mass are relatively simple when formulated in Cartesian coordinates. In the case of integrating over a tesseroid volume bounded by geocentric spherical coordinates, it will be shown that it is also beneficial to represent the integral kernel in terms of Cartesian coordinates. This considerably simplifies the determination of the tesseroid's potential derivatives in comparison with previously published methodologies that make use of integral kernels expressed in spherical coordinates. Based on this idea, optimized formulas for the gravitational potential of a homogeneous tesseroid and its derivatives up to second-order are elaborated in this paper. These new formulas do not suffer from the polar singularity of the spherical coordinate system and can, therefore, be evaluated for any position on the globe. Since integrals over tesseroid volumes cannot be solved analytically, the numerical evaluation is achieved by means of expanding the integral kernel in a Taylor series with fourth-order error in the spatial coordinates of the integration point. As the structure of the Cartesian integral kernel is substantially simplified, Taylor coefficients can be represented in a compact and computationally attractive form. Thus, the use of the optimized tesseroid formulas particularly benefits from a significant decrease in computation time by about 45 % compared to previously used algorithms. In order to show the computational efficiency and to validate the mathematical derivations, the new tesseroid formulas are applied to two realistic numerical experiments and are compared to previously published tesseroid methods and the conventional prism approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leauthaud, Alexie; J. Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca; L. Coil, Alison; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason
2015-01-01
Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter haloes in which they reside is key to constraining how black hole fuelling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modelling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to the fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies, irrespective of nuclear activity. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z < 1 from the COSMOS field, we report the first measurements of weak gravitational lensing from an X-ray-selected sample. Comparing this signal to predictions from the global SHMR, we find that, contrary to previous results, most X-ray AGN do not live in medium size groups - nearly half reside in relatively low mass haloes with M200b ˜ 1012.5 M⊙. The AGN occupation function is well described by the same form derived for all galaxies but with a lower normalization - the fraction of haloes with AGN in our sample is a few per cent. The number of AGN satellite galaxies scales as a power law with host halo mass with a power-law index α = 1. By highlighting the relatively `normal' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy haloes, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fuelling modes for luminous quasars compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.
Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurière, Michel; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-François; Wade, Gregg A.
2014-08-01
Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux hosts a close-in exoplanet, we suggest that the magnetic dipole of Pollux can be associated with two temperature and macroturbulent velocity spots which could be sufficient to produce the RV variations. We finally investigate the scenarii of the origin of the magnetic field which could explain the observed properties of Pollux.
Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Marcucci, Laura Elisa; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, MIchele
2013-05-01
The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.
Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Rowan J.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya
2012-12-01
Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k{rho}{sup {Gamma}}, with both sub-isothermal exponents {Gamma} < 1 and super-isothermal exponents {Gamma} > 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For {Gamma} > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For {Gamma} < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.
Transitional and weakly turbulent flow in a rotating magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiller, J.; Fraňa, K.; Cramer, A.
2006-07-01
The early stage of turbulent flow driven by a rotating magnetic field is studied via direct numerical simulations and electric potential measurements for the case of a cylindrical geometry. The numerical results show that the undisturbed flow remains stable up to the linear stability limit (Tac), whereas small perturbations may initiate a nonlinear transition at subcritical Taylor numbers. The observed instabilities occur randomly as isolated pairs of Taylor-Görtler vortices, which grow from spots to long tubes until they are dissipated in the lid boundary layers. At 7.5Tac, the flow is governed by large-scale three-dimensional fluctuations and may be characterized as weakly turbulent. Taylor-Görtler vortices provide the major turbulence mechanism, apart from oscillations of the rotation axis. As the vortices tend to align with the azimuthal direction, they result in a locally two-dimensional turbulence pattern.
Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.
2013-12-01
Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.
Mapping Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars with Electron Reflectometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.
2004-01-01
One of the great surprises of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission was the discovery of intensely magnetized crust. These magnetic sources are at least ten times stronger than their terrestrial counterparts, probably requiring large volumes of coherently magnetized material, very strong remanence, or both. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of these fields is their large scale coherence and organization into east-west stripes thousands of kilometers long. The anomalies were almost certainly created by thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) in the presence of a strong Martian dynamo. With few exceptions, the crustal fields are associated with the oldest terrain on Mars. Much of the northern lowlands appears to be non-magnetic, except for the relatively weak north polar anomalies and a few sources adja-cent to the dichotomy boundary, which appear to be associated with strongly magnetized crust south of the boundary. There is clear evidence for impact demagnetization of the Hellas, Argyre, and Isidis basins. Thus, Mars' crustal magnetic fields are among the oldest preserved geologic features on the planet.
Nonlinear gravitational self-force: Field outside a small body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pound, Adam
2012-10-01
A small extended body moving through an external spacetime gαβ creates a metric perturbation hαβ, which forces the body away from geodesic motion in gαβ. The foundations of this effect, called the gravitational self-force, are now well established, but concrete results have mostly been limited to linear order. Accurately modeling the dynamics of compact binaries requires proceeding to nonlinear orders. To that end, I show how to obtain the metric perturbation outside the body at all orders in a class of generalized wave gauges. In a small buffer region surrounding the body, the form of the perturbation can be found analytically as an expansion for small distances r from a representative worldline. Given only a specification of the body’s multipole moments, the field obtained in the buffer region suffices to find the metric everywhere outside the body via a numerical puncture scheme. Following this procedure at first and second order, I calculate the field in the buffer region around an arbitrarily structured compact body at sufficiently high order in r to numerically implement a second-order puncture scheme, including effects of the body’s spin. I also define nth-order (local) generalizations of the Detweiler-Whiting singular and regular fields and show that in a certain sense, the body can be viewed as a skeleton of multipole moments.
Gravitational lensing from compact bodies: Analytical results for strong and weak deflection limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; de Pace, Arturo; Fernández, Francisco M.
2007-04-01
We develop a nonperturbative method that yields analytical expressions for the deflection angle of light in a general static and spherically symmetric metric. The method works by introducing into the problem an artificial parameter, called δ, and by performing an expansion in this parameter to a given order. The results obtained are analytical and nonperturbative because they do not correspond to a polynomial expression in the physical parameters. Already to first order in δ the analytical formulas obtained using our method provide at the same time accurate approximations both at large distances (weak deflection limit) and at distances close to the photon sphere (strong deflection limit). We have applied our technique to different metrics and verified that the error is at most 0.5% for all regimes. We have also proposed an alternative approach which provides simpler formulas, although with larger errors.
Model for the optimization of escape from two pursuers in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, V. S.
A solution is obtained to the simplifed game-theoretic problem of determining the optimal encounter of three players in a gravitational field, assuming that two of the players form a coalition while the third is performing evasive maneuvers. The problem is one of determining coplanar impulse transfer in the gravitational field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dong, D.; Gross, R. S.; Dickey, J. O.
1994-01-01
Laser ranging measurements to single satellite are sensitive to the Earth's gravitational field and its temporal variations. Using 13 years (1980-1992) of LAGEOS I laser ranging data, we have recovered monthly mean linear combinations of even and odd degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field.
Atmospheric Gravitational Torque Variations Based on Various Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rowlands, David; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Advancements in the study of the Earth's variable rate of rotation and the motion of its rotation axis have given impetus to the analysis of the torques between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth. The output from global general circulation models of the atmosphere (pressure, surface stress) is being used as input to the torque computations. Gravitational torque between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth is an important component of the torque budget. Computation of the gravitational torque involves the adoption of a gravitational model from a wide variety available. The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain to what extent this choice might influence the results of gravitational torque computations.
Neutron star mass-radius relation with gravitational field shielding by a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo-Jun; Zhang, Tian-Xi; Guggilla, Padmaja; Dokhanian, Mostafa
2013-05-01
The currently well-developed models for equations of state (EoSs) have been severely impacted by recent measurements of neutron stars with a small radius and/or large mass. To explain these measurements, the theory of gravitational field shielding by a scalar field is applied. This theory was recently developed in accordance with the five-dimensional (5D) fully covariant Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory that has successfully unified Einstein's general relativity and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. It is shown that a massive, compact neutron star can generate a strong scalar field, which can significantly shield or reduce its gravitational field, thus making it more massive and more compact. The mass-radius relation developed under this type of modified gravity can be consistent with these recent measurements of neutron stars. In addition, the effect of gravitational field shielding helps explain why the supernova explosions of some very massive stars (e.g., 40 Msolar as measured recently) actually formed neutron stars rather than black holes as expected. The EoS models, ruled out by measurements of small radius and/or large mass neutron stars according to the theory of general relativity, can still work well in terms of the 5D fully covariant KK theory with a scalar field.
Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-04-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant βγ is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant β , i.e., βγ=β , the experimental constraints on β —obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]—can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Modeling the electric field of weakly electric fish.
Babineau, David; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E
2006-09-01
Weakly electric fish characterize the environment in which they live by sensing distortions in their self-generated electric field. These distortions result in electric images forming across their skin. In order to better understand electric field generation and image formation in one particular species of electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we have developed three different numerical models of a two-dimensional cross-section of the fish's body and its surroundings. One of these models mimics the real contour of the fish; two other geometrically simple models allow for an independent study of the effects of the fish's body geometry and conductivity on electric field and image formation. Using these models, we show that the fish's tapered body shape is mainly responsible for the smooth, uniform field in the rostral region, where most electroreceptors are located. The fish's narrowing body geometry is also responsible for the relatively large electric potential in the caudal region. Numerical tests also confirm the previous hypothesis that the electric fish body acts approximately like an ideal voltage divider; this is true especially for the tail region. Next, we calculate electric images produced by simple objects and find they vary according to the current density profile assigned to the fish's electric organ. This explains some of the qualitative differences previously reported for different modeling approaches. The variation of the electric image's shape as a function of different object locations is explained in terms of the fish's geometrical and electrical parameters. Lastly, we discuss novel cues for determining an object's rostro-caudal location and lateral distance using these electric images. PMID:16943504
The HST Frontier Fields: Gravitational Lensing Models Release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coe, Dan A.; Lotz, J.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Zitrin, A.; Kneib, J.; Ebeling, H.; Sharon, K.; Johnson, T.; Limousin, M.; Bradac, M.; Hoag, A.; Cain, B.; Merten, J.; Williams, L. L.; Sebesta, K.; Meneghetti, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Barker, E. A.
2014-01-01
The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) is a Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) program to deeply observe up to six massive strong-lensing galaxy clusters and six "blank" fields in parallel. These complementary observations will yield magnified and direct images of some of the most distant galaxies yet observed. The strongly lensed images will be our deepest views of our universe to date. Interpretation of some (but not all) observed properties of the strongly lensed galaxies requires gravitational lens modeling. In order to maximize the value of this public dataset to the extragalactic community, STScI commissioned five teams funded by NASA to derive the best possible lens models from existing data. After coordinating to share observational constraints, including measured redshifts of strongly lensed galaxies, the teams independently derived lens models using robust, established methodologies. STScI released these models to the community in October before HFF observations of the first cluster, Abell 2744. Here we describe these models as well as a web tool which allows users to extract magnification estimates with uncertainties from all models for any galaxy strongly lensed by a HFF cluster. Inputs are the galaxy's coordinates (RA and Dec), redshift, and (optionally) observed radius. We also discuss ongoing work to study lens model uncertainties by modeling simulated clusters.
Free-fall in a uniform gravitational field in noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castello-Branco, K. H. C.; Martins, A. G.
2010-10-01
We study the free-fall of a quantum particle in the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM). Assuming noncommutativity of the canonical type between the coordinates of a two-dimensional configuration space, we consider a neutral particle trapped in a gravitational well and exactly solve the energy eigenvalue problem. By resorting to experimental data from the GRANIT experiment, in which the first energy levels of freely falling quantum ultracold neutrons were determined, we impose an upper-bound on the noncommutativity parameter. We also investigate the time of flight of a quantum particle moving in a uniform gravitational field in NCQM. This is related to the weak equivalence principle. As we consider stationary, energy eigenstates, i.e., delocalized states, the time of flight must be measured by a quantum clock, suitably coupled to the particle. By considering the clock as a small perturbation, we solve the (stationary) scattering problem associated and show that the time of flight is equal to the classical result, when the measurement is made far from the turning point. This result is interpreted as an extension of the equivalence principle to the realm of NCQM.
Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretorius, Frans
We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string theory and loop quantum gravity, and (2) that although CSMG is consistent with all present day tests of GR, it still allows for significant, near-horizon deformations in the geometry of rotating (Kerr) black holes. Here is a brief list of the steps and research methodology we will employ: (i) Obtain the equivalent of the full Kerr solution in CSMG using numerical methods. (ii) Explore the structure of GWs emitted by EMRIs about the CS rotating black hole solution. Given simulated LISA noise curves, we can then address the questions posed above within the context of CSMG. (iii) Simulate the latter stages of comparable mass SMBH binary mergers in CSMG by numerically solving the full CSMG field equations to learn about highly dynamical, non- linear GR deformations. We can then repeat the analysis of (ii). (iv) Study whether CSMG GWs fit in the recently proposed parameterized post- Einsteinian (ppE) framework, to study generic deviations from GR in a statistical fashion. One can then repeat the analysis of (ii) but within the ppE scheme. We believe this proposed work is of significance and import to both the objectives of this solicitation, and the interests of NASA---knowing the nature of strong-field gravity will be one of the keys to unraveling the origin of the universe, and will tell us how black holes behave and interact with their environs, the details of which are important in understanding the formation and evolution of structure in the universe. Furthermore, these questions are best suited to be answered by LISA, a planned joint NASA-ESA mission. The ultimate success of LISA is very much dependent on (amongst other things) how well the community understands the complete nature of gravitational wave sources.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Huei; Torr, Douglas G.
1990-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of gravitational waves on a superconductor. It is found that the key properties of a superconductor, namely zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism, give rise to an important new effect, the presence of an induced electric field E in the interior of the superconductor. The E field reacts with the ions and superelectrons. It is argued that the induced E field might provide a significantly more sensitive means of detecting gravitational waves. It appears likely that existing resonant-mass superconducting antennas with L about 3m, Q about 10 to the 8th could be readily modified to detect E fields induced by GWs of dimensionless amplitude h about 10 to the -24th.
Bound states of Dirac particles in gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulanger, Nicolas; Spindel, Philippe; Buisseret, Fabien
2006-12-01
We investigate the quantum motion of a neutral Dirac particle bouncing on a mirror in curved spacetime. We consider different geometries: Rindler, Kasner-Taub, and Schwarzschild, and show how to solve the Dirac equation by using geometrical methods. We discuss, in a first-quantized framework, the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. This leads us to consider a Robin boundary condition that gives the quantization of the energy, the existence of bound states and of critical heights at which the Dirac particle bounces, extending the well-known results established from the Schrödinger equation. We also allow for a nonminimal coupling to a weak magnetic field. The problem is solved in an analytical way on the Rindler spacetime. In the other cases, we compute the energy spectrum up to the first relativistic corrections, exhibiting the contributions brought by both the geometry and the spin. These calculations are done in two different ways. On the one hand, using a relativistic expansion and, on the other hand, with Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. Contrary to what is sometimes claimed in the literature, both methods are in agreement, as expected. Finally, we make contact with the GRANIT experiment. Relativistic effects and effects that go beyond the equivalence principle escape the sensitivity of such an experiment. However, we show that the influence of a weak magnetic field could lead to observable phenomena.
Influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction
Forsberg, M.; Brodin, G.; Papadopoulos, D.
2010-07-15
The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the QED effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered due to the QED effects. The consequences of our results are discussed.
Relativistic Mass Change in the Fields of Gravitation, Non-Holonomity, and Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabounski, Dmitri
2010-10-01
This study targets solving the scalar geodesic equation (equation of energy) of a mass-bearing particle travelling in the gravitational field, the field of non-holonomity (rotation) of space, and the field of deformation of space, which are the only three external factors present in the equation. The obtained solutions manifest a change in the mass of the particle according to the distance travelled in the corresponding field. The mass defect due to the field of gravitation is known. The effects of the fields of space non-holonomity and space deformation have not been studied before. In contrast to the gravitational mass defect, registered in the gravitational field near the Earth, these two effects are much smaller: they reach the measurable limit 10-10 only in space travel within cosmological distances. A complete report of this study has been submitted to The Abraham Zelmanov Journal.
The fluctuating gravitational field in inhomogeneous and clustered self-gravitating systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Popolo, A.
1996-07-01
In this paper I extend the results of Ahmad & Cohen (1973), regarding the study of the probability distribution of the stochastic force in homogeneous gravitational systems, to inhomogeneous gravitational ones. To this aim, I study the stochastic force distribution using N-body realizations of Plummer's spherically symmetric models. I find that the stochastic force distribution obtained for the evolved system is in good agreement with Kandrup's (1980) theory of stochastic force in inhomogeneous systems. Correlation effects that arise during the evolution of the system of particles are well described by Antonuccio-Delogu & Atrio-Barandela's (1992) theory.
CFHTLenS: the relation between galaxy dark matter haloes and baryons from weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velander, Malin; van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Coupon, Jean; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Bonnett, Christopher; Fu, Liping; Giodini, Stefania; Hudson, Michael J.; Kuijken, Konrad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta
2014-01-01
We present a study of the relation between dark matter halo mass and the baryonic content of their host galaxies, quantified through galaxy luminosity and stellar mass. Our investigation uses 154 deg2 of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) lensing and photometric data, obtained from the CFHT Legacy Survey. To interpret the weak lensing signal around our galaxies, we employ a galaxy-galaxy lensing halo model which allows us to constrain the halo mass and the satellite fraction. Our analysis is limited to lenses at redshifts between 0.2 and 0.4, split into a red and a blue sample. We express the relationship between dark matter halo mass and baryonic observable as a power law with pivot points of 10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} L_{{⊙}} and 2× 10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} M_{{⊙}} for luminosity and stellar mass, respectively. For the luminosity-halo mass relation, we find a slope of 1.32 ± 0.06 and a normalization of 1.19^{+0.06}_{-0.07}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}} for red galaxies, while for blue galaxies the best-fitting slope is 1.09^{+0.20}_{-0.13} and the normalization is 0.18^{+0.04}_{-0.05}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}}. Similarly, we find a best-fitting slope of 1.36^{+0.06}_{-0.07} and a normalization of 1.43^{+0.11}_{-0.08}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙}} for the stellar mass-halo mass relation of red galaxies, while for blue galaxies the corresponding values are 0.98^{+0.08}_{-0.07} and 0.84^{+0.20}_{-0.16}× 10^{13} h_{70}^{-1} M_{{⊙ }}. All numbers convey the 68 per cent confidence limit. For red lenses, the fraction which are satellites inside a larger halo tends to decrease with luminosity and stellar mass, with the sample being nearly all satellites for a stellar mass of 2× 109 h_{70}^{-2} M_{{⊙}}. The satellite fractions are generally close to zero for blue lenses, irrespective of luminosity or stellar mass. This, together with the shallower relation between halo mass and baryonic tracer, is a direct confirmation from galaxy-galaxy lensing that blue galaxies reside in less clustered environments than red galaxies. We also find that the halo model, while matching the lensing signal around red lenses well, is prone to overpredicting the large-scale signal for faint and less massive blue lenses. This could be a further indication that these galaxies tend to be more isolated than assumed.
[Two-phase Interfaces in Weak External Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Percus, J. K.
1996-01-01
Our aim has been that of understanding from first principles the behavior of two-phase interfaces in the absence of gravitational constraints. This is fundamental to our ability to deal with the fluid structures that abound in the real biological, chemical, and physical world. A substantial effort was mounted to determine how familiar hydrodynamic concepts have to be modified and interpreted to make them appropriate to the multi-level structure alluded to above. This was primarily in the context of the microscopic symmetric pressure tensor, which was, for the first time, expressed in the invaluable density functional format, and the used to follow the predictions of popular microscopic models of the energetics of interfacial systems. In the course of these investigations, the previous murky relation between pressure tensor and thermodynamics was completely clarified. The process of extending thermodynamic information to interfacial dynamics was initiated along two paths. One was from the viewpoint of an inertialess lattice gas, resulting in the surprising conclusion that at this level, all transport is governed by precisely the thermodynamic free energy, albeit with a non-trivial effective particle mobility. The other aimed at understanding the fashion in which slow macroscopic motions, accounted for by a time-varying microscopic energy, generate effective hydrodynamic parameters. By examining a solvable model system, it was found that all current procedures for doing so are deficient, and suitable alleviation suggested. The major effect of this project was to set the stage for the analysis of the substantial dynamical regimes in which extensive equilibrium information provides the dominant background. This produces a smooth junction to the models of Araki and Munakata, Giacomin and Lebowitz, and Oxtoby. It is also crucial to our understanding of the complex interfacial equilibrium configurations required for intermediate stages of two-phase separation, for which the "phase-field" techniques we have been developing are uniquely effective. And it puts us within striking range of the physical experiments that can provide incisive tests of the theoretical framework.
Gravitational field models for the earth (GEM 1 and 2)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Andson, M. L.; Brownd, J. E.; Richardson, J. A.
1972-01-01
Two models of the earth's gravitational field have been computed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The first, Goddard Earth Model 1 (GEM 1), has been derived from satellite tracking data. The second, Goddard Earth Model 2 (GEM 2), has been derived from a combination of satellite tracking and surface gravimetric data. The geopotential models are represented in spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 16 for the combined solution and complete to degree and order 12 for the satellite solution. Both solutions include zonal terms to degree 21 and related satellite resonant coefficients to degree 22. The satellite data consisted primarily of optical data processed on 300 weekly orbital arcs for 25 close earth satellites. Surface gravity data were employed in the form of 5 deg x 5 deg mean free-air gravity anomalies providing about 70% world coverage. Station locations were obtained for 46 tracking sites by combining electronic, laser, and additional optical tracking data with the above satellite data. Analysis of the radial positions of these stations and a value of mean gravity on the geoid indicated a mean equatorial radius for the earth of about 6378145 meters. Results of geopotential tests on satellite data not used in the solution show that better agreement was obtained with the GEM 1 and GEM 2 models than with the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth 2 model.
Improved Gravitation Field Algorithm and Its Application in Hierarchical Clustering
Zheng, Ming; Sun, Ying; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Background Gravitation field algorithm (GFA) is a new optimization algorithm which is based on an imitation of natural phenomena. GFA can do well both for searching global minimum and multi-minima in computational biology. But GFA needs to be improved for increasing efficiency, and modified for applying to some discrete data problems in system biology. Method An improved GFA called IGFA was proposed in this paper. Two parts were improved in IGFA. The first one is the rule of random division, which is a reasonable strategy and makes running time shorter. The other one is rotation factor, which can improve the accuracy of IGFA. And to apply IGFA to the hierarchical clustering, the initial part and the movement operator were modified. Results Two kinds of experiments were used to test IGFA. And IGFA was applied to hierarchical clustering. The global minimum experiment was used with IGFA, GFA, GA (genetic algorithm) and SA (simulated annealing). Multi-minima experiment was used with IGFA and GFA. The two experiments results were compared with each other and proved the efficiency of IGFA. IGFA is better than GFA both in accuracy and running time. For the hierarchical clustering, IGFA is used to optimize the smallest distance of genes pairs, and the results were compared with GA and SA, singular-linkage clustering, UPGMA. The efficiency of IGFA is proved. PMID:23173043
Deep HST imaging of distant weak radio and field galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Windhorst, R. A.; Gordon, J. M.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Keel, W. C.; Burkey, J. M.; Dunlop, J. S.
1994-01-01
We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) V- and I-band images of three distant weak radio galaxies with z = 0.311-2.390 and seven field galaxies with z = 0.131-0.58. The images were deconvolved with both the Lucy and multiresolution CLEAN methods, which yield a restoring Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of less than or equal to 0.2 sec, (nearly) preserve photons and signal-to-noise ratio at low spatial frequencies, and produce consistent light profiles down to our 2 sigma surface brightness sensitivity limit of V approximately 27.2 and I approximately 25.9 mag/sq arcsec. Multi-component image modeling was used to provide deconvolution-independent estimates of structural parameters for symmetric galaxies. We present 12-band (m(sub 2750) UBVRIgriJHK) photometry for a subset of the galaxies and bootstrap the unknown FOC/48 zero point at 2750 A in three independent ways (yielding m(sub 2750) = 21.34 +/- 0.09 mag for 1.0 e(-)/s). Two radio galaxies with z = 0.311 and 0.528, as well as one field galaxy with z = 0.58, have the colors and spectra of early-type galaxies, and a(exp 1/4)-like light profiles in the HST images. The two at z greater than 0.5 have little or no color gradients in V - I and are likely giant ellipticals, while the z = 0.311 radio galaxy has a dim exponential disk and is likely an S0. Six of the seven field galaxies have light profiles that indicate (small) inner bulges following a(exp 1/4) laws and outer exponential disks, both with little or no color gradients. These are (early-type) spiral galaxies with z = 0.131-0.528. About half have faint companions or bars. One shows lumpy structure, possibly a merger. The compact narrow-line galaxy 53W002 at z = 2.390 has less than or = 30% +/- 10% of its HST V and I flux in the central kiloparsec (due to its weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN)). Most of its light (V approximately equal to 23.3) occurs in a symmetric envelope with a regular a(exp 1/4)-like profile of effective radius a approximately equal to 1.1 sec (approximately equal to 12 kpc for H(sub 0) = 50, q(sub 0) = 0.1. Its (HST) V - I color varies at most from approximately 0.3 mag at a approximately equal to 0.2 sec to approximately 1.2 mag at a approximately greater than 0.4 sec, and possibly to approximately greater than 2.2 mag at a approximately greater than 1.2 sec. Together with its I - K color (approximately equal to 2.5 mag for a approximately greater than 1.0 sec-2.0 sec), this is consistent with an aging stellar population approximately 0.3-0.5 Gyr old in the galaxy center (a approx. less than 2 kpc radius), and possibly approximately 0.5-1.0 Gyr old at a approximately greater than 10 kpc radius. While its outer part may thus have started to collapse at z = 2.5-4, its inner part still is aligned with its redshifted Ly(alpha) cloud and its radio axis, possibly caused by star formation associated with the radio jet, or by reflection from its AGN cone.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit
Wiltshire, David L.
2008-10-15
The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z < or approx. 0.25 the scale is found to coincide with the empirical acceleration scale of modified Newtonian dynamics. At larger redshifts the scale varies in a manner which is likely to be important for understanding dynamics of galaxy clusters, and structure formation. Although the relative deceleration, typically of order 10{sup -10} ms{sup -2}, is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-04-01
Using the analytical expressions of the Newtonian gravitational potential and the associated acceleration vector for an infinitely thin uniform rectangular plate, we developed a method to compute the gravitational field of a general infinitely thin object without assuming its axial symmetry when its surface mass density is known at evenly spaced rectangular grid points. We utilized the method in evaluating the gravitational field of the HI gas, dust, red stars, and blue stars components of M74 from its THINGS, 2MASS, PDSS1, and GALEX data. The non axisymmetric feature of M74 including an asymmetric spiral structure is seen from (i) the contour maps of the determined gravitational potential, (ii) the vector maps of the associated acceleration vector, and (iii) the cross section views of the gravitational field and the surface mass density along different directions. An x-mark pattern in the gravitational field is detected at the core of M74 from the analysis of its dust and red stars components. Meanwhile, along the east-west direction in the central region of the angular size of 1', the rotation curve derived from the radial component of the acceleration vector caused by the red stars component matches well with that observed by the VENGA project. Thus the method will be useful in studying the dynamics of particles and fluids near and inside spiral galaxies with known photometry data. Electronically available are the table of the determined gravitational fields of M74 on its galactic plane as well as the Fortran 90 programs to produce them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Susana
Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters on the Macrocosmic level, and that allows the formation of fundamental particles on the Microcosmic level. The strings are described by a function named Symbiosis (σ), which depends on four energetic contributions: (1) Radiation Energy (2) Plasma Energy (3) Conducted Flux Energy and (4) Mass Energy. There is an intimate relation between them, and depending on the value they have at a certain moment and at a certain time, the string dynamics and its geometry are settled. That means that symbiosis describes the strings state in any point of the geometer - energy field. σ = F [Er(σ), Ep(σ), Ef(σ), Em(σ)] (1) This work is an attempt to achieve the unification of the forces of nature, based on the existence of a four dimension Universe.
Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng
2015-10-01
The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus. PMID:26520987
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng
2015-10-01
The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus.
Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyavskaya, N.
In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.
Chiral imprint of a cosmic gauge field on primordial gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R.
2015-06-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left or right circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linet, B.; Teyssandier, P.
2016-02-01
We present a complete analysis of the light rays within the linearized, weak-field approximation of a Schwarzschild-like metric describing the gravitational field of an isolated, spherically symmetric body. We prove in this context the existence of two time transfer functions and we obtain these functions in an exact closed-form. We are led to distinguish two regimes. In the first regime, the two time transfer functions correspond to rays which are confined in regions of spacetime where the weak-field approximation is valid. Such a regime occurs in gravitational lensing configurations with double images of a given source. We find the general expressions of the angular separation and the difference in light travel time between the two images. In the second regime, there exists only one time transfer function corresponding to a light ray remaining in a region of weak field. Performing a Taylor expansion of this function with respect to the gravitational constant, we obtain the Shapiro time delay completed by a series of so-called "enhanced terms." The enhanced terms beyond the third order are new.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenting; White, Simon D. M.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Henriques, Bruno; Anderson, Michael E.; Han, Jiaxin
2016-03-01
We use weak gravitational lensing to measure mean mass profiles around locally brightest galaxies (LBGs). These are selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic and photometric catalogues to be brighter than any neighbour projected within 1.0 Mpc and differing in redshift by <1000 km s-1. Most (>83 per cent) are expected to be the central galaxies of their dark matter haloes. Previous stacking analyses have used this LBG sample to measure mean Sunyaev-Zeldovich flux and mean X-ray luminosity as a function of LBG stellar mass. In both cases, a simulation of the formation of the galaxy population was used to estimate effective halo mass for LBGs of given stellar mass, allowing the derivation of scaling relations between the gas properties of haloes and their mass. By comparing results from a variety of simulations to our lensing data, we show that this procedure has significant model dependence reflecting: (i) the failure of any given simulation to reproduce observed galaxy abundances exactly; (ii) a dependence on the cosmology underlying the simulation; and (iii) a dependence on the details of how galaxies populate haloes. We use our lensing results to recalibrate the scaling relations, eliminating most of this model dependence and explicitly accounting both for residual modelling uncertainties and for observational uncertainties in the lensing results. The resulting scaling relations link the mean gas properties of dark haloes to their mass over an unprecedentedly wide range, 1012.5 < M500/M⊙ < 1014.5, and should fairly and robustly represent the full halo population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhodes, Jason D.; Massey, Richard J.; Albert, Justin; Collins, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard S.; Heymans, Catherine; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexie; Mellier, Yannick; Refregier, Alexander; Taylor, James E.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic
2007-09-01
We examine the spatial and temporal stability of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Camera (WFC) point-spread function (PSF) using the 2 deg2 COSMOS survey. This is important for studies of weak gravitational lensing, where the ability to deconvolve the PSF from galaxy shapes is of paramount importance. We show that stochastic aliasing of the PSF necessarily occurs during ``drizzling.'' This aliasing is maximal if the output-pixel scale is equal to the input-pixel scale. This source of PSF variation can be significantly reduced by choosing a Gaussian drizzle kernel with a size of 0.8 input pixels and by reducing the output-pixel scale. We show that the PSF is temporally unstable, resulting in an overall slow periodic focus change in the COSMOS images. Using a modified version of the Tiny Tim PSF modeling software, we create grids of undistorted stars over a range of telescope focus values. We then use the approximately 10 well-measured stars in each COSMOS field to pick the best-fit focus value for each field. The Tiny Tim model stars can then be used to perform PSF corrections for weak lensing. We derive a parametric correction for the effect of charge transfer efficiency (CTE) degradation on the shapes of objects in the COSMOS field as a function of observation date, position within the ACS WFC field, and object flux. Finally, we discuss future plans to improve the CTE correction. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA; the European Southern Observatory, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boynton, Paul; Moore, Michael; Newman, Riley; Berg, Eric; Bonicalzi, Ricco; McKenney, Keven
2014-06-01
Empirical tests of Einstein's metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton's theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under "classical" conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The…
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.
2012-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The
Chiral symmetry breaking in {ital d}=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields
Gitman, D.M.; Odintsov, S.D.; Shilnov, Y.I.
1996-08-01
The phase structure of the {ital d}=3 Nambu{endash}Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with a magnetic field is investigated in leading order of the 1/{ital N} expansion and in the linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. In some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the gravitational field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Testing the Metric-Field Equations of Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verozub, L. V.
2006-11-01
Physical consequencies from gravitation equations based on Poincar´e ideas of relativity of space and time in respect of measuring instruments are considered. The most interesting of them are the possibility of the existence of stable supermassive configurations (102 ÷1012 M ) which can exist in galactic centres, and an explanation of the acceleration of the Universe expansion as a manifestation of the gravational force properties in the thory under consideration.
Dynamics of a Fabry-Perot cavity in the field of a plane gravitational wave
Tarabrin, S P
2007-12-31
The interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a Fabry-Perot cavity is analysed beyond the long-wavelength approximation in the input-mirror locally Lorentzian frame of reference taking the light pressure into account. The generalised expressions are obtained for the coefficient of pondermotive optical rigidity, the motion law of the moving mirror of the cavity and the response function of the cavity. It is shown that the latter is a sum of two phase shifts of a circulating light wave: the phase incursion after reflection from the moving mirror and the phase incursion due to the direct interaction of gravitational and light waves in the cavity. The possibility of the resonance detection of high-frequency gravitational waves by using the optical rigidity effect is considered. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)
Physics of Gravitational Interaction: Geometry of Space or Quantum Field in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baryshev, Yurij
2006-03-01
Thirring-Feynman's tensor field approach to gravitation opens new understanding on the physics of gravitational interaction and stimulates novel experiments on the nature of gravity. According to Field Gravity, the universal gravity force is caused by exchange of gravitons - the quanta of gravity field. Energy of this field is well-defined and excludes the singularity. All classical relativistic effects are the same as in General Relativity. The intrinsic scalar (spin 0) part of gravity field corresponds to ``antigravity'' and only together with the pure tensor (spin 2) part gives the usual Newtonian force. Laboratory and astrophysical experiments which may test the predictions of FG, will be performed in near future. In particular, observations at gravity observatories with bar and interferometric detectors, like Explorer, Nautilus, LIGO and VIRGO, will check the predicted scalar gravitational waves from supernova explosions. New types of cosmological models in Minkowski space are possible too.
On axionic field ranges, loopholes and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo
2016-04-01
In this short note we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. We address in particular certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work [1]. We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. These new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.
Spin rotation by Earth's gravitational field in a “frozen-spin” ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, Yuri; Flanagan, Eanna; Semertzidis, Yannis
2012-10-01
Detailed calculations of spin rotation by the Earth's gravitational field in a frozen-spin ring are presented in three different coordinate systems and used (a) to show that the systematic error caused by gravitation in a proposed electric dipole moment measurement can be unambiguously determined, and (b) to propose measuring the spin-gravity effect in a dedicated frozen-spin ring using electrons.
Gravitational Waves from a Pseudo-Newtonian Kerr Field with Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Wu, Xin
2011-12-01
A close relation between gravitational waveforms and the types of trajectories in a superposed field between a pseudo-Newtonian Kerr black hole and quadrupolar halos is shown in detail. The gravitational waveforms emitted from circular, KAM tori and chaotic orbits must be periodic, quasiperiodic and stochastic, respectively. The chaotic motion can maximally enhance both the amplitudes and the energy emission rates of the waves.
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around collapsing stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.; Mewes, Vassilios
2015-10-01
Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological time scales. Scalar fields thus cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One hypothesized formation scenario of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs) with masses of ˜105 M⊙ . Any such scalar field configurations must survive the gravitational collapse of a SMS in order to be a viable model of physical reality. To check for the postcollapse survival of these configurations and to follow the dynamics of the black hole-scalar field system we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index Γ =4 /3 which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes after the collapse of the stars.
The study on the coefficients of Earth's gravitational field using Scaled Sensitivity Matrix method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Weijing; Dong, Danan; Wu, Bin
2015-04-01
The estimated monthly mean gravitational field parameters from one or two satellites only represent the linear combinations of a few primary spherical harmonic coefficients due to the limited sensitivity to the Earth's gravitational field. Using multiple satellites at various altitudes and inclinations increase the sensitivity and mitigate the non-unique problem. In practice, however, the explorations with a few satellites are still inevitable, such as the moon and deep space missions. Furthermore, the problem of the estimated parameters contaminated by the other un-estimated parameters due to the high correlation exists widely among various disciplines. Thus the quantitative assessment of the influence of un-estimated parameters on the estimated parameters provides important insight into the nature of the obtained solutions. In this paper, we study the estimated monthly mean, uncorrelated gravitational field parameters ( , , and ) from the Lageos1 and Lageos2 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data for the 10 years period (2004-2013). Using the Scaled Sensitivity Matrix (SSM) method, we investigate the contributions from the other 73 un-estimated gravitational coefficients from degrees and orders 2 through 8 to the 4 estimated gravitational parameters. Our results confirm the reasonableness of the previous zonal combination coefficients from the orbital node analysis. Meanwhile our results reveal time-dependent correlations between the estimated non-zonal parameters and the un-estimated gravitational coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprlak, M.; Gerlach, C.; Pettersen, B. R.; Omang, O. C. D.
2012-04-01
The satellite gravitational gradiometry mission GOCE provides various products related to the Earth's gravitational field. One of these products is a global gravitational field model, i.e. representation of the Earth's gravitational field in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. Such a model is used in realizing vertical reference frames in geodesy, exploring the interior of the Earth in geophysics and geology, studying the behavior of currents in oceanography, or discovering sea level rise and ice-melting in climatology. Numerous Earth's gravitational field representations have already been derived from GOCE. These representations differ according to the time span of GOCE measurements and the theoretical approach used in the harmonic analysis. To assess the quality of the GOCE models validation by independent knowledge of the gravitational field has to be performed. Global gravitational field models with limited spectral/spatial resolution are validated by terrestrial data. In this case, spectral inconsistency between the two sources of data has to be treated properly. An intuitive approach to perform the validation in a consistent way is offered by an adequate filtering. Transformation of the regional data into the spectral domain is performed firstly. Then a low-pass filter is applied to generate a smoothed version of the regional model with the same spectral content as the global GOCE model. Subsequently, the filtered signal is transformed back into the space domain where comparison with a GOCE geoid surface is performed. Despite its conceptual simplicity, the development of an optimal filtering procedure is still challenging. In this contribution we address some aspects of the filtering method. Firstly, a simulation study based on EGM2008 is performed to investigate the accuracy of the direct transformation from space to frequency domain and its inverse. Moreover, various mathematical filters are considered to filter out the short wavelengths. Secondly, the most accurate filtering procedure is applied in validation of real GOCE models. The validation experiment is performed with respect to gravity anomalies and geoid undulations over the territory of Scandinavia.
Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.
Rothmayer, A P
2014-07-28
Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large. PMID:24936018
Escape of gravitational radiation from the field of massive bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, Richard H.; Pullin, Jorge; Kundu, Prasun K.
1993-01-01
We consider a compact source of gravitational waves of frequency omega in or near a massive spherically symmetric distribution of matter or a black hole. Recent calculations have led to apparently contradictory results for the influence of the massive body on the propagation of the waves. We show here that the results are in fact consistent and in agreement with the 'standard' viewpoint in which the high-frequency compact source produces the radiation as if in a flat background, and the background curvature affects the propagation of these waves.
Dynamical trapping and relaxation of scalar gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. H.-T.; Hodson, A. O.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Davies, T. B.; Mendonça, J. T.; Bingham, R.
2013-11-01
We present a framework for nonlinearly coupled scalar-tensor theory of gravity to address both inflation and core-collapse supernova problems. The unified approach is based on a novel dynamical trapping and relaxation of scalar gravity in highly energetic regimes. The new model provides a viable alternative mechanism of inflation free from various issues known to affect previous proposals. Furthermore, it could be related to observable violent astronomical events, specifically by releasing a significant amount of additional gravitational energy during core-collapse supernovae. A recent experiment at CERN relevant for testing this new model is briefly outlined.
Two-stage magnetometer measures weak magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buntenbach, R. W.
1972-01-01
Sensitive magnetometer capable of measuring field strengths of 10 nanogauss is described. High permeability core is aligned parallel to magnetic field in first stage. In second stage, ferromagnetic toroid saturates rapidly. Adjustment of turns and area ratios of each stage provides wide range of sensitivities.
The scaling of weak field phase-only control in Markovian dynamics
Am-Shallem, Morag; Kosloff, Ronnie
2014-07-28
We consider population transfer in open quantum systems, which are described by quantum dynamical semigroups (QDS). Using second order perturbation theory of the Lindblad equation, we show that it depends on a weak external field only through the field's autocorrelation function, which is phase independent. Therefore, for leading order in perturbation, QDS cannot support dependence of the population transfer on the phase properties of weak fields. We examine an example of weak-field phase-dependent population transfer, and show that the phase-dependence comes from the next order in the perturbation.
Experimental study of the dynamic Newtonian field with a cryogenic gravitational wave antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astone, P.; Bassan, M.; Bizzarri, R.; Bonifazi, P.; Brocco, L.; Carelli, P.; Coccia, E.; Cosmelli, C.; Degasperis, A.; Frasca, S.; Fafone, V.; Majorana, E.; Modena, I.; Modestino, G.; Moleti, A.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Terenzi, R.; Visco, M.
1998-10-01
We present an experiment performed to study the behaviour of the dynamic gravitational interaction at laboratory scale. We used as field generator a mass quadrupole rotating in the range of 460 Hz and we detected the acceleration field with the cryogenic gravitational wave antenna Explorer of the Rome group. We report the measurements of this interaction as a function of the distance between the field source and the detector. An upper limit on the parameters of a Yukawa-like potential, modeling an hypotetic deviation from the Newtonian law of gravity, is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.
1992-11-01
A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.
Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, Difficulties and Prospects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradamante, F.; Viennot, L.
2007-01-01
This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9-11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of "mapping" two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and…
Weak Lensing PSF Correction of Wide-field CCD Mosaic Images (SULI Paper)
Cevallos, Marissa; /Caltech /SLAC
2006-01-04
Gravitational lensing provides some of the most compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter. Dark matter on galaxy cluster scales can be mapped due to its weak gravitational lensing effect: a cluster mass distribution can be inferred from the net distortion of many thousands of faint background galaxies that it induces. Because atmospheric aberration and defects in the detector distort the apparent shape of celestial objects, it is of great importance to characterize accurately the point spread function (PSF) across an image. In this research, the PSF is studied in images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), whose camera is divided into 12 CCD chips. Traditional weak lensing methodology involves averaging the PSF across the entire image: in this work we investigate the effects of measuring the PSF in each chip independently. This chip-by-chip analysis was found to reduce the strength of the correlation between star and galaxy shapes, and predicted more strongly the presence of known galaxy clusters in mass maps. These results suggest correcting the CFHT PSF on an individual chip basis significantly improves the accuracy of detecting weak lensing.
Wiggly tails: A gravitational wave signature of massive fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degollado, Juan Carlos; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.
2014-09-01
Massive fields can exist in long-lived configurations around black holes. We examine how the gravitational wave signal of a perturbed black hole is affected by such "dirtiness" within linear theory. As a concrete example, we consider the gravitational radiation emitted by the infall of a massive scalar field into a Schwarzschild black hole. Whereas part of the scalar field is absorbed/scattered by the black hole and triggers gravitational wave emission, another part lingers in long-lived quasibound states. Solving numerically the Teukolsky master equation for gravitational perturbations coupled to the massive Klein-Gordon equation, we find a characteristic gravitational wave signal, composed by a quasinormal ringing followed by a late time tail. In contrast to "clean" black holes, however, the late time tail contains small amplitude wiggles with the frequency of the dominating quasibound state. Additionally, an observer dependent beating pattern may also be seen. These features were already observed in fully nonlinear studies; our analysis shows they are present at linear level, and, since it reduces to a 1+1 dimensional numerical problem, allows for cleaner numerical data. Moreover, we discuss the power law of the tail and that it only becomes universal sufficiently far away from the dirty black hole. The wiggly tails, by constrast, are a generic feature that may be used as a smoking gun for the presence of massive fields around black holes, either as a linear cloud or as fully nonlinear hair.
Active Region Filaments Might Harbor Weak Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz Baso, C. J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.
2016-05-01
Recent spectropolarimetric observations of active region filaments have revealed polarization profiles with signatures typical of the strong field Zeeman regime. The conspicuous absence in those observations of scattering polarization and Hanle effect signatures was then pointed out by some authors. This was interpreted as either a signature of mixed “turbulent” field components or as a result of optical thickness. In this article, we present a natural scenario to explain these Zeeman-only spectropolarimetric observations of active region (AR) filaments. We propose a two-component model, one on top of the other. Both components have horizontal fields, with the azimuth difference between them being close to 90°. The component that lies lower in the atmosphere is permeated by a strong field of the order of 600 G, while the upper component has much weaker fields, of the order of 10 G. The ensuing scattering polarization signatures of the individual components have opposite signs, so its combination along the line of sight reduces—and even can cancel out—the Hanle signatures, giving rise to an apparent Zeeman-only profile. This model is also applicable to other chromospheric structures seen in absorption above ARs.
A survey of Ap stars for weak longitudinal magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auriere, M.; Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Bagnulo, S.; Donati, J. F.; Johnson, N.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lignieres, F.; Lueftinger, T.; Mouillet, M.; Paletou, F.; Petit, P.; Strasser, S.
2004-10-01
We are conducting a magnetic survey of a sample of about 30 spectroscopically-identified Ap stars (selected from the HD catalogue), but with faint or previously undetected magnetic fields. We use the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and the cross-correlation technique Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al. 1997). For 24 studied stars, we have obtained 21 detections of Stokes V Zeeman signatures (data quality and phase coverage may explain our lack of detection of any field in some objects). Our results suggest that all Ap stars are magnetic and, furthermore, that there may exist a minimum field strength for which Ap-type characteristics are produced.
The interaction of a gravitational wave with a pure radiation field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astefanoaiei, Iordana; Maftei, Gheorghe
We analyse the cosmological model, proposed by K. A. Bronnikov [1] in what concern the interaction of pure radiation field with gravitational waves, taking account of cylindrical symmetry of the configuration. We use the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calcultae in the null-tetradic base the spin coefficients, the directional derivatives, and we verify the commutation relations, the Bianchi identities, and we obtain the tetradic components of the Ricci and Weyl tensors for the c=d case using the Newman-Penrose formalism. We analyse the behavior of the gravitational waves, interacting with pure radiation field, by assuming that the energy-momentum pseudotensor has null components, while the gravitational field itself is of N Petrov type.
Lichnerowicz-type theorems for self-gravitating systems with nonlinear electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Li-Ming; Peng, Yuxuan; Xu, Jianfei
2014-07-01
We consider a self-gravitating system containing a globally timelike Killing vector and a nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetic field and scalar fields. We prove that under certain boundary conditions (asymptotically flat/anti-de Sitter) there cannot be any nontrivial field configurations in the spacetime. To explore nontrivial solutions, one should break any of the conditions we imposed. The case with another type of nonlinear electromagnetic field is also analyzed, and similar conclusions have been obtained under certain conditions.
Computable Fields and Weak Truth-Table Reducibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Rebecca M.
For a computable field F, the splitting set S F of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which factor over F, and the root set R F of F is the set of polynomials with coefficients in F which have a root in F.
On the possibility of detecting weak magnetic fields in variable white dwarfs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Philip W.; Hansen, Carl J.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Kawaler, Steven D.
1989-01-01
It is suggested that 'weak' magnetic fields of strengths less than 10 to the 6th G may be detectable in some variable white dwarfs. Weak fields can cause subtle changes in the Fourier power spectra of these stars in the form of 'splitting' in frequency of otherwise degenerate signals. Present-day observational and analysis techniques are capable of detecting these changes. It is suggested suggested, by listing some well-studied candidate stars, that perhaps the magnetic signature of splitting has already been observed in at least one object and that the difficult task of intensive measurements of weak fields should now be undertaken of those candidates.
Using Jupiter’s gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2016-03-01
Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenzer, Robert; Novák, Pavel; Vajda, Peter
2011-01-01
We introduce the generic expressions for computing the gravitational field (potential and its radial derivative) generated by an arbitrary density (contrast) layer with a variable depth and thickness having a laterally-distributed radial density variation. The information on the geometry and density distribution of a volumetric mass layer is described by means of spherical harmonics. These generic expressions can uniformly be applied to model all major known density structures within the Earth's interior using methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of the gravitational field. This is demonstrated on specific examples given for various density models commonly adopted for the approximation of crust density structures.
Using Jupiter’s gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2016-01-01
Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472
Impurity-Assisted Tunneling Magnetoresistance under a Weak Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Txoperena, Oihana; Song, Yang; Qing, Lan; Gobbi, Marco; Hueso, Luis E.; Dery, Hanan; Casanova, Fèlix
2014-10-01
Injection of spins into semiconductors is essential for the integration of the spin functionality into conventional electronics. Insulating layers are often inserted between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors for obtaining an efficient spin injection, and it is therefore crucial to distinguish between signatures of electrical spin injection and impurity-driven effects in the tunnel barrier. Here we demonstrate an impurity-assisted tunneling magnetoresistance effect in nonmagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic tunnel barriers. In both cases, the effect reflects on-off switching of the tunneling current through impurity channels by the external magnetic field. The reported effect is universal for any impurity-assisted tunneling process and provides an alternative interpretation to a widely used technique that employs the same ferromagnetic electrode to inject and detect spin accumulation.
Mean-field universality class induced by weak hyperbolic curvatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gendiar, Andrej; Daniška, Michal; Krčmár, Roman; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2014-07-01
Order-disorder phase transition of the ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on a series of two-dimensional lattices that have negative Gaussian curvatures. Exceptional lattice sites of coordination number seven are distributed on the triangular lattice, where the typical distance between the nearest exceptional sites is proportional to an integer parameter n. Thus, the corresponding curvature is asymptotically proportional to -n-2. Spontaneous magnetization and specific heat are calculated by means of the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. For all the finite n cases, we observe the mean-field-like phase transition. It is confirmed that the entanglement entropy at the transition temperature is linear in (c/6)lnn, where c =1/2 is the central charge of the Ising model. The fact agrees with the presence of the typical length scale n being proportional to the curvature radius.
Weak localization coexisting with a magnetic field in a normal-metal--superconductor microbridge
Brouwer, P.W.; Beenakker, C.W.J.
1995-08-01
A random-matrix theory is presented which shows that breaking time-reversal symmetry by itself does {ital not} suppress the weak-localization correction to the conductance of a disordered metal wire attached to a superconductor. Suppression of weak localization requires applying a magnetic field as well as raising the voltage, to break both time-reversal symmetry and electron-hole degeneracy. A magnetic-field-dependent contact resistance obscured this anomaly in previous numerical simulations.
GMM-1: A 50 degree and order gravitational field model for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Knowledge of the gravitational field, in combination with surface topography, provides one of the principal means of inferring the internal structure of a planetary body. The highest resolution gravitational field for Mars published thus far was derived from Doppler tracking data from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 spacecraft and is complete to degree and order 18 corresponding to a half wavelength resolution of approximately 600 km. This field, which is characterized by a spatial resolution that is slightly better than that of the highest resolution (16x16) topographic model, has been utilized extensively in analyses of the state of stress and isostatic compensation of the Martian lithosphere. However, the resolution and quality of current gravity and topographic fields are such that the origin and evolution of even the major physiographic features on Mars, such as the hemispheric dichotomy and Tharsis rise, are not well understood. We have re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner data sets and have derived a new gravitational field, which we designated GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50 with a corresponding (half wavelength) spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. In contrast to previous models, GMM-1 was solved to as high degree and order as necessary to nearly exhaust the attenuated gravitational signal contained in the tracking data.
Net effect of many gravitational fields on the intensity of celestial light sources. Master's thesis
Cipperly, G.E.
1982-12-01
This thesis investigates the lens-like action of the gravitational fields of celestial bodies, which can alter the apparent intensity of more distant sources. Previous work in this area has shown that the chance of an individual body being sufficiently well aligned with a source to cause a very large gravitational intensity change is small. The issue addressed in this study is the possibility of there being a significant total change in the intensity of a source due to the combined effects of the gravitational fields of all celestial bodies, and in particular, the potential impact on intensity distance measurements, that is, determination of the distances of celestial light sources by means of intensity comparisons. It is first shown that the problem can be treated in flat space by associating an appropriate index of refraction with gravitational fields. A wave approach is taken in deriving the total deflection of a ray by the field of a single point mass. A statistical analysis is then performed to determine the expression for the mean total change in the intensity of celestial light sources due to the combined fields of all intervening bodies.
Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2016-02-01
We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 5123 lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.
Weak magnetic fields of intermediate-mass stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Wade, G. A.; Aurière, M.; Alina, D.; Böhm, T.; Oza, A.
2011-12-01
We present the result of a highly sensitive spectropolarimetric study dedicated to intermediate-mass stars. We report the detection of sub-gauss surface magnetic fields on the normal, rapidly-rotating A-type star Vega and on the moderately-rotating Am star Sirius A. These magnetic detections constitute the first evidence that tepid stars that do not belong to the class of Ap/Bp stars can also host magnetized photospheres, suggesting that a significant fraction of stars in this mass regime are magnetic. We present here the observational clues gathered so far to progress towards understanding the physical processes at the origin of this newly identified Vega-like magnetism. Based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de lï¿½nivers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Chris; Joudaki, Shahab; Heymans, Catherine; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Nakajima, Reiko; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo
2016-03-01
The unknown nature of `dark energy' motivates continued cosmological tests of large-scale gravitational physics. We present a new consistency check based on the relative amplitude of non-relativistic galaxy peculiar motions, measured via redshift-space distortion, and the relativistic deflection of light by those same galaxies traced by galaxy-galaxy lensing. We take advantage of the latest generation of deep, overlapping imaging and spectroscopic data sets, combining the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey, the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We quantify the results using the `gravitational slip' statistic EG, which we estimate as 0.48 ± 0.10 at z = 0.32 and 0.30 ± 0.07 at z = 0.57, the latter constituting the highest redshift at which this quantity has been determined. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of General Relativity, for a perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in a Universe dominated by a cosmological constant, which are EG = 0.41 and 0.36 at these respective redshifts. The combination of redshift-space distortion and gravitational lensing data from current and future galaxy surveys will offer increasingly stringent tests of fundamental cosmology.
Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.
Delgado, J M; Leal, J; Monteagudo, J L; Gracia, M G
1982-01-01
Fertilized chicken eggs were incubated for 48 hours while exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELMF) of 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz with intensities of 0.12, 1.2 and 12 micro T. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the exposed embryos revealed the following effects: (1) ELMF of 100 Hz/1.2 micro T had the most consistent and powerful inhibitory effect on embryogenesis. Development of embryos was reduced to the formation of the three primitive layers. Brain vesicles, auditory pit, neural tube, foregut, heart, vessels, and somites were not developed. Glycosaminoglycans were almost absent. (2) The above results demonstrate a window effect because embryos exposed to 100 Hz/1.2 micro T were less developed than embryos exposed at lower and higher intensities and frequencies. (3) Developing organs reacted with different sensitivity to ELMF of specific frequencies and intensities. Somites were not disturbed by exposure to 10 Hz with any of the intensities used. Formation of blood vessels was completely blocked by ELMF of 1000 Hz/12 micro T while traces of other organs were present. (4) The drastic embryological disturbances described were obtained with much lower intensities (1 micro T = 0.01 Gauss) than those used in studies by other investigators. (5) Embryological alterations induced by ELMF may depend on disturbances in the presence and structure of glycosaminoglycans which are essential elements in cellular activities, including cell migration. (6) The use of ELMF of low intensity may be a powerful method to investigate embryogenetic mechanisms and may also be a useful technique for investigation of other biological systems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7107514
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1970-07-01
While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.
[Physical essence of erythrocytic sedimentation rate in the gravitation field of the earth].
Cherniĭ, A N
2009-01-01
The erythrocytic sedimentation rate method has been long known in medicine and extensively used in laboratory practice in tuberculosis facilities. However, many authors note that the erythrocytic sedimentation rate phenomenon has not clearly understood. By applying the total theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, the author discloses the physical essence of erythrocytic sedimentation in the gravitation field of the Earth. PMID:19514457
Where Else Is Null the Gravitational Field between Two Massive Spheres?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lima, F. M. S.
2009-01-01
To find the point between two massive spherical bodies at which their gravitational fields cancel is an apparently simple problem usually found in introductory physics textbooks. However, by noting that such a point does not exist when the distance between the spheres is small and one of the masses is much smaller than the other--e.g., between the…
Role of deficit solid angle and quintessence-like matter in strong field gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, En-Kun; Duan, Peng-Fei
2016-12-01
Using the strong field limit approach, the strong field gravitational lensing in a black hole with deficit solid angle (DSA) and surrounded by quintessence-like matter (QM) has been investigated. The results show that the DSA ɛ2, the energy density of QM ρ0 and the equation of state (EOS) parameter w have some distinct effects on the strong field gravitational lensing. As ɛ2 or ρ0 increases, the deflection angle and the strong field limit coefficients all increase faster and faster. Moreover, the evolution of the main observables also has been studied, which shows that the curves at w = -2/3 are more steepy than those of w = -1/3. Compared with the Schwarzschild black hole, the black hole surrounded by QM has smaller relative magnitudes, and at w = -1/3 both the angular position and angular separation are slightly bigger than those of Schwarzschild black hole, but when w = -2/3, the angular position and the relative magnitudes all diminish significantly. Therefore, by studying the strong gravitational lensing, we can distinguish the black hole with a DSA and surrounded by QM from the Schwarzschild black hole and the effects of the DSA and QM on the strong gravitational lensing by black holes can be known better.
Variations of the gravitational field as a motive power for rhythmics of biochemical processes.
Troshichev, O A; Gorshkov, E S; Shapovalov, S N; Sokolovskii, V V; Ivanov, V V; Vorobeitchikov, V M
2004-01-01
Variations of the gravitational field affected by the Sun and the Moon while the Earth's moving along the orbit seem to be a powerful source of many rhythmical processes typical of biochemical processes. Studies carried out in AARI revealed the obvious relationships between the dynamics of some biochemical reactions and lambda(D)-function describing the regular variations of the gravitational field under combined influence of the Sun and the Moon. The following of them are examined as examples: the rate of the unithiol oxidation in vitro, concentration of the thiol compounds in human urine, some hematological indicators (rate of the erythrocytes sedimentation, hemoglobin content). Compatibility of run of the biochemical indicators and lambda(D)-function is indicative of essential influence of the regular variations of the gravitational field on rhythmics of the biochemical processes. As this takes place, the solar activity acts like to the instability factor. Balance of the solar activity effects and the varying gravitational field effect alter in time depending on location in the solar activity cycle. PMID:15880902
Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate
2007-01-01
Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…
Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate
2007-01-01
Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through
Where Else Is Null the Gravitational Field between Two Massive Spheres?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lima, F. M. S.
2009-01-01
To find the point between two massive spherical bodies at which their gravitational fields cancel is an apparently simple problem usually found in introductory physics textbooks. However, by noting that such a point does not exist when the distance between the spheres is small and one of the masses is much smaller than the other--e.g., between the
Kantserova, N P; Lysenko, L A; Ushakova, N V; Krylov, V V; Nemova, N N
2015-01-01
The study aimed to determine the molecular targets of magnetic fields in living objects. Time-dependent effects of weak low-frequency magnetic field tuned to the parametric resonance for calcium ions were studied on model organisms (fish, whelk). The dynamics of Ca(2+)-dependent proteinase activity under the exposure to magnetic fields with given parameters was determined and minimal time of exposure in order to achieve inactivation of these proteinases was find out as well. As hyperactivation of Ca(2+)-dependent proteinases is a basis of degenerative pathology development the therapeutic potential of weak low-frequency magnetic fields enabling to modulate Ca(2+)-dependent proteinase activity is supported. PMID:27125027
The Effect of Weak Combined Magnetic Field on Root Gravitropism and a Role of Ca2+ Ions Therein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyum, Elizabeth; Bogatina, Nina; Kondrachuk, A.
At present, magnetic fields of different types are widely used to study gravity sensing in plants. For instance, magnetic levitation of amyloplasts caused by high gradient magnetic field enables us to alter the effective gravity sensed by plant cells. For the first time we showed that a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), that is the sum of collinear permanent and alternating magnetic fields ( 0.5 gauss, 0-100 Hz), changes a cress and pea root positive gravitropic reaction on a negative one. This effect has the form of resonance and occurs at the frequency of cyclotron resonance of calcium ions. What is especially interesting is that under gravistimulation in the CMF, the displacement of amylopasts in the root cap statocytes is directed to the upper wall of a cell, i.e. in the direction opposite to the gravitational vector. The displacement of amyloplasts, which contain the abundance of free Ca2+ ions in the stroma, is accompanied by Ca2+ redistribution in the same direction, and increasing in the cytosol around amyloplasts near ten times in the CMF in comparison with the state magnetic field. Earlier, we also observed the Ca2+ accumulation in the upper site of a root curvature in the elongation zone in the CMF unlike a positive gravitropic reaction. Thus, it should be stressed that a root is bending in the same direction in which amyloplasts are displacing: downwards when gravitropism is positive and upwards when gravitropism is negative. The obtained data confirm the amyloplast statolithic function and give another striking demonstration of a leading role of Ca2+ ions in root gravitropism. But these data bring the question: what forces can promote amyloplast displacement against gravity? The possible explanation of the effect found is discussed. It is based on the ion cyclotron resonance in biosystems proposed by Liboff.. The original approach based on the use of a weak CMF may be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of plant gravisensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voorhies, Coerte V.
2004-01-01
As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.
Effect of a uniform sea-level change on the earth's rotation and gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; O'Connor, William P.
1988-01-01
Global water redistriburtion between the oceans, atmosphere and continents causes changes in the earth's rotation and gravitational field. To conserve water mass, the effect of the small uniform change in sea-level must be considered. Explicit formulas are provided for these sea-level corrections to the gravitational Stokes coefficients, polar motion and length of day. In two recent publications, this sea-level correction term for polar motion was given incorrectly. These errors which arose from normalization conventions with the ocean function are corrected.
Temporal variations of the earth's gravitational field from satellite laser ranging to LAGEOS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Au, A. Y.; Chan, J. C.; Klosko, S. M.; Pavlis, N. K.; Williamson, R. G.
1993-01-01
Monthly values of the J2 and J3 earth gravitational coefficients were estimated using LAGEOS satellite laser ranging data collected between 1980 and 1989. Monthly variations in gravitational coefficients caused by atmospheric mass redistribution were calculated using measurements of variations in surface atmospheric pressure. Results for correlation studies of the two time series are presented. The LAGEOS and atmospheric J2 time series agree well and it appears that variations in J2 can be attributed to the redistribution of atmospheric mass. Atmospheric and LAGEOS estimates for J3 show poorer agreement, J3 estimates appear to be very sensitive to unmodeled forces acting on the satellite. Results indicate that the LAGEOS data can be used to detect small variations in the gravitational field.
Turner, E.L.
1988-07-01
For several years astronomers have devoted considerable effort to finding and studying a class of celestial phenomena whose very existence depends on rare cosmic accidents. These are gravitational-lens events, which occur when two or more objects at different distances from the earth happen to lie along the same line of sight and so coincide in the sky. The radiation from the more distant object, typically a quasar, is bent by the gravitational field of the foreground object. The bending creates a cosmic mirage: distorted or multiple images of the background object. Such phenomena may reveal many otherwise undetectable features of the image source, of the foreground object and of the space lying between them. Such observations could help to resolve several fundamental questions in cosmology. In the past decade theoretical and observational research on gravitational lenses has grown rapidly and steadily. At this writing at least 17 candidate lens systems have been discussed in the literature. Of the 17 lens candidates reported so far in professional literature, only five are considered to have been reliably established by subsequent observations. Another three are generally regarded as weak or speculative cases with less than 50 percent chance of actually being lens systems. In the remaining nine cases the evidence is mixed or is sparse enough so that the final judgment could swing either way. As might be concluded, little of the scientific promise of gravitational lenses has yet been realized. The work has not yielded a clear value for the proportionality constant or any of the other fundamental cosmological parameter. 7 figs.
Next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling in an effective field theory approach
Levi, Michele
2010-11-15
We use an effective field theory (EFT) approach to calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) gravitational spin-orbit interaction between two spinning compact objects. The NLO spin-orbit interaction provides the most computationally complex sector of the NLO spin effects, previously derived within the EFT approach. In particular, it requires the inclusion of nonstationary cubic self-gravitational interaction, as well as the implementation of a spin supplementary condition (SSC) at higher orders. The EFT calculation is carried out in terms of the nonrelativistic gravitational field parametrization, making the calculation more efficient with no need to rely on automated computations, and illustrating the coupling hierarchy of the different gravitational field components to the spin and mass sources. Finally, we show explicitly how to relate the EFT derived spin results to the canonical results obtained with the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) Hamiltonian formalism. This is done using noncanonical transformations, required due to the implementation of covariant SSC, as well as canonical transformations at the level of the Hamiltonian, with no need to resort to the equations of motion or the Dirac brackets.
Abele, H.; Jenke, T.; Leeb, H.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2010-03-15
We propose to apply Ramsey's method of separated oscillating fields to the spectroscopy of the quantum states in the gravity potential above a horizontal mirror. This method allows a precise measurement of quantum mechanical phaseshifts of a Schroedinger wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the Earth. Measurements with ultracold neutrons will offer a sensitivity to Newton's law or hypothetical short-ranged interactions, which is about 21 orders of magnitude below the energy scale of electromagnetism.
Nonminimally coupled gravitational and electromagnetic fields: pp-wave solutions
Dereli, Tekin; Sert, Oezcan
2011-03-15
We give the Lagrangian formulation of a generic nonminimally extended Einstein-Maxwell theory with an action that is linear in the curvature and quadratic in the electromagnetic field. We derive the coupled field equations by a first-order variational principle using the method of Lagrange multipliers. We look for solutions describing plane-fronted Einstein-Maxwell waves with parallel rays. We give a family of exact pp-wave solutions associated with a partially massless spin-2 photon and a partially massive spin-2 graviton.
Gravitational field models for study of Earth mantle dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The tectonic forces or stresses due to the small scale mantle flow under the South American plate are detected and determined by utilizing the harmonics of the geopotential field model. The high degree harmonics are assumed to describe the small scale mantle convection patterns. The input data used in the derivation of this model is made up of 840,000 optical, electronic, and laser observations and 1,656 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air anomalies. Although there remain some statistically questionable aspects of the high degree harmonics, it seems appropriate now to explore their implications for the tectonic forces or stress field under the crust.
Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes: An effective field theory derivation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, Peter
2015-09-01
In this paper we investigate the motion of small compact objects in nonvacuum spacetimes using methods from effective field theory in curved spacetime. Although a vacuum formulation is sufficient in many astrophysical contexts, there are applications such as the role of the self-force in enforcing cosmic censorship in the context of the overcharging problem, which necessitate an extension into the nonvacuum regime. The defining feature of the self-force problem in nonvacuum spacetimes is the coupling between gravitational and nongravitational field perturbations. The formulation of the self-force problem for nonvacuum spacetimes was recently provided in simultaneous papers by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014)] and Linz, Friedmann, and Wiseman [Combined gravitational and electromagnetic self-force on charged particles in electrovac spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084031 (2014)]. Here we distinguish ourselves by working with the effective action rather than the field equations. The formalism utilizes the multi-index notation developed by Zimmerman and Poisson [Gravitational self-force in nonvacuum spacetimes, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084030 (2014) to accommodate the coupling between the different fields. Using dimensional regularization, we arrive at a finite expression for the local self-force expressed in terms of multi-index quantities evaluated in the background spacetime. We then apply the formalism to compute the coupled gravitational self-force in two explicit cases. First, we calculate the self-force on a massive particle possessing scalar charge and moving in a scalarvac spacetime. We then derive an expression for the self-force on an electrically charged, massive particle moving in an electrovac spacetime. In both cases, the force is expressed as a sum of local terms involving tensors defined in the background spacetime and evaluated at the current position of the particle, as well as tail integrals that depend on the past history of the particle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucchesi, D. M.; Anselmo, L.; Bassan, M.; Pardini, C.; Peron, R.; Pucacco, G.; Visco, M.
2015-08-01
In this work, the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) is presented. This is a research program that aims to perform new refined tests and measurements of gravitation in the field of the Earth in the weak field and slow motion (WFSM) limit of general relativity (GR). For this objective we use the free available data relative to geodetic passive satellite lasers tracked from a network of ground stations by means of the satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique. After a brief introduction to GR and its WFSM limit, which aims to contextualize the physical background of the tests and measurements that LARASE will carry out, we focus on the current limits of validation of GR and on current constraints on the alternative theories of gravity that have been obtained with the precise SLR measurements of the two LAGEOS satellites performed so far. Afterward, we present the scientific goals of LARASE in terms of upcoming measurements and tests of relativistic physics. Finally, we introduce our activities and we give a number of new results regarding the improvements to the modelling of both gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations to the orbit of the satellites. These activities are a needed prerequisite to improve the forthcoming new measurements of gravitation. An innovation with respect to the past is the specialization of the models to the LARES satellite, especially for what concerns the modelling of its spin evolution, the neutral drag perturbation and the impact of Earth's solid tides on the satellite orbit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-07-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a λ |φ |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c →+∞. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Gravitational Lensing in the Strong Field Limit for Kar's Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavides, Carlos A.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, Alejandro; Larranaga, Alexis
2016-04-01
In this paper we calculate the strong field limit deflection angle for a light ray passing near a scalar charged spherically symmetric object, described by a metric which comes from the low-energy limit of heterotic string theory. Then, we compare the expansion parameters of our results with those obtained in the Einstein's canonical frame, obtained by a conformal transformation, and we show that, at least at first order, the results do not agree.
Locality of Gravitational Systems from Entanglement of Conformal Field Theories.
Lin, Jennifer; Marcolli, Matilde; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan
2015-06-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi formula relates the entanglement entropy in a conformal field theory to the area of a minimal surface in its holographic dual. We show that this relation can be inverted for any state in the conformal field theory to compute the bulk stress-energy tensor near the boundary of the bulk spacetime, reconstructing the local data in the bulk from the entanglement on the boundary. We also show that positivity, monotonicity, and convexity of the relative entropy for small spherical domains between the reduced density matrices of any state and of the ground state of the conformal field theory are guaranteed by positivity conditions on the bulk matter energy density. As positivity and monotonicity of the relative entropy are general properties of quantum systems, this can be interpreted as a derivation of bulk energy conditions in any holographic system for which the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription applies. We discuss an information theoretical interpretation of the convexity in terms of the Fisher metric. PMID:26196612
Cartographic generalization of urban street networks based on gravitational field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gang; Li, Yongshu; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jiawei
2014-05-01
The automatic generalization of urban street networks is a constant and important aspect of geographical information science. Previous studies show that the dual graph for street-street relationships more accurately reflects the overall morphological properties and importance of streets than do other methods. In this study, we construct a dual graph to represent street-street relationship and propose an approach to generalize street networks based on gravitational field theory. We retain the global structural properties and topological connectivity of an original street network and borrow from gravitational field theory to define the gravitational force between nodes. The concept of multi-order neighbors is introduced and the gravitational force is taken as the measure of the importance contribution between nodes. The importance of a node is defined as the result of the interaction between a given node and its multi-order neighbors. Degree distribution is used to evaluate the level of maintaining the global structure and topological characteristics of a street network and to illustrate the efficiency of the suggested method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can be used in generalizing street networks and retaining their density characteristics, connectivity and global structure.
Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adair, Robert K.
1991-01-01
Concerns have been raised over the possibility that extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are carcinogenic and leukegenic. An examination of the physical interaction of such fields with the body shows that such interactions are too weak to have a significant effect on human biology at the cell level. Because of the high electrical conductivity of tissues, the coupling of external electric fields in air to tissue in the body is such that the effects of the internal fields on cells is smaller than thermal noise. Static magnetic fields smaller than the earth's field of 50 μT and varying fields weaker than the 4-μT 60-Hz fields that are equivalent in effect to that from walking in the earth's field, cannot be expected to generate significant biological effects. Moreover, the interactions of such weak fields at the cell level are also small compared to thermal noise. These conclusions would be modified by 60-Hz cell resonances. But such resonances are shown to be incompatible with cell characteristics and the requirement from equipartition that the mean resonance energy must be kT. Hence, any biological effects of weak ELF fields on the cellular level must be found outside of the scope of conventional physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi Farahani, H.; Dotmar, P.
2011-07-01
Modelling the global gravitational field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients has been by a stand-alone inversion of a 4-month set of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Satellite Gravity Gradiometry (SGG) data and a 9-month set of the GOCE kinematic orbits, as well as by a combined inversion of the aforementioned data sets and 1-year sets of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) K-Band Ranging (KBR) data and its kinematic orbits. It is shown, in particular, that an incorporation of the GOCE data may lead to a dramatic improvement of the GRACE-based gravity field models. The added value of the GOCE data is primarily attributed to the diagonal components of the SGG gravitational tensor.
Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozza, V.; Postiglione, A.
2015-06-01
The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as 1/rq has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.
Paramagnetic relaxation in anisotropic materials in zero and weak constant fields
Fokina, N. P.; Khalvashi, E. Kh.; Khutsishvili, K. O.
2014-12-21
Paramagnetic relaxation in strongly anisotropic materials is analytically investigated in zero and weak constant magnetic fields. The objectives of the microscopic analytical investigation are (i) the weak-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidth and (ii) the electron spin relaxation rates given by a calorimetric Gorter type experiment in the zero constant field at the arbitrary low-frequency field directions, respectively, to the sample crystallographic axes. The EPR linewidth is calculated under the suggestion of its spin-phonon nature at the one-phonon mechanism of the spin-lattice relaxation in the case of the strong isotropic exchange interaction for the arbitrary direction Z of the constant magnetic field. The EPR linewidth is presented as the half sum of the zero-field relaxation rates, measured by the Gorter experiment with the low-frequency field oriented along the X, Y axes. With the help of the macroscopic consideration, it is shown that the zero-field relaxation rates describe the relaxation of the X and Y magnetization components in a zero or weak constant magnetic field. The relaxation rates of the magnetizations created along a,b,c crystallographic axes by a low-frequency field in a Gorter type experiment follow the obtained expressions in the particular cases and are in the experimentally confirmed relations with the EPR linewidth.
Thick branes from self-gravitating scalar fields
Novikov, Oleg O.; Andrianov, Vladimir A.; Andrianov, Alexander A.
2014-07-23
The formation of a domain wall ('thick brane') induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin brane defect is considered in noncompact five-dimensional space-time with warped AdS type geometry. The scalar matter is composed of two fields with softly broken O(2) symmetry and minimal coupling to gravity. The nonperturbative effects in the invariant mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are investigated for different values of the tension of the thin brane defect. Especially interesting is the case of the thin brane with negative tension when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk.
Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Nakonieczny, Łukasz
2015-11-01
Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.
Spin polarization induced by an electric field in the presence of weak localization effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerci, Daniele; Borge, Juan; Raimondi, Roberto
2016-01-01
We evaluate the spin polarization (Edelstein or inverse spin galvanic effect) and the spin Hall current induced by an applied electric field by including the weak localization corrections for a two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the weak localization effects yield logarithmic corrections to both the spin polarization conductivity relating the spin polarization and the electric field and to the spin Hall angle relating the spin and charge currents. The renormalization of both the spin polarization conductivity and the spin Hall angle combine to produce a zero correction to the total spin Hall conductivity as required by an exact identity. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the effect are given.
Weak Solutions to Fokker-Planck Equations and Mean Field Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porretta, Alessio
2015-04-01
We deal with systems of PDEs, arising in mean field games theory, where viscous Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equations are coupled in a forward-backward structure. We consider the case of local coupling, when the running cost depends on the pointwise value of the distribution density of the agents, in which case the smoothness of solutions is mostly unknown. We develop a complete weak theory, proving that those systems are well-posed in the class of weak solutions for monotone couplings under general growth conditions, and for superlinear convex Hamiltonians. As a key tool, we prove new results for Fokker-Planck equations under minimal assumptions on the drift, through a characterization of weak and renormalized solutions. The results obtained give new perspectives even for the case of uncoupled equations as far as the uniqueness of weak solutions is concerned.
Gravitational radiation from collapsing magnetized dust
Sotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Shijun; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2007-04-15
In this article we study the influence of magnetic fields on the axial gravitational waves emitted during the collapse of a homogeneous dust sphere. We found that while the energy emitted depends weakly on the initial matter perturbations it has strong dependence on the strength and the distribution of the magnetic field perturbations. The gravitational wave output of such a collapse can be up to an order of magnitude larger or smaller calling for detailed numerical 3D studies of collapsing magnetized configurations.
The forthcoming Radioastron Mission as a tool for GR tests in the strong gravitational field limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A.; De Paolis, F.; Nucita, A.; Ingrosso, G.
In 2007 the Radioastron satellite will be launched As a result 10-meter radio telescope will be located at a high orbit around the Earth Actually it will be a generalization of VLBI technique using space -- ground base The interferometer will have extraordinary angular resolution namely at the shortest wavelengths angular resolution is about 10 -5 -10 -6 as These angular sizes are comparable with angular sizes of shadows mirages around nearest supermassive black holes For example the size of the shadow around the black hole in the Galactic Centre is about 50 mu as it means that in principle such a tool like the Radioastron interferometer could resolve the shadow Analyzing the shapes of shadows mirages one could evaluate parameters of a black hole such as spin a inclination angle theta and a black hole charge or magnetic monopole and test GR in the strong gravitational field limit corresponding gravitational fields near black hole horizons
General Relativistic Theory of the VLBI Time Delay in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopeikin, Sergei
2003-01-01
The general relativistic theory of the gravitational VLBI experiment conducted on September 8, 2002 by Fomalont and Kopeikin is explained. Equations of radio waves (light) propagating from the quasar to the observer are integrated in the time-dependent gravitational field of the solar system by making use of either retarded or advanced solutions of the Einstein field equations. This mathematical technique separates explicitly the effects associated with the propagation of gravity from those associated with light in the integral expression for the relativistic VLBI time delay of light. We prove that the relativistic correction to the Shapiro time delay, discovered by Kopeikin (ApJ, 556, L1, 2001), changes sign if one retains direction of the light propagation but replaces the retarded for the advanced solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, this correction is associated with the propagation of gravity. The VLBI observation measured its speed, and that the retarded solution is the correct one.
Can Surface Flux Transport Account for the Weak Polar Field in Cycle 23?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jie; Cameron, Robert H.; Schmitt, Dieter; Schssler, Manfred
2013-06-01
To reproduce the weak magnetic field on the polar caps of the Sun observed during the declining phase of cycle 23 poses a challenge to surface flux transport models since this cycle has not been particularly weak. We use a well-calibrated model to evaluate the parameter changes required to obtain simulated polar fields and open flux that are consistent with the observations. We find that the low polar field of cycle 23 could be reproduced by an increase of the meridional flow by 55% in the last cycle. Alternatively, a decrease of the mean tilt angle of sunspot groups by 28% would also lead to a similarly low polar field, but cause a delay of the polar field reversals by 1.5 years in comparison to the observations.
Energy-momentum complex of gravitational field in the Palatini formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novotný, Jan
1993-06-01
It is shown that Murphy's energy-momentum complex of the gravitational field, derived from the Hilbert Lagrangian by use of the Palatini formalism, is identical to the complex derived from the same Lagrangian in a standard way by Mitskievic. The explicitly tensorial formulation of conservation laws in general relativity is eflectively used and some properties of the complex in question are discussed in connection with Murphy's article.
Gravitational quantum states of Antihydrogen
Voronin, A. Yu.; Froelich, P.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.
2011-03-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of the antihydrogen atom (H) in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface. We predict that the H atom, falling in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface, would settle into long-lived quantum states. We point out a method of measuring the difference in the energy of H in such states. The method allows for spectroscopy of gravitational levels based on atom-interferometric principles. We analyze the general feasibility of performing experiments of this kind. We point out that such experiments provide a method of measuring the gravitational force (Mg) acting on H and that they might be of interest in the context of testing the weak equivalence principle for antimatter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adair, Robert K.
1992-08-01
Kirschvink [preceding Comment, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2178 (1992)] objects to my conclusions [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. He argues that I did not properly consider the interaction of such fields with magnetite (Fe3O4) grains in cells and that such interactions can induce biological effects. However, his model, designed as a proof of principle that the interaction of weak 60-Hz ELF fields with magnetite domains in a cell can affect cell biology, requires, by his account, a magnetic field of 0.14 mT (1400 mG) to operate, while my paper purported to demonstrate only that fields smaller than 0.05 mT (500 mG) must be ineffective. I then discuss ELF interactions with magnetite generally and show that the failure of Kirschvink's model to respond to weak fields must be general and that no plausible interaction with biological magnetite of 60-Hz magnetic fields with a strength less than 0.05 mT can affect biology on the cell level.
Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields
Kirschvink, J.L.; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A.; Diaz-Ricci, J.C.; Kirschvink, S.J. )
1992-01-01
Due to the apparent lack of a biophysical mechanism, the question of whether weak, low-frequency magnetic fields are able to influence living organisms has long been one of the most controversial subjects in any field of science. However, two developments during the past decade have changed this perception dramatically, the first being the discovery that many organisms, including humans, biochemically precipitate the ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). In the magnetotactic bacteria, the geomagnetic response is based on either biogenic magnetite or greigite (Fe3S4), and reasonably good evidence exists that this is also the case in higher animals such as the honey bee. Second, the development of simple behavioral conditioning experiments for training honey bees to discriminate magnetic fields demonstrates conclusively that at least one terrestrial animal is capable of detecting earth-strength magnetic fields through a sensory process. In turn, the existence of this ability implies the presence of specialized receptors which interact at the cellular level with weak magnetic fields in a fashion exceeding thermal noise. A simple calculation shows that magnetosomes moving in response to earth-strength ELF fields are capable of opening trans-membrane ion channels, in a fashion similar to those predicted by ionic resonance models. Hence, the presence of trace levels of biogenic magnetite in virtually all human tissues examined suggests that similar biophysical processes may explain a variety of weak field ELF bioeffects. 61 refs.
Relativistic weak lensing from a fully non-linear cosmological density field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D. B.; Bruni, M.; Wands, D.
2015-09-01
In this paper we examine cosmological weak lensing on non-linear scales and show that there are Newtonian and relativistic contributions and that the latter can also be extracted from standard Newtonian simulations. We use the post-Friedmann formalism, a post-Newtonian type framework for cosmology, to derive the full weak-lensing deflection angle valid on non-linear scales for any metric theory of gravity. We show that the only contributing term that is quadratic in the first order deflection is the expected Born correction and lens-lens coupling term. We use this deflection angle to analyse the vector and tensor contributions to the E- and B- mode cosmic shear power spectra. In our approach, once the gravitational theory has been specified, the metric components are related to the matter content in a well-defined manner. Specifying General Relativity, we write down a complete set of equations for a GR+ΛCDM universe for computing all of the possible lensing terms from Newtonian N-body simulations. We illustrate this with the vector potential and show that, in a GR+ΛCDM universe, its contribution to the E-mode is negligible with respect to that of the conventional Newtonian scalar potential, even on non-linear scales. Thus, under the standard assumption that Newtonian N-body simulations give a good approximation of the matter dynamics, we show that the standard ray tracing approach gives a good description for a ΛCDM cosmology.
Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolář, Ivan; Krtouš, Pavel
2015-06-01
We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so-called Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(anti)-de Sitter and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.
Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van
2012-02-01
Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.
Empirical model of the gravitational field generated by the oceanic lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenzer, Robert; Chen, Wenjin; Ye, Zhourun
2015-01-01
We present an empirical model of the gravitational field generated by the oceanic lithosphere computed over the world's oceans with a spectral resolution complete to a spherical harmonic degree of 180. This gravity model is compiled based on applying methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of the global gravity and crustal structure models. The in situ seawater densities and the density samples from ocean-floor drilling sites are utilized in the gravimetric forward modeling of bathymetry and marine sediments. The gravitational signal attributed to the oceanic lithosphere density structure is described empirically in terms of the ocean-floor age and depth. The former is explained by the increasing density with age due to conductive cooling of the oceanic lithosphere. The latter describes the gravitational signature of thermal lithospheric contraction, which is isostatically compensated by ocean deepening. The long-wavelength gravity spectrum reflects mainly the compositional and thermal structures within the sub-lithospheric mantle. We demonstrate that this empirical gravity model reproduces realistically most of the long-to-medium wavelength features of the actual gravity field, except for some systematic discrepancies, especially along continental slopes and large sedimentary accumulations, which cannot be described accurately by applied empirical models.
On the gravitational field of a radiating, isothermal perfect gas cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, L. M. B. C.
2016-04-01
The paper considers a static isotropic self-gravitating perfect gas in the presence of thermal radiation. The gravitational field is specified in terms of the radiation and gas pressures. Assuming that the thermodynamic internal energy is small compared with relativistic rest energy, it is shown that the gas pressure satisfies the Lane-Emden equation; the assumption of dominant intrinsic relativistic rest energy is satisfied by the hottest stars. Six-solutions of the Lane-Enden equation are obtained together with the corresponding gravitational fields. The basis for comparison is the singular solution I decaying like the inverse square of the radius, that is the leading term of the asymptotic solution V. Two semi-linear solutions are obtained using as variables nonlinear functions of the gas pressure, leading to nonlinear second-order differential equations that can be linearized; one solution II holds for small radius and leads to zero, finite or infinite central pressure, and the other solution III holds asymptomatically and exhibits pressure oscillations. The singular solution I for large radius is matched to a power series solution IV for small radius leading to a solution valid for all radii. The asymptotic solutions III and V: (i) coincide in their common domain of validity; (ii) can be truncated with good accuracy leading to the solution VI.
Hydrodynamical wind on vertically self-gravitating ADAFs in the presence of toroidal magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemnezhad, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram
2016-02-01
We present the effect of a hydrodynamical wind on the structure and the surface temperature of a vertically self-gravitating magnetized advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) using self-similar solutions. Also a model for an axisymmetric, steady-state, vertically self-gravitating hot accretion flow threaded by a toroidal magnetic field has been formulated. The model is based on α-prescription for turbulence viscosity. It is found that the thickness and radial velocity of the disc are reduced significantly as wind gets stronger. In particular, the solutions indicated that the wind and advection have the same effects on the structure of the disc. We also find that the thin ADAF becomes hotter by including the wind parameter and the self-gravity parameter.
Radiative degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in exact general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
1981-12-01
The radiative degrees of freedom of the gravitational field are isolated by analyzing the structure available at null infinity, JIt is shown thay they are coded in certain equivalence classes {D} of connections; all information about gravitational radiation can be extracted from the curvature tensors of these connections directly on J without any reference to the interior of space-time. The space of classical vacua—i.e., of {D} with trivial curvature—is analyzed. It is shown that the quotient ST/T of the BMS supertranslation group by its translation subgroup acts simply and transitively on this space. The available structure is compared with that of gauge theories. Since the entire discussion can be carried out onJ without any reference to the interior, it suggests a new approach to quantum gravity. This approach will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper.
The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, O.; Girdiuk, A.
2015-08-01
The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4~mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.
Dust acoustic shock wave in electronegative dusty plasma: Roles of weak magnetic field
Ghosh, Samiran; Ehsan, Z.; Murtaza, G.
2008-02-15
The effects of nonsteady dust charge variations and weak magnetic field on small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave in electronegative dusty plasma are investigated. The dynamics of the nonlinear wave are governed by a Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation that possesses dispersive shock wave. The weak magnetic field is responsible for the dispersive term, whereas nonsteady dust charge variation is responsible for dissipative term, i.e., the Burger term. The coefficient of dissipative term depends only on the obliqueness of the magnetic field. It is found that for parallel propagation the dynamics of the nonlinear wave are governed by the Burger equation that possesses monotonic shock wave. The relevances of the findings to cometary dusty plasma, e.g., Comet Halley are briefly discussed.
Weak cosmic censorship, dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes and Dirac fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zsolt Tóth, Gábor
2016-06-01
It was investigated recently, with the aim of testing the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, whether an extremal Kerr black hole can be converted into a naked singularity by interaction with a massless classical Dirac test field, and it was found that this is possible. We generalize this result to electrically and magnetically charged rotating extremal black holes (i.e. extremal dyonic Kerr-Newman black holes) and massive Dirac test fields, allowing magnetically or electrically uncharged or nonrotating black holes and the massless Dirac field as special cases. We show that the possibility of the conversion is a direct consequence of the fact that the Einstein-Hilbert energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field does not satisfy the null energy condition, and is therefore not in contradiction with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. We give a derivation of the absence of superradiance of the Dirac field without making use of the complete separability of the Dirac equation in the dyonic Kerr-Newman background, and we determine the range of superradiant frequencies of the scalar field. The range of frequencies of the Dirac field that can be used to convert a black hole into a naked singularity partially coincides with the superradiant range of the scalar field. We apply horizon-penetrating coordinates, as our arguments involve calculating quantities at the event horizon. We describe the separation of variables for the Dirac equation in these coordinates, although we mostly avoid using it.
Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: β Ursae Majoris and θ Leonis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Gaurat, M.; Jouve, L.; Lopez Ariste, A.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.
2016-02-01
Context. An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, β UMa and θ Leo, and investigating the physical origin of Sirius-like polarized signals further. Methods: We present here a set of deep spectropolarimetric observations of β UMa and θ Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. We analyzed all spectra with the least squares deconvolution multiline procedure. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detect extremely weak signatures in Stokes V profiles, we co-added all available spectra of each star (around 150 observations each time). Finally, we ran several tests to evaluate whether the detected signatures are consistent with the behavior expected from the Zeeman effect. Results: The line profiles of the two stars display circularly polarized signatures similar in shape and amplitude to the observations previously gathered for Sirius A. Our series of tests brings further evidence of a magnetic origin of the recorded signal. Conclusions: These new detections suggest that very weak magnetic fields may well be present in the photospheres of a significant fraction of intermediate-mass stars. The strongly asymmetric Zeeman signatures measured so far in Am stars (featuring a dominant single-sign lobe) are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect and may be linked to sharp vertical gradients in photospheric velocities and magnetic field strengths.
TESTING WEAK-LENSING MAPS WITH REDSHIFT SURVEYS: A SUBARU FIELD
Kurtz, Michael J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Utsumi, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Dell'Antonio, Ian P. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: yousuke.utsumi@nao.ac.jp E-mail: ian@het.brown.edu
2012-05-10
We use a dense redshift survey in the foreground of the Subaru GTO2deg{sup 2} weak-lensing field (centered at {alpha}{sub 2000} = 16{sup h}04{sup m}44{sup s}; {delta}{sub 2000} = 43 Degree-Sign 11'24'') to assess the completeness and comment on the purity of massive halo identification in the weak-lensing map. The redshift survey (published here) includes 4541 galaxies; 4405 are new redshifts measured with the Hectospec on the MMT. Among the weak-lensing peaks with a signal-to-noise greater than 4.25, 2/3 correspond to individual massive systems; this result is essentially identical to the Geller et al. test of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS) field F2. The Subaru map, based on images in substantially better seeing than the DLS, enables detection of less massive halos at fixed redshift as expected. We demonstrate that the procedure adopted by Miyazaki et al. for removing some contaminated peaks from the weak-lensing map improves agreement between the lensing map and the redshift survey in the identification of candidate massive systems.
Discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.
2016-03-01
Alhena (γ Gem) was observed in the frame of the BRITE (BRIght Target Explorer) spectropolarimetric survey, which gathers high resolution, high signal-to-noise, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric observations of all stars brighter than V=4 to combine seismic and spectropolarimetric studies of bright stars. We present here the discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena, thanks to very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data obtained with Narval at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). All previously studied Am stars show the presence of ultra-weak (sub-Gauss) fields with Zeeman signatures with an unexpected prominent positive lobe. However, Alhena presents a slightly stronger (but still very weak, only a few Gauss) field with normal Zeeman signatures with a positive and negative lobe, as found in stronger field (hundreds or thousands of Gauss) stars. It is the first detection of a normal magnetic signature in an Am star. Alhena is thus a very interesting object, which might provide the clue to understanding the peculiar shapes of the magnetic signatures of the other Am stars.
Two-dimensional weak localization in combined perpendicular and parallel magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, N.; Pennington, M. A.
1993-04-01
We have studied the magnetoresistance of thin films of Au, Ag, and Au(Fe) (Au doped with small concentrations of Fe) at low temperatures. Magnetic fields both perpendicular and parallel to the plane of the film were employed, and in some experiments these two fields were applied simultaneously and independently. Our results are compared in detail with the predictions of weak-localization theory. The agreement between theory and experiment for purely perpendicular fields is reasonably good, but some of the behavior in parallel fields, especially for Au(Fe), cannot be reconciled with the usual theory. Our results can be qualitatively understood if one assumes that the spin-orbit-scattering length is field dependent, or that the phase-breaking length becomes shorter in large parallel fields. Either of these results would be contrary to conventional beliefs.
Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.
2015-02-01
Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasistationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological time scales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such types of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical nonrotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A by-product of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasibound states.
Harko, T. . E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk; Mak, M.K. . E-mail: mkmak@vtc.edu.hk
2005-10-01
A class of exact solutions of the gravitational field equations in the vacuum on the brane are obtained by assuming the existence of a conformal Killing vector field, with non-static and non-central symmetry. In this case, the general solution of the field equations can be obtained in a parametric form in terms of the Bessel functions. The behavior of the basic physical parameters describing the non-local effects generated by the gravitational field of the bulk (dark radiation and dark pressure) is also considered in detail, and the equation of state satisfied at infinity by these quantities is derived. As a physical application of the obtained solutions we consider the behavior of the angular velocity of a test particle moving in a stable circular orbit. The tangential velocity of the particle is a monotonically increasing function of the radial distance and, in the limit of large values of the radial coordinate, tends to a constant value, which is independent on the parameters describing the model. Therefore, a brane geometry admitting a one-parameter group of conformal motions may provide an explanation for the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, which is usually explained by postulating the existence of the dark matter.
Weak Solutions of the Cohomological Equation on ℝ 2 {mathbb {R}}(2) for Regular Vector Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Leo, Roberto
2015-12-01
In a recent article (De Leo, R., Ann. Glob. Anal. Geom., 39, 3, 231-248 2011), we studied the global solvability of the so-called cohomological equation L ξ f = g in , where ξ is a regular vector field on the plane and L ξ the corresponding Lie derivative operator. In a joint article with T. Gramchev and A. Kirilov (2011), we studied the existence of global weak solutions of the cohomological equation for planar vector fields depending only on one coordinate. Here we generalize the results of both articles by providing explicit conditions for the existence of global weak solutions to the cohomological equation when ξ is intrinsically Hamiltonian or of finite type.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunskaya, Lubov; Isakevich, Valiriy; Efimov, Vladislav; Zakirov, Alexander
Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on VSU test ground, at Main Geophysical Observa-tory(St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. The distance spaced reception of electrical and magnetic fields will allow to analyze more widely the nature of the investigated interactions. Monitoring of electromagnetic fields in the ELF range is being realized. The work is connected with search of interconnection of the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary layer with the gravitational Compact Binaries wave fields. For analyzing Compact Binaries were taken with ELF of GW-radiation: J 0700+6418, J 1012+5307, J 1537+1155, J 1959+2048, J 2130+1210, J 1915+1606, J 1910+0004, J 1910+0004, J 1748-2446A.For analyz-ing the spectrum of the magnetic fields there was used the information of VSU station and the monitoring information of Japanese geomagnetic stations Kakioka and Mambetsu. The aim of such investigations is connected with displaying tide processes (the Moon tides) and gravita-tional wave influence of Compact Binaries in the electromagnetic fields.On the first stage of the investigations a correlative spectral analysis of the experimental data was being carried out. There was factually extracted the influence of the atmosphere lower layer electromagnetic field of the thermogravitational solar tides and a number of gravitational: M1, M2, N2. It was ob-tained that astrophysical sources GV-6, GV-3,GV-4, GV-8, GV-9 have the most probability of non-casual of events. The subsequent investigations are connected with search of main features accompanying such influences. They are signal modulations by diurnal and year's rotation of the Earth. Such modulations are peculiar to sources of non-terrestrial origin. We are planning an extraction of the radiation frequency change of the source because of energy loss for the radiation of GW. Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non-correlated components. There is shown efficiency of using latent vectors of covariance matrixes to expose complex periodical component of time series, including the ease when such components don't have energetic dom-inate in time series.The work was carried out with supporting of grants RFBR 09-05-08176, Program DSPHS 2.1.1/5660.
[Effects of weak magnetic fields on different phases of planarian regeneration].
Tiras, Kh P; Petrova, O N; Miakisheva, S N; Popova, S S; Aslanidi, K B
2015-01-01
We analyzed the effects of weak combined magnetic fields, tuned to the cyclotron resonance condition for calcium ions, obtained in different phases of planarian regeneration. We showed that the result of regeneration in 72 hours after decapitation depends on the length of exposure, and the time between decapitation and initiation of a half-hour exposure. The experimental dependence can be explained by a multiplicity of enzymatic targets activated in different phases of the regeneration process. PMID:25868354
Callebout, D.; Mikeladze, S.V.; Tsintsadze, N.L.; Shatashvili, N.L.
1993-02-01
The process of heat transport by electrons under the influence of a strong electromagnetic wave in a weakly ionized plasma is studied. It is shown that the electron temperature rapidly approaches a new equilibrium whose form depends only on the wave profile of the heat source. Using as an example the D layer of the earth`s ionosphere it is shown that an external field can give rise to considerable heating of the neutral particles. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Spectral form factor for chaotic dynamics in a weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Nagao, Taro
2006-04-01
Using semiclassical periodic orbit theory for a chaotic system in a weak magnetic field, we obtain the form factor predicted by Pandey and Mehta's two matrix model up to the third order. The third order contribution has a peculiar term which exists only in the intermediate crossover domain between the GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble) and the GUE (Gaussian unitary ensemble) universality classes. The exact expression is obtained by taking account of the contribution from encounter regions where orbit loops are connected.
Quantum mechanical grad-B drift velocity operator in a weakly non-uniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Poh Kam; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Kosaka, Wataru
2016-02-01
This paper presents the analytical solution for quantum mechanical grad-B drift velocity operator by solving the Heisenberg equation of motion. Using the time dependent operators, it is shown the analytical solution of the position operators in x ̂(t ) and y ̂(t ) of the particle in the presence of a weakly non-uniform magnetic field. It is also shown numerically that the grad-B drift velocity operator agrees with the classical counterpart.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombeau, M.
2015-06-01
We construct a family of classical continuous functions S(x, y, z, t, ɛ) which tend to satisfy asymptotically the system of selfgravitating pressureless fluids when ɛ → 0. This produces a weak asymptotic method in the sense of Danilov, Omel'yanov, and Shelkovich. The construction is based on a family of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) (one for the continuity equation and one for the Euler equation) in classical Banach spaces of continuous functions. This construction applies to 3-D self-gravitating pressureless fluids even in presence of point and string concentrations of matter. The method is constructive which permits to check numerically from standard methods for ODEs that these functions tend to the known or admitted solutions when the latter exist. As a direct application, we present a simulation of formation and evolution of a planetary system from a rotating disk of dust: a theorem in this paper asserts that the observed results are a depiction of functions that satisfy the system with arbitrary precision.
Changes in the earth's rotation and low-degree gravitational field induced by earthquakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; Gross, Richard S.
1987-01-01
Analytical formulas based on the normal-mode theory are used together with a spherically symmetric earth model and the centroid-moment tensor solutions for earthquake sources to compute the earthquake-induced changes in the earth's rotation and low-degree harmonics of the gravitational field for the period 1977-1985. Spectral and statistical analyses are conducted on these changes. It is found that the earthquake-induced changes are two orders of magnitude smaller than those observed; most of these changes show strong evidence of nonrandomness either in their polarity or in their directions.
Global surface-water-induced seasonal variations in the earth's rotation and gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. F.; O'Connor, William P.
1988-01-01
The effects of seasonal changes in continental surface-water storage on the low-degree gravitational-field coefficients (J), the annual wobble excitation (Psi), and the seasonal length-of-day (LOD) variations are investigated by means of numerical simulations based on compiled meteorological data (Willmott et al., 1985) and satellite snow-load estimates (Chao et al., 1987). The formulation of the model equations and the overall characteristics of the data sets are discussed in detail, and the computation results are presented in tables and graphs. The effect on Psi is found to be relatively small due to longitudinal cancellation, but those on LOD and J are considered significant.
Geometric optics for a coupling model of electromagnetic and gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jiliang; Chen, Songbai; Pan, Qiyuan
2016-04-01
The coupling between the electromagnetic and gravitational fields results in "faster than light" photons, and then the first and third laws of geometric optics are invalid in usual spacetime. By introducing an effective spacetime, we find that the wave vector can be casted into null and then it obeys the geodesic equation, the polarization vector is perpendicular to the rays, and the number of photons is conserved. That is to say, the laws of geometric optics are valid for the modified theory in the effective spacetime. We also show that the focusing theorem of light rays for the modified theory in the effective spacetime can be cast into the usual form.
Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.
2005-02-15
An exact but simple general relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei is constructed, based on the superposition in Weyl coordinates of a black hole, a Chazy-Curzon disk and two rods, which represent matter jets. The influence of the rods on the matter properties of the disk and on its stability is examined. We find that in general they contribute to destabilize the disk. Also the oscillation frequencies for perturbed circular geodesics on the disk are computed, and some geodesic orbits for the superposed metric are numerically calculated.
Fregolente, Douglas; Matsas, George E. A.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.
2006-08-15
We investigate the possible decay of protons in geodesic circular motion around neutral compact objects. Weak and strong decay rates and the associated emitted powers are calculated using a semiclassical approach. Our results are discussed with respect to distinct ones in the literature, which consider the decay of accelerated protons in electromagnetic fields. A number of consistency checks are presented along the paper.
Direct measurements of electric fields in weak OH · · π hydrogen bonds
Saggu, Miguel; Levinson, Nicholas M.; Boxer, Steven G.
2011-01-01
Hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions are of widespread importance in chemistry, biology and materials science. Electrostatics play a fundamental role in these interactions, but the magnitude of the electric fields that support them has not been quantified experimentally. Phenol forms a weak hydrogen bond complex with the π-cloud of benzene and we used this as a model system to study the role of electric fields in weak OH · · π hydrogen bonds. The effects of complex formation on the vibrational frequency of the phenol OH or OD stretches were measured in a series of benzene-based aromatic solvents. Large shifts are observed and these can be converted into electric fields via the measured vibrational Stark effect. A comparison of the measured fields with quantum chemical calculations demonstrates that calculations performed in the gas-phase are surprisingly effective at capturing the electrostatics observed in solution. The results provide quantitative measurements of the magnitude of electric fields and electrostatic binding energies in these interactions and suggest that electrostatics dominate them. The combination of vibrational Stark effect (VSE) measurements of electric fields and high-level quantum chemistry calculations is a general strategy for quantifying and characterizing the origins of intermolecular interactions. PMID:21936553
Direct measurements of electric fields in weak OH···π hydrogen bonds.
Saggu, Miguel; Levinson, Nicholas M; Boxer, Steven G
2011-11-01
Hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions are of widespread importance in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Electrostatics play a fundamental role in these interactions, but the magnitude of the electric fields that support them has not been quantified experimentally. Phenol forms a weak hydrogen bond complex with the π-cloud of benzene, and we used this as a model system to study the role of electric fields in weak OH···π hydrogen bonds. The effects of complex formation on the vibrational frequency of the phenol OH or OD stretches were measured in a series of benzene-based aromatic solvents. Large shifts are observed and these can be converted into electric fields via the measured vibrational Stark effect. A comparison of the measured fields with quantum chemical calculations demonstrates that calculations performed in the gas phase are surprisingly effective at capturing the electrostatics observed in solution. The results provide quantitative measurements of the magnitude of electric fields and electrostatic binding energies in these interactions and suggest that electrostatics dominate them. The combination of vibrational Stark effect (VSE) measurements of electric fields and high-level quantum chemistry calculations is a general strategy for quantifying and characterizing the origins of intermolecular interactions. PMID:21936553
Decay of a weakly bound level in a monochromatic electromagnetic field and a static magnetic field
Rylyuk, V.M.; Ortner, J.
2003-01-01
We consider an electron that is bound by a zero-range potential and a constant magnetic field and which becomes disturbed by a monochromatic laser beam with elliptical polarization. The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for an electron in the presence of an arbitrary electromagnetic wave and a static magnetic field is obtained. Exact expressions have been found for the complex energy, whose real and imaginary parts yield the level position and the width of an electron in a zero-range force field, a constant magnetic field, and a monochromatic electromagnetic field. These expressions have been analyzed in details for the case of a circularly polarized laser light.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Nagendra; Srivastava, Krishna M.; Mittal, R. C.
1993-01-01
The problem of gravitational instability of an infinite homogeneous self-gravitating medium carrying a uniform magnetic field in the presence of Hall effect has been investigated to include the effect due to rotation. The dispersion relation has been obtained. It has been found that the Jeans's criterion for the instability remains unaffected even when the effect due to rotation is considered in the presence of Hall effect carrying a uniform magnetic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Pengpeng; Jin, Ke; Zheng, Xiaojing
2016-04-01
Weak magnetic nondestructive testing (e.g., metal magnetic memory method) concerns the magnetization variation of ferromagnetic materials due to its applied load and a weak magnetic surrounding them. One key issue on these nondestructive technologies is the magnetomechanical effect for quantitative evaluation of magnetization state from stress-strain condition. A representative phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the magnetomechanical effect by Jiles in 1995. However, the Jiles' model has some deficiencies in quantification, for instance, there is a visible difference between theoretical prediction and experimental measurements on stress-magnetization curve, especially in the compression case. Based on the thermodynamic relations and the approach law of irreversible magnetization, a nonlinear coupled model is proposed to improve the quantitative evaluation of the magnetomechanical effect. Excellent agreement has been achieved between the predictions from the present model and previous experimental results. In comparison with Jiles' model, the prediction accuracy is improved greatly by the present model, particularly for the compression case. A detailed study has also been performed to reveal the effects of initial magnetization status, cyclic loading, and demagnetization factor on the magnetomechanical effect. Our theoretical model reveals that the stable weak magnetic signals of nondestructive testing after multiple cyclic loads are attributed to the first few cycles eliminating most of the irreversible magnetization. Remarkably, the existence of demagnetization field can weaken magnetomechanical effect, therefore, significantly reduces the testing capability. This theoretical model can be adopted to quantitatively analyze magnetic memory signals, and then can be applied in weak magnetic nondestructive testing.
Influence of a weak magnetic field on microplasticity of silicon crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makara, V. A.; Steblenko, L. P.; Plyushchai, I. V.; Kurylyuk, A. N.; Kalinichenko, D. V.; Krit, A. N.; Naumenko, S. N.
2014-08-01
The possibility of magnetic ordering at dangling bonds in dislocation cores has been investigated theoretically. It has been experimentally shown that magnetic ordering in dislocations affects the spin-dependent effects occurring in dislocation crystals of silicon. It has been found that preliminary magnetic treatment of silicon crystals in a weak magnetic field leads to the suppression of the electroplastic effect induced in silicon crystals excited by an electric current. It has been assumed that a change in the microplasticity under the combined action of a magnetic field and an electric current is caused by a weakening of spin-dependent recombination at dislocation dangling bonds.
Time evolution and decay of an excited atom in a weak electric field
Wang, J.B.
1996-07-01
A Mathematica notebook for describing the time evolution and decay of the hydrogen {ital n}=2 states in the presence of a weak external electric field is presented. The work involves (1) solving a set of differential equations coupled by the Hamiltonian of the external electric field and (2) deriving a set of formulas for a complete description of the polarization state of the emitted photons. It is demonstrated how problems with such complexity can be treated with ease and in an error-free manner by using symbolic software such as Mathematica. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Unveiling chameleon fields in tests of the gravitational inverse-square law
Upadhye, Amol; Gubser, Steven S.; Khoury, Justin
2006-11-15
Scalar self-interactions are known to weaken considerably the current constraints on scalar-mediated fifth forces. We consider a scalar field with a quartic self-interaction and gravitation-strength Yukawa couplings to matter particles. After discussing the phenomenology of this scalar field, we assess the ability of ongoing and planned experiments to detect the fifth force mediated by such a field. Assuming that the quartic and matter couplings are of order unity, the current-generation Eoet-Wash experiment at the University of Washington will be able to explore an interesting subset of parameter space. The next-generation Eoet-Wash experiment is expected to be able to detect, or to rule out, the fifth force due to such a scalar with unit quartic and matter couplings at the 3{sigma} confidence level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.
1980-01-01
The general equations describing the equilibrium shapes of self-gravitating gas clouds containing axisymmetric magnetic fields are presented. The general equations admit of a large class of solutions. It is shown that if one additional (ad hoc) asumption is made that the mass be spherically symmetrically distributed, then the gas pressure and the boundary conditions are sufficiently constraining that the general topological structure of the solution is effectively determined. The further assumption of isothermal conditions for this case demands that all solutions possess force-free axisymmetric magnetic fields. It is also shown how the construction of aspherical (but axisymmetric) configurations can be achieved in some special cases, and it is demonstrated that the detailed form of the possible equilibrium shapes depends upon the arbitrary choice of the functional form of the variation of the gas pressure along the field lines.
Properties of Weak Lensing Clusters Detected on Hyper Suprime-Cams 2.3 deg2 field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miller, Lance; Utsumi, Yousuke; Komiyama, Yutaka; Furusawa, Hisanori; Sakurai, Junya; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Koike, Michitaro; Tomono, Daigo; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Karoji, Hiroshi; Aihara, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Takada, Masahiro
2015-07-01
We present properties of moderately massive clusters of galaxies detected by the newly developed Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope using weak gravitational lensing. Eight peaks exceeding a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 4.5 are identified on the convergence S/N map of a 2.3 deg2 field observed during the early commissioning phase of the camera. Multi-color photometric data are used to generate optically selected clusters using the Cluster finding algorithm based on the Multiband Identification of Red-sequence galaxies algorithm. The optical cluster positions were correlated with the peak positions from the convergence map. All eight significant peaks have optical counterparts. The velocity dispersion of clusters is evaluated by adopting the Singular Isothemal Sphere fit to the tangential shear profiles, yielding virial mass estimates, {M}{500c}, of the clusters which range from 2.7 1013 to 4.4 10 {}14 {M}? . The number of peaks is considerably larger than the average number expected from ?CDM cosmology but this is not extremely unlikely if one takes the large sample variance in the small field into account. We could, however, safely argue that the peak count strongly favors the recent Planck result suggesting a high {? }8 value of 0.83. The ratio of stellar mass to the dark matter halo mass shows a clear decline as the halo mass increases. If the gas mass fraction, fg, in halos is universal, as has been suggested in the literature, the observed baryon mass in stars and gas shows a possible deficit compared with the total baryon density estimated from the baryon oscillation peaks in anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background.
The Model for Final Stage of Gravitational Collapse Massless Scalar Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladush, V. D.; Mironin, D. V.
It is known that in General relativity, for some spherically symmetric initial conditions, the massless scalar field (SF) experience the gravitational collapse (Choptuik, 1989), and arise a black hole (BH). According Bekenstein, a BH has no "hair scalar", so the SF is completely under the horizon. Thus, the study of the final stage for the gravitational collapse of a SF is reduced to the construction of a solution of Einstein's equations describing the evolution of a SF inside the BH. In this work, we build the Lagrangian for scalar and gravitationalfields in the spherically symmetric case, when the metric coefficients and SF depends only on the time. In this case, it is convenient to use the methods of classical mechanics. Since the metric allows an arbitrary transformation of time, then the corresponding field variable (g00) is included in the Lagrangian without time derivative. It is a non-dynamic variable, and is included in the Lagrangian as a Lagrange multiplier. A variation of the action on this variable gives the constraint. It turns out that Hamiltonian is proportional to the constraint, and so it is zero. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation easily integrated. Hence, we find the relation between the SF and the metric. To restore of time dependence we using an equation dL / dq' = dS / dq After using a gauge condition, it allows us to find solution. Thus, we find the evolution of the SF inside the BH, which describes the final stage of the gravitational collapse of a SF. It turns out that the mass BH associated with a scalar charge G of the corresponding SF inside the BH ratio M = G/(2√ κ).
[Mechanism of action of combined extremely weak magnetic field on aqueous solution of amino acid].
Zhadin, M N; Bakharev, B V; Bobkova, N V
2014-01-01
The fundamental physical mechanisms of resonance action of an extremely weak (40 nT) alternating magnetic field at the cyclotron frequency combined with a weak (40 μT) static magnetic field, on living systems are analyzed in the present work. The experimental effects of such sort of magnetic fields were described in different papers: the very narrow resonant peaks in electrical conductivity of the aqueous solutions in the in vitro experiments and the biomedical in vivo effects on living animals of magnetic fields with frequencies tuned to some amino acids. The existing experimental in vitro data had a good repeatability in different laboratories and countries. Unfortunately, for free ions such sort of effects are absolutely impossible because the dimensions of an ion rotation radius should be measured by meters at room temperature and at very low static magnetic fields used in all the above experiments. Even for bound ions these effects should be also absolutely impossible from the positions of classic physics because of rather high viscosity of biological liquid media (blood plasma, cerebrospinal liquid, cytoplasm). Only modern quantum electrodynamics of condensed media opens the new ways for solving these problems. The proposed article is devoted to analysis of quantum mechanisms of these effects. PMID:25707253
On deflection fields, weak-focusing and strong-focusing storage rings for polar molecules.
de Nijs, Adrian J; Bethlem, Hendrick L
2011-11-14
In this paper, we analyze electric deflection fields for polar molecules in terms of a multipole expansion and derive a simple but rather insightful expression for the force on the molecules. Ideally, a deflection field exerts a strong, constant force in one direction, while the force in the other directions is zero. We show how, by a proper choice of the expansion coefficients, this ideal can be best approximated. We present a design for a practical electrode geometry based on this analysis. By bending such a deflection field into a circle, a simple storage ring can be created; the direct analog of a weak-focusing cyclotron for charged particles. We show that for realistic parameters a weak-focusing ring is only stable for molecules with a very low velocity. A strong-focusing (alternating-gradient) storage ring can be created by arranging many straight deflection fields in a circle and by alternating the sign of the hexapole term between adjacent deflection fields. The acceptance of this ring is numerically calculated for realistic parameters. Such a storage ring might prove useful in experiments looking for an EDM of elementary particles. PMID:21979152
Weak ac field-induced patterns in vertical deposition of colloids at various evaporation rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslam, R.; Pichumani, M.; Gonzlez-Vias, W.
2015-03-01
Pattern formation in colloids by weak ac fields in vertical deposition-like configuration at different temperatures has been studied experimentally. At low evaporation (room temperature), the effect of the field leads to the evolution of a one-dimensional array of clusters along the contact line and columnar colloidal dried deposits are obtained at higher evaporation. We investigate the flow dynamics involved in this pattern formation. Homogeneous variation of the contact angle by electrowetting effect becomes unstable and breaks the translational symmetry at the meniscus. Electrokinetic forces together with capillary forces result in the accumulation of particles for pattern formation. The movement of electrically charged colloidal particles is controlled by weak ac electric field even at higher temperatures. We observe the effect of increasing initial particle concentration on the behavior of the clusters for various field frequencies. The average distance between clusters increase monotonically with an increase in the initial particle concentration. We also observe that the average width of columns increases according to the applied field strength.
Quark deconfinement and gluon condensate in a weak magnetic field from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernandez, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2015-07-01
We study QCD finite energy sum rules (FESR) for the axial-vector current correlator in the presence of a magnetic field, in the weak field limit and at zero temperature. We find that the perturbative QCD and the hadronic contribution to the sum rules get explicit magnetic-field-dependent corrections and that these in turn induce a magnetic field dependence on the deconfinement phenomenological parameter s0 and on the gluon condensate. The leading corrections turn out to be quadratic in the field strength. We find from the dimension d =2 first FESR that the magnetic field dependence of s0 is proportional to the absolute value of the light-quark condensate. Hence, it increases with increasing field strength. This implies that the parameters describing chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement behave similarly as functions of the magnetic filed. Thus, at zero temperature the magnetic field is a catalyzing agent of both chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. From the dimension d =4 second FESR we obtain the behavior of the gluon condensate in the presence of the external magnetic field. This condensate also increases with increasing field strength.
On the effects of a weak magnetic field on turbulent transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cattaneo, F.
1994-01-01
We discuss the effects of a weak large-scale magnetic field on turbulent transport. We show by means of a series of two-dimensional numerical experiments that turbulent diffusion can be effectively suppressed by a (large scale) magnetic field whose energy is small compared to equipartition. The suppression mechanism is associated with a subtle modification of the Lagrangian energy spectrum, and it does not require any substantial reduction of the turbulent amplitude. We exploit the relation between diffusion and random walking to emphasize that the effect of a large-scale magnetic field is to induce a long-term memory in the field of turbulence. The implications of the general case of three-dimensional transport are briefly discussed.
Gravitational field of a hedgehog and the evolution of vacuum bubbles
Guendelman, E.I. ); Rabinowitz, A. )
1991-11-15
The gravitational field produced by a spherically symmetric hedgehog'' configuration in scalar field theories with global SO(3) symmetry (or higher) is studied in the limit in which these models become nonlinear {sigma} models. The same gravitational effect can be generated by a set of cosmic strings intersecting at a point, in the limit that one considers a continuous distribution of such intersecting strings in a spherically symmetric configuration (to be referred to as the string hedgehog''). When the energy densities associated with the hedgehog are small, we obtain a static geometry, but for higher values, the resulting geometry is that of an anisotropic cosmology. The evolution of bubbles joining two phases, one of which contains a hedgehog (as defined above) is investigated. The role of such configurations in processes that lead to classical false-vacuum destabilization and in the evolution of inflationary bubbles is discussed. The generalization of our results to the gauged case, i.e., to magnetic-monopole hedgehogs, is discussed.
Gas-Phase Influence on Quasisteady "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We consider the SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) process for synthesizing materials. In this process a powder mixture of reactants is cold pressed into a sample, which is ignited at one end. A high temperature combustion wave then propagates through the sample converting reactants to the desired product material. In this process, melting of some or all the components is often observed. Therefore, we study combustion waves propagating through a high caloricity inorganic powder mixture whose combustion temperature exceeds the melting temperatures of many components. The solid matrix is thus destroyed by the propagating combustion wave due to melting ahead of the reaction zone, and a liquid bath is formed which contains gaseous bubbles. The waves propagate in the presence of a gravitational field. Due to the effect of gravity, there is relative motion between the rising bubbles and the descending bath, which affects the composition of the medium, its thermophysical properties, the 'liquid flame' structure, and the propagation velocity. To enhance our understanding of phenomena associated with the interaction of the relative motion with the propagating combustion wave we formulate and analyze a relatively simple mathematical model of liquid flames in a gravitational field. We describe the wave structure and combustion characteristics including the combustion velocity. We compare our results to existing experimental observations and suggest new experiments to be performed. We consider the effects of gravity and, in particular, examine both microgravity and large gravity conditions.
Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field
Ogata, Yudai; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Iguchi, Yusuke; Ono, Masao
2015-03-28
To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.
Formation of graded vanadium oxide (V–O compound) under strong gravitational field
Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira
2015-05-14
Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397 × 10{sup 6 }G at 400 °C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09 eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.
Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks by Singular Value Decomposition and Gravitation Field Algorithm
Zheng, Ming; Wu, Jia-nan; Huang, Yan-xin; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang
2012-01-01
Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is of utmost interest and has become a challenge computational problem in system biology. However, every existing inference algorithm from gene expression profiles has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of every previous algorithm is not high enough. In this work, we proposed a novel inference algorithm from gene expression data based on differential equation model. In this algorithm, two methods were included for inferring GRNs. Before reconstructing GRNs, singular value decomposition method was used to decompose gene expression data, determine the algorithm solution space, and get all candidate solutions of GRNs. In these generated family of candidate solutions, gravitation field algorithm was modified to infer GRNs, used to optimize the criteria of differential equation model, and search the best network structure result. The proposed algorithm is validated on both the simulated scale-free network and real benchmark gene regulatory network in networks database. Both the Bayesian method and the traditional differential equation model were also used to infer GRNs, and the results were used to compare with the proposed algorithm in our work. And genetic algorithm and simulated annealing were also used to evaluate gravitation field algorithm. The cross-validation results confirmed the effectiveness of our algorithm, which outperforms significantly other previous algorithms. PMID:23226565
Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, Yudai; Iguchi, Yusuke; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Ono, Masao; Mashimo, Tsutomu
2015-03-01
To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.
Spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan
2015-09-01
We introduce a formulation for spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme in the context of the binary inspiral problem. We aim at an effective action, where all field modes below the orbital scale are integrated out. We spell out the relevant degrees of freedom, in particular the rotational ones, and the associated symmetries. Building on these symmetries, we introduce the minimal coupling part of the point particle action in terms of gauge rotational variables, and construct the spin-induced nonminimal couplings, where we obtain the leading order couplings to all orders in spin. We specify the gauge for the rotational variables, where the unphysical degrees of freedom are eliminated already from the Feynman rules, and all the orbital field modes are integrated out. The equations of motion of the spin can be directly obtained via a proper variation of the action, and Hamiltonians may be straightforwardly derived. We implement this effective field theory for spin to derive all spin dependent potentials up to next-to-leading order to quadratic level in spin, namely up to the third post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. In particular, the proper next-to-leading order spin-squared potential and Hamiltonian for generic compact objects are also derived. For the implementations we use the nonrelativistic gravitational field decomposition, which is found here to eliminate higher-loop Feynman diagrams also in spin dependent sectors, and facilitates derivations. This formulation for spin is thus ideal for treatment of higher order spin dependent sectors.
Discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.
2016-06-01
Alhena (γ Gem) was observed in the frame of the BRIght Target Explorer spectropolarimetric survey, which gathers high resolution, high signal-to-noise, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric observations of all stars brighter than V = 4 to combine seismic and spectropolarimetric studies of bright stars. We present here the discovery of a very weak magnetic field on the Am star Alhena, thanks to very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data obtained with Narval at Télescope Bernard Lyot. All previously studied Am stars show the presence of ultraweak (sub-Gauss) fields with Zeeman signatures with an unexpected prominent positive lobe. However, Alhena presents a slightly stronger (but still very weak, only a few Gauss) field with normal Zeeman signatures with a positive and negative lobe, as found in stronger field (hundreds or thousands of Gauss) stars. It is the first detection of a normal magnetic signature in an Am star. Alhena is thus a very interesting object, which might provide the clue to understanding the peculiar shapes of the magnetic signatures of the other Am stars.
Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.
Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-07-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593
Orbit determination and gravitational field accuracy for a Mercury transponder satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, Mark A.; Bender, Pater L.
1990-01-01
Covariance studies were performed to investigate the orbit determination problem for a small transponder satellite in a nearly circular polar orbit with 4-hour period around Mercury. With X band and Ka band Doppler and range measurements, the analysis indicates that the gravitational field through degree and order 10 can be solved for from as few as 40 separate 8-hour arcs of tracking data. In addition, the earth-Mercury distance can be determined during each ranging period with about 6-cm accuracy. The expected geoid accuracy is 10 cm up through degree 5, and 1 m through degree 8. The main error sources were the geocentric range measurement error, the uncertainties in higher degree gravity field terms, which were not solved for, and the solar radiation pressure uncertainty.
A null-tetrad approach to Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in matter
Udeschini, E.B.; Magli, G.
1996-11-01
The null tetrad formalism is used to investigate the structure of the Einstein field equations for Kerr{endash}Schild gravitational fields in the presence of an elastic solid source. It is shown that such equations may be reduced to five nonlinear partial differential equations for five variables. It turns out that, when the interior solutions admit the same preferred null congruence of the vacuum ones and some compatibility conditions hold, it is possible to reduce them to a linear system and to develop a method of solution which closely resembles the {open_quote}{open_quote}variation of the arbitrary constants{close_quote}{close_quote} for ordinary differential equations. In the present paper, the above technical framework is developed in general and applied to two simple examples, deferring to future work the approach to the Kerr{endash}interior problem. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moawad, S. M.; Moawad
2013-10-01
The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.
Conversion of relic gravitational waves into photons in cosmological magnetic fields
Dolgov, Alexander D.; Ejlli, Damian E-mail: ejlli@fe.infn.it
2012-12-01
Conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The probability of transformations of gravitons into photons in presence of cosmological background magnetic field is calculated at the recombination epoch and during subsequent cosmological stages. The produced electromagnetic radiation is concentrated in the X-ray part of the spectrum. It is shown that if the early Universe was dominated by primordial black holes (PBHs) prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), the relic gravitons emitted by PBHs would transform to an almost isotropic background of electromagnetic radiation due to conversion of gravitons into photons in cosmological magnetic fields. Such extragalactic radiation could be noticeable or even dominant component of Cosmic X-ray Background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John; Zhang, Keke; Kong, D.; Helled, Ravit
2011-08-01
The exact solution for the shape and gravitational field of a rotating two-layer Maclaurin ellipsoid of revolution is compared with predictions of the theory of figures up to third order in the small rotational parameter of the theory of figures. An explicit formula is derived for the external gravitational coefficient J2 of the exact solution. A new approach to the evaluation of the theory of figures based on numerical integration of ordinary differential equations is presented. The classical Radau-Darwin formula is found not to be valid for the rotational parameter ɛ2 = Ω2/(2 πG ρ2) ⩾ 0.17 since the formula then predicts a surface eccentricity that is smaller than the eccentricity of the core-envelope boundary. Interface eccentricity must be smaller than surface eccentricity. In the formula for ɛ2, Ω is the angular velocity of the two-layer body, ρ2 is the density of the outer layer, and G is the gravitational constant. For an envelope density of 3000 kg m -3 the failure of the Radau-Darwin formula corresponds to a rotation period of about 3 h. Application of the exact solution and the theory of figures is made to models of Earth, Mars, Uranus, and Neptune. The two-layer model with constant densities in the layers can provide realistic approximations to terrestrial planets and icy outer planet satellites. The two-layer model needs to be generalized to allow for a continuous envelope (outer layer) radial density profile in order to realistically model a gas or ice giant planet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, J. W.; Yu, S. X.
2015-09-01
The Earth gravitational filed model is a kind of important dynamic model in satellite orbit computation. In recent years, several space gravity missions have obtained great success, prompting a lot of gravitational filed models to be published. In this paper, 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96) and 4 latest models, including EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008 are evaluated by being employed in the precision orbit determination (POD) and prediction, based on the laser range observation of four low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, including CHAMP, GFZ-1, GRACE-A, and SWARM-A. The residual error of observation in POD is adopted to describe the accuracy of six gravitational field models. We show the main results as follows: (1) for LEO POD, the accuracies of 4 latest models (EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008) are at the same level, and better than those of 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96); (2) If taking JGM3 as reference, EGM96 model's accuracy is better in most situations, and the accuracies of the 4 latest models are improved by 12%-47% in POD and 63% in prediction, respectively. We also confirm that the model's accuracy in POD is enhanced with the increasing degree and order if they are smaller than 70, and when they exceed 70 the accuracy keeps stable, and is unrelated with the increasing degree, meaning that the model's degree and order truncated to 70 are sufficient to meet the requirement of LEO orbit computation with centimeter level precision.
[Mechanism of the effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the living body].
Sidorenko, V M
2001-01-01
By using the model conceptions of the dielectric polarization theory, a new mechanism for the effect of electromagnetic field was proposed. The model enables one to explain the experimentally observed influence of low-frequency weak electromagnetic field on biological objects. It was shown that, at the cellular and subcellular levels, an increase in the intensity of the electric component of external electromagnetic field can occur. The magnitude of this increase is determined by the ratio of the contributions of the medium polarization and the depolarizing factor (which depends on body shape) to the total effect. As a result of this increase, a potential comparable with intrinsic biological values can be generated on neuron membranes, which must elicit nervous and physiological responses of the organism. PMID:11449551
Computer study of convection of weakly ionized plasma in a nonuniform magnetic field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiau, J. N.
1972-01-01
A weakly ionized plasma in a strong and nonuniform magnetic field exhibits an instability analogous to the flute instability in a fully ionized plasma. The instability sets in at a critical magnetic field. To study the final state of the plasma after the onset of the instability, the plasma equations are integrated numerically assuming a certain initial spectrum of small disturbances. In the regime studied, numerical results indicate a final steadily oscillating state consisting of a single finite amplitude mode together with a time-independent modification of the original equilibrium. These results agree with the analytic results obtained by Simon in the slightly supercritical regime. As the magnetic field is increased further, the wavelength of the final oscillation becomes nonunique. There exists a subinterval in the unstable wave band. Final stable oscillation with a wavelength in this subinterval can be established if the initial disturbance has a sufficiently strong component at the particular wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirschvink, Joseph L.
1992-08-01
In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair's assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe3O4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tissues, organized in clusters of tens to hundreds of thousand per gram. This is far more than a ``few cells.'' Similarly, a series of reproducible behavioral experiments on honeybees, Apis mellifera, have shown that they are capable of responding to weak ELF magnetic fields that are well within the bounds of Adair's criteria. A biologically plausible model of the interaction of single-domain magnetosomes with a mechanically activated transmembrane ion channel shows that ELF fields on the order of 0.1 to 1 mT are capable of perturbing the open-closed state by an energy of kT. As up to several hundred thousand such structures could fit within a eukaryotic cell, and the noise should go as the square root of the number of independent channels, much smaller ELF sensitivities at the cellular level are possible. Hence, the credibility of weak ELF magnetic effects on living systems must stand or fall mainly on the merits and reproducibility of the biological or epidemiological experiments that suggest them, rather than on dogma about physical implausibility.
Weak localization effects on the upper critical field of bulk superconductors
Wong, K.M.; Poon, S.J.; Lambrecht, A.; Naugle, D.G.
1987-04-01
Weak localization effects on bulk superconductivity are investigated by measuring the upper critical field (H/sub c//sub 2/) and the heat capacity (C) on the same sample of a given alloy composition. Systems studied include rapidly solidified glassy Zr/sub 70/Ni/sub 30/, Zr/sub 75/Rh/sub 25/, and body-centered cubic Hf/sub 90/Mo/sub 10/. The homogeneity of samples are examined. Without including quantum corrections, very good fits to the H/sub c//sub 2/ curves predicted by the classical theory of dirty superconductors are obtained by varying the Pauli paramagnetic limiting and spin-orbit scattering parameters. However, the initial gradients obtained from fitting the H/sub c//sub 2/ data are --(10--30)% higher than those determined by the rhoN/sub ..gamma..//sup */(0) products ( rho is the electrical resistivity and N/sub ..gamma..//sup */(0) is the density of states obtained from heat-capacity measurements). These relative enhancements of the upper critical fields are attributed to field-induced delocalization effects. The results are analyzed in the framework of the Fukuyama, Ebisawa, and Maekawa theory of weak localization.
Doppler shifting of a distant light source in a Schwarzschild gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kislik, M. D.
1985-10-01
Correlations characterizing chromatic properties of a gravitational lens for different cases of reciprocal disposition of the observer, the source and the gravitating body have been analysed. The obtained results may be used directly for the experimental check-up of General Relativity and for the discovery of gravitating bodies in the Universe.
Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field
Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.
2013-11-20
The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.
Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A
2014-02-01
Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C. PMID:24123065
Weak-Field Hall Effect in Graphene with Long-Range Scatterers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noro, Masaki; Ando, Tsuneya
2016-01-01
The weak-field Hall conductivity is calculated in graphene containing scatterers with long-range potential within a self-consistent Born approximation. In the clean limit, the diagonal conductivity and the Hall conductivity are shown to agree with the Boltzmann results. Explicit numerical calculations are performed for scatterers with a Gaussian potential with the range d, showing that the Hall conductivity as well as the density of states and the diagonal conductivity becomes universal when the energy is scaled by 1/d. For more realistic charged impurities, the singularity appearing in the Hall coefficient near the charge neutrality point is shown to be sensitive to environmental dielectric material.
Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.
1996-12-31
The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.
Parker Instability in Nonuniform Gravitational Fields. III. The Effect of a Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamaya, Hideyuki; Horiuchi, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Shibata, Kazunari; Mineshige, Shin
1997-09-01
Magnetized gas layers in gravitational fields (e.g., accretion disks and galactic disks) can be subject to the Parker instability, an undular mode of the magnetic buoyancy instabilities. By means of a linear stability analysis, we examined the effects of hot, tenuous regions (``coronae'') on the growth of the Parker instability in the underlying magnetized gas layers. As an unperturbed state, we consider the magnetized gas layers in static equilibrium. The stratified gas layers are threaded by horizontal magnetic fields in the x-direction. The temperature varies almost discontinuously at the coronal base in the z-direction. The ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure, α, is assumed to be constant. Our analysis has confirmed that the presence of a corona reduces the growth rate of the Parker instability and increases the critical wavelength. It is found that the growth of the Parker instability is more sensitive to the height of the coronal base than the temperature ratio between the disk and the corona is. In particular, the Parker instability is stabilized substantially when the coronal base lies below the height of maximum gravitational acceleration. When the wavenumber vector of the perturbation is parallel to the magnetic field (ky = 0), the growth rates of all modes in the disk are reduced considerably in the limit of the vanishing coronal base height. The first harmonic mode (1h-mode with odd symmetric velocity eigenfunctions with respect to the equatorial plane) is more easily stabilized by coronae than the fundamental mode is (f-mode with even symmetric velocity eigenfunctions). This is because global convective motion across the equatorial plane is allowed for the f-mode even when ky = 0, whereas it is not allowed for the 1h-mode. For the f-mode, furthermore, we find that the smallest possible γ (critical gamma) against the instability is γcrit = 1 + α, regardless of the value of ky. The reason for this is discussed briefly.
Electric-field-induced weakly chaotic transients in ferroelectric liquid crystals.
Śliwa, I; Jeżewski, W; Kuczyński, W
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics induced in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals by strong alternating external electric fields is studied both theoretically and experimentally. As has already been shown, molecular reorientations induced by sufficiently strong fields of high-enough frequencies can reveal a long transient behavior that has a weakly chaotic character. The resulting complex dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals can be considered not only as a consequence of irregular motions of particular molecules but also as a repercussion of a surface-enforced partial decorrelation of nonlinear molecular motions within smectic layers. To achieve more insight into the nature of this phenomenon and to show that the underlying complex field-induced behavior of smectic liquid crystals is not exceptional, ranges of system parameters for which the chaotic behavior occurs are determined. It is proved that there exists a large enough set of initial phase trajectory points, for which weakly chaotic long-time transitory phenomena occur, and, thereby, it is demonstrated that such a chaotic behavior can be regarded as being typical for strongly field-driven thin liquid crystal systems. Additionally, the influence of low-amplitude random noise on the duration of the transient processes is numerically studied. The strongly nonlinear contribution to the electro-optic response, experimentally determined for liquid crystal samples at frequencies lower than the actual field frequency, is also analyzed for long-time signal sequences. Using a statistical approach to distinguish numerically response signals of samples from noise generated by measuring devices, it is shown that the distribution of sample signals distinctly differs from the device noise. This evidently corroborates the occurrence of the nonlinear low-frequency effect, found earlier for different surface stabilized liquid crystal samples. PMID:26871130
Electric-field-induced weakly chaotic transients in ferroelectric liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Śliwa, I.; JeŻewski, W.; Kuczyński, W.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics induced in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals by strong alternating external electric fields is studied both theoretically and experimentally. As has already been shown, molecular reorientations induced by sufficiently strong fields of high-enough frequencies can reveal a long transient behavior that has a weakly chaotic character. The resulting complex dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals can be considered not only as a consequence of irregular motions of particular molecules but also as a repercussion of a surface-enforced partial decorrelation of nonlinear molecular motions within smectic layers. To achieve more insight into the nature of this phenomenon and to show that the underlying complex field-induced behavior of smectic liquid crystals is not exceptional, ranges of system parameters for which the chaotic behavior occurs are determined. It is proved that there exists a large enough set of initial phase trajectory points, for which weakly chaotic long-time transitory phenomena occur, and, thereby, it is demonstrated that such a chaotic behavior can be regarded as being typical for strongly field-driven thin liquid crystal systems. Additionally, the influence of low-amplitude random noise on the duration of the transient processes is numerically studied. The strongly nonlinear contribution to the electro-optic response, experimentally determined for liquid crystal samples at frequencies lower than the actual field frequency, is also analyzed for long-time signal sequences. Using a statistical approach to distinguish numerically response signals of samples from noise generated by measuring devices, it is shown that the distribution of sample signals distinctly differs from the device noise. This evidently corroborates the occurrence of the nonlinear low-frequency effect, found earlier for different surface stabilized liquid crystal samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lin-Sen
2016-04-01
The variation of the instantaneous rotational angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field is studied. The formula is derived for variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid oblate Earth using the potential function from Euler's dynamic equations. The theoretical results show that under the influence of the gravitational field of the Moon and the Sun the Earth instantaneous angular velocity varies with periodic terms, but without secular variations. Amplitudes of the periodic terms and their periods are calculated and discussed.
Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study
Libersky, Matthew Murray
2014-09-04
The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.
Improved mapping of planetary gravitational field with an electrostatic accelerometer/gradiometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulon, Bernard; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Francoise; Christophe, Bruno; Hardy, Emilie; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy
2015-04-01
ONERA has a proven record spanning several years in developing the most accurate accelerometers for geodesy missions. They are still operational in the GRACE mission and their successors for the GRACE-FO mission will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has shown the benefit of using a gradiometer for the direct measurement of the gravity field. Now, ONERA proposes a new accelerometer design, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary missions. This design based on the same technology as for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, with the notable addition of a bias rejection system, has a reduced mass and consumption. The accelerometer is embarked on Uranus Pathfinder (mission proposal for Cosmic M4) as up-scope instrument to achieve two scientific objectives: 1) to determine the gravity fields of Uranus and the satellites, allowing for a better understanding of the planet interior composition, 2) to test gravity at the largest possible length scales to search for deviations from General Relativity. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science field. The poster details the accuracy which can be achieved on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations. It describes the instrument and its integration inside an interplanetary probe. Finally, it explains the benefit of using this electrostatic accelerometer complementary to radio science technology for improved planetary gravitational field measurements.
Cosmology with gravitational lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falco, E. E.
2009-05-01
Gravitational lenses yield a very high rate of return on observational investment. Given their scarcity, their impact on our knowledge of the universe is very significant. In the weak-field limit, lensing studies are based on well-established physics and thus offer a straightforward approach to pursue many currently pressing problems of astrophysics. Examples of these are the significance of dark matter and the density, age and size of the universe. I present recent developments in cosmological applications of gravitational lenses, regarding estimates of the Hubble constant using strong lensing of quasars. I describe our recent measurements of time delays for the images of SDSS1004+4112, and discuss prospects for the future utilizing synoptic telescopes, planned and under construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Moral, A.; Azanza, María J.
2015-03-01
A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate ("frequency"), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD-CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD-CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B0 ≅0.2-15 mT) AC-MF of frequency fM=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation.
MagnetoSperm: A microrobot that navigates using weak magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Islam S. M.; Dijkslag, Herman C.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak
2014-06-01
In this work, a propulsion system similar in motion to a sperm-cell is investigated. This system consists of a structure resembling a sperm-cell with a magnetic head and a flexible tail of 42 μm and 280 μm in length, respectively. The thickness, length, and width of this structure are 5.2 μm, 322 μm, and 42 μm, respectively. The magnetic head includes a 200 nm-thick cobalt-nickel layer. The cobalt-nickel layer provides a dipole moment and allows the flexible structure to align along oscillating weak (less than 5 mT) magnetic field lines, and hence generates a propulsion thrust force that overcomes the drag force. The frequency response of this system shows that the propulsion mechanism allows for swimming at an average speed of 158 ± 32 μm/s at alternating weak magnetic field of 45 Hz. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate controlled steering of the flexible structure towards reference positions.
Integral-equation approach to the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dnestryan, Andrey I.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.
2016-03-01
An integral equation approach to the weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) of tunneling ionization is developed. An integral representation for the exact partial amplitudes of ionization into parabolic channels is derived. The WFAT expansion for the ionization rate follows immediately from this relation. Integral representations for the coefficients in the expansion are obtained. The integrals accumulate where the ionizing orbital has large amplitude and are not sensitive to its behavior in the asymptotic region. Hence, these formulas enable one to reliably calculate the WFAT coefficients even if the orbital is represented by an expansion in Gaussian basis, as is usually the case in standard software packages for electronic structure calculations. This development is expected to greatly simplify the implementation of the WFAT for polyatomic molecules, and thus facilitate its growing applications in strong-field physics.
Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu; Tsumura, Koji
2015-07-01
We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU (2)L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX ≥ 4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.
Nonlinear ion acoustic wave in a pair-ion plasma in a uniform weak magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maity, Biplab; Ghosh, Samiran; Bharuthram, R.
2015-04-01
The dynamics of the nonlinear ion acoustic waves are investigated in the presence of an external weak magnetic field in pair-ion plasma in which the mass (temperature) of the positive ions are smaller (larger) than that of the negative ions. The linear dispersion relation of the ion acoustic wave is found to be modified by the externally applied magnetic field. The standard perturbative approach leads to a modified form of Korteweg-de Vries equation. The analytical as well as numerical solutions reveal that the localized (solitary wave) solutions decay slowly algebraically due to the Lorentz force by radiating energy to the tails of the dispersive ion acoustic waves. The results are discussed in the context of the lower region of D-layer ionospheric plasma.
Control of Optical Transitions with Magnetic Fields in Weakly Bound Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGuyer, B. H.; McDonald, M.; Iwata, G. Z.; Skomorowski, W.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.
2015-07-01
In weakly bound diatomic molecules, energy levels are closely spaced and thus more susceptible to mixing by magnetic fields than in the constituent atoms. We use this effect to control the strengths of forbidden optical transitions in 88Sr2 over 5 orders of magnitude with modest fields by taking advantage of the intercombination-line threshold. The physics behind this remarkable tunability is accurately explained with both a simple model and quantum chemistry calculations, and suggests new possibilities for molecular clocks. We show how mixed quantization in an optical lattice can simplify molecular spectroscopy. Furthermore, our observation of formerly inaccessible f -parity excited states offers an avenue for improving theoretical models of divalent-atom dimers.
Mechanism of Partial Flame Propagation and Extinction in a Strong Gravitational Field.
Kazakov, Kirill A
2015-12-31
A theory of partial flame propagation driven by the gravitational field is developed. Using the on-shell approach, equations for the gas velocity distributions and the front shape of a steady flame are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that the solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds, and that the effect of strong gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of flames near the limits of inflammability, including the dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. PMID:26764992
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampson, Laura; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas
2013-04-01
We study generic tests of strong-field General Relativity with gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries. We construct waveforms that deviate from the General Relativistic expectation through a series of post-Newtonian terms (instead of a single phase term); we find that these higher-order terms can affect our ability to test GR, in some cases by making it easier to detect a deviation, and in some cases by making it more difficult. We find that more complicated, parameterized post-Einsteinian families, with multiple phase terms, are suboptimal at detecting deviations from General Relativity; the simplest family still reigns supreme when trying to identify whether a deviation from Einstein's theory is present in the data.
Improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
Marsh, J.G.; Lerch, F.J.; Christodoulidis, D.C.; Putney, B.H.; Felsentreger, T.L.; Sanchez, B.V.; Smith, D.E.; Klosko, S.M.; Martin, T.V.; Pavlis, E.C.
1987-07-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
Mechanism of Partial Flame Propagation and Extinction in a Strong Gravitational Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, Kirill A.
2015-12-01
A theory of partial flame propagation driven by the gravitational field is developed. Using the on-shell approach, equations for the gas velocity distributions and the front shape of a steady flame are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that the solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds, and that the effect of strong gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of flames near the limits of inflammability, including the dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nisbet, John S.
1989-01-01
General equations for the Reynolds number of a variety of types of ice crystals and water drops are given in terms of the Davies, Bond, and Knudsen numbers. The equations are in terms of the basic physical parameters of the system and are valid for calculating velocities in gravitational and electric fields over a very wide range of sizes and atmospheric conditions. The equations are asymptotically matched at the bottom and top of the size spectrum, useful when checking large computer codes. A numerical system for specifying the dimensional properties of ice crystals is introduced. Within the limits imposed by such variables as particle density, which have large deviations, the accuracy of velocities appears to be within 10 percent over the entire range of sizes of interest.
Geodesic synchrotron radiation. [emission by freely falling particles in gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breuer, R. A.; Chrzanowksi, P. L.; Hughes, H. G., III; Misner, C. W.
1973-01-01
This paper presents the results and methods of computing the high-frequency radiation emitted by freely falling particles moving in circular geodesic orbits in a spherically symmetric gravitational field. The high-frequency radiation, to which the methods of this paper apply, is the principal part of radiated energy only in the case of a particle moving in a highly relativistic, and therefore unstable, circular geodesic. The geodesic synchrotron radiation emitted in this case shows excitation of high-frequency harmonics and a narrow angular distribution. A Green's-function solution of the scalar wave equation is obtained using WKB methods. For application to relativistic circular orbits, a parabolic WKB approximation is required and yields solutions in terms of parabolic cylinder functions.
The earth's gravitational field from the combination of satellite and terrestrial data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, R. H.
1973-01-01
This paper reviews techniques and results in the combination of gravimetric and satellite data. The estimation of mean anomalies for use in combination studies is discussed with the location of current gravity material being described. Specific techniques for combination solutions are discussed for various models. These models include those where the gravitational field is represented by a set of potential coefficients, or by a set of discrete blocks distributed on the earth. The potential coefficient solutions compared are those of the SAO Standard Earth II and III, the Goddard Earth Model 4, and a solution by the author. These solutions are compared in terms of coefficients, undulation and anomaly differences, and implied anomaly degree variances. In addition, comparisons were made through terrestrial anomaly comparisons, astrogeodetic undulation comparisons, and orbit fitting tests.
Slow flows of a relativistic perfect fluid in a static gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, V. P.
2000-12-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics of an isentropic fluid in a gravitational field is considered as a particular example from the family of Lagrangian hydrodynamic-type systems which possess an infinite set of integrals of motion due to the symmetry of the Lagrangian with respect to the relabeling of fluid particle labels. Flows with fixed topology of the vorticity are investigated in the quasistatic regime, when deviations of the space-time metric and the density of the fluid from the corresponding equilibrium configuration are negligibly small. On the basis of the variational principle for frozen-in vortex line dynamics, the equation of motion for a thin relativistic vortex filament is derived in the local induction approximation.
Strong field limit analysis of gravitational lensing in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E; Yang, Ke E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn E-mail: yangke09@lzu.edu.cn
2012-10-01
In this paper, we study numerically the quasi-equatorial lensing by the stationary, axially-symmetric black hole in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime in the strong field limit. The deflection angle of light ray and other strong deflection limit coefficients are obtained numerically and they are found to be closely dependent on the NUT charge n and spin a. We also compute the magnification and the positions of the relativistic images. The caustics are studied and the results show that these caustics drift away from the optical axis, which is quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole case. Moreover, the intersections of the critical curves on the equatorial plane are obtained and it is shown that they increase with the NUT charge. These results show that there is a significant effect of the NUT charge on the strong gravitational lensing.
An improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Christodoulidis, D. C.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Smith, D. E.; Klosko, S. M.; Martin, T. V.; Pavlis, E. C.
1987-01-01
Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovskaya, M. S.
The conventional approach to the recovery of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite gradiometry observations is based on constructing, from the start, several boundary value (BV) relations, each of them corresponding to a separate observable component of the gravity gradient (GG) tensor or a certain combination of them. In particular, one of such projects, the ARISTOTELES mission, assumes that only the radial and across-track components are accessible (by technical reasons). The purpose of the present paper is mainly to discuss the principle aspects of the problem of the Earth's potential recovering from satellite gradiometry, to give an optimal formulation of the problem and derive the basic boundary value equation in different forms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nisbet, John S.
1988-01-01
General equations for the Reynolds number of a variety of types of ice crystals and water drops are given in terms of the Davies, Bond, and Knudsen numbers. The equations are in terms of the basic physical parameters of the system and are valid for calculating velocities in gravitational and electric fields over a very wide range of sizes and atmospheric conditions. The equations are asymptotically matched at the bottom and top of the size spectrum, useful when checking large computer codes. A numerical system for specifying the dimensional properties of ice crystals is introduced. Within the limits imposed by such variables as particle density, which have large deviations, the accuracy of velocities appears to be within 10 percent over the entire range of sizes of interest.
Probing gravitational dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-01
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χs. It is a Bbb Z2 odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξsχs2Script R, where ξs is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξsχs2Script R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξhH†HScript R, induces effective couplings between χs2 and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Probing gravitational dark matter
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-27
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Resonantly enhanced and diminished strong-field gravitational-wave fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flanagan, anna E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Ruangsri, Uchupol
2014-04-01
The inspiral of a stellar mass (1-100M?) compact body into a massive (105-107M?) black hole has been a focus of much effort, both for the promise of such systems as astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and because they are a clean limit of the general relativistic two-body problem. Our understanding of this problem has advanced significantly in recent years, with much progress in modeling the "self-force" arising from the small body's interaction with its own spacetime deformation. Recent work has shown that this self-interaction is especially interesting when the frequencies associated with the orbit's ? and r motions are in an integer ratio: ??/?r=??/?r, with ?? and ?r both integers. In this paper, we show that key aspects of the self-interaction for such "resonant" orbits can be understood with a relatively simple Teukolsky-equation-based calculation of gravitational-wave fluxes. We show that fluxes from resonant orbits depend on the relative phase of radial and angular motions. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate in simple terms how this phase dependence arises using tools that are good for strong-field orbits, and to present a first study of how strongly the fluxes vary as a function of this phase and other orbital parameters. Future work will use the full dissipative self-force to examine resonant and near resonant strong-field effects in greater depth, which will be needed to characterize how a binary evolves through orbital resonances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asmar, S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Williams, J. G.; Watkins, M. M.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Park, R. S.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) dual-spacecraft mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 420 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 13 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution using KBRR and Deep Space Network tracking data shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, and constrain deep interior structure from tides. Place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.
A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David
2013-04-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogavero, Federico; Schekochihin, Alexander A.
2014-06-01
In weakly collisional plasmas such as the intracluster medium (ICM), the viscous stress and the rate of change of the magnetic energy are proportional to the local pressure anisotropy, so subject to constraints imposed by the pressure-anisotropy-driven microinstabilities (mirror and firehose) and controlled by the local instantaneous plasma β. The dynamics of such plasmas can be dramatically different from a conventional magnetohydrodynamic fluid. The plasma is expected to stay locally marginal with respect to the instabilities, but how it does this remains an open question. Two models of magnetic field evolution are investigated. In the first, marginality is achieved via suppression of the rate of change of the field. In the second, the instabilities give rise to anomalous collisionality, reducing pressure anisotropy to marginal - at the same time decreasing viscosity and so increasing the turbulent rate of strain. Implications of these two models are studied in a simplified zero-dimensional setting. In the first model, the field grows explosively but on a time-scale that scales with the initial β, while in the second, dynamical field strength can be reached in one large-scale turbulence turnover time regardless of the initial seed. Both models produce very intermittent fields. Both also suffer from fairly strong constraints on their applicability: for typical cluster-core conditions, scale separation between the fluid motions (with account of suppressed viscous stress) and the miscoscale fluctuations break down at β ˜ 104-105. At larger β (weaker fields), a fully collisionless plasma dynamo theory is needed to justify field growth from a tiny primordial seed. However, the models discussed here are appropriate for studying the structure of the currently observed field as well as large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics of the magnetized ICM or similarly dilute astrophysical plasmas.
Wang, W.
1993-01-01
It has been shown that exposure of bio-systems to weak extremely low frequency (elf) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) results in a transient biological response in those systems. The observed results suggest a complex relation between the bio-effects and the exposure parameters. Windows -- ranges in which the system exhibits enhanced sensitivity -- have been reported for field amplitude (or power), as well as field frequency and exposure time duration. This research explores the dose-response relationships in terms of a multi-step chemical model and possible field-cell interaction mechanisms. The multi-step chemical model is presented to quantify the transient behavior of the elf field-induced bio-response as revealed by changes in the mRNA concentration from its equilibrium level. It is assumed that the direct effect of exposure to EMFs is to enhance the rates of production and degradation of mRNA. The mRNA concentration and the time integral of the field-induced mRNA concentration are calculated as a function of exposure time duration. The results are applied to explain the experimentally observed time duration window effects. The primary interaction of the imposed electric field is assumed to occur at the cell surface, and be quantified by either the counter-ion redistribution ([tilde n]) or the electromechanical stress ([rvec S]). This interaction is introduced into the chemical model by assuming that the change in the reaction rates is proportional to either [tilde n] or [rvec S]. The results of the bio-response can be calculated as a function of the strength of the imposed field and its frequency. The results are applied to explain the amplitude window and the frequency window effects observed in experiments, and to successfully fit some experimental data. The implications of the chemical model in experimental study are explored. The bio-response for various exposure conditions representing possible experimental situations is predicted.
The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouret, J.-C.; Donati, J.-F.; Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Marcolino, W.; Lanz, T.; Howarth, I. D.
2008-09-01
We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50-100G on the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA (ζOriA), using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2-m Télescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). ζOriA is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with θ1OriC and HD191612), and the first detection on a `normal' rapidly rotating O star. The magnetic field of ζOriA is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100G). By fitting non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that ζOriA is a 40Msolar star with a radius of 25Rsolar and an age of about 5-6Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2 × 10-6Msolaryr-1. The magnetic topology of ζOriA is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that ζOriA rotates in about 7.0d and is about 40° away from pole-on to an Earth-based observer. Despite its weakness, the detected magnetic field significantly affects the wind structure; the corresponding Alfvén radius is however very close to the surface, thus generating a different rotational modulation in wind lines than that reported on the two other known magnetic O stars. The rapid rotation of ζOriA with respect to θ1OriC appears as a surprise, both stars having similar unsigned magnetic fluxes (once rescaled to the same radius); it may suggest that the subequipartition field detected on ζOriA is not a fossil remnant (as opposed to that of θ1 OriC and HD191612), but the result of an exotic dynamo action produced through magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL), operated by the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France. E-mail: jean-claude.bouret@oamp.fr
Discovery of a weak magnetic field in the photosphere of the single giant Pollux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Catala, C.; Weiss, W. W.; Roudier, T.; Petit, P.; Donati, J.-F.; Alecian, E.; Cabanac, R.; van Eck, S.; Folsom, C. P.; Power, J.
2009-09-01
Aims: We observe the nearby, weakly-active single giant, Pollux, in order to directly study and infer the nature of its magnetic field. Methods: We used the new generation spectropolarimeters ESPaDOnS and NARVAL to observe and detect circular polarization within the photospheric absorption lines of Pollux. Our observations span 18 months from 2007-2009. We treated the spectropolarimetric data using the Least-Squares Deconvolution method to create high signal-to-noise ratio mean Stokes V profiles. We also measured the classical activity indicator S-index for the Ca ii H and K lines, and the stellar radial velocity (RV). Results: We have unambiguously detected a weak Stokes V signal in the spectral lines of Pollux, and measured the related surface-averaged longitudinal magnetic field B_l. The longitudinal field averaged over the span of the observations is below one gauss. Our data suggest variations of the longitudinal magnetic field, but no significant variation of the S-index. We observe variations of RV which are qualitatively consistent with the published ephemeris for a proposed exoplanet orbiting Pollux. The observed variations of Bl appear to mimic those of RV, but additional data for this relationship to be established. Using evolutionary models including the effects of rotation, we derive the mass of Pollux and we discuss its evolutionary status and the origin of its magnetic field. Conclusions: This work presents the first direct detection of the magnetic field of Pollux, and demonstrates that ESPaDOnS and NARVAL are capable of obtaining sub-G measurements of the surface-averaged longitudinal magnetic field of giant stars, and of directly studying the relationships between magnetic activity, stellar evolution and planet hosting of these stars. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, CNRS/INSU and the University of Hawaii, and the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL) at Observatoire du Pic du Midi, CNRS/INSU and Université de Toulouse, France.
Weakly perturbed Schwarzschild lens in the strong deflection limit
Bozza, V.; Sereno, M.
2006-05-15
We investigate the strong deflection limit of gravitational lensing by a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in an external gravitational field. The study of this model, analogous to the Chang and Refsdal lens in the weak deflection limit, is important to evaluate the gravitational perturbations on the relativistic images that appear in proximity of supermassive black holes hosted in galactic centers. By a simple dimensional argument, we prove that the tidal effect on the light ray propagation mainly occurs in the weak field region far away from the black hole and that the external perturbation can be treated as a weak field quadrupole term. We provide a description of relativistic critical curves and caustics and discuss the inversion of the lens mapping. Relativistic caustics are shifted and acquire a finite diamond shape. Sources inside the caustics produce four sequences of relativistic images. On the other hand, retro-lensing caustics are only shifted while remaining pointlike to the lowest order.
Chaotic transport in Hamiltonian systems perturbed by a weak turbulent wave field
Abdullaev, S. S.
2011-08-15
Chaotic transport in a Hamiltonian system perturbed by a weak turbulent wave field is studied. It is assumed that a turbulent wave field has a wide spectrum containing up to thousands of modes whose phases are fluctuating in time with a finite correlation time. To integrate the Hamiltonian equations a fast symplectic mapping is derived. It has a large time-step equal to one full turn in angle variable. It is found that the chaotic transport across tori caused by the interactions of small-scale resonances have a fractal-like structure with the reduced or zero values of diffusion coefficients near low-order rational tori thereby forming transport barriers there. The density of rational tori is numerically calculated and its properties are investigated. It is shown that the transport barriers are formed in the gaps of the density of rational tori near the low-order rational tori. The dependencies of the depth and width of transport barriers on the wave field spectrum and the correlation time of fluctuating turbulent field (or the Kubo number) are studied. These numerical findings may have importance in understanding the mechanisms of transport barrier formation in fusion plasmas.
Detection of a weak surface magnetic field on Sirius A: are all tepid stars magnetic?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Alina, D.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Jouve, L.; Oza, A.; Paletou, F.; Théado, S.
2011-08-01
Aims: We aim at a highly sensitive search for weak magnetic fields in main sequence stars of intermediate mass, by scanning classes of stars with no previously reported magnetic members. After detecting a weak magnetic field on the normal, rapidly rotating A-type star Vega, we concentrate here on the bright star Sirius A, taken as a prototypical, chemically peculiar, moderately rotating Am star. Methods: We employed the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters to collect 442 circularly polarized spectra, complemented by 60 linearly polarized spectra. Using a list of about 1100 photospheric spectral lines, we computed a cross correlation line profile from every spectrum, leading to a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 30 000 in the polarized profile. Results: We report the repeated detection of circularly polarized, highly asymmetric signatures in the line profiles, interpreted as Zeeman signatures of a large-scale photospheric magnetic field, with a line-of-sight component equal to 0.2 ± 0.1 G. Conclusions: This is the first polarimetric detection of a surface magnetic field on an Am star. Using rough estimates of the physical properties of the upper layers of Sirius A, we suggest that a dynamo operating in the shallow convective envelope cannot account for the field strength reported here. Together with the magnetic field of Vega, this result confirms that a new class of magnetic objects exists among non Ap/Bp intermediate-mass stars, and it may indicate that a significant fraction of tepid stars are magnetic. Based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.
Gravitational field equations near an arbitrary null surface expressed as a thermodynamic identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Sumanta; Parattu, Krishnamohan; Padmanabhan, T.
2015-10-01
Previous work has demonstrated that the gravitational field equations in all Lanczos-Lovelock models imply a thermodynamic identity T δλ S = δλ E + P δλ V (where the variations are interpreted as changes due to virtual displacement along the affine parameter λ) in the near-horizon limit in static spacetimes. Here we generalize this result to any arbitrary null surface in an arbitrary spacetime and show that certain components of the Einstein's equations can be expressed in the form of the above thermodynamic identity. We also obtain an explicit expression for the thermodynamic energy associated with the null surface. Under appropriate limits, our expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature. The components of the field equations used in obtaining the current result are orthogonal to the components used previously to obtain another related result, viz. that some components of the field equations reduce to a Navier-Stokes equation on any null surface, in any spacetime. We also describe the structure of Einstein's equations near a null surface in terms of three well-defined projections and show how the different results complement each other.
The R.I. Pimenov unified gravitation and electromagnetism field theory as semi-Riemannian geometry
Gromov, N. A.
2009-05-15
More than forty years ago R.I. Pimenov introduced a new geometry-semi-Riemannian one-as a set of geometrical objects consistent with a fibering pr: M{sub n} {yields} M{sub m}. He suggested the heuristic principle according to which the physically different quantities (meter, second, Coulomb, etc.) are geometrically modelled as space coordinates that are not superposed by automorphisms. As there is only one type of coordinates in Riemannian geometry and only three types of coordinates in pseudo-Riemannian one, a multiple-fibered semi-Riemannian geometry is the most appropriate one for the treatment of more than three different physical quantities as unified geometrical field theory. Semi-Euclidean geometry {sup 3}R{sub 5}{sup 4} with 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5} and 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time as a base is naturally interpreted as classical electrodynamics. Semi-Riemannian geometry {sup 3}V{sub 5}{sup 4} with the general relativity pseudo-Riemannian space-time {sup 3}V{sub 4}, and 1-dimensional fiber x{sup 5}, responsible for the electromagnetism, provides the unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Unlike Kaluza-Klein theories, where the fifth coordinate appears in nondegenerate Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometry, the theory based on semi-Riemannian geometry is free from defects of the former. In particular, scalar field does not arise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christophe, B.; Lebat, V.; Foulon, B.; Liorzou, F.; Perrot, E.; Boulanger, D.; Hardy, E.
2014-12-01
ONERA has developed since several years the most accurate accelerometers for the geodesy mission. The accelerometers are still operational in the GRACE mission. Their successors for the GRACE-FO mission are under manufacturing and will fly in 2017. Finally, the GOCE mission has proved the interest of gradiometer for a direct measurement of the gravity field.Now, ONERA proposes a new design of accelerometer, MicroSTAR, for interplanetary mission. It inherits of the same technology but with reduced mass and consumption. It has been proposed in several missions towards outer planets in order to test the deviation to the relativity general over large distance to the sun (with the addition of a bias rejection system). But the same instrument could be interesting to improve our knowledge of the planetary gravitational potential field, allowing a better understanding of the planet interior composition. The success of using accelerometer for geodesy mission could be imported in the planetary science.The paper will present the accuracy achievable on the gravity potential field according to different accelerometer configurations (one accelerometer, one gradiometer arm or a complete 3-axis gradiometer). Then, the instrument will be described and the integration of the instrument inside an interplanetary probe will be evoked.
The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Gaia South Ecliptic Pole Field as Seen by OGLE-IV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.
2012-09-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the Gaia South Ecliptic Pole (GSEP) field, 5.3 square degrees area around the South Ecliptic Pole on the outskirts of the LMC, based on the data collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, OGLE-IV. The GSEP field will be observed during the commissioning phase of the ESA Gaia space mission for testing and calibrating the Gaia instruments. We provide the photometric maps of the GSEP region containing the mean VI photometry of all detected stellar objects and their equatorial coordinates. We show the quality and completeness of the OGLE-IV photometry and color-magnitude diagrams of this region. We conducted an extensive search for variable stars in the GSEP field leading to the discovery of 6789 variable stars. In this sample we found 132 classical Cepheids, 686 RR Lyr type stars, 2819 long-period, and 1377 eclipsing variables. Several objects deserving special attention were also selected, including a new classical Cepheid in a binary eclipsing system. To provide empirical data for the Gaia Science Alert system we also conducted a search for optical transients. We discovered two firm type Ia supernovae and nine additional supernova candidates. To facilitate future Gaia supernovae detections we prepared a list of more than 1900 galaxies to redshift about 0.1 located in the GSEP field. Finally, we present the results of astrometric study of the GSEP field. With the 26 months time base of the presented here OGLE-IV data, proper motions of stars could be detected with the accuracy reaching 2 mas/yr. Astrometry allowed to distinguish galactic foreground variable stars detected in the GSEP field from LMC objects and to discover about 50 high proper motion stars (proper motion ≥ 100 mas/yr). Among them three new nearby white dwarfs were found. All data presented in this paper are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.
Ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: β UMa and θ Leo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C.; Ariste, A. López; Wade, G. A.
2015-10-01
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently detected in the spectral lines of the Am star Sirius A. With a prominent positive lobe, the shape of the phase-averaged Stokes V line profile is atypical of stellar Zeeman signatures, casting doubts on its magnetic origin. We report here on ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two more bright Am stars: β Uma and θ Leo. Stokes V line signatures are detected in both objects, with a shape and amplitude similar to the one observed on Sirius A. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Stokes V line profiles depend on various line parameters (Landé factor, wavelength, depth) as expected from a Zeeman signature, confirming that extremely weak magnetic fields are likely present in a large fraction of Am stars. We suggest that the strong asymmetry of the polarized signatures, systematically observed so far in Am stars and never reported in strongly magnetic Ap stars, bears unique information about the structure and dynamics of the thin surface convective shell of Am stars.
Weak edge enhancement based on contextual modulation of non-classical receptive field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao
2015-12-01
Edges and contours of an object contain a lot of information, so the detection and extraction of saliency edges and contours in the image become one of the most active issues in the research field of automatic target recognition. Weak edge enhancement plays an important role in contour detection. Based on psychophysical and physiological findings, a contour detection method which focuses on weak edge enhancement and inspired by the visual mechanism in the primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed in this paper. The method is divided in three steps. Firstly, the response of every single visual neuron in V1 is computed by local energy. Secondly, the local contrast which corresponds to the CRF is computed. If the local contrast in the image is below the low contrast threshold, expand NCRF to change the spatially modulatory range by increasing the NCRF radius. Thirdly, the facilitation and suppression (the contextual influence) on a neuron through horizontal interactions are obtained by using a spatially unified modulating function. We tested it on synthetic images and encouraging results were acquired.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Jai-Ching
1993-01-01
Semiconductor crystals such as Hg(1-x)CD(x)Te grown by unidirectional solidification Bridgmann method have shown compositional segregations in both the axial and radial directions. Due to the wide separation between the liquidus and the solidus of its pseudobinary phase diagram, there is a diffusion layer of higher HgTe content built up in the melt near the melt-solid interface which gives a solute concentration gradient in the axial direction. The value of effective diffusion coefficient calculated from fitting of the data to 1D model varies with Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te growth conditions. This indicates that the growth condition of the Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te is not purely diffusion controlled. Because of the higher thermal conductivity in the melt than that in the crystal in the growth system, there is a thermal leakage through the fused silica crucible wall near the melt-solid interface. This gives a thermal gradient in the radial direction. Hart, and Thorpe, Hutt and Soulsby have shown that under such conditon a fluid will become convectively unstable as a result of different diffusitivities of temperature and solute. It is quite important to understand the effects of this thermosolute convection on the compositonal segregation in both axial and radial directions in the unidirectionally solidified crystals under various gravitational directions. To reach this goal, we start with a simplified problem to study the effects of thermal-solutal convection on the temperature and solutal fields under various gravitional orientations. We begin by reviewing model governing equations.
Gravitational Lens Modeling of Fields Containing Multiple Projected Cluster-Scale Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raney, Catie Ann; Wong, Kenneth C.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Keeton, Charles R.; Ammons, S. Mark; Zabludoff, Ann I.; French, K. Decker
2016-01-01
We have identified new lines of sight that are promising places to search for high-redshift galaxies. These beams contain a total mass well above 1015 M⊙ distributed among multiple group- and cluster-scale halos. The field J085007.6+360428 includes the massive cluster Zwicky 1953 plus a second massive halo in the foreground, and it features two candidate lensed images of a galaxy with a photometric redshift z=5.03. We present results from a joint weak and strong lensing analysis of the field that accounts for the full three-dimensional mass distribution and uses a full pixel reconstruction of the lensed images. We find that constraints on various field parameters, specifically cluster mass and concentration, are considerably improved with the joint approach.
Application of a weak magnetic field to improve microbial fuel cell performance.
Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sun, Min; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping
2015-12-01
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as a promising technology for wastewater treatment with concomitant energy production but the performance is usually limited by low microbial activities. This has spurred intensive research interest for microbial enhancement. This study demonstrated an interesting stimulation effect of a static magnetic field (MF) on sludge-inoculated MFCs and explored into the mechanisms. The implementation of a 100-mT MF accelerated the reactor startup and led to increased electricity generation. Under the MF exposure, the activation loss of the MFC was decreased, but there was no increased secretion of redox mediators. Thus, the MF effect was mainly due to enhanced bioelectrochemical activities of anodic microorganisms, which are likely attributed to the oxidative stress and magnetohydrodynamic effects under an MF exposure. This work implies that weak MF may be applied as a simple and effective approach to stimulate microbial activities for various bioelectrochemical energy production and decontamination applications. PMID:26410373
Numerical study on the stability of weakly collisional plasma in E×B fields
Horký, M.
2015-02-15
Plasma stability in weakly collisional plasmas in the presence of E×B fields is studied with numerical simulations. Different types of ion-neutral collisions are considered in a fully magnetized regime. We study the influence of ion-neutral collisions and the role of collision types on the stability of plasma. It is found that the stability of plasma depends on the type of ion-neutral collisions, with the plasma being unstable for charge exchange collisions, and stable for the elastic scattering. The analysis focuses on the temporal evolution of the velocity phase space, RMS values of the potential fluctuations, and coherent structures in potential densities. For the unstable case, we observe growth and propagation of electrostatic waves. Simulations are performed with a three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell code.
Effect of weak permanent magnetic field on lipid composition and content in perilla leaves.
Novitskii, Yurii; Novitskaya, Galina; Serdyukov, Yurii
2016-02-01
Composition and content of lipids were studied in leaves of red perilla plants (Perilla nankinensis [Lour.] Decne.) grown in weak permanent horizontal magnetic field (PMF) of 500 µT flux density under controlled illumination, temperature, and humidity in the phytothron chamber. Control plants were grown under similar conditions, but without PMF exposure. Exposure of perilla plants for a month to PMF retarded plant flowering as compared to control. PMF treatment increased total lipid content, including polar lipids, among them glycolipids and phospholipids. PMF did not affect content of neutral lipids. It is concluded that PMF stimulated synthesis of membrane lipids of chloroplasts, mitochondria, and cytoplasm in perilla leaves. A possible role of PMF as a factor imitating the additional light source retarding flowering of a short-day perilla plants is discussed. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:108-115, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26866720
Plocková, J; Chmelík, J
2001-05-25
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. PMID:11407583
Modification of the classical Heisenberg helimagnet by weak uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field
Zaliznyak, I.A.; Zhitomirsky, M.E.
1995-09-01
A classical ground state of the isotropic Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian on a primitive Bravais lattice is known to be a single-Q plane helix. Additional uniaxial anisotropy and external magnetic field can greatly distort this structure by generating higher-order (at the wave vectors nQ) Fourier harmonics in the spatial spin configuration. These features are not captured within the usual formalism based on the Luttinger-Tisza theorem, when the classical ground state energy is minimized under the {open_quotes}weak{close_quotes} condition on the lengths of the spins. We discuss why the correct solution is lost in that approach and present another microscopic treatment of the problem. For easy-axis and easy-plane quadratic uniaxial anisotropy it allows one to find the classical ground state for general Q and for any orientation of the magnetic field considering the effect of anisotropy (but not the field) as a perturbation of the exchange structure. As a result, the classical ground state energy, the uniform magnetization, and the magnetic Bragg peak intensities that are measured in the experiments are calculated. 21 refs., 1 fig.
Weak Pion and Photon Production from Nuclei in a Chiral Effective Field Theory (Update)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xilin; Serot, Brian D.
2011-04-01
Neutrino-induced pion and photon production from nucleons and nuclei are important for the interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments. [A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo et al. (MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 032301 (2008)]. We have been working on these problems in a Lorentz-covariant effective field theory (known as QHD EFT), which contains nucleons, pions, Deltas (Δ), isoscalar scalar (σ) and vector (ω) fields, and isovector vector (ρ) fields and has nonlinear chiral symmetry built in. Here we update our results on weak pion and photon production from nuclei, including both incoherent and coherent scattering. Connections between our results and the background analysis from MiniBooNE will be presented. In particular, coherent production of photons will be emphasized, and the possible relevance to the low-energy excess events at MiniBooNE will be explored. To justify our approximation scheme, we compare our results with data for inclusive electron scattering off nuclei up to the Δ peak and with coherent photoproduction of pions. Finally, we focus on the approximation scheme used and discuss the important Δ dynamics in the medium. An interesting mechanism to generate the Δ's spin-orbit coupling in the nucleus will be introduced, together with its possible consequences. Supported in part by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-87ER40365.
Reis, Wieland G; Weitz, R Thomas; Kettner, Michel; Kraus, Alexander; Schwab, Matthias Georg; Tomović, Željko; Krupke, Ralph; Mikhael, Jules
2016-01-01
The identification of scalable processes that transfer random mixtures of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into fractions featuring a high content of semiconducting species is crucial for future application of SWCNTs in high-performance electronics. Herein we demonstrate a highly efficient and simple separation method that relies on selective interactions between tailor-made amphiphilic polymers and semiconducting SWCNTs in the presence of low viscosity separation media. High purity individualized semiconducting SWCNTs or even self-organized semiconducting sheets are separated from an as-produced SWCNT dispersion via a single weak field centrifugation run. Absorption and Raman spectroscopy are applied to verify the high purity of the obtained SWCNTs. Furthermore SWCNT - network field-effect transistors were fabricated, which exhibit high ON/OFF ratios (10(5)) and field-effect mobilities (17 cm(2)/Vs). In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of high purity separation by a novel low complexity process, our method can be readily transferred to large scale production. PMID:27188435
Weak-field laser phase modulation coherent control of asymptotic photofragment distributions.
García-Vela, A
2016-04-21
Coherent control of the asymptotic photofragment state-resolved distributions by means of laser phase modulation in the weak-field limit is demonstrated computationally for a polyatomic molecule. The control scheme proposed applies a pump laser field consisting of two pulses delayed in time. Phase modulation of the spectral bandwidth profile of the laser field is achieved by varying the time delay between the pulses. The underlying equations show that such a phase modulation is effective in order to produce control effects on the asymptotic, long-time limit photofragment distributions only when the bandwidths of the two pulses overlap in a frequency range. The frequency overlap of the pulses gives rise to an interference term which is responsible for the modulation of the spectral profile shape. The magnitude of the range of spectral overlap between the pulses becomes an additional control parameter. The control scheme is illustrated computationally for the asymptotic photofragment state distributions produced from different scenarios of the Ne-Br2 predissociation. An experimental application of the control scheme is found to be straightforward. PMID:27025779
Electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential particle in weak fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tricoli, Vincenzo; Orsini, Gabriele
2015-10-01
The electrodiffusiophoresis of a large-zeta-potential (ζ) particle in weak fields is investigated. In this large-ζ regime, Debye-layer kinetics determines O(1) perturbations to the electric- and concentration fields in the surrounding electroneutral solution. Taking these effects into account, the expressions of the slip-flow coefficient and the effective surface boundary-conditions for the electric- and concentration fields are derived. For binary and symmetric electrolyte where only one ion species carries the current in the electroneutral domain, the far-field salt gradient as related to the electric field is determined. The electrodiffusiophoretic mobility is obtained for three particle geometries: sphere, cylinder and spheroid arbitrarily oriented with respect to the externally applied field. Strong departure from Smoluchowskian behavior is found. If co-ion is the current carrier, the mobility is independent of ζ, regardless of the body shape. Also, the hydrodynamic flow-field is irrotational. If counter-ion is the current carrier, the problem formulated in terms of a properly-defined scalar field (Ω), which embodies both the electric potential (Ψ) and the salt concentration, becomes formally identical to the one addressed in our previous work, concerning the small-ζ regime, with negligible salt gradients. Then, all the results obtained in that study are extended and applied even to the large-ζ regime considered here, provided the new expressions now derived for the surface boundary conditions and the slip-flow coefficient are employed and Ω is used in place of Ψ. The present results are discussed also in comparison with the classical studies of Dukhin et al and O’Brien et al concerning electrophoresis of highly charged particles with no salt gradient at infinity, and with recent studies of electrodiffusiophoresis, which, however, neglected the fields perturbations caused by Debye-layer kinetics. It is found that the effects addressed and incorporated in the present study determine remarkably different mobility-versus-ζ behaviour as compared to those previous theories.
Wide-field X-ray afterglow searches for gravitational wave events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shawhan, Peter; Tervala, Justin
2015-04-01
The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors are on track to begin collecting science data soon and to reach full sensitivity by 2019. Low-latency analysis of the GW data will provide triggers for astronomers to seek electromagnetic transient counterparts. Many instruments will contribute to that effort, but instruments with very large fields of view will have a natural advantage for following up the typically large GW error regions. In particular, we consider ISS-Lobster, a proposed NASA mission to be deployed on the International Space Station, which features a focusing imager for soft X-rays with a field of view of over 800 square degrees. Our study using binary neutron star coalescence simulations from Singer et al. shows that a single ISS-Lobster pointing will, on average, cover over 95% of a LIGO-Virgo 3-detector sky map, while even a 2-detector sky map can be over 85% covered (on average) by a sequence of four pointings. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.
Advances in Magnetic and Gravitational Potential Field Data in the Arctic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olesen, Odleiv; Saltus, Rick
2010-10-01
Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE); Tromsø, Norway, 1-2 June 2010; Magnetic and gravitational potential field data are crucial components of regional tectonic framework studies and resource exploration in the Arctic. Special data acquisition difficulties at high latitudes include extreme weather conditions, ice-covered waters, and magnetic disturbances from the aurora borealis. Improved techniques in sub-ice, sub-salt, and sub-basalt exploration are required. The Integration of Magnetics and Gravity in Northern Exploration (iMAGINE) meeting (part of Arctic Days 2010) featured discussion of the most recent advances in potential field methods with particular attention to Arctic challenges. Presentations concentrated on regional interpretations in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Siberia, and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Talks also touched on regional petroleum exploration and on the interpretation of weathered bedrock in Norway. In addition, a group of talks dealt with geomagnetic disturbances and their effect on magnetic data collection and in magnetic orientation for directional drilling.
Black holes and fundamental fields: Hair, kicks, and a gravitational Magnus effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okawa, Hirotada; Cardoso, Vitor
2014-11-01
Scalar fields pervade theoretical physics and are a fundamental ingredient to solve the dark matter problem, to realize the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in QCD or the string-axiverse scenario. They are also a useful proxy for more complex matter interactions, such as accretion disks or matter in extreme conditions. Here, we study the collision between scalar "clouds" and rotating black holes. For the first time we are able to compare analytic estimates and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem. As the black hole pierces through the cloud it accretes according to the Bondi-Hoyle prediction, but is deflected through a purely kinematic gravitational "anti-Magnus" effect, which we predict to be present also during the interaction of black holes with accretion disks. After the interaction is over, we find large recoil velocities in the transverse direction. The end-state of the process belongs to the vacuum Kerr family if the scalar is massless, but can be a hairy black hole when the scalar is massive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Benjamin F.; Chen, J. L.; Johnson, T.; Au, A. Y.
1998-01-01
Hydrological mass transport in the geophysical fluids of the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth surface system can excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. These effects can be computed in terms of the hydrological angular momentum by proper integration of global meteorological data. We do so using the 40-year NCEP data and the 18-year NASA GEOS-1 data, where the precipitation and evapotranspiration budgets are computed via the water mass balance of the atmosphere based on Oki et al.'s (1995) algorithm. This hydrological mass redistribution will also cause geocenter motion and changes in Earth's gravitational field, which are similarly computed using the same data sets. Corresponding geodynamic effects due to the oceanic mass transports (i.e. oceanic angular momentum and ocean-induced geocenter/gravity changes) have also been computed in a similar manner. We here compare two independent sets of the result from: (1) non-steric ocean surface topography observations based on Topex/Poseidon, and (2) the model output of the mass field by the Parallel Ocean Climate Model. Finally, the hydrological and the oceanic time series are combined in an effort to better explain the observed non-atmospheric effects. The latter are obtained by subtracting the atmospheric angular momentum from Earth rotation observations, and the atmosphere- induced geocenter/gravity effects from corresponding geodetic observations, both using the above-mentioned atmospheric data sets.
Doppler shifting of a distant light source in a Schwarzschild gravitational field
Kislik, M.D.
1985-10-01
For three limiting cases of relative placement of a light source, a gravitational lens, and the observer, equations are established that describe the lens chromatic properties. The results have direct applications to experimental tests of general relativity and to the discovery of dark gravitating bodies.
Barany, Sandor
2015-08-01
A review on the effects of adsorbed non-ionic polymers and polyelectrolytes on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles is given. The variety of changes in the electrical double layer (EDL) structure and, in particular, electrokinetic potential in weak electric fields as a result of polymer adsorption is discussed. Examples on the dependence of zeta potential of particles on the adsorbed amount of polymers are described. An analysis of the influence of various complicating factors, namely polarization of the EDL, curvature of the surface and the presence of electrolytes, on the calculation of polymer layer thickness from electrophoretic data has been performed. Results of electrophoretic measurements in suspensions of non-conventional particles (TiC, SiC and Si3N4) having adsorbed polyethylene oxide are presented. Regularities of the effect of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) and their binary mixtures on the electrokinetic potential of dispersed particles (polystyrene, silica, bentonite and kaolin) as a function of the polymer dose, pH, charge density (CD) of the polyelectrolyte, as well as the mixture composition and the sequence of component addition are described. It has been shown that addition of increasing amount of anionic PEs increases the absolute value of the negative zeta potential of particles, while adsorption of cationic PEs results in a significant decrease in the negative ζ-potential and overcharging the particle surface; changes in the ζ-potential are more pronounced for samples with higher CD. In mixtures of cationic and anionic PEs, in a wide range of their composition, the ζ-potential of negatively charged particles is determined by the adsorbed amount of the anionic polymer independently of the CD of polyelectrolyte and the sequence of the mixture component addition. The role of coulombic and non-coulombic forces in the mechanism of polyelectrolyte adsorption and structure of adsorbed layers formed is discussed. The results of comparative investigations on the effect of adsorbed polymers on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles in weak and strong electric fields are presented. It is shown that adsorption of non-ionic polymers only slightly (by about 20-50%) decreases the electrophoretic velocity (V(ef)) of polystyrene, graphite and aluminium-oxide particles in strong fields (100-400 V/cm). This is in contrast to the electrophoresis in weak fields (5-20 V/cm) in which adsorption of these polymers gives a drop in V(ef) by an order of magnitude or even more. In line with our theoretical predictions, it means that the non-linear ("cubic") electrophoresis, that arises in strong electric fields, is independent of the position of the shear plane, i.e. the zeta potential value. It is determined mainly by the surface conductivity of particles, i.e. by the Dukhin number that characterizes the polarization of the electric double layer. PMID:25456453
A search for weak or complex magnetic fields in the B3V star ι Herculis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, G. A.; Folsom, C. P.; Petit, P.; Petit, V.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Böhm, T.
2014-11-01
We obtained 128 high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V spectra of the B3V star ι Her on five consecutive nights in 2012 with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with the aim of searching for the presence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) mean profiles were computed from individual spectra, averaged over individual nights and over the entire run. No Zeeman signatures are detected in any of the profiles. The longitudinal magnetic field in the grand average profile was measured to be -0.24 ± 0.32 G, as compared to -0.22 ± 0.32 G in the null profile. Our observations therefore provide no evidence for the presence of Zeeman signatures analogous to those observed in the A0V star Vega by Lignières et al. We interpret these observations in three ways. First, we compare the LSD profiles with synthetic Stokes V profiles corresponding to organized (dipolar) magnetic fields, for which we find an upper limit of about 8 G on the polar strength of any surface dipole present. Secondly, we compare the grand average profile with calculations corresponding to the random magnetic spot topologies of Kochukhov & Sudnik, inferring that spots, if present, of 2° radius with strengths of 2-4 G and a filling factor of 50 per cent should have been detected in our data. Finally, we compare the observations with synthetic V profiles corresponding to the surface magnetic maps of Vega (Petit et al.) computed for the spectral characteristics of ι Her. We conclude that while it is unlikely we would have detected a magnetic field identical to Vega's, we would have likely detected one with a peak strength of about 30 G, i.e. approximately four times as strong as that of Vega.
Plasma waves around separatrix in collisionless magnetic reconnection with weak guide field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yangao; Fujimoto, Keizo; Xiao, Chijie; Ji, Hantao
2015-11-01
Electrostatic and electromagnetic waves excited by electron beam around the separatrix region are analyzed in detail during the collisionless magnetic reconnection with a weak guide field by using 2D particle-in-cell simulation with the adaptive mesh refinement. Broadband electrostatic waves are excited both in the inflow and outflow regions around the separatrices due to the electron bump-on-tail, two-stream, and Buneman instabilities. In contrast, the quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic waves are excited only in the inflow side of the separatrices due to a beam-driven Whistler instability. The localization of the Whistler waves is attributed to the non-uniformity of the out-of-plane magnetic field By. The Whistler instability is suppressed in the outflow side where By is too small for the oblique propagation. The electrostatic waves with distinct speeds can explain the in situ spacecraft observations. From the causality point of view, the waves are generated as the consequence of the electron bulk acceleration to thermalize the particles through wave-particle interactions. These simulation results provide guidance to analyze high-resolution wave observations during reconnection in the ongoing and upcoming satellite missions, as well as in dedicated laboratory experiments.
Large-field inflation with multiple axions and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junghans, Daniel
2016-02-01
In this note, we discuss the implications of the weak gravity conjecture (WGC) for general models of large-field inflation with a large number of axions N. We first show that, from the bottom-up perspective, such models admit a variety of different regimes for the enhancement of the effective axion decay constant, depending on the amount of alignment and the number of instanton terms that contribute to the scalar potential. This includes regimes of no enhancement, power-law enhancement and exponential enhancement with respect to N. As special cases, we recover the Pythagorean enhancement of N-flation, the N and N 3/2 enhancements derived by Bachlechner, Long and McAllister and the exponential enhancement by Choi, Kim and Yun. We then analyze which top-down constraints are put on such models from the requirement of consistency with quantum gravity. In particular, the WGC appears to imply that the enhancement of the effective axion decay constant must not grow parametrically with N for N ≫ 1. On the other hand, recent works proposed that axions might be able to violate this bound under certain circumstances. Our general expression for the enhancement allows us to translate this possibility into a condition on the number of instantons that couple to the axions. We argue that, at large N , models consistent with quantum gravity must either allow super-Planckian field excursions or have an enormous, possibly even exponentially large, number of dominant instanton terms in the scalar potential.
Plemmons, Dayne A; Tae Park, Sang; Zewail, Ahmed H; Flannigan, David J
2014-11-01
The development of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) and variants thereof (e.g., photon-induced near-field electron microscopy, PINEM) has made it possible to image atomic-scale dynamics on the femtosecond timescale. Accessing the femtosecond regime with UEM currently relies on the generation of photoelectrons with an ultrafast laser pulse and operation in a stroboscopic pump-probe fashion. With this approach, temporal resolution is limited mainly by the durations of the pump laser pulse and probe electron packet. The ability to accurately determine the duration of the electron packets, and thus the instrument response function, is critically important for interpretation of dynamics occurring near the temporal resolution limit, in addition to quantifying the effects of the imaging mode. Here, we describe a technique for in situ characterization of ultrashort electron packets that makes use of coupling with photons in the evanescent near-field of the specimen. We show that within the weakly-interacting (i.e., low laser fluence) regime, the zero-loss peak temporal cross-section is precisely the convolution of electron packet and photon pulse profiles. Beyond this regime, we outline the effects of non-linear processes and show that temporal cross-sections of high-order peaks explicitly reveal the electron packet profile, while use of the zero-loss peak becomes increasingly unreliable. PMID:25151361
Imshennik, V. S.
2010-04-15
The standard problem of a radial motion of test particles in the stationary gravitational field of a spherically symmetric celestial body is solved and is used to determine the time features of this motion. The problem is solved for the equations of motion of general relativity (GR), and the time features are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation, with linear GR corrections proportional to r{sub g}/r and {beta}{sup 2} (in the solution being considered, they are of the same order of smallness) being taken rigorously into account. Total times obtained by integrating the time differentials along the trajectories of motion are considered as the time features in question. It is shown that, for any parameters of the motion, the proper time (which corresponds to watches comoving with a test particle) exceeds the time of watches at rest (watches at the surface of the celestial body being considered). The mass and the radius of the celestial body, as well as the initial velocity of the test particle, serve as arbitrary parameters of the motion. The time difference indicated above implies a leading role of the gravitational redshift, which decreases somewhat because of the opposite effect of the Doppler shift. The results are estimated quantitatively for the important (from the experimental point of view) case of vertical flights of rockets starting from the Earth's surface. In this case, the GR corrections, albeit being extremely small (a few microseconds for several hours of the flight), aremeasurable with atomic (quantum) watches.
Bhardwaj, S; Mkhitaryan, V V; Gruzberg, I A
2014-06-01
We consider a recently proposed network model of the integer quantum Hall (IQH) effect in a weak magnetic field. Using a supersymmetry approach, we reformulate the network model in terms of a superspin ladder. A subsequent analysis of the superspin ladder and the corresponding supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model allows us to establish the phase diagram of the network model, and the form of the critical line of the weak-field IQH transition. Our results confirm the universality of the IQH transition, which is described by the same sigma model in strong and weak magnetic fields. We apply the suspersymmetry method to several related network models that were introduced in the literature to describe the quantum Hall effect in graphene, the spin-degenerate Landau levels, and localization of electrons in a random magnetic field.
The Role of Weak Magnetic Fields in the Solar Cycle as Measured at the 150-foot Tower on Mt. Wilson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulrich, R. K.; Parker, D. G.; Pap, J. M.
1999-05-01
Weak magnetic fields on the solar surface are measured using the Babcock magnetograph system at the 150-foot solar tower on Mt. Wilson. The coverage of the solar surface by weak fields can be quantified in terms of a distribution function which gives the fraction of the solar surface covered by fields in small field strength bands. Observations of these fields over the past solar cycle shows that the gaussian core width of the distribution function decays after the strong magnetic fields have passed their maximum. The delay is approximately 18 months. The new cycle has first appeared as a strengthening of the distribution function wings. This strengthening then migrates to the core and finally increases the core width. This behavior together with the amplitude of core variation suggests that the weak fields arise from the strong fields with a lag time of 10 to 20 years. A forced oscillator model with the strong fields as the driver and a decay time of 15 years yields the conclusion that the weak fields could have systematically increased in strength during the 20th century. Attribution of one third of the solar cycle luminosity variation to this component suggests that the weak fields may have played a role in the global temperature rise since 1910. This research is supported by NASA, ONR and NSF through a series of grants which began at UCLA in 1986. The 150-foot tower telescope was built on Mt. Wilson under the direction of G.E. Hale. The digital form of magnetograph was developed by R.F. Howard.
Castello, Pablo R; Hill, Iain; Sivo, Frank; Portelli, Lucas; Barnes, Frank; Usselman, Robert; Martino, Carlos F
2014-12-01
This study presents experimental data for the effects of weak radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and cellular growth rates of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in vitro. Cells were exposed either to 45 µT static magnetic fields (SMFs)-oriented vertical to the plane of growth or to SMFs combined with weak 5 and 10 MHz RF magnetic fields of 10 µTRMS intensity perpendicular to the static field. Cell numbers were reduced up to 30% on Day 2 for the cells exposed to the combination of SMF and a 10 MHz RF magnetic field compared with the SMF control cells. In addition, cells exposed to 10 MHz RF magnetic fields for 8 h increased H2O2 production by 55%. The results demonstrate an overall magnetic field-induced biological effect that shows elevated H2O2 levels with accompanying decrease in cellular growth rates. PMID:25251337
Frontier Fields: Subaru Weak-Lensing Analysis of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A2744
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medezinski, Elinor; Umetsu, Keiichi; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Nonino, Mario; Molnar, Sandor; Massey, Richard; Dupke, Renato; Merten, Julian
2016-01-01
We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging Frontier Fields (FF) cluster Abell 2744 using new Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging. The wide-field lensing mass distribution reveals this cluster is comprised of four distinct substructures. Simultaneously modeling the two-dimensional reduced shear field using a combination of a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model for the main core and truncated NFW models for the subhalos, we determine their masses and locations. The total mass of the system is constrained as {M}200{{c}}=(2.06+/- 0.42)× {10}15 {M}⊙ . The most massive clump is the southern component with {M}200{{c}}=(7.7+/- 3.4)× {10}14 {M}⊙ , followed by the western substructure ({M}200{{c}}=(4.5+/- 2.0)× {10}14 {M}⊙ ) and two smaller substructures to the northeast ({M}200{{c}}=(2.8+/- 1.6)× {10}14 {M}⊙ ) and northwest ({M}200{{c}}=(1.9+/- 1.2)× {10}14 {M}⊙ ). The presence of the four substructures supports the picture of multiple mergers. Using a composite of hydrodynamical binary simulations we explain this complicated system without the need for a “slingshot” effect to produce the northwest X-ray interloper, as previously proposed. The locations of the substructures appear to be offset from both the gas ({87}-28+34 arcsec, 90% CL) and the galaxies ({72}-53+34 arcsec, 90% CL) in the case of the northwestern and western subhalos. To confirm or refute these findings, high resolution space-based observations extending beyond the current FF limited coverage to the west and northwestern area are essential. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Society of Japan.
The Distribution of Galaxies’ Gravitational Field Stemming from Their Tidal Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanovich, Vladimir; Godłowski, Włodzimierz
2015-09-01
We calculate the distribution function of astronomical objects’ (like galaxies and/or smooth halos of different kinds) gravitational fields due to their tidal interaction. For that we apply the statistical method of Chandrasekhar, used originally to calculate the famous Holtzmark distribution. We show that in our approach the distribution function is never Gaussian, its form being dictated by the potential of interaction between objects. This calculation permits us to perform a theoretical analysis of the relation between angular momentum and mass (richness) of the galaxy clusters. To do so, we follow the ideas of Catelan & Theuns and Heavens & Peacock. The main difference is that here we reduce the problem to a discrete many-body case, where all physical properties of the system are determined by the interaction potential V({{\\boldsymbol{r}}}{ij}). The essence of reduction is that we use the multipole (up to quadrupole here) expansion of Newtonian potential so that all hydrodynamic, “extended” characteristics of an object, such as its density mass, are “integrated out,” leaving its “point-like” characteristics, such as mass and quadrupole moment. In that sense we do not distinguish between galaxies and smooth components such as halos. We compare our theoretical results with observational data.
Snow load effect on earth's rotation and gravitational field, 1979-1985
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong; O'Connor, William P.; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.
1987-01-01
A global, monthly snow depth data set has been generated from the Nimbus 7 satellite observations using passive microwave remote-sensing techniques. Seven years of data, 1979-1985, are analyzed to compute the snow load effects on the earth's rotation and low-degree zonal gravitational field. The resultant time series show dominant seasonal cycles. The annual peak-to-peak variation in J2 is found to be 2.3 x 10 to the -10th, that in J3 to be 1.1 x 10 to the -10th, and believed to decrease rapidly for higher degrees. The corresponding change in the length of day is 41 micro-s. The annual wobble excitation is (4.9 marc sec, -109 deg) for the prograde motion component and (4.8 marc sec, -28 deg) for the retrograde motion component. The excitation power of the Chandler wobble due to the snow load is estimated to be about 25 dB less than the power needed to maintain the observed Chandler wobble.
An Ensemble Solution for the Earth's time-varying gravitational field from the GRACE mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumura, Carly; Bruinsma, Sean; Bettadpur, Srinivas
2013-04-01
Several groups produce estimates of the Earth's time-varying gravitational field with data provided by the GRACE mission. While the solutions are similar, differences in processing strategies and tuning parameters result in solutions with regionally specific variations and error patterns. Thus it is unclear which solution is most suitable for different types of hydrological or oceanographic research. This project used four of the data center solutions to create an ensemble gravity model, attempting to harness the best characteristics of each solution to create an optimal model. Multiple methods were used to combine and analyze the individual and ensemble solutions. First a simple mean model was created; then the different solutions were weighted based on the formal error estimates published with the solutions as well as the monthly deviation from the simple mean. These ensemble models as well as the four individual data center solutions were evaluated with both statistical and external validation methods. The noise in the time series, scatter of solution over areas where little variation is expected, and comparison with hydrological models was examined. Initial results show that the ensemble models are effective at reducing noise in the models and better model hydrological processes. The ensemble models show slight differences, however all show improvement over any individual solution.
Improved dynamics and gravitational collapse of tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marto, João; Tavakoli, Yaser; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2015-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a tachyon field with an inverse square potential, which is coupled with a barotropic fluid. By employing an holonomy correction imported from loop quantum cosmology (LQC), we analyze the dynamics of the collapse within a semiclassical description. Using a dynamical system approach, we find that the stable fixed points given by the standard general relativistic setting turn into saddle points in the present context. This provides a new dynamics in contrast to the black hole and naked singularities solutions appearing in the classical model. Our results suggest that classical singularities can be avoided by quantum gravity effects and are replaced by a bounce. By a thorough numerical studies we show that, depending on the barotropic parameter γ, there exists a class of solutions corresponding to either a fluid or a tachyon dominated regimes. Furthermore, for the case γ 1, we find an interesting tracking behavior between the tachyon and the fluid leading to a dust-like collapse. In addition, we show that, there exists a threshold scale which determines when an outward energy flux emerges, as a nonsingular black hole is forming, at the corresponding collapse final stages.
Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera imaging of the gravitational lens 2237 + 0305
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rix, Hans-Walter; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, John N.
1992-01-01
Images of the gravitational lens system 2237 + 0305, taken with the HST Wide Field Camera, are analyzed. Positions for the four quasar images, accurate to +/-0.015 arcsec, and relative magnitudes in U and R, accurate to +/-0.06 and 0.04 mag, respectively, are determined. The upper limits on the observed brightness of the fifth image are found to be less than or approximately equal to 7 percent of the brightest quasar image. The mass of the lens inside 0.9 arcsec is found to be 1.08 +/-0.02 x 10 exp 10 solar masses/h100 corresponding to a mass-to-light ratio in B of 12.3h100. This solar mass/solar luminosity estimate agrees with values obtained from stellar dynamics for other elliptical galaxies. A comparison of predictions from this mass model with the measured central velocity dispersion yields a distance-independent agreement to within 10 percent, assuming isotropic velocity dispersions.
Detectors of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzella, G.
Gravitational waves Motion of test bodies in a g.w. field Energy carried by gravitational waves Gravitational-wave sources Spinning star Double-star systems Fall into a Schwarzschild black hole Radiation from gravitational collapse Gravitational-wave detectors The nonresonant detectors The resonant detectors Electromechnical transducers Piezoelectric ceramic The capacitor The inductor Data analysis The Brownian noise The back-action The wide-band noise, data analysis and optimization The resonant transducer The Wiener-Kolmogoroff filter The cross-section and the effective temperature The antenna bandwidth The gravitational-wave experiments in the world The laser interferometers The resonant detectors
Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, C. M.
1986-02-01
The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. The author summarizes recent developments in two areas in which approximations are important: (1) the quadrupole approximation, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (2) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.
Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Will, C. M.
1986-01-01
The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. Recent developments are summarized in two areas in which approximations are important: (a) the quadrupole approxiamtion, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (b) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.
Multiparameter investigation of gravitational slip
Daniel, Scott F.; Caldwell, Robert R.; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2009-07-15
A detailed analysis of gravitational slip, a new post-general relativity cosmological parameter characterizing the degree of departure of the laws of gravitation from general relativity on cosmological scales, is presented. This phenomenological approach assumes that cosmic acceleration is due to new gravitational effects; the amount of spacetime curvature produced per unit mass is changed in such a way that a universe containing only matter and radiation begins to accelerate as if under the influence of a cosmological constant. Changes in the law of gravitation are further manifest in the behavior of the inhomogeneous gravitational field, as reflected in the cosmic microwave background, weak lensing, and evolution of large-scale structure. The new parameter {pi}{sub 0} is naively expected to be of order unity. However, a multiparameter analysis, allowing for variation of all of the standard cosmological parameters, finds that {pi}{sub 0}=0.09{sub -0.59}{sup +0.74}(2{sigma}), where {pi}{sub 0}=0 corresponds to a cosmological constant plus cold dark matter universe under general relativity. Future probes of the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and large-scale structure (Euclid) may improve the limits by a factor of 4.
Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.; Prestage, J.
1976-01-01
Malin's (1975) gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester (1975) to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the post-Newtonian approximation framework.
Subtle consequences of exposure to weak microwave fields: Are there non-thermal effects?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovely, R. H.; Mizumori, S. J. Y.; Johnson, R. B.; Guy, A. W.
When we speak of subtle consequences of exposure we mean only that the effects were observed in the absence of changes in core temperature due to microwave exposure. When we measure + delta T degree C in core temperature consequent to microwave exposure, we are witnessing a breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanisms. Short of this event, the exposed subject makes a number of thermoregulatory and metabolic accommodations to maintain a constant body temperature and to deal effectively with the energy being deposited in its tissues. These latter changes should interest us for they are the subtle consequences exposure to weak microwave fields. The long-term accommodations, which accompany subchronic exposure, can lead to a number of interesting effects some of which are described below. Two fundamentally different types of experimental protocol were employed. In Experiment 1A, independent groups of male rats were either exposed or sham-exposed to 915 MHz microwaves for 10 hr/night for up to 4 mo. In Experiment 1B, independent groups of rats were similarly exposed, or sham-exposed, to 2450 MHz microwaves for 10 hr/night for 4 mo. In Experiment 2, using a different type of protocol, pregnant female rats were exposed for 20 hr/day for 19 days of gestation. Control groups were either sham-exposed or served as caged controls. The main focus of the study attended to assessment of various functions and the developmental status of the gravid rats' progeny.
Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments.
Craven, Galen T; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-02-21
Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates predicted by stability analysis and rates obtained through numerical calculation of the reactive flux. We also show that the optimal dividing surface and the resulting reaction rate for a reactive system driven by weak thermal noise can be approximated well using the transition state geometry of the underlying deterministic system. This agreement persists as long as the thermal driving strength is less than the order of that of the periodic driving. The power of this result is its simplicity. The surprising accuracy of the time-dependent noise-free geometry for obtaining transition state theory rates in chemical reactions driven by periodic fields reveals the dynamics without requiring the cost of brute-force calculations. PMID:25702003
Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craven, Galen T.; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-02-01
Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates predicted by stability analysis and rates obtained through numerical calculation of the reactive flux. We also show that the optimal dividing surface and the resulting reaction rate for a reactive system driven by weak thermal noise can be approximated well using the transition state geometry of the underlying deterministic system. This agreement persists as long as the thermal driving strength is less than the order of that of the periodic driving. The power of this result is its simplicity. The surprising accuracy of the time-dependent noise-free geometry for obtaining transition state theory rates in chemical reactions driven by periodic fields reveals the dynamics without requiring the cost of brute-force calculations.
Modeling weakly-ionized plasmas in magnetic field: A new computationally-efficient approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parent, Bernard; Macheret, Sergey O.; Shneider, Mikhail N.
2015-11-01
Despite its success at simulating accurately both non-neutral and quasi-neutral weakly-ionized plasmas, the drift-diffusion model has been observed to be a particularly stiff set of equations. Recently, it was demonstrated that the stiffness of the system could be relieved by rewriting the equations such that the potential is obtained from Ohm's law rather than Gauss's law while adding some source terms to the ion transport equation to ensure that Gauss's law is satisfied in non-neutral regions. Although the latter was applicable to multicomponent and multidimensional plasmas, it could not be used for plasmas in which the magnetic field was significant. This paper hence proposes a new computationally-efficient set of electron and ion transport equations that can be used not only for a plasma with multiple types of positive and negative ions, but also for a plasma in magnetic field. Because the proposed set of equations is obtained from the same physical model as the conventional drift-diffusion equations without introducing new assumptions or simplifications, it results in the same exact solution when the grid is refined sufficiently while being more computationally efficient: not only is the proposed approach considerably less stiff and hence requires fewer iterations to reach convergence but it yields a converged solution that exhibits a significantly higher resolution. The combined faster convergence and higher resolution is shown to result in a hundredfold increase in computational efficiency for some typical steady and unsteady plasma problems including non-neutral cathode and anode sheaths as well as quasi-neutral regions.
Gravitational lensing in quasar samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claeskens, Jean-François; Surdej, Jean
The first cosmic mirage was discovered approximately 20 years ago as the double optical counterpart of a radio source. This phenomenon had been predicted some 70 years earlier as a consequence of General Relativity. We present here a summary of what we have learnt since. The applications are so numerous that we had to concentrate on a few selected aspects of this new field of research. This review is focused on strong gravitational lensing, i.e. the formation of multiple images, in QSO samples. It is intended to give the reader an up-to-date status of the observations and to present an overview of its most interesting potential applications in cosmology and astrophysics, as well as numerous important results achieved so far. The first section follows an intuitive approach to the basics of gravitational lensing and is developed in view of our interest in multiply imaged quasars. The astrophysical and cosmological applications of gravitational lensing are outlined in Sect. 2 and the most important results are presented in Sect. 5. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to the observations. Finally, conclusions are summarized in the last section. We have tried to avoid duplication with existing (and excellent) introductions to the field of gravitational lensing. For this reason, we did not concentrate on the individual properties of specific lens models, as these are already well presented in Narayan and Bartelmann (1996) and on a more intuitive ground in Refsdal and Surdej (1994). Wambsganss (1998) proposes a broad view on gravitational lensing in astronomy; the reviews by Fort and Mellier (1994) and Hattori et al. (1999) deal with lensing by galaxy clusters; microlensing in the Galaxy and the local group is reviewed by Paczynski (1996) and a general panorama on weak lensing is given by Bartelmann and Schneider (1999) and Mellier (1999). The monograph on the theory of gravitational lensing by Schneider, Ehlers and Falco (1992) also remains a reference in the field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda J.; Kondic, Lou
We consider a mathematical model that consists of a NLC layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate its effect on the director orientation by considering the dielectric and flexoelectric contributions and varying parameters that represent the anchoring conditions and the electric field strength. In particular, we investigate possible director configurations that occur in weakly anchored and non-planar systems. We observe that non-planar anchoring angles destroy any hysteresis seen in a planar system by eliminating the fully vertical director configuration and the ''saturation threshold'' seen in weakly anchored planar Freedericksz cells. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.
Stress field in the middle part of Kyushu, Japan and detecting weak zone in the crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nakao, Shigeru; Saiga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Uehira, Kenji; Matsushima, Takeshi
2010-05-01
In the upper crust of Kyushu district, Japan, an area with high seismic activity is found in the middle part. This area is called Beppu-Shimabara graben because of existence many normal faults in this region. Many active volcanoes exist (i.e. Unzen, Aso, Kuju, Beppu), and historical large earthquakes occurred in this region. However, it is not always confirmed whether this region behave as a graben formation or not from other evidence. In addition, there is an active fault system at the south of the graben. The name of this is ‘Futagawa-Hinagu Fault system'. The seismicity along the fault is highest among parts of Kyushu. The major mechanism of earthquakes around the system is strike slip type. Peoples is concerning with occurrence of large earthquake on the fault. Generally, extensional (minimum principal) stress is in north-south direction in Kyushu. Only direction of maximum principal stress changes region to region. It is key to understand interaction between this fault system and Beppu-Shimabara graben for probability evaluation of earthquake occurrence on the fault. Recently, Nakao et al. (2005) estimated spatial distribution of strain rate field in Kyushu area from GPS data. The area in which higher strain rate dominates not in extension but share is found in Beppu-Shimabara graben. This can explain high seismic activity in this region. They also revealed notable contraction in east-west appear around Aso volcano. High strain rate can be seen around Aso volcano. On the other hand, information about stress field is also important to understand deformation of the crust. Elastic and anelastic feature of crust could be inferred from both of stress and strain field. We performed stress tensor inversion by using polarity data of first motion at direct P wave arrival. Directions of principal stresses are obtained at spatially distributed grid points every 20 km interval. At each grid point, we collected polarity data of events occurred nearer than 10 km apart from grid point and carried out the stress tensor inversion. The minimum axes of the principal stress are generally oriented in NNW-SSE direction. The maximum axes are almost in WSW-ENE direction. The stress rates are greater than 0.75 at most of the point, implying the maximum stress is close to the moderate principal value. The maximum stresses in Beppu-Shimabara graben incline toward vertical direction while those have direction in east-west at most of points. It implies normal faulting would dominantly occur in Beppu-Shimabara graben. In addition, the minimum axes in the graben rotate counterclockwise. This stress field change requires a mechanism either relaxing the stress in east west direction or vertically loading in this region. Strain rate field by GPS observation also show the similar pattern and support the existence of the relaxing mechanism. This could be interpreted by existence a ‘weak body' in the crust. The area would be contracted by regional stress field. This could explain the strain rate distribution. And stress in east-west could be relaxed so that second principal stress in vertical direction would be maximum one. This simple model is qualitatively reasonable as an explanation for the results. For further study, variation of stress field in vertical direction should be discussed in detail.
Reorientation of Seedlings in the Earth's Gravitational Field Induces Cytosolic Calcium Transients1
Plieth, Christoph; Trewavas, Anthony J.
2002-01-01
The gravitational field controls plant growth, morphology, and development. However, the underlying transduction mechanisms are not well understood. Much indirect evidence has implicated the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) as an important factor, but direct evidence for changes in [Ca2+]c is currently lacking. We now have made measurements of [Ca2+]c in groups of young seedlings of Arabidopsis expressing aequorin in the cytoplasm and reconstituted in vivo with cp-coelenterazine, a synthetic high-affinity luminophore. Distinct [Ca2+]c signaling occurs in response to gravistimulation with kinetics very different from [Ca2+]c transients evoked by other mechanical stimuli (e.g. movement and wind). [Ca2+]c changes produced in response to gravistimulation are transient but with a duration of many minutes and dependent on stimulus strength (i.e. the angle of displacement). The auxin transport blockers 2,3,5-tri-iodo benzoic acid and N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid interfere with gravi-induced [Ca2+]c responses and addition of methyl indole-3-acetic acid to whole seedlings induces long-lived [Ca2+]c transients, suggesting that changes in auxin transport may interact with [Ca2+]c. Permanent nonaxial rotation of seedlings on a two-dimensional clinostat, however, produced a sustained elevation of the [Ca2+]c level. This probably reflects permanent displacement of gravity-sensing cellular components and/or disturbance of cytoskeletal tension. It is concluded that [Ca2+]c is part of the gravity transduction mechanism in young Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:12068119
A Dust-penetrated Classification Scheme for Bars as Inferred from Their Gravitational Force Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buta, R.; Block, D. L.
2001-03-01
The division of galaxies into ``barred'' (SB) and ``normal'' (S) spirals is a fundamental aspect of the Hubble galaxy classification system. This ``tuning fork'' view was revised by de Vaucouleurs, whose classification volume recognized apparent ``bar strength'' (SA, SAB, SB) as a continuous property of galaxies called the ``family.'' However, the SA, SAB, and SB families are purely visual judgments that can have little bearing on the actual bar strength in a given galaxy. Until very recently, published bar judgments were based exclusively on blue light images, where internal extinction or star formation can either mask a bar completely or give the false impression of a bar in a nonbarred galaxy. Near-infrared camera arrays, which principally trace the old stellar population in both normal and barred galaxies, now facilitate a quantification of bar strength in terms of their gravitational potentials and force fields. In this paper, we show that the maximum value, Qb, of the ratio of the tangential force to the mean axisymmetric radial force in a barred disk galaxy is a quantitative measure of the strength of a bar. Qb does not measure bar ellipticity or bar shape but rather depends on the actual forcing due to the bar embedded in its disk. We show that a wide range of true bar strengths characterizes the category ``SB,'' while the de Vaucouleurs category ``SAB'' corresponds to a narrower range of bar strengths. We present Qb values for 36 galaxies, and we incorporate our bar classes into a dust-penetrated classification system for spiral galaxies.
Field equation of the correlation function of mass-density fluctuations for self-gravitating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Chen, Qing
2015-09-01
We study the mass-density distribution of Newtonian self-gravitating systems. Modeling the system as a fluid in hydrostatical equilibrium, we obtain from first principles the field equation and its solution of the correlation function ξ(r) of the mass-density fluctuation itself. We apply this to studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe within a small redshift range. The equation shows that ξ(r) depends on the point mass m and the Jeans wavelength scale λ0, which are different for galaxies and clusters. It explains several long-standing prominent features of the observed clustering: that the profile of ξcc(r) of clusters is similar to ξgg(r) of galaxies, but with a higher amplitude and a longer correlation length, and that the correlation length increases with the mean separation between clusters as a universal scaling r0 ≃ 0.4d. Our solution ξ(r) also shows that the observed power-law correlation function of galaxies ξgg(r) ≃ (r0/r)1.7 is only valid in a range 1
Relativistic Transverse Gravitational Redshift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, A. F.
2012-12-01
The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism is a tool for quantitative analysis of the weak gravitational field based on the field equations of general relativity. This formalism and its ten parameters provide the practical theoretical foundation for the evaluation of empirical data produced by space-based missions designed to map and better understand the gravitational field (e.g., GRAIL, GRACE, GOCE). Accordingly, mission data is interpreted in the context of the canonical PPN formalism; unexpected, anomalous data are explained as similarly unexpected but apparently real physical phenomena, which may be characterized as ``gravitational anomalies," or by various sources contributing to the total error budget. Another possibility, which is typically not considered, is a small modeling error in canonical general relativity. The concept of the idealized point-mass spherical equipotential surface, which originates with Newton's law of gravity, is preserved in Einstein's synthesis of special relativity with accelerated reference frames in the form of the field equations. It was not previously realized that the fundamental principles of relativity invalidate this concept and with it the idea that the gravitational field is conservative (i.e., zero net work is done on any closed path). The ideal radial free fall of a material body from arbitrarily-large range to a point on such an equipotential surface (S) determines a unique escape-velocity vector of magnitude v collinear to the acceleration vector of magnitude g at this point. For two such points on S separated by angle dφ , the Equivalence Principle implies distinct reference frames experiencing inertial acceleration of identical magnitude g in different directions in space. The complete equivalence of these inertially-accelerated frames to their analogous frames at rest on S requires evaluation at instantaneous velocity v relative to a local inertial observer. Because these velocity vectors are not parallel, a symmetric energy potential exists between the frames that is quantified by the instantaneous Δ {v} = v\\cdot{d}φ between them; in order for either frame to become indistinguishable from the other, such that their respective velocity and acceleration vectors are parallel, a change in velocity is required. While the qualitative features of general relativity imply this phenomenon (i.e., a symmetric potential difference between two points on a Newtonian `equipotential surface' that is similar to a friction effect), it is not predicted by the field equations due to a modeling error concerning time. This is an error of omission; time has fundamental geometric properties implied by the principles of relativity that are not reflected in the field equations. Where b is the radius and g is the gravitational acceleration characterizing a spherical geoid S of an ideal point-source gravitational field, an elegant derivation that rests on first principles shows that for two points at rest on S separated by a distance d << b, a symmetric relativistic redshift exists between these points of magnitude z = gd2/bc^2, which over 1 km at Earth sea level yields z ˜{10-17}. It can be tested with a variety of methods, in particular laser interferometry. A more sophisticated derivation yields a considerably more complex predictive formula for any two points in a gravitational field.
Weak magnetic field accelerates chromate removal by zero-valent iron.
Feng, Pian; Guan, Xiaohong; Sun, Yuankui; Choi, Wonyong; Qin, Hejie; Wang, Jianmin; Qiao, Junlian; Li, Lina
2015-05-01
Weak magnetic field (WMF) was employed to improve the removal of Cr(VI) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time. The removal rate of Cr(VI) was elevated by a factor of 1.12-5.89 due to the application of a WMF, and the WMF-induced improvement was more remarkable at higher Cr(VI) concentration and higher pH. Fe2+ was not detected until Cr(VI) was exhausted, and there was a positive correlation between the WMF-induced promotion factor of Cr(VI) removal rate and that of Fe2+ release rate in the absence of Cr(VI) at pH4.0-5.5. These phenomena imply that ZVI corrosion with Fe2+ release was the limiting step in the process of Cr(VI) removal. The superimposed WMF had negligible influence on the apparent activation energy of Cr(VI) removal by ZVI, indicating that WMF accelerated Cr(VI) removal by ZVI but did not change the mechanism. The passive layer formed with WMF was much more porous than without WMF, thereby facilitating mass transport. Therefore, WMF could accelerate ZVI corrosion and alleviate the detrimental effects of the passive layer, resulting in more rapid removal of Cr(VI) by ZVI. Exploiting the magnetic memory of ZVI, a two-stage process consisting of a small reactor with WMF for ZVI magnetization and a large reactor for removing contaminants by magnetized ZVI can be employed as a new method of ZVI-mediated remediation. PMID:25968271
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ningjiang; Zhang, Changmin
1994-05-01
The physical effect produced by the ultraworking frequency alternating weaking magnetic field (UWFAWM) is demagnetization. We used two methods to study the influence of UWFAWM on the microvasculture of Kunmin mice. Method 1 (in vivo) included 21 mice (the experimental group 11 and the control group 10). Method 2 (in vitro) included 25 mice (the experimental group 13, the control group 12). Each group was put in the coil of the JDM-1 Type Demagnetometer which produced UWFAWM. The coil was electrified for the experimental groups, but not for the control groups, for 20 min, once a day. (1) Method 1. On the 10th day of demagnetization, the surface microvascultural diameters of liver and mesenterium were measured in two groups.1 The results showed that those in the experimental group (25.05±3.92 μm and 24.44±4. 7 μm, respectively) were markedly greater than those in the control group (10.70±1.72 μm and 18.37±1.93 μm, respectively. (2) Method 2. On the 40th day of demagnetizing, we killed all mice and immediately preserved the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, stomach, intestine, and submandibular gland in 10% formalin, then used continuous paraffin sections of 5 μm and HE stain, and measured the microvascular diameter of each group.2 The results showed that mean diameters of the organs in the experimental group were also significantly greater than those in the control group (p<0.01). This study confirms that UWFAWM can dilate the microvascultures of various organs, resulting in local aterial hyperemia of the organ, advance local tissue metabolism, and an increase in organic function, thus providing a basis for treating some diseases and for health care.
Four-hair relations for differentially rotating neutron stars in the weak-field limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretz, Joseph; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás
2015-10-01
The opportunity to study physics at supra-nuclear densities through x-ray observations of neutron stars has led to in-depth investigations of certain approximately universal relations that can remove degeneracies in pulse profile models. One such set of relations determines all of the multipole moments of a neutron star just from the first three (the mass monopole, the current dipole and the mass quadrupole moment) approximately independently of the equation of state. These three-hair relations were found to hold in neutron stars that rotate rigidly, as is the case in old pulsars, but neutron stars can also rotate differentially, as is the case for proto-neutron stars and hypermassive transient remnants of binary mergers. We here extend the three-hair relations to differentially rotating stars for the first time with a generic rotation law using two approximations: a weak-field scheme (an expansion in powers of the neutron star compactness) and a perturbative differential rotation scheme (an expansion about rigid rotation). These approximations allow us to analytically derive approximately universal relations that allow us to determine all of the multipole moments of a (perturbative) differentially rotating star in terms of only the first four moments. These new four-hair relations for differentially rotating neutron stars are found to be approximately independent of the equation of state to a higher degree than the three-hair relations for uniformly rotating stars. Our results can be instrumental in the development of four-hair relations for rapidly differentially rotating stars in full general relativity using numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solovyov, A. V.; Talipov, D. V.; Borodin, A. S.; Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Baklykova, E. S.; Pobachenko, S. V.
2014-11-01
The results of experimental studies on the cardiovascular system response to the impact of weak low-frequency acoustic fields using ERG characteristics are presented. The slowing of the heart rate under the impact of frequencies 10Hz and 100Hz is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.
2009-01-01
We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).
Motion of massive bodies: Testing the nonsymmetric gravitation theory
Moffat, J.W.; Woolgar, E.
1988-02-15
We derive the equations of motion for massive extended bodies in the first post-Newtonian approximation to the nonsymmetric gravitation theory. The results are applied to the problem of the perihelion shift of Mercury and the periastron shifts of binary stars. We prove the equivalence of gravitational and inertial masses in the theory at the first post-Newtonian level. Hence, the theory predicts no Nordtvedt effect in the Moon's orbit about Earth. Other weak-field tests of the nonsymmetric gravitation theory are discussed.
The study of neutron quantum states in the Earth's gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baessler, Stefan
2008-10-01
I will discuss the discovery and characterization of gravitational bound neutron states. In the previous experiments, the lowest neutron quantum states in the gravitational potential were distinguished and characterized by a measurement of their spatial extent. The future detection of resonant transitions between these neutron quantum states with the help of the GRANIT spectrometer (under construction) promises to give further and more precise information. Here, transitions between different quantum states induced by RF pulses shall be observed. These measurements are not only demonstrations of standard quantum mechanics. I will discuss applications of these measurements in the search for spin-dependent short-range interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salzano, V.; Mota, D. F.; Capozziello, S.; Napolitano, N. R.
2014-01-01
Aims: We investigated the gravitational effects of a scalar field within scalar-tensor gravity as an alternative to dark matter. Motivated by chameleon, symmetron, and f(R)-gravity models, we studied a phenomenological scenario where the scalar field has both a mass (i.e. interaction length) and a coupling constant to the ordinary matter that scale with the local properties of the considered astrophysical system. Methods: We analysed the feasibility of this scenario using the modified gravitational potential obtained in its context and applied it to the galactic and hot gas/stellar dynamics in galaxy clusters and elliptical/spiral galaxies respectively. This is intended to be a first step in assessing the viability of this new approach in the context of "alternative gravity" models. Results: The main results are 1. the velocity dispersion of elliptical galaxies can be fitted remarkably well by the suggested scalar field, with model significance similar to a classical Navarro-Frenk-White dark halo profile; 2. the analysis of the stellar dynamics and the gas equilibrium in elliptical galaxies has shown that the scalar field can couple with ordinary matter with different strengths (different coupling constants), producing and/or depending on the different clustering state of matter components; 3. elliptical and spiral galaxies, combined with clusters of galaxies, show evident correlations among theory parameters, which suggest both the general validity of our results on all scales and a way toward a possible unification of the theory for all types of the gravitational systems we considered. All these results demonstrate that the proposed scalar field scenario can work fairly well as an alternative to dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Sheng Ming
2012-10-01
In the natural world, people have discovered four kinds of forces: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Although the gravitation has been discovered more than three hundred years, its mechanism of origin is unclear until today. While investigating the origin of gravitation, I do some experiments discover the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I do some experiments discover the light interference fringes are produced by the gravitation: my discovery demonstrate light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. Furthermore, applications of this discovery to other moving particles show a similar effect. In a word: the micro particle moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force. Then I do quantity experiment get a general formula: Reveal the essence of gravitational mass and the essence of electric charge; reveal the origin of gravitation and the essence of matter wave. Along this way, I unify the gravitation and electromagnetic force. Namely I find a natural law that from atomic world to star world play in moving track. See website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Zhao, Jia; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin
2012-07-01
Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network.
Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra
1997-01-01
Many of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during space flight may originate from the dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. The weightlessness affects the system when blood and other fluids move to the upper body causing the heart to enlarge to handle the increased blood flow to the upper extremities and decrease circulating volume. Increase arterial pressure triggers baroreceptors which signal the brain to adjust heart rate. Hemodynarnic studies indicate that the microgravity-induced headward fluid redistribution results in various cardiovascular changes such as; alteration of vascular permeability resulting in lipid accumulation in the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the the vascular wall, capillary alteration with extensive endothelial invagination. Achieving a true microgravity environment in ground based studies for prolonged periods is virtually impossible. The application of vector-averaged gravity to mammalian cells using horizontal clinostat produces alterations of cellular behavior similar to those observed in microgravity. Similarly, the low shear, horizontally rotating bioreactor (originally designed by NASA) also duplicates several properties of microgravity. Additionally, increasing gravity, i.e., hypcrgravity is easily achieved. Hypergravity has been found to increase the proliferation of several different cell lines (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. The effect of altered gravity on cells maybe similar to those of other physical forces, i.e. shear stress. Previous studies examining laminar flow and shear stress on endothelial cells found that the cells elongate, orient with the direction of flow, and reorganize their F-actin structure, with concomitant increase in cell stiffness. These studies suggest that alterations in the gravity environment will change the behavior of most cells, including vascular cells. However, few studies have been directed at assessing the effect of altered gravitational field on vascular cell fiction and metabolism, Using image analysis we examined how bovine aortic endothelial cells altered their morphological characteristics and their response to a denudation injury when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity and hypergravity.
Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra
Goenner, Hubert
2013-04-15
The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).
Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebraa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goenner, Hubert
2013-04-01
The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ("extended Lie algebras") which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).
Scalar Gravitational Theory with Variable Rest Mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froedge, D. T.
2007-04-01
In this paper we will present the mechanical dynamics of a gravitational system resulting from a specific, rest mass, scalar potential relation, that is equivalent in predicting orbital and photon motion to that of General Relativity in the weak field solutions. The weak solutions of General Relativity do not appear to be contradicted by this development, and in this range the physical difference may not be measurable. The strong field solutions will be significantly different, however since, in this scalar relation, the rest mass goes to zero at Schwarzschild boundary. The consequences of the mass dependence gravitational potential results, for large masses, not in the prediction of black holes, but rather mass to Gamma ray converters. The theory would suggest that the defined gamma ray sources emissions of the galactic center imaged by the ESA/INTEGRAL spacecraft could be from bodies close to the maximum mass.
Discharge of a copper-magnesium galvanic cell in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, A. A.; Zarembo, Ya. V.; Zarembo, V. I.
2007-07-01
The effect of weak periodic electromagnetic pulses with a repetition rate of 250 kHz on the discharge of a copper-magnesium galvanic cell is studied experimentally. Comparative characteristics of the electrochemical process and scanning electron microscopy images of electrode reaction products are presented.
Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel
2009-08-01
Working in the linear sigma model with quarks, we compute the finite-temperature effective potential in the presence of a weak magnetic field, including the contribution of the pion ring diagrams and considering the sigma as a classical field. In the approximation where the pion self-energy is computed perturbatively, we show that there is a region of the parameter space where the effect of the ring diagrams is to preclude the phase transition from happening. Inclusion of the magnetic field has small effects that however become more important as the system evolves to the lowest temperatures allowed in the analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek
2014-12-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z ~ 7 to >~ 65% at z ~ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hanxiao; Fautrelle, Yves; Hou, Long; Du, Dafan; Zhang, Yikun; Ren, Zhongming; Lu, Xionggang; Moreau, Rene; Li, Xi
2016-02-01
The influence of a weak transverse magnetic field on the morphology and orientation of Al3Ni dendrites in directionally solidified Al-12 wt% Ni alloys was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the magnetic field caused segregation. It was also found that the application of a magnetic field decreased the primary dendrite spacing. By means of electronic backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the orientation of the Al3Ni dendrite was studied. In the case of no magnetic field, the <010> crystal direction of the Al3Ni crystal was oriented along the solidification direction. When a transverse magnetic field was applied, the <001> crystal direction rotated to the magnetic field direction, whereas the <010> crystal direction remained oriented along the solidification direction. The above experimental results are discussed in the context of thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and crystal anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakonieczna, Anna; Yeom, Dong-han
2016-02-01
There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic `clock' while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multicomponent matter-geometry system. We concentrated on a neutral case, which means that the elaborated system was not charged electrically nor magnetically. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the matter sector of the theory. The obtained results indicated that the evolving scalar fields can be treated as time variables in close proximity of the singularity due to the following reasons. The constancy hypersurfaces of the Brans-Dicke field are spacelike in the vicinity of the singularity apart from the case, in which the equation of motion of the field reduces to the wave equation due to a specific choice of free evolution parameters. The hypersurfaces of constant complex and real scalar fields are spacelike in the regions nearby the singularities formed during the examined process. The values of the field functions change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Omnidirectional Gravitational Radiation Observatory: Proceedings of the First International Workshop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velloso, W. F.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.
1997-08-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * Introduction: The OMNI-1 Workshop and the beginning of the International Gravitational Radiation Observatory * Opening Talks * Gravitational radiation sources for Acoustic Detectors * The scientific and technological benefits of gravitational wave research * Operating Second and Third Generation Resonant-Mass Antennas * Performance of the ALLEGRO detector -- and what our experience tells us about spherical detectors * The Perth Niobium resonant mass antenna with microwave parametric transducer * The gravitational wave detectors EXPLORER and NAUTILUS * Gravitational Waves and Astrophysical Sources for the Next Generation Observatory * What is the velocity of gravitational waves? * Superstring Theory: how it change our ideas about the nature of Gravitation * Statistical approach to the G.W. emission from radio pulsars * Gravitational waves from precessing millisecond pulsars * The production rate of compact binary G.W. sources in elliptical galaxies * On the possibility to detect Gravitational Waves from precessing galactic neutron stars * Gravitational wave output of the head-on collision of two black holes * SN as a powerfull source of gravitational radiation * Long thick cosmic strings radiating gravitational waves and particles * Non-Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields in a gravitational background, stationary G.W. and gravitons * Exact solutions of gravitational waves * Factorization method for linearized quantum gravity at tree-level. Graviton, photon, electron processes * Signal Detection with Resonant-Mass Antennas * Study of coalescing binaries with spherical gravitational waves detectors * Influence of transducer asymmetries on the isotropic response of a spherical gravitational wave antenna * Performances and preliminary results of the cosmic-ray detector associated with NAUTILUS * Possible transducer configurations for a spherical gravitational wave antenna * Detectability of neutron star coalescence, bar-mode instability and core colapse events by spherical antennas * Interaction of high energy muons and hadrons with a large aluminum spherical resonant detector * Optimal detection of pulsed GW signals correlated with cosmic gamma-bursts * Preliminary results of searching of joint gravity-neutrinos-gamma events * Next Generation Resonant-Mass Antennas * A 100 TON 10mK spherical gravitational wave detector * Experimental study of spherical resonators at very low temperatures * Thermal convective cooling of gravitational radiation antennas * Very low temperature measurements of quality factors of copper alloys for resonant gravitational wave antennae * Real life TIGA measurements: results from the LSU prototype * Simulation of a spherical resonant-mass gravitational wave antenna * DEFOSP: the gravitational wave detector for a space laboratory * The resonator problem in a spherical GW antenna * On the use of the Finite Elements Method to design the structures of mechanical isolation to resonant mass antennas * Transducers and Amplification Techniques * Low-loss sapphire transducers for resonant-mass Gravitational Wave detectors and quantum non-demolition readouts * Improvement of an inductive tripode transducer electrical Q * Tests of a resonant capacitive transducer with integrated readout on the cryogenic gravitational wave antenna ALTAIR * Development of an optical transducer * Noise measurements on two-squid gravitational wave transducer systems * Resonant/Free Mass Omnidirectional Network * The present status of VIRGO Project * The supernova cosmological background of gravitational waves * LIGO: status and prospects * The ring interferometer in the field of a weak gravitational wave * List of Participants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Michelle; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Keeton, Charles R.; French, Katheryn Decker; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Williams, Kurtis A.
2016-01-01
Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing has long been used to measure cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant as well as the dark matter properties of galaxy halos. Additional mass around the lens galaxy or projected in the line-of-sight affects the light bending and needs to be incorporated into lensing analyses. We present new results from a spectroscopic survey to characterize the environmental and line-of-sight mass for 28 galaxy-scale lens fields. We show how the external convergence, number of lensed images, and lensed image separation are altered by groups at the lens and along the sightline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishiyama, U.; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Okada, Susumu
2016-04-01
Using density functional theory, we studied the electronic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films under an electric field. The carrier accumulation due to the electric field depends strongly on the CNT species forming the thin films. Under a low electron concentration, the injected electrons are distributed throughout the CNTs, leading to an unusual electric field between CNTs, the direction of which is opposite to that of the applied field. This unusual field response of CNT thin films to an external electric field is ascribed to the internal electric field arising from the electrostatic potential difference between the constituent CNTs.
Gravitational Radiation in a Nonsymmetric Gravitational Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisher, Timothy Philip
We analyze the properties of gravitational radiation in a nonsym- metric gravitational theory (NGT) proposed by Moffat that is based on a nonsymmetric metric and affine connection. A generalized formalism is developed for determining the physically observable polarization modes of weak, plane gravitational waves in nonsym- metric theories of gravitation. For the case of NGT, we find that a Lorentz-invariant description of gravitational waves is possible if a "transposition -invariant" definition of measurable geodesic deviation is adopted for the theory. We then analyze the generation of gravitational radiation and show that NGT predicts the emission of dipole gravitational radiation from a binary system. The source of the dipole radiation is a vector density S postulated to be proportional to the number density of fermion particles in the components of the system. This radiation is shown to result in a secular decrease in the orbital period of a binary system in addition to that predicted by general relativity. The size of the effect is proportional to the reduced mass of the system and to the square of the difference in L('2)/ mass between the two compo- nents of the system, where L is a parameter having units of length that is related to the number of fermion particles in each component. We discuss how the theory might be constrained by observations of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 and the cataclysmic binary AM CVn.
Gravitational radiation in a nonsymmetric gravitational theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisher, T. P.
The properties of gravitational radiation in a nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) proposed by Moffat that is based on a nonsymmetric metric and affine connection were analyzed. A generalized formalism is developed for determining the physically observable polarization modes of weak, plane gravitational waves in nonsymmetric theories of gravitation. For the case of NGT, it is found that a Lorentz-invariant description of gravitational waves is possible if a transposition-invariant definition of measurable geodesic deviation is adopted for the theory. The generation of gravitational radiation is examined and it is shown that NGT predicts the emission of dipole gravitational radiation from a binary system. The source of the dipole radiation is a vector density S postulated to be proportional to the number density of fermion particles in the components of the system. This radiation results in a secular decrease in the orbital period of a binary system in addition to that predicted by general relativity. Constriction of the theory might be constrained by observations of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the cataclysmic binary AM CVn.
Barman, Arghya; Batiste, Bruce; Hamelberg, Donald
2015-04-14
The relationship among biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function is far from being understood, and the role of subtle, weak interactions in stabilizing different conformational states is even less well-known. The cumulative effect of these interactions has broad implications for biomolecular stability and recognition and determines the equilibrium distribution of the ensemble of conformations that are critical for function. Here, we accurately capture the stabilizing effects of weak CH···π interaction using an empirical molecular mechanics force field in excellent agreement with experiments. We show that the side chain of flanking C-terminal aromatic residues preferentially stabilize the cis isomer of the peptidyl-prolyl bond of the protein backbone through this weak interaction. Cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl protein bond plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, substrate recognition, and many diseases. Although the cis isomer is relatively less stable than the trans isomer, aromatic side chains of neighboring residues can play a significant role in stabilizing the cis relative to the trans isomer. We carry out extensive regular and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations and establish an approach to simulate the pH profile of the cis/trans ratio in order to probe the stabilizing role of the CH···π interaction. The results agree very well with NMR experiments, provide detailed atomistic description of this crucial biomolecular interaction, and underscore the importance of weak stabilizing interactions in protein function. PMID:26574391
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin
2016-01-01
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, J.; Pantellini, F.; Moncuquet, M.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is weak, performing a parametric study for all the range of hydrodynamic values of the solar wind predicted on Mercury for the ENLIL + GONG WSA + Cone SWRC model: density from 12 to 180 cm-3, velocity from 200 to 500 km/s and temperatures from 2 ·104 to 18 ·104 K, and compare the results with a real MESSENGER orbit as reference case. We use the code PLUTO in spherical coordinates and an asymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field. The study shows for all simulations a stand off distance larger than the Mercury radius and the presence of close magnetic field lines on the day side of the planet, so the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is not high enough to push the magnetopause on the planet surface if the interplanetary magnetic field is weak. The simulations with large dynamic pressure lead to a large compression of the Hermean magnetic field modifying its topology in the inner magnetosphere as well as the plasma flows from the magnetosheath towards the planet surface.
Temperature and magnetic field dependence of NbN film resistivity: 3D weak localization effects
Pellan, Y.; Dousselin, G.; Pinel, J.; Sohn, Y.U. )
1990-01-01
Niobium nitride superconducting films have been deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering. Polyepitaxial growth on MgO-coated substrates greatly improves the superconducting properties. The overall film resistivity is found to be widely dependent on the total pressure of the gas mixture. Samples with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance exhibit 3D weak localization effects as characterized by magnetoresistance measurements. The inelastic scattering time is found to vary as T{sup {minus}p} with p{approx equal}2, in the temperature range T{sub c}-3T{sub c}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Perron, T.; Milne, G. A.; Wickert, A. D.
2012-12-01
Spatial patterns in static sea level are controlled by the interplay between the history of ice mass variations and the associated deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations in the Earth's state. Over the last decade, there has been a renewed effort to extend classic treatments of ice-age sea-level change (Farrell and Clark, 1976) to incorporate effects such as shoreline migration due to the local onlap or offlap of seawater and changes in the extent of grounded, marine-based ice, as well as feedbacks between sea level and the orientation of Earth's rotation axis. To date, the impact of sediment transport - whether in the context of glacial processes, or other processes such as fluvial deposition - has not been incorporated into a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory. Here we briefly summarize the main elements of a new sea-level theory that includes sediment transport, and we apply this new theory to investigate crustal deformation and sea-level changes driven by sediment deposition on the Mississippi fan in the Gulf of Mexico. The calculations incorporate sediment transport from the start of the last glacial cycle through to the present and are constrained to conserve sediment and ocean mass. We compare relative sea level histories predicted with and without sediment transport at sites in and around the Gulf of Mexico, and we quantify the relative impacts of gravitational and deformational effects of sediment deposition. We also explore the extent to which sea-level changes associated with sediment transport impact the interpretation of paleo-sea-level records. Our new sea-level formulation provides an important component of a comprehensive coupling between sediment transfer and sea level on local, regional and global spatial scales, and on time scales extending from decades to tens of thousands of years. References: Farrell, W.E., and Clark, J.A., 1976. On postglacial sea level: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, v. 46, p. 647-667.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.
1996-01-01
Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.
Bambi, Cosimo
2014-03-01
In extensions of general relativity and in theories aiming at unifying gravity with the forces of the Standard Model, the value of the ''fundamental constants'' is often determined by the vacuum expectation value of new fields, which may thus change in different backgrounds. Variations of fundamental constants with respect to the values measured today in laboratories on Earth are expected to be more evident on cosmological timescales and/or in strong gravitational fields. In this paper, I show that the analysis of the Kα iron line observed in the X-ray spectrum of black holes can potentially be used to probe the fine structure constant α in gravitational potentials relative to Earth of Δφ ≈ 0.1. At present, systematic effects not fully under control prevent to get robust and stringent bounds on possible variations of the value of α with this technique, but the fact that current data can be fitted with models based on standard physics already rules out variations of the fine structure constant larger than some percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo
2014-03-01
In extensions of general relativity and in theories aiming at unifying gravity with the forces of the Standard Model, the value of the ``fundamental constants'' is often determined by the vacuum expectation value of new fields, which may thus change in different backgrounds. Variations of fundamental constants with respect to the values measured today in laboratories on Earth are expected to be more evident on cosmological timescales and/or in strong gravitational fields. In this paper, I show that the analysis of the Kα iron line observed in the X-ray spectrum of black holes can potentially be used to probe the fine structure constant α in gravitational potentials relative to Earth of Δphi ≈ 0.1. At present, systematic effects not fully under control prevent to get robust and stringent bounds on possible variations of the value of α with this technique, but the fact that current data can be fitted with models based on standard physics already rules out variations of the fine structure constant larger than some percent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Tien, James S.
1993-01-01
This paper describes experimental observations of downward, opposed-flow flame spreading made under partial-gravity conditions aboard NASA research aircraft. Flame spreading and flammability limit behavior of a thin cellulosic fuel tested at normal pressure in oxygen/nitrogen mixtures of 21 percent oxygen, by volume, and below are described over effective acceleration levels ranging from 0.05 to 0.6 times normal earth gravity. Downward burning flammability and flame spread rates are shown to be enhanced by reductions in gravitational acceleration. These data have fire safety implications for the planning of lunar and Martian outposts.
Resonance of Gaussian Electromagnetic Field to the High Frequency Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Kai; Wen, Hao
2016-04-01
We consider a Gaussian Beam (GB) resonant system for high frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) detection. At present, we find the optimal signal strength in theory through setting the magnetic component of GB in a standard gaussian form. Under the synchro-resonance condition, we study the signal strength (i.e., transverse perturbative photon fluxes) from the relic HFGWs (predicted by ordinary inflationary model) and the braneworld HFGWs (from braneworld scenarios). Both of them would generate potentially detectable transverse perturbative photon fluxes (PPFs). Furthermore we find optimal system parameters and the relationship between frequency and effective width of energy fluxes accumulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapochkin, B.; Dolia, V.
2010-09-01
The gravitational field (GF) of the Earth changes in space and time. These changes are enough for influence on circulation of atmosphere and planet ocean that is repeatedly shown in modern researches of the given interrelation. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation - one of the cores climate forming ingredients of planet. We had investigated the influence of the gravitational field on a circulating regime of atmosphere in different widths of the Earth. The direct relationship of cause and effect is found. The basic programs of studying of interrelations of moving covers of the Earth, climate fluctuations and gravitational field - GOCE and GRACE, but for full understanding of these processes, in our opinion, it is necessary to generate a net of land points of observation over gravitational field change (surface level of geoid). We have intentions to establish a net of sensors on the territory of Ukraine for observation over the main climate forming factor - a gravitational field (in the form of geoid). We will be glad to cooperation.
Possibility of realizing weak gravity in redshift space distortion measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji
2015-08-01
We study the possibility of realizing a growth rate of matter density perturbations lower than that in general relativity. Using the approach of the effective field theory of modified gravity encompassing theories beyond Horndeski, we derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff and the gravitational slip parameter η for perturbations deep inside the Hubble radius. In Horndeski theories we derive a necessary condition for achieving weak gravity associated with tensor perturbations, but this is not a sufficient condition due to the presence of a scalar-matter interaction that always enhances Geff. Beyond the Horndeski domain it is possible to realize Geff smaller than Newton's gravitational constant G , while the scalar and tensor perturbations satisfy no-ghost and stability conditions. We present a concrete dark energy scenario with varying ct and numerically study the evolution of perturbations to confront the model with the observations of redshift-space distortions and weak lensing.
Weak magnetic field effects on chiral critical temperature in a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loewe, M.; Marquez, F.; Villavicencio, C.; Zamora, R.
2015-07-01
In this paper we study the nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a Gaussian regulator in the chiral limit. Finite temperature effects and the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field are considered. The magnetic evolution of the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration is then obtained. Here, we restrict ourselves to the case of low magnetic field values, being this a complementary discussion to the existing analysis in nonlocal models in the strong magnetic field regime.
Effect of steel metallurgy on it magneto-mechanical behavior in weak magnetic fields
Robertson, I.M. )
1994-03-01
The magneto-mechanical behavior of five steels, mild steel, HSLA 80, HY100 and a quenched alloy steel, has been investigated. Magnetic fields of the order of the Earth's field and compressive stresses up to 200 MPa were applied to the steels. The increase in magnetization due to stress cycling in a constant applied field and to field cycling at constant stress was measured. The results show that the differential permeability of the steel largely determines the magnetization increase and that steels with similar microstructures have similar microstructures have similar magneto-mechanical response. The strength or hardness of the steel is a less reliable indicator of magneto-mechanical response.
Theory of weak scattering of stochastic electromagnetic fields from deterministic and random media
Tong Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga
2010-09-15
The theory of scattering of scalar stochastic fields from deterministic and random media is generalized to the electromagnetic domain under the first-order Born approximation. The analysis allows for determining the changes in spectrum, coherence, and polarization of electromagnetic fields produced on their propagation from the source to the scattering volume, interaction with the scatterer, and propagation from the scatterer to the far field. An example of scattering of a field produced by a {delta}-correlated partially polarized source and scattered from a {delta}-correlated medium is provided.
A gravitational entropy proposal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clifton, Timothy; Ellis, George F. R.; Tavakol, Reza
2013-06-01
We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel-Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy-momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein-Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson-Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis.
Theoretical model of gravitational perturbation of current collector axisymmetric flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, John S.; Brown, Samuel H.; Sondergaard, Neal A.
1989-03-01
Some designs of liquid metal collectors in homopolar motors and generators are essentially rotating liquid metal fluids in cylindrical channels with free surfaces and will, at critical rotational speeds, become unstable. The role of gravity in modifying this ejection instability is investigated. Some gravitational effects can be theoretically treated by perturbation techniques on the axisymmetric base flow of the liquid metal. This leads to a modification of previously calculated critical current collector ejection values neglecting gravity effects. The derivation of the mathematical model which determines the perturbation of the liquid metal base flow due to gravitational effects is documented. Since gravity is a small force compared with the centrifugal effects, the base flow solutions can be expanded in inverse powers of the Froude number and modified liquid flow profiles can be determined as a function of the azimuthal angle. This model will be used in later work to theoretically study the effects of gravity on the ejection point of the current collector. A rederivation of the hydrodynamic instability threshold of a liquid metal current collector is presented.
Theoretical model of gravitational perturbation of current collector axisymmetric flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, John S.; Brown, Samuel H.; Sondergaard, Neal A.
1990-05-01
Some designs of liquid-metal current collectors in homopolar motors and generators are essentially rotating liquid-metal fluids in cylindrical channels with free surfaces and will, at critical rotational speeds, become unstable. An investigation at David Taylor Research Center is being performed to understand the role of gravity in modifying this ejection instability. Some gravitational effects can be theoretically treated by perturbation techniques on the axisymmetric base flow of the liquid metal. This leads to a modification of previously calculated critical-current-collector ejection values neglecting gravity effects. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of the mathematical model which determines the perturbation of the liquid-metal base flow due to gravitational effects. Since gravity is a small force compared with the centrifugal effects, the base flow solutions can be expanded in inverse powers of the Froude number and modified liquid-flow profiles can be determined as a function of the azimuthal angle. This model will be used in later work to theoretically study the effects of gravity on the ejection point of the current collector.
Dark Haloes as Seen with Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuijken, Konrad
Dark matter is an important ingredient of galaxies, as was recognized early on by Ken Freeman himself! Evidence for dark matter halos is still indirect, based on analysing motions of tracers such as gas and stars. In a sense the visible galaxy is the mask through which we can study the dark matter. Light rays are also sensitive to gravitational fields and dark haloes cause observable gravitational lensing effects. There are three regimes: microlensing (which probes the clumpiness of dark matter haloes), strong lensing (sensitive to the inner mass distribution) and weak lensing (which can probe haloes out to 100 s of kpc from the centre). This review will concentrate on weak lensing and describe a new survey, the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), that is designed to study galaxy halo masses, extents, and shapes as a function of environment, galaxy type, and redshift.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Gorakh
Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under a gravitational field due to heavy nucleus at the origin (Roche Model). The unsteady model of Roche consists of a dusty gas distributed with spherical symmetry around a nucleus having large mass It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the heavy nucleus. The density of the ambient medium is taken to be constant. Our analysis reveals that after inclusion of gravitational field effect surprisingly the shock strength increases and remarkable difference can be found in the distribution of flow variables. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters, the gravitational parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is found that the shock strength is increased with an increase in the value of gravitational parameter. Further, it is investigated that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under a gravitational field can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, star formation in shocks, shocks in supernova explosions and shocks in stellar explosion, rupture of a pressurized vessels and explosion in the ionosphere etc. A comparison is made between the solutions in the cases of the gravitating and the non-gravitating medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.
2007-05-01
The bipolar signatures of weak (eφmax/Te ≪ 1) electron phase-space holes have now been observed in numerous near-Earth space-plasma environments such as the polar cusp region1 and the solar wind2 at 1 AU. While families of stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson equations consistent with these observations have been found,3 the question of how shallow phase-space density depressions supporting these bipolar fields form remains an open one. While strong bipolar fields associated with deep phase-space holes in Earth auroral downward-current region are consistent with saturated two-stream instabilities resulting from double-layer electron acceleration,4 the weak bipolar fields observed in other space environments may require an alternative generation mechanism. One such mechanism involves the formation of narrow minima in the electron velocity-space distribution resulting from stretching due to velocity dispersion of phase-space density minima that are initially localized in physical space (e.g., constant-density regions with temperatures greater than their surroundings). These velocity-space minima, which become narrower as they are dispersively stretched, eventually cross the threshold condition for a "notch" instability, which saturates by forming an expanding series of shallow phase-space holes and their associated weak bipolar fields. 1-D Vlasov-Poisson simulations show that this process can be a robust mechanism for generating a large ensemble of shallow holes. Simulations with different background electron distributions show that the properties of the holes that form depend sensitively on the characteristics of the embedding plasma environment. * Research supported by NSF, NASA, and DOE. 1 J. R. Franz, et al., JGR, 110, doi:10.1029/2005JA011095 (2005). 2 A. Mangeney, private communication. 3 M. V. Goldman, et al., this meeting. 4 R. E. Ergun, et al., PRL, 87, 045003 (2001); D. L. Newman, et al. PRL, 87, 255001 (2001).
Childhood leukemia and residential exposure to weak extremely low frequency magnetic fields.
Feychting, M; Ahlbom, A
1995-01-01
There is no known mechanism by which magnetic fields of the type generated by high voltage power lines can play a role in cancer development. Nevertheless, epidemiologic research has rather consistently found associations between residential magnetic field exposure and cancer. This is most evident for leukemia in children. PMID:7614949
Childhood leukemia and residential exposure to weak extremely low frequency magnetic fields
Feychting, M.; Ahlbom, A.
1995-03-01
There is no known mechanism by which magnetic fields of the type generated by high voltage power lines can play a role in cancer development. Nevertheless, epidemiologic research has rather consistently found associations between residential magnetic field exposure and cancer. This is most evident for leukemia in children. 18 refs., 1 tab.
Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.
2014-05-01
In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed.
Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields.
Shneider, M N; Pekker, M
2014-05-01
In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed. PMID:25353835
Hanna, Chad; Mandel, Ilya; Vousden, Will E-mail: imandel@star.sr.bham.ac.uk
2014-03-20
The first detections of gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers with advanced LIGO and Virgo observatories are anticipated in the next five years. These detections could pave the way for multi-messenger gravitational-wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) astronomy if GW triggers are successfully followed up with targeted EM observations. However, GW sky localization is relatively poor, with expected localization areas of ∼10-100 deg{sup 2}; this presents a challenge for following up GW signals from compact binary mergers. Even for wide-field instruments, tens or hundreds of pointings may be required. Prioritizing pointings based on the relative probability of successful imaging is important since it may not be possible to tile the entire gravitational-wave localization region in a timely fashion. Galaxy catalogs were effective at narrowing down regions of the sky to search in initial attempts at joint GW/EM observations. The relatively limited range of initial GW instruments meant that few galaxies were present per pointing and galaxy catalogs were complete within the search volume. The next generation of GW detectors will have a 10-fold increase in range thereby increasing the expected number of galaxies per unit solid angle by a factor of ∼1000. As an additional complication, catalogs will be highly incomplete. Nevertheless, galaxy catalogs can still play an important role in prioritizing pointings for the next era of GW searches. We show how to quantify the advantages of using galaxy catalogs to prioritize wide-field follow-ups as a function of only two parameters: the three-dimensional volume within the field of view of a telescope after accounting for the GW distance measurement uncertainty, and the fraction of the GW sky localization uncertainty region that can be covered with telescope pointings. We find that the use of galaxy catalogs can improve the probability of successful imaging by ∼10% to ∼300% relative to follow-up strategies that do not utilize such catalogs for the scenarios we considered. We determine that catalogs with a 75% completeness perform comparably to complete catalogs in most cases, while 33%-complete catalogs can lead to lower follow-up success rates than complete catalogs for small fields of view, though still providing an advantage over strategies that do not use a catalog at all.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horide, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Mukaida, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Horii, S.
2007-01-01
Magnetic-field-induced Josephson-junction (JJ) behavior in a highly transparent weak link was observed at the 5° tilt low angle grain boundary (LAGB) in a YBa2Cu3O7-δ film. The magnetic field dependence of current density-voltage curves showed that Abrikosov Josephson (AJ) vortices exist in the LAGB. Both JJ and flux-flow (FF) behaviors were observed in a single LAGB depending on the temperature and magnetic field. The crossover from FF to JJ arose from the spread of the phase variation along the junction when the AJ vortex cores overlapped at B*=ϕ0/(4.4l)2 , where l is the characteristic length of AJ vortex.
The dichotomy between strong and ultra-weak magnetic fields among intermediate-mass stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lignières, François; Petit, Pascal; Aurière, Michel; Wade, Gregg A.; Böhm, Torsten
2014-08-01
Until recently, the detection of magnetic fields at the surface of intermediate-mass main-sequence stars has been limited to Ap/Bp stars, a class of chemically peculiar stars. This class represents no more than 5-10% of the stars in this mass range. This small fraction is not explained by the fossil field paradigm that describes the Ap/Bp type magnetism as a remnant of an early phase of the star-life. Also, the limitation of the field measurements to a small and special group of stars is obviously a problem to study the effect of the magnetic fields on the stellar evolution of a typical intermediate-mass star. Thanks to the improved sensitivity of a new generation of spectropolarimeters, a lower bound to the magnetic fields of Ap/Bp stars, a two orders of magnitude desert in the longitudinal magnetic field and a new type of sub-gauss magnetism first discovered on Vega have been identified. These advances provide new clues to understand the origin of intermediate-mass magnetism as well as its influence on stellar evolution. In particular, a scenario has been proposed whereby the magnetic dichotomy between Ap/Bp and Vega-like magnetism originate from the bifurcation between stable and unstable large scale magnetic configurations in differentially rotating stars. In this paper, we review these recent observational findings and discuss this scenario.
Sadooghi, N.; Anaraki, K. Sohrabi
2008-12-15
Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor {pi}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(k{sub 0},k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k{sub 0}{yields}0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k{sub 0}{yields}0, k{yields}0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit, at high temperature and for {alpha}{yields}0, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T{sup 4}{alpha}{sup 5/2}, in addition to the expected T{sup 4}{alpha}{sup 3/2} term arising from the static limit. Here, {alpha} is the fine structure constant. In the limit of the strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level, the ring potential includes a novel term consisting of dilogarithmic function (eB)Li{sub 2}(-(2{alpha}/{pi})(eB/m{sup 2})). Using the ring improved (one-loop) effective potential including the one-loop effective potential and ring potential in the IR limit, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking of QED is studied at finite temperature and in the presence of the strong magnetic field. The gap equation, the dynamical mass and the critical temperature of QED in the regime of the lowest Landau level dominance are determined in the improved IR as well as in the static limit. For a given value of the magnetic field, the improved ring potential is shown to be more efficient in decreasing the critical temperature arising from the one-loop effective potential.