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This review forms the Weak Lensing part of the Saas-Fee Advanced Course on Gravitational Lensing. It describes the basicsm applications and results of weak lensing. Contents: (1) Introduction (2) The principles of weak gravitational lensing (3) Observational issues and challenges (4) Clusters of galaxies: Introduction, and strong lensing (5) Mass reconstructions from weak lensing (6) Cosmic shear -- lensing by the LSS (7) Large-scale structure lensing: results (8) The mass of, and associated with galaxies (9) Additional issues in cosmic shear (10) Concluding remarks.

Peter Schneider

2005-09-09

2

Weak Gravitational Lensing by Voids

We consider the prospects for detecting weak gravitational lensing by underdensities (voids) in the large-scale matter distribution. We derive the basic expressions for magnification and distortion by spherical voids. Clustering of the background sources and cosmic variance are the main factors which limit in principle the detection of lensing by voids. We conclude that only voids with radii larger than $\\sim 100$ \\hm have lensing signal to noise larger than unity.

Luca Amendola; Joshua A. Frieman; Ioav Waga

1998-11-29

3

Weak gravitational lensing of the CMB

Weak gravitational lensing has several important effects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB): it changes the CMB power spectra, induces non-Gaussianities, and generates a B-mode polarization signal that is an important source of confusion for the signal from primordial gravitational waves. The lensing signal can also be used to help constrain cosmological parameters and lensing mass distributions. We review the

Antony Lewis; Anthony Challinor

2006-01-01

4

Weak gravitational lensing with DEIMOS

We introduce a novel method for weak-lensing measurements, which is based on a mathematically exact deconvolution of the moments of the apparent brightness distribution of galaxies from the telescope's point spread function (PSF). No assumptions on the shape of the galaxy or the PSF are made. The (de)convolution equations are exact for unweighted moments only, while in practice a compact

P. Melchior; M. Viola; B. M. Schäfer; M. Bartelmann

2011-01-01

5

Weak gravitational lensing with the Square Kilometre Array

We investigate the capabilities of various stages of the SKA to perform world-leading weak gravitational lensing surveys. We outline a way forward to develop the tools needed for pursuing weak lensing in the radio band. We identify the key analysis challenges and the key pathfinder experiments that will allow us to address them in the run up to the SKA. We identify and summarize the unique and potentially very powerful aspects of radio weak lensing surveys, facilitated by the SKA, that can solve major challenges in the field of weak lensing. These include the use of polarization and rotational velocity information to control intrinsic alignments, and the new area of weak lensing using intensity mapping experiments. We show how the SKA lensing surveys will both complement and enhance corresponding efforts in the optical wavebands through cross-correlation techniques and by way of extending the reach of weak lensing to high redshift.

Brown, M L; Camera, S; Harrison, I; Joachimi, B; Metcalf, R B; Pourtsidou, A; Takahashi, K; Zuntz, J A; Abdalla, F B; Bridle, S; Jarvis, M; Kitching, T D; Miller, L; Patel, P

2015-01-01

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Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data

We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.

Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2005-12-14

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Weak Gravitational Lensing and Cluster Mass Estimates

Hierarchical theories of structure formation predict that clusters of galaxies should be embedded in a web like structure, with filaments emanating from them to large distances. The amount of mass contained within such filaments near a cluster can be comparable to the collapsed mass of the cluster itself. Diffuse infalling material also contains a large amount of mass. Both these components can contribute to the cluster weak lensing signal. This ``projection bias'' is maximized if a filament lies close to the line-of-sight to a cluster. Using large--scale numerical simulations of structure formation in a cosmological constant dominated cold dark matter model, we show that the projected mass typically exceeds the actual mass by several tens of percent. This effect is significant for attempts to estimate cluster masses through weak lensing observations, and will affect weak lensing surveys aimed at constructing the cluster mass function.

Christopher A. Metzler; Martin White; Michael Norman; Chris Loken

1999-04-13

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Weak gravitational lensing as a tool for cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will speak about recent developments in the measurements of the weak gravitational signal from maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This signal is regarded as a contaminant of the primordial signal, but simultaneously it contains information on the large-scale matter distribution. Weak lensing of the CMB results from the coupling of the CMB photons to the gravitational potential integrated along the line of sight. Whereas lensing of galaxy shapes probes up to z~2, lensing of the CMB probes up to the last-scattering surface at z~1000 thus being a powerful tool for cosmology. Weak lensing generates a non-Gaussian pattern on the CMB temperature, while conserving the surface brightness. Hence, estimators of the weak lensing signal are quadratic in the temperature maps. I will then speak about a novel estimator which acts in real space, contrary to conventional estimators which act in harmonic space. The novel estimator performs well in the presence of detector noise and cuts in the maps due to point source excisions. Time allowing, I will also speak about how to use weak lensing to study the nature of dark matter and constrain deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales.

Carvalho, C. S.

2012-01-01

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Studying the LSS through weak gravitational lensing maps

Weak gravitational lensing is a promising tool for the study of the mass distribution in the Universe. Here we report some partial results that show how lensing maps can be used to differentiate between cosmological models. We pay special attention to the role of noise and smoothing. As an application, we use mock convergence fields constructed from N-body simulations of the large-scale structure for three historically important cosmological models. Various map analyses are used, including Minkowski functionals, and their ability to differentiate the models is calculated and discussed.

Antonio C. C. Guimarães

2001-12-10

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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational lensing effects in the weak gravitational field by exotic lenses have been investigated intensively to find nonluminous exotic objects. Gravitational lensing based on 1/rn fall-off metric, as a one-parameter model that can treat by hand both the Schwarzschild lens (n =1) and the Ellis wormhole (n =2) in the weak field, has been recently studied. Only for n=1 case, however, it has been explicitly shown that effects of relativistic lens images by the strong field on the light curve can be neglected. We discuss whether relativistic images by the strong field can be neglected for n>1 in the Tangherlini spacetime which is one of the simplest models for our purpose. We calculate the divergent part of the deflection angle for arbitrary n and the regular part for n=1, 2 and 4 in the strong field limit, the deflection angle for arbitrary n under the weak gravitational approximation. We also compare the radius of the Einstein ring with the radii of the relativistic Einstein rings for arbitrary n. We conclude that the images in the strong gravitational field have little effect on the total light curve and that the time-symmetric demagnification parts in the light curve will appear even after taking account of the images in the strong gravitational field for n>1.

Tsukamoto, Naoki; Kitamura, Takao; Nakajima, Koki; Asada, Hideki

2014-09-01

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Tomographic Weak Gravitational Lensing Magnification with the Deep Lens Survey

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using half a million galaxies from the Deep Lens Survey, we have measured the gravitational lensing-induced magnification of high redshift (z 4) Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) by foreground field galaxies at a S/N > 20, finding a signal consistent with the expected lensing behavior. Using photometric redshifts, we can further divide our foreground galaxies into 8 roughly equal sub-groups covering the redshift range 0.4 < z < 1.2, which spans the expected lensing efficiency peak. After accounting for the evolution in large scale bias, we find that the measured lensing signal for the 8 sub-samples is consistent with the expected tomographic signal in LambdaCDM with a sigma8 given by WMAP CMB data. We find that these results are robust against systematic effects from variations in survey depth, seeing, and extinction as well as cross-contamination between the photometric redshift-selected foreground and LBG samples.

Morrison, Christopher; Scranton, R.; Schmidt, S.; Tyson, J.; Wittman, D.

2012-01-01

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LIGHT ON DARK MATTER WITH WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING 1 Light on Dark Matter

LIGHT ON DARK MATTER WITH WEAK GRAVITATIONAL LENSING 1 Light on Dark Matter with Weak Gravitational reviews statistical methods re- cently developed to reconstruct and analyze dark matter mass maps from decades showing that the visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe, the rest being dark

Starck, Jean-Luc

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Most of the matter in the Universe is not luminous, and can be observed only through its gravitational influence on the appearance of luminous matter. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that uses the distortions of the images of distant galaxies as a tracer of dark matter: such distortions are induced as the light passes through large-scale distributions of dark

J. Anthony Tyson; David Kirkman; Ian Dell'Antonio; Gary Bernstein; David M. Wittman

2000-01-01

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Statistical properties of filaments in weak gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the weak lensing properties of filaments that connect clusters of galaxies through large cosmological N-body simulations. We select 4639 halo pairs with masses higher than 1014 h-1 M? from the simulations and investigate dark matter distributions between two haloes with ray-tracing simulations. In order to classify filament candidates, we estimate convergence profiles and perform profile fitting. We find that matter distributions between haloes can be classified in a plane of fitting parameters, which allows us to select straight filaments from the ray-tracing simulations. We also investigate the statistical properties of these filaments, finding them to be consistent with previous studies. We find that 35 per cent of halo pairs possess straight filaments, 4 per cent of which can be detected directly at signal-to-noise ratio S/N ? 2 with weak lensing. Furthermore, we study the statistical properties of haloes at the edges of filaments. We find that haloes are preferentially elongated along filamentary structures and are less massive with increasing filament mass. However, the dependence of these halo properties on the masses of straight filaments is very weak.

Higuchi, Yuichi; Oguri, Masamune; Shirasaki, Masato

2014-06-01

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Constraining modified gravitational theories by weak lensing with Euclid

Future proposed satellite missions such as Euclid can offer the opportunity to test general relativity on cosmic scales through mapping of the galaxy weak-lensing signal. In this paper we forecast the ability of these experiments to constrain modified gravity scenarios such as those predicted by scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. We find that Euclid will improve constraints expected from the Planck satellite on these modified theories of gravity by 2 orders of magnitude. We discuss parameter degeneracies and the possible biases introduced by modifications to gravity.

Martinelli, Matteo; Calabrese, Erminia; De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca [Physics Department and INFN, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Scaramella, Roberto [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 0040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

2011-01-15

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Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat's principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.

Perlick, Volker

2014-01-01

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Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation

Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat’s principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.

Perlick, Volker, E-mail: perlick@zarm.uni-bremen.de [ZARM, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

2014-01-14

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For several years astronomers have devoted considerable effort to finding and studying a class of celestial phenomena whose very existence depends on rare cosmic accidents. These are gravitational-lens events, which occur when two or more objects at different distances from the earth happen to lie along the same line of sight and so coincide in the sky. The radiation from the more distant object, typically a quasar, is bent by the gravitational field of the foreground object. The bending creates a cosmic mirage: distorted or multiple images of the background object. Such phenomena may reveal many otherwise undetectable features of the image source, of the foreground object and of the space lying between them. Such observations could help to resolve several fundamental questions in cosmology. In the past decade theoretical and observational research on gravitational lenses has grown rapidly and steadily. At this writing at least 17 candidate lens systems have been discussed in the literature. Of the 17 lens candidates reported so far in professional literature, only five are considered to have been reliably established by subsequent observations. Another three are generally regarded as weak or speculative cases with less than 50 percent chance of actually being lens systems. In the remaining nine cases the evidence is mixed or is sparse enough so that the final judgment could swing either way. As might be concluded, little of the scientific promise of gravitational lenses has yet been realized. The work has not yielded a clear value for the proportionality constant or any of the other fundamental cosmological parameter. 7 figs.

Turner, E.L.

1988-07-01

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Weighing the Cosmological Energy Contents with Weak Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using perturbation theory, Bernardeau, Van Waerbeke, & Mellier show that the skewness of the large-scale lensing convergence, or projected mass density, could be used to constrain ?m, the matter content of the universe. However, deep weak-lensing field surveys in the near future will likely measure the convergence on small angular scales (<~10'), where the signal will be dominated by highly nonlinear fluctuations. We develop a method for computing the small-scale convergence skewness that gives predictions that agree well with existing results from ray-tracing N-body simulations but is significantly faster. We demonstrate that the small-scale convergence skewness is insensitive to the shape and normalization of the primordial (cold dark matter-type) power spectrum, making it dependent almost entirely on the cosmological energy contents. Moreover, nonlinear clustering appears to enhance the differences between predictions of the convergence skewness for a range of models. Hence, in addition to constraining ?m, the small-scale convergence skewness from future deep and several degrees wide surveys can be used to differentiate between curvature-dominated and cosmological constant (?)-dominated models, as well as to constrain the equation of state of a quintessence component, thereby distinguishing ? from quintessence. Finally, our method can be easily generalized to other measures such as the aperture mass statistics.

Hui, Lam

1999-07-01

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Testing dark energy paradigms with weak gravitational lensing R. Ali Vanderveld,1

Testing dark energy paradigms with weak gravitational lensing R. Ali Vanderveld,1 Michael J all quintessence models, with or without early dark energy. We further explore how uncertainties a given dark energy paradigm, such as the standard CDM model of cold dark matter and a cosmological

Hu, Wayne

21

Constraints on the inner density profile of dark matter haloes from weak gravitational lensing

We construct two linear filtering techniques based on weak gravitational lensing to constrain the inner slope alpha of the density profile of dark matter haloes. Both methods combine all available information into an estimate of this single number. Under idealized assumptions, alpha is constrained to ~15 per cent if the halo concentration c is known, and to <~30 per cent

M. Viola; M. Maturi; M. Bartelmann

2010-01-01

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Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter

The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.

Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

2010-12-15

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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This systematic presentation of the current status and problems of the theory and observations of gravitational lensing starts from the equations of classical electrodynamics and general relativity, and develops for the first time gravitational lens theory from first principles. Beginning with simple models and basic properties of the lens mapping, the book proceeds to more complicated recent analytical and numerical treatments, thereby highlighting the prominent role played by lensing statistics in the interpretation of high-redshift objects. A detailed description of microlensing is given. The potential role of gravitational lenses as astronomical tools, for example, to determine the masses of cosmic objects and the scale of the universe and as natural telescopes, is pointed out. On the observational side, details of several known multiple QSOs, radio rings and luminous arcs, and the difficulties of observation and verification of lens systems are summarized. The basics of catastophe theory, to the extent that it concerns singularities of plane maps, are derived and some techniques for numerical treatments of gravitational lensing are listed. This book can be viewed as both textbook and research monograph.

Schneider, Peter; Ehlers, Jürgen; Falco, Emilio E.

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The Effect of Weak Gravitational Lensing on the Angular Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts

If Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are cosmologically distributed standard candles and are associated with the luminous galaxies, then the observed angular distribution of all GRBs is altered due to weak gravitational lensing of bursts by density inhomogeneities. The amplitude of the effect is generally small. For example, if the current catalogs extend to $z_{max}\\sim 1$ and we live in a flat $\\Omega=1$ Universe, the angular auto-correlation function of GRBs will be enhanced by $\\sim 8\\%$ due to lensing, on all angular scales. For an extreme case of $z_{max}= 1.5$ and ($\\Omega$, $\\Lambda$)=(0.2, 0.8), an enhancement of $\\sim 33\\%$ is predicted. If the observed distribution of GRBs is used in the future to derive power spectra of mass density fluctuations on large angular scales, the effect of weak lensing should probably be taken into account.

L. L. R. Williams

1996-06-10

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Initial Results from a Laboratory Emulation of Weak Gravitational Lensing Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing observations are a key science driver for the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). To validate the performance of the WFIRST infrared detectors, we have performed a laboratory emulation of weak gravitational lensing measurements. Our experiments used a custom precision projector system to image a target mask composed of a grid of pinholes, emulating stellar point sources, onto a 1.7 ?m cut-off Teledyne HgCdTe/H2RG detector. We used a 0.88 ?m LED illumination source and f/22 pupil stop to produce undersampled point spread functions similar to those expected from WFIRST. We also emulated the WFIRST image reconstruction strategy, using the image combination (IMCOM) algorithm to derive oversampled images from dithered, undersampled input images. We created shear maps for this data and computed shear correlation functions to mimic a real weak lensing analysis. After removing only second-order polynomial fits to the shear maps, we found that the correlation functions could be reduced to O(10-6). This places a conservative upper limit on the detector-induced bias to the correlation function (under our test conditions). This bias is two orders of magnitude lower than the expected weak lensing signal. Restricted to scales relevant to dark energy analyses (sky separations >0.5'), the bias is O(10-7) - comparable to the requirement for future weak lensing missions to avoid biasing cosmological parameter estimates. Our experiment will need to be upgraded and repeated under different configurations to fully characterize the shape measurement performance of WFIRST IR detectors.

Seshadri, S.; Shapiro, C.; Goodsall, T.; Fucik, J.; Hirata, C.; Rhodes, J. D.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Smith, R. M.

2013-09-01

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Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.

When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection. PMID:24580435

Dai, Liang

2014-01-31

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Weak Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Foreground Gravitational Waves

Weak lensing distortion of the background cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization patterns by the foreground density fluctuations is well studied in the literature. We discuss the gravitational lensing modification to CMB anisotropies and polarization by a stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves between us and the last scattering surface. While density fluctuations perturb CMB photons via gradient-type deflections only, foreground gravitational waves distort CMB anisotropies via both gradient- and curl-type displacements. The latter is a rotation of background images, while the former is related to the lensing convergence. For a primordial background of inflationary gravitational waves, with an amplitude corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio below the current upper limit of $\\sim$ 0.3, the resulting modifications to the angular power spectra of CMB temperature anisotropy and polarization are below the cosmic variance limit. At tens of arcminute angular scales and below, these corrections, however, are above the level at which systematics must be controlled in all-sky anisotropy and polarization maps with no instrumental noise and other secondary and foreground signals.

Chao Li; Asantha Cooray

2006-04-07

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Weak Gravitational Lensing as a Probe of Physical Properties of Substructures in Dark Matter Halos

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel method to select satellite galaxies in outer regions of galaxy groups or clusters using weak gravitational lensing. The method is based on the theoretical expectation that the tangential shear pattern around satellite galaxies would appear with negative values at an offset distance from the center of the main halo. We can thus locate the satellite galaxies statistically with an offset distance of several lensing smoothing scales by using the standard reconstruction of surface mass density maps from weak lensing observation. We test the idea using high-resolution cosmological simulations. We show that subhalos separated from the center of the host halo are successfully located even without assuming the position of the center. For a number of such subhalos, the characteristic mass and offset length can be also estimated on a statistical basis. We perform a Fisher analysis to show how well upcoming weak lensing surveys can constrain the mass density profile of satellite galaxies. In the case of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope with a sky coverage of 20,000 deg2, the mass of the member galaxies in the outer region of galaxy clusters can be constrained with an accuracy of ~0.1 dex for galaxy clusters with mass 1014 h –1 M ? at z = 0.15. Finally we explore the detectability of tidal stripping features for subhalos having a wide range of masses of 1011-1013 h –1 M ?.

Shirasaki, Masato

2015-02-01

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Cosmological Applications of Gravitational Lensing

This course presents some applications of gravitational lensing to the measurement of masses of galaxies (galaxy-galaxy lensing, Eintein rings, perturbations of giant arcs) and cluster of galaxies (strong and weak lensing). This complements the F. Bernardeau's course dedicated to some theoretical aspects and weak lensing by large scale structures. In the first section, I describe the most important lensing quantities and lensing properties useful for astrophycal applications. Then I briefly present some academic exemples. Section three is devoted to exemples of mass reconstruction and the study of mass distribution in clusters of galaxies and galaxies.

Y. Mellier

1999-01-11

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Weighing the Giants: Galaxy Cluster Cosmology Anchored by Weak Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas mass fractions and the distribution in mass and redshift of the galaxy cluster population provide powerful probes of cosmology, constraining the cosmic matter density (?m), the amplitude of the matter power spectrum (?8), properties of dark energy, and the mass of neutrinos, among other parameters. Historically, these tests have been limited by the absolute accuracy of cluster mass determinations. Here, mass measurements from weak lensing (made in the right way) have an advantage over estimates based on observations of the intracluster medium (ICM), because the former are nearly unbiased and can be straightforwardly tested against simulations. I will report new cosmological constraints obtained from an analysis of X-ray selected cluster samples, incorporating extensive gravitational lensing data from the Weighing the Giants project -- the first cluster cosmology study to consistently integrate a lensing mass calibration, including a rigorous quantification of all systematic uncertainties. Compared with earlier work, which had to incorporate larger systematic allowances associated with an ICM-based mass calibration, our joint constraints on ?m and ?8 are improved by a factor of 2. Including Cosmic Microwave Background and other cosmological probes in the analysis, we find no evidence for non-zero neutrino mass in the current data. This result is directly dependent on the absolute cluster mass calibration, and conflicts with some recent cluster results using ICM-based masses, highlighting the need for an accurate mass calibration (such as lensing provides). We also obtain tight constraints on dark energy models; for flat models with a constant equation of state (w), the cluster data alone yield w=-0.98±0.15. Our data, and their combination with other leading cosmological data sets, remain consistent with the concordance model of cosmology, with zero global curvature, dark energy as a non-evolving cosmological constant (w=-1), minimal neutrino mass, and gravity described by General Relativity.

Mantz, Adam; Von Der Linden, Anja; Allen, Steven W.; Applegate, Douglas; Kelly, Patrick; Morris, Glenn; Rapetti, David; Schmidt, Robert; Ebeling, Harald

2014-08-01

31

Probing Dark Energy via Weak Gravitational Lensing with the Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP)

SNAP is a candidate for the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) that seeks to place constraints on the dark energy using two distinct methods. The first, Type Ia SN, is discussed in a separate white paper. The second method is weak gravitational lensing, which relies on the coherent distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass structures. The excellent spatial resolution and photometric accuracy afforded by a 2-meter space-based observatory are crucial for achieving the high surface density of resolved galaxies, the tight control of systematic errors in the telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF), and the exquisite redshift accuracy and depth required by this project. These are achieved by the elimination of atmospheric distortion and much of the thermal and gravity loads on the telescope. The SN and WL methods for probing dark energy are highly complementary and the error contours from the two methods are largely orthogonal. The nominal SNAP weak lensing survey covers 1000 square degrees per year of operation in six optical and three near infrared filters (NIR) spanning the range 350 nm to 1.7 {micro}m. This survey will reach a depth of 26.6 AB magnitude in each of the nine filters and allow for approximately 100 resolved galaxies per square arcminute, {approx} 3 times that available from the best ground-based surveys. Photometric redshifts will be measured with statistical accuracy that enables scientific applications for even the faint, high redshift end of the sample. Ongoing work aims to meet the requirements on systematics in galaxy shape measurement, photometric redshift biases, and theoretical predictions.

Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3

2005-08-08

32

Probing the Universe with Weak Lensing

Gravitational lenses can provide crucial information on the geometry of the Universe, on the cosmological scenario of formation of its structures as well as on the history of its components with look-back time. In this review, I focus on the most recent results obtained during the last five years from the analysis of the weak lensing regime. The interest of weak lensing as a probe of dark matter and the for study of the coupling between light and mass on scales of clusters of galaxies, large scale structures and galaxies is discussed first. Then I present the impact of weak lensing for the study of distant galaxies and of the population of lensed sources as function of redshift. Finally, I discuss the potential interest of weak lensing to constrain the cosmological parameters, either from pure geometrical effects observed in peculiar lenses, or from the coupling of weak lensing with the CMB.

Y. Mellier

1998-12-09

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We report the first confirmation of colour-selected galaxy cluster candidates by means of weak gravitational lensing. Significant lensing signals were identified in the course of the shear-selection programme of dark matter haloes in the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey, which currently covers 20 square degrees of deep, high-quality imaging data on the southern sky. The detection was made in a field that was previously covered by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) in 1997. A highly significant shear-selected mass-concentration perfectly coincides with the richest EIS cluster candidate at z~0.2, thus confirming its cluster nature. Several other shear patterns in the field can also be identified with cluster candidates, one of which could possibly be part of a filament at z~0.45.

Mischa Schirmer; Thomas Erben; Peter Schneider; Christian Wolf; Klaus Meisenheimer

2004-01-12

34

What is Gravitational Lensing?

July 28, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Gravitational lensing is explained by Einstein's general theory of relativity: galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which are very massive objects, act on spacetime by causing it to become curved. Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima, astrophysicists with the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, will discuss how scientists use gravitational lensing to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter in the universe.

Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima

2009-07-31

35

Gravitational lensing can provide pure geometric tests of the structure of spacetime, for instance by determining empirically the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. This geometric test has been demonstrated several times using massive clusters which produce a large lensing signal. In this case, matter at a single redshift dominates the lensing signal, so the analysis is straightforward. It is less clear how weaker signals from multiple sources at different redshifts can be stacked to demonstrate the geometric dependence. We introduce a simple measure of relative shear which for flat cosmologies separates the effect of lens and source positions into multiplicative terms, allowing signals from many different source-lens pairs to be combined. Applying this technique to a sample of groups and low-mass clusters in the COSMOS survey, we detect a clear variation of shear with distance behind the lens. This represents the first detection of the geometric effect using weak lensing by multiple, low-mass groups. The variation of distance with redshift is measured with sufficient precision to constrain the equation of state of the universe under the assumption of flatness, equivalent to a detection of a dark energy component {Omega}{sub X} at greater than 99% confidence for an equation-of-state parameter -2.5 {<=} w {<=} -0.1. For the case w = -1, we find a value for the cosmological constant density parameter {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.85{sup +0.044}{sub -}0{sub .19} (68% CL) and detect cosmic acceleration (q{sub 0} < 0) at the 98% CL. We consider the systematic uncertainties associated with this technique and discuss the prospects for applying it in forthcoming weak-lensing surveys.

Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Massey, Richard J. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kitching, Thomas D. [Institute for Astronomy, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, 13013 Marseille (France); Jullo, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M., E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-04-20

36

Arcs from gravitational lensing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposal made by Paczynski (1987) that the arcs of blue light found recently in two cluster cores are gravitationally lensed elongated images of background galaxies is investigated. It is shown that lenses that are circularly symmetric in projection produce pairs of arcs, in conflict with the observations. However, more realistic asymmetric lenses produce single arcs, which can become as elongated as the observed ones whenever the background galaxy is located on or close to a cusp caustic. Detailed computer simulations of lensing by clusters using a reasonable model of the mass distribution are presented. Elongated and curved lensed images longer than 10 arcsec occur in 12 percent of the simulated clusters. It is concluded that the lensing hypothesis must be taken seriously.

Grossman, Scott A.; Narayan, Ramesh

1988-01-01

37

Gravitational Lensing - Einstein's Unfinished Symphony

Gravitational lensing - the deflection of light rays by gravitating matter - has become a major tool in the armoury of the modern cosmologist. Proposed nearly a hundred years ago as a key feature of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, we trace the historical development since its verification at a solar eclipse in 1919. Einstein was apparently cautious about its practical utility and the subject lay dormant observationally for nearly 60 years. Nonetheless there has been rapid progress over the past twenty years. The technique allows astronomers to chart the distribution of dark matter on large and small scales thereby testing predictions of the standard cosmological model which assumes dark matter comprises a massive weakly-interacting particle. By measuring distances and tracing the growth of dark matter structure over cosmic time, gravitational lensing also holds great promise in determining whether the dark energy, postulated to explain the accelerated cosmic expansion, is a vacuum energy density or a...

Treu, Tommaso

2014-01-01

38

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

39

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gravitational Lensing model simulates the result of the deflection of photons as they pass through the warped space-time of a gravitational field of stars, clusters of galaxies or dark matter. In the simulation you can examine the effect caused by a gravitational lens in three different cases: 1. A point-mass lens and a point mass source. 2. A point-mass lens and an extended source. 3. A softened isothermal sphere lens and an extended source. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Gravitational Lensing model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_general_relativity_Gravitational_Lensing.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Sancho, Ms. M.

2011-09-09

40

Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes analysed are both those surrounding individual galaxies and those encompassing massive galaxy clusters. In order to better study these haloes, new lensing software is developed and existing lensing theory is advanced in the context of this Thesis. As a result, new higher-order signals are detected and lenses are studied in greater detail than ever before.

Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

2012-06-01

41

We explore the dependence of weak lensing phenomena on the background cosmology. We first generalise the relation between $P_\\psi(\\omega)$, the angular power spectrum of the distortion, and the power spectrum of density fluctuations to non-flat cosmologies. We then compute $P_\\psi$ for various illustrative models. A useful cosmological discriminator is the growth of $P_\\psi$ with source redshift which is much stronger in low matter density models, and especially in $\\Lambda$-dominated models. With even crude redshift information (say from broad band colours) it should be possible to constrain the cosmological world model. The amplitude of $P_\\psi(\\omega)$ is also quite sensitive to the cosmology, but requires a reliable external normalisation for the mass fluctuations. If one normalises to galaxy clustering, with $M/L$ fixed by small-scale galaxy dynamics, then low density models predict a much stronger distortion. If, however, one normalises to large-scale bulk-flows, the predicted distortion for sources at redshifts $Z_s \\sim 1-3$ is rather insensitive to the background cosmology. The signals predicted here can be detected at a very high level of significance with a photometric survey covering say 10 square degrees, but sparse sampling is needed to avoid large sampling variance and we discuss the factors influencing the design of an optimum survey. Turning to weak lensing by clusters we find that for high lens redshifts ($Z_l\\simeq1$) the critical density is substantially reduced in $\\Lambda$ models, but that the ratio of the shear or convergence to the velocity dispersions or X-ray temperature of clusters is only very weakly dependent on the cosmology.

Nick Kaiser

1996-10-16

42

Topological Defects in Gravitational Lensing Shear Fields

Shear fields due to weak gravitational lensing have characteristic coherent patterns. We describe the topological defects in shear fields in terms of the curvature of the surface described by the lensing potential. A simple interpretation of the characteristic defects is given in terms of the the umbilical points of the potential surface produced by ellipsoidal halos. We show simulated lensing shear maps and point out the typical defect configurations. Finally, we show how statistical properties such as the abundance of defects can be expressed in terms of the correlation function of the lensing potential.

Vitelli, Vincenzo; Kamien, Randall D

2009-01-01

43

Topological defects in gravitational lensing shear fields

Shear fields due to weak gravitational lensing have characteristic coherent patterns. We describe the topological defects in shear fields in terms of the curvature of the surface described by the lensing potential. A simple interpretation of the characteristic defects is given in terms of the the umbilical points of the potential surface produced by ellipsoidal halos. We show simulated lensing shear maps and point out the typical defect configurations. Finally, we show how statistical properties such as the abundance of defects can be expressed in terms of the correlation function of the lensing potential.

Vitelli, Vincenzo [Instituut-Lorentz, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Jain, Bhuvnesh; Kamien, Randall D., E-mail: vitelli@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: kamien@physics.upenn.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2009-09-01

44

Gravitational Lensing in the Universe

This work reviews the basic theoretical aspects, the main observational evidences and the recent applications of gravitational lensing in the Universe. The article is aimed particularly at providing the readers who don't work on gravitational lensing a relatively easy introduction to this active research field in today's astrophysics.

Xiang-Ping Wu

1995-12-17

45

Weak lensing cosmology beyond ?CDM

Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-?CDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies.

Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Putter, Roland de, E-mail: sdas@hep.anl.gov, E-mail: rdeputter@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: evlinder@lbl.gov, E-mail: reiko@astro.uni-bonn.de [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

2012-11-01

46

Dynamics of Fermat potentials in non-perturbative gravitational lensing

We present a framework, based on the null-surface formulation of general relativity, for discussing the dynamics of Fermat potentials for gravitational lensing in a generic situation without approximations of any kind. Additionally, we derive two lens equations: one for the case of thick compact lenses and the other one for lensing by gravitational waves. These equations in principle generalize the astrophysical scheme for lensing by removing the thin-lens approximation while retaining the weak fields.

Simonetta Frittelli; Ezra T. Newman

2002-05-03

47

Dark Synergy: Gravitational Lensing and the CMB

Power spectra and cross-correlation measurements from the weak gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the cosmic shearing of faint galaxies images will help shed light on quantities hidden from the CMB temperature anisotropies: the dark energy, the end of the dark ages, and the inflationary gravitational wave amplitude. Even with modest surveys, both types of lensing power spectra break CMB degeneracies and they can ultimately improve constraints on the dark energy equation of state w by over an order of magnitude. In its cross correlation with the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, CMB lensing offers a unique opportunity for a more direct detection of the dark energy and enables study of its clustering properties. By obtaining source redshifts and cross-correlations with CMB lensing, cosmic shear surveys provide tomographic handles on the evolution of clustering correspondingly better precision on the dark energy equation of state and density. Both can indirectly provide detections of the reionization optical depth and modest improvements in gravitational wave constraints which we compare to more direct constraints. Conversely, polarization B-mode contamination from CMB lensing, like any other residual foreground, darkens the prospects for ultra-high precision on gravitational waves through CMB polarization requiring large areas of sky for statistical subtraction. To evaluate these effects we provide fitting formula for the evolution and transfer function of the Newtonian gravitational potential.

Wayne Hu

2001-08-06

48

Combining weak and strong lensing in cluster potential reconstruction

We propose a method for recovering the two-dimensional gravitational potential of galaxy clusters which combines data from weak and strong gravitational lensing. A first estimate of the potential from weak lensing is improved at the approximate locations of critical curves. The method can be fully linearised and does not rely on the existence and identification of multiple images. We use simulations to show that it recovers the surface-mass density profiles and distributions very accurately, even if critical curves are only partially known and if their location is realistically uncertain. We further describe how arcs at different redshifts can be combined, and how deviations from weak lensing can be included.

M. Cacciato; M. Bartelmann; M. Meneghetti; L. Moscardini

2005-11-24

49

Weak Lensing Probes of Modified Gravity

We study the effect of modifications to General Relativity on large scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the DGP model, and TeVeS theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective Dark Energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of Dark Energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the ISW effect, measured via the galaxy-CMB cross-correlation.

Fabian Schmidt

2008-05-30

50

EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies or quasars which are strongly magnified and sheared. In the last decade, double and quadruply imaged systems due to galactic lenses have been studied with optical and radio observations. An interesting result obtained from the flux ratio 'anomalies' of quadruply imaged systems is the statistical detection of dark sub-clumps in galaxy halos. More broadly, while we have learned a lot about the mass distribution in lens galaxies and improved time delay constraints on the Hubble constant, the limitations of cosmological studies with strong lensing due to uncertainties in lens mass models have also come to be appreciated. That said, progress will no doubt continue with qualitative advances in observations such as astrometric counterparts to the flux anomalies, clever ideas such as the use of spectroscopic signatures to assemble the SLACS lens sample, and combining optical imaging, spectroscopy and radio data to continue the quest for a set of golden lenses to measure the Hubble constant. Galaxy clusters are a fascinating arena for studying the distribution of dark and baryonic matter. Weak and strong lensing information can be combined with dynamical information from the spectroscopic measurements of member galaxies and x-ray/Sunyaev Zeldovich measurements of the hot ionized gas. Hubble Space Telescope observations have yielded spectacular images of clusters, such as Abell 1689, which has over a hundred multiply imaged arcs. Mass measurements have progressed to the level of 10 percent accuracy for several clusters. Unfortunately, it is unclear if one can do much better for individual clusters given inherent limitations such as unknown projection effects. The statistical study of clusters is likely to remain a promising way to study dark matter, gravity theories, and cosmology. Techniques to combine weak and strong lensing information to obtain the mass distribution of clusters have also advanced, and work continues on parameter-free techniques that are agnostic to the relation of cluster light and mass. An interesting twist in cluster lensing was provided by the pos

Jain, Bhuvnesh

2007-11-01

51

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter haloes in which they reside is key to constraining how black hole fuelling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modelling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to the fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies, irrespective of nuclear activity. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z < 1 from the COSMOS field, we report the first measurements of weak gravitational lensing from an X-ray-selected sample. Comparing this signal to predictions from the global SHMR, we find that, contrary to previous results, most X-ray AGN do not live in medium size groups - nearly half reside in relatively low mass haloes with M200b ˜ 1012.5 M?. The AGN occupation function is well described by the same form derived for all galaxies but with a lower normalization - the fraction of haloes with AGN in our sample is a few per cent. The number of AGN satellite galaxies scales as a power law with host halo mass with a power-law index ? = 1. By highlighting the relatively `normal' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy haloes, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fuelling modes for luminous quasars compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.

Leauthaud, Alexie; J. Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca; L. Coil, Alison; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason

2015-01-01

52

Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, and Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09' for a 0.14' FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to 0.16' if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape measurement method.

High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

2007-01-01

53

WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

Pires, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SEDI-SAP, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Amara, A. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2010-11-10

54

HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368+6212 is a blue arc in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). [Bottom Right] - HST 18078+4600 is a blue arc caused by the gravitational potential of a small group of 4 galaxies. Credit: Kavan Ratnatunga (Carnegie Mellon Univ.) and NASA

2002-01-01

55

Weak lensing of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich sky

We address the question of whether the angular power spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) sky is further distorted by weak gravitational lensing of foreground large-scale structures. Using an analytic approach to both gaseous and dark halo models, we show that the contamination of weak lensing in the measurement of SZ power power is negligibly small, and relatively corrections |\\Delta C_l|/C_l are less than 3% up to l=10^5. This arises from both the weaker gravitational potentials of low-redshift matter inhomogeneities that can act as lenses for SZ sources (clusters) and the shallower shape of intrinsic SZ power spectrum at large l, in contrast to the cosmic microwave background which can be significantly affected by weak lensing because of the distant location and significant damping of its intrinsic power spectrum at small angular scales.

Xiang-Ping Wu

2003-12-18

56

Combined reconstruction of weak and strong lensing data with WSLAP

We describe a method to estimate the mass distribution of a gravitational lens and the position of the sources from combined strong and weak lensing data. The algorithm combines weak and strong lensing data in a unified way producing a solution which is valid in both the weak and strong lensing regimes. We study how the result depends on the relative weighting of the weak and strong lensing data and on choice of basis to represent the mass distribution. We find that combining weak and strong lensing information has two major advantages: it eliminates the need for priors and/or regularization schemes for the intrinsic size of the background galaxies (this assumption was needed in previous strong lensing algorithms) and it corrects for biases in the recovered mass in the outer regions where the strong lensing data is less sensitive. The code is implemented into a software package called WSLAP (Weak & Strong Lensing Analysis Package) which is publicly available at http://darwin.cfa.harvard.edu/SLAP/

J. M. Diego; M. Tegmark; P. Protopapas; H. B. Sandvik

2005-09-05

57

Natural wormholes as gravitational lenses

Visser has suggested traversable 3-dimensional wormholes that could plausibly form naturally during Big Bang inflation. A wormhole mouth embedded in high mass density might accrete mass, giving the other mouth a net *negative* mass of unusual gravitational properties. The lensing of such a gravitationally negative anomalous compact halo object (GNACHO) will enhance background stars with a time profile that is observable and qualitatively different from that recently observed for massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) of positive mass. We recommend that MACHO search data be analyzed for GNACHOs.

Cramer, J G; Morris, M S; Visser, M; Benford, G; Landis, G A; Cramer, John G; Forward, Robert L; Morris, Michael S; Visser, Matt; Benford, Gregory; Landis, Geoffrey A

1995-01-01

58

Natural Wormholes as Gravitational Lenses

Visser has suggested traversable 3-dimensional wormholes that could plausibly form naturally during Big Bang inflation. A wormhole mouth embedded in high mass density might accrete mass, giving the other mouth a net *negative* mass of unusual gravitational properties. The lensing of such a gravitationally negative anomalous compact halo object (GNACHO) will enhance background stars with a time profile that is observable and qualitatively different from that recently observed for massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) of positive mass. We recommend that MACHO search data be analyzed for GNACHOs.

John G. Cramer; Robert L. Forward; Michael S. Morris; Matt Visser; Gregory Benford; Geoffrey A. Landis

1994-09-20

59

Weak lensing studies with GOODS/ACS fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this thesis is to improve current understanding of structure formation in the universe at z ~ 1--2 through weak lensing studies with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data, obtained as part of the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey (GOODS) project. In this thesis, we present a uniform approach to describes light propagation in both isotropic universe and weakly perturbed universe to discuss the effects of gravitational lensing, apply it to two prime applications of gravitational lensing to cosmology; lensing by dark matter halos and lensing by the large- scale structure, investigate the expected weak lensing effects from the applications and discuss how the effects can be measured through galaxy shape. We describe how galaxy shapes are measured from the GOODS data. We present preliminary measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing and detection of cosmic shear. We detect a clear galaxy-galaxy lensing signal for lens galaxies at z ~ 0.5 at projected separations ranging from 10" to 200". The detected shear is compatible with ground-based measurements obtained for low-redshift galaxies. We also detect a clear cosmic shear signal using source galaxies at z ~ 1.0. The detected shear is generally consistent with other observations that measured s 8 ~= 0.7.

Park, Yousin

2006-06-01

60

Numerical simulation of gravitational lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lens is a massive body or system of bodies with gravitational field that bends directions of light rays propagating nearby. This may cause an observer to see multiple images of a light source, e.g. a star, if there is a gravitational lens between the star and the observer. Light rays that form each individual image may have different distances to travel, which creates time delays between them. In complex gravitational fields generated by the system of stars, analytical calculation of trajectories and light intensities is virtually impossible. Gravitational lens of two massive bodies, one behind another, are able to create four images of a light source. Furthermore, the interaction between the four light beams can form a complicated interference pattern. This article provides a brief theory of light behavior in a gravitational field and describes the algorithm for constructing the trajectories of light rays in a gravitational field, calculating wave fronts and interference pattern of light. If you set gravitational field by any number of transparent and non- transparent objects (stars) and set emitters of radio wave beams, it is possible to calculate the interference pattern in any region of space. The proposed method of calculation can be applied even in the case of the lack of continuity between the position of the emitting stars and position of the resulting image. In this paper we propose methods of optimization, as well as solutions for some problems arising in modeling of gravitational lenses. The simulation of light rays in the sun's gravitational field is taken as an example. Also caustic is constructed for objects with uniform mass distribution.

Cherniak, Yakov

61

Strong Gravitational Lensing by Kiselev Black Hole

We investigate the gravitational lensing scenario due to Schwarzschild-like black hole surrounded by quintessence (Kiselev black hole). We discuss here these special cases of Kiselev black hole: non-extreme, extreme and naked singularity. We present the detailed derivation for the bending angles of light as it traverses in the equatorial plane of the black hole. We also calculate the approximate bending angle and compare it with exact bending angle expressions. In the weak field approximation we calculate the expression for relativistic images.

Younas, Azka; Jamil, Mubasher

2015-01-01

62

Numerical simulations of weak lensing measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing induces distortions on the images of background galaxies, and thus provides a direct measure of mass fluctuations in the Universe. The distortion signature from large-scale structure has recently been detected by several groups for the first time, opening promising prospects for the near future. Since the distortions induced by lensing on the images of background galaxies are only of the order of a few per cent, a reliable measurement demands very accurate galaxy shape estimation and a careful treatment of systematic effects. Here, we present a study of a shear measurement method using detailed simulations of artificial images. The images are produced using realizations of a galaxy ensemble drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope Groth strip. We consider realistic observational effects including atmospheric seeing, point spread function (PSF) anisotropy and pixelization, incorporated in such a manner as to reproduce actual observations with the William Herschel Telescope. By applying an artificial shear to the simulated images, we test the shear measurement method proposed by Kaiser, Squires & Broadhurst (KSB). Overall, we find the KSB method to be reliable with the following provisos. First, although the recovered shear is linearly related to the input shear, we find a coefficient of proportionality of about 0.8. In addition, we find a residual anti-correlation between the PSF ellipticity and the corrected ellipticities of faint galaxies. To guide future weak lensing surveys, we study the ways in which seeing size, exposure time and pixelization affect the sensitivity to shear. We find that worsened seeing linearly increases the noise in the shear estimate, while the sensitivity depends only weakly on exposure time. The noise is dramatically increased if the pixel scale is larger than that of the seeing. In addition, we study the impact both of overlapping isophotes between neighbouring galaxies, and of PSF correction residuals: together these are foundQ13 to produce spurious lensing signals on small scales. We discuss the prospects of using the KSB method for future, more sensitive, surveys. Numerical simulations of this kind are a required component of present and future analyses of weak lensing surveys.

Bacon, David J.; Refregier, Alexandre; Clowe, Douglas; Ellis, Richard S.

2001-08-01

63

Gravitational Lensing Extends SETI Range

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave SETI (The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) focuses on two primary strategies, the "Targeted Search" and the "All-Sky Survey." Although the goal of both strategies is the unequivocal discovery of a signal transmitted by intelligent species outside our solar system, they pursue the strategies in very different manners and have vastly different requirements. This chapter introduces Gravitational Lensing SETI (GL-SETI), a third strategy. Its goal is the unequivocal discovery of an extraterrestrial signal, with equipment and data processing requirements that are substantially different from the commonly-used strategies. This strategy is particularly suitable for use with smaller radio telescopes and has budgetary requirements suitable for individual researchers.

Factor, Richard

64

Gravitational lensing in modified Newtonian dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is an alternative theory of gravity that aims to explain large-scale dynamics without recourse to any form of dark matter. However, the theory is incomplete, lacking a relativistic counterpart, and so makes no definite predictions about gravitational lensing. The most obvious form that MONDian lensing might take is that photons experience twice the deflection of massive particles moving at the speed of light, as in general relativity (GR). In such a theory there is no general thin-lens approximation (although one can be made for spherically symmetric deflectors), but the three-dimensional acceleration of photons is in the same direction as the relativistic acceleration would be. In regimes where the deflector can reasonably be approximated as a single point-mass (specifically low-optical depth microlensing and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing), this naive formulation is consistent with observations. Forthcoming galaxy-galaxy lensing data and the possibility of cosmological microlensing have the potential to distinguish unambiguously between GR and MOND. Some tests can also be performed with extended deflectors, for example by using surface brightness measurements of lens galaxies to model quasar lenses, although the breakdown of the thin-lens approximation allows an extra degree of freedom. None the less, it seems unlikely that simple ellipsoidal galaxies can satisfy both constraints. Furthermore, the low-density universe implied by MOND must be completely dominated by the cosmological constant (to fit microwave background observations), and such models are at odds with the low frequency of quasar lenses. These conflicts might be resolved by a fully consistent relativistic extension to MOND; the alternative is that MOND is not an accurate description of the Universe.

Mortlock, Daniel J.; Turner, Edwin L.

2001-10-01

65

Natural wormholes as gravitational lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once quantum mechanical effects are included, the hypotheses underlying the positive mass theorem of classical general relativity fail. As an example of the peculiarities attendant upon this observation, a wormhole mouth embedded in a region of high mass density might accrete mass, giving the other mouth a net negative mass of unusual gravitational properties. The lensing of such a gravitationally negative anomalous compact halo object (GNACHO) will enhance background stars with a time profile that is observable and qualitatively different from that recently observed for massive compact halo objects (MACHO's) of positive mass. While the analysis is discussed in terms of wormholes, the observational test proposed is more generally a search for compact negative mass objects of any origin. We recommend that MACHO search data be analyzed for GNACHO's.

Cramer, John G.; Forward, Robert L.; Morris, Michael S.; Visser, Matt; Benford, Gregory; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1995-03-01

66

Natural wormholes as gravitational lenses

Once quantum mechanical effects are included, the hypotheses underlying the positive mass theorem of classical general relativity fail. As an example of the peculiarities attendant upon this observation, a wormhole mouth embedded in a region of high mass density might accrete mass, giving the other mouth a net [ital negative] mass of unusual gravitational properties. The lensing of such a gravitationally negative anomalous compact halo object (GNACHO) will enhance background stars with a time profile that is observable and qualitatively different from that recently observed for massive compact halo objects (MACHO's) of positive mass. While the analysis is discussed in terms of wormholes, the observational test proposed is more generally a search for compact negative mass objects of any origin. We recommend that MACHO search data be analyzed for GNACHO's.

Cramer, J.G.; Forward, R.L.; Morris, M.S.; Visser, M.; Benford, G.; Landis, G.A. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) Forward Unlimited, P.O. Box 2783, Malibu, California 90265 (United States) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 (United States) Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States) Physics Department, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92717-4575 (United States) NASA Lewis Research Center, Mail Code 302-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135-3191 (United States))

1995-03-15

67

A Computer Program to Visualize Gravitational Lenses

Gravitational lenses are presently playing an important role in astrophysics. By means of these lenses the parameters of the deflector such as its mass, ellipticity, etc. and Hubble's constant can be determined. Using C, Xforms, Mesa and Imlib a computer program to visualize this lens effect has been developed. This program has been applied to generate sequences of images of a source object and its corresponding images. It has also been used to visually test different models of gravitational lenses.

Francisco Frutos-Alfaro

2014-06-12

68

Exploring degeneracies in modified gravity with weak lensing

By considering linear-order departures from general relativity, we compute a novel expression for the weak lensing convergence power spectrum under alternative theories of gravity. This comprises an integral over a 'kernel' of general relativistic quantities multiplied by a theory-dependent 'source' term. The clear separation between theory-independent and -dependent terms allows for an explicit understanding of each physical effect introduced by altering the theory of gravity. We take advantage of this to explore the degeneracies between gravitational parameters in weak lensing observations.

C. Danielle Leonard; Tessa Baker; Pedro G. Ferreira

2015-01-14

69

Effects of plasma on gravitational lensing

We study gravitational lensing when plasma surrounds the lens. An extra deflection angle is induced by the plasma in addition to the deflection generated by gravity. An inhomogeneous plasma distribution generates a greater effect than a homogeneous one, and may cause significant effects to be detected in low frequency radio observations (a few hundred MHz). In particular, the lensed image positions will be different between optical and radio observations. The change of position due to a plasma can reach a few tens of milli-arcsec, which is readily detectable. One can use the position difference in different frequencies to estimate the density of plasma in the lens. The magnification ratios between multiple images are mainly determined by other properties of the lens, and are only weakly affected by the plasma. More importantly, we find that the strong lensing time delay will be affected by the plasma. Estimation of the Hubble constant from the time delay in low radio frequency observation may be slightly bias...

Er, Xinzhong

2013-01-01

70

Effects of plasma on gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study gravitational lensing when plasma surrounds the lens. An extra deflection angle is induced by the plasma in addition to the deflection generated by gravity. An inhomogeneous plasma distribution generates a greater effect than a homogeneous one, and may cause significant effects to be detected in low-frequency radio observations (a few hundred MHz). In particular, the lensed image positions will be different for optical and radio observations. The change of position due to a plasma can reach a few tens of milliarcsec, which is readily detectable. One can use the position difference in different frequencies to estimate the density of plasma in the lens. The magnification ratios between multiple images are mainly determined by other properties of the lens, and are only weakly affected by the plasma. More importantly, we find that the strong-lensing time delay will be affected by the plasma. Estimation of the Hubble constant from the time delay in low-frequency radio observation may be slightly biased due to plasma in the lens. Unfortunately, the ionosphere of the Earth strongly affects low-frequency radio observations. Thus, our ability to detect the effect depends on how well we are able to calibrate out the ionosphere.

Er, Xinzhong; Mao, Shude

2014-01-01

71

The Sloan Nearby Cluster Weak Lensing Survey

We describe and present initial results of a weak lensing survey of nearby (z {approx}< 0.1) galaxy clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this first study, galaxy clusters are selected from the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy cluster catalogs of Miller et al. and Berlind et al. We report a total of seven individual low-redshift cluster weak lensing measurements that include A2048, A1767, A2244, A1066, A2199, and two clusters specifically identified with the C4 algorithm. Our program of weak lensing of nearby galaxy clusters in the SDSS will eventually reach {approx}200 clusters, making it the largest weak lensing survey of individual galaxy clusters to date.

Kubo, Jeffrey M.; /Fermilab; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Hardin, Frances Mei; /Illinois Math. Sci. Acad.; Kubik, Donna; /Fermilab; Lawhorn, Kelsey; /Illinois Math. Sci. Acad.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Nicklaus, Liana; /Illinois Math. Sci. Acad.; Nelson, Dylan; /UC, Berkeley; Reis, Ribamar Rondon de Rezende; /Fermilab; Seo, Hee-Jong; /Fermilab; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Inst. Geo. Astron., Havana /Sao Paulo U. /Fermilab

2009-08-01

72

Gravitational Lensing of Gravitational Waves from Merging Neutron Star Binaries

We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. We consider properties of the expected observational data with cut on the signal-to-noise ratio $\\rho$, i.e., $\\rho>\\rho_0$. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cut-off at a redshift $z_{\\rm max} z_{\\rm max}$ should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat Universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10\\%, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with $\\rho >5$.

Yun Wang; Albert Stebbins; Edwin L. Turner

1996-05-22

73

Gravitational Lensing and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing is most often used as a tool to investigate the distribution of (dark) matter in the universe, but, if the mass distribution is known a priori, it becomes, at least in principle, a powerful probe of gravity itself. Lensing observations are a more powerful tool than dynamical measurements because they allow measurements of the gravitational field far away from visible matter. For example, modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) has no relativistic extension, and so makes no firm lensing predictions, but galaxy-galaxy lensing data can be used to empirically constrain the deflection law of a MONDian point-mass. The implied MONDian lensing formalism is consistent with general relativity, in so far as the deflection experienced by a photon is twice that experienced by a massive particle moving at the speed of light. With the deflection law in place and no invisible matter, MOND can be tested wherever lensing is observed.

Mortlock, Daniel J.; Turner, Edwin L.

74

Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed. PMID:23003237

Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

2012-05-25

75

Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60 nights on 4-m class telescopes, which gives concrete evidence of strong community support for this project. The WLT technique is based on the dependence of the gravitational shear signal on the angular diameter distances between the observer, the lens, and the lensed galaxy to measure cosmological parameters. By taking the ratio of measured shears of galaxies with different redshifts around the same lens, one obtains a measurement of the ratios of the angular diameter distances involved. Making these observations over a large range of lenses and background galaxy redshifts will measure the history of the expansion rate of the universe. Because this is a purely geometric measurement, it is insensitive to any form of evolution of objects or the necessity to understand the physics in the early universe. Thus, WLT was identified by the Dark Energy Task Force as perhaps the best method to measure the evolution of DE. To date, however, the conjecture of the DETF has not been experimentally verified, but will be by the proposed project. The primary reason for the lack of tomography measurements is that one must have an exceptional data-set to attempt the measurement. One needs both extremely good seeing (or space observations) in order to minimize the point spread function smearing corrections on weak lensing shear measurements and deep, multi-color data, from B to z, to measure reliable photometric redshifts of the background galaxies being lensed (which are typically too faint to obtain spectroscopic redshifts). Because the entire process from multi-drizzling the HST images, and then creating shear maps, to gathering the necessary ground based observations, to generating photo-zs and then carrying out the tomography is a complicated task, until the creation of our team, nobody has taken the time to connect all the levels of expertise necessary to carry out this project based on HST archival data. Our data are being used in 2 Ph.D. theses. Kellen Murphy, at Ohio University, is using the tomography data along with simulations in a thesis expected to be completed in Jun

Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

2010-11-30

76

Gravitational lensing of the CMB with SPTpol

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) directly probe the projected mass in the universe out to high redshifts. Gravitational lensing encodes a wealth of information in the CMB about the growth and geometry of large-scale structure, which is sensitive to cosmic acceleration (dark energy), the expansion history of the universe and the properties of neutrinos. Additionally, gravitational lensing can be used to improve inflationary gravitational wave searches in the CMB, and constrain the relationship between dark and luminous matter at high redshifts. I will present recent lensing results from the first two years of data from the South Pole Telescope polarimeter (SPTpol) and discuss future opportunities for this powerful technique.

SPTpol collaboration

2015-01-01

77

Weak Lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy

The light rays from distant galaxies are deflected by massive structures along the line of sight, causing the galaxy images to be distorted.Measurements of these distortions, known as weak lensing, provide a way of measuring the distribution of dark matter as well as the spatial geometry of the universe. I will describe the ideas underlying this approach to cosmology. With planned large imaging surveys, weak lensing is a powerful probe of dark energy. I will discuss the observational challenges ahead and recent progress in developing multiple, complementary approaches to lensing measurements.

Bhuvnesh Jain

2006-02-27

78

EFFECT OF MASKED REGIONS ON WEAK-LENSING STATISTICS

Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple {chi}{sup 2} analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg{sup 2} survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting {chi}{sup 2}/n{sub dof} = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard {Lambda}CDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.

Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hamana, Takashi, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

2013-09-10

79

Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS

We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally

Tim Schrabback; Jan Hartlap; Benjamin Joachimi; Martin Kilbinger; Patrick Simon; Karim Benabed; M. Bradac; Tim Eifler; Thomas Erben; C. D. Fassnacht; F. William High; Stefan Hilbert; Hendrik Hildebrandt; Henk Hoekstra; Konrad Kuijken; P. J. Marshall; Yannick Mellier; Eric Morganson; Peter Schneider; Elisabetta Semboloni; L. van Waerbeke; Malin Velander

2010-01-01

80

CMBPol Mission Concept Study: Gravitational Lensing

Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by large-scale structure in the late universe is both a source of cosmological information and a potential contaminant of primordial gravity waves. Because lensing imprints growth of structure in the late universe on the CMB, measurements of CMB lensing will constrain parameters to which the CMB would not otherwise be sensitive, such as neutrino mass. If the instrumental noise is sufficiently small (<~ 5 uK-arcmin), the gravitational lensing contribution to the large-scale B-mode will be the limiting source of contamination when constraining a stochastic background of gravity waves in the early universe, one of the most exciting prospects for future CMB polarization experiments. High-sensitivity measurements of small-scale B-modes can reduce this contamination through a lens reconstruction technique that separates the lensing and primordial contributions to the B-mode on large scales. A fundamental design decision for a future CMB polarization experi...

Smith, Kendrick M; Das, Sudeep; Doré, Olivier; Hanson, Duncan; Hirata, Chris; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keating, Brian; LoVerde, Marilena; Miller, Nathan; Rocha, Graça; Shimon, Meir; Zahn, Oliver

2008-01-01

81

Weak lensing goes bananas: What flexion really measures

In weak gravitational lensing, the image distortion caused by shear measures the projected tidal gravitational field of the deflecting mass distribution. To lowest order, the shear is proportional to the mean image ellipticity. If the image sizes are not small compared to the scale over which the shear varies, higher-order distortions occur, called flexion. For ordinary weak lensing, the observable quantity is not the shear, but the reduced shear, owing to the mass-sheet degeneracy. Likewise, the flexion itself is unobservable. Rather, higher-order image distortions measure the reduced flexion, i.e., derivatives of the reduced shear. We derive the corresponding lens equation in terms of the reduced flexion and calculate the resulting relation between brightness moments of source and image. Assuming an isotropic distribution of source orientations, estimates for the reduced shear and flexion are obtained; these are then tested with simulations. In particular, the presence of flexion affects the determination o...

Schneider, Peter

2007-01-01

82

Gravitational lenses and dark matter - Theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models are presented for guiding the application of gravitational lenses to probe the characteristics of dark matter in the universe. Analytical techniques are defined for quantifying the mass associated with lensing galaxies (in terms of the image separation), determining the quantity of dark mass of the lensing bodies, and estimating the mass density of the lenses. The possibility that heavy halos are made of low mass stars is considered, along with the swallowing of central images of black holes or cusps in galactic nuclei and the effects produced on a lensed quasar image by nonbaryonic halos. The observable effects of dense groups and clusters and the characteristics of dark matter strings are discussed, and various types of images which are possible due to lensing phenomena and position are described.

Gott, J. Richard, III

1987-01-01

83

Measuring the dark side (with weak lensing)

We introduce a convenient parameterization of dark energy models that is general enough to include several modified gravity models and generalized forms of dark energy. In particular we take into account the linear perturbation growth factor, the anisotropic stress and the modified Poisson equation. We discuss the sensitivity of large-scale weak lensing surveys like the proposed DUNE satellite to these parameters (assuming systematic errors can be controlled). We find that a large-scale weak lensing tomographic survey is able to easily distinguish the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model from {Lambda}CDM and to determine the perturbation growth index to an absolute error of 0.02-0.04.

Amendola, Luca [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Kunz, Martin; Sapone, Domenico, E-mail: amendola@mporzio.astro.it, E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch, E-mail: domenico.sapone@physics.unige.ch [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2008-04-15

84

Astrophysical Effects of Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events

Every astrophysical object (dark or not) is a gravitational lens, as well as a receiver/observer of the light from sources lensed by other objects in its neighborhood. For a given pair of source and lens, there is a thin on-axis tubelike volume behind the lens in which the radiation flux from the source is greatly increased due to gravitational lensing. Any objects which pass through such a thin tube or beam will experience strong bursts of radiation, i.e., Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events (EGLEs). We have studied the physics and statistics of EGLEs. EGLEs may have interesting astrophysical effects, such as the destruction of dust grains, ignition of masers, etc. Here we illustrate the possible astrophysical effects of EGLEs with one specific example, the destruction of dust grains in globular clusters.

Yun Wang; Edwin L. Turner

1997-01-30

85

Probing Cosmology with Minkowski Functionals of Weak Lensing Maps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minkowski functionals (MFs) are alternative probes of non-Gaussianity of random fields and probe the morphology and topology. We apply them to constrain cosmological parameters from weak gravitational lensing maps. We use MFs with Monte Carlo-optimized threshold bins to distinguish between different cosmological models from simulated convergence maps. We find that MFs discern better than the power spectrum from the same maps, thus providing evidence that they probe nonlinear structure formation and measure information beyond the power spectrum. The lensing maps were created with our new huge Inspector Gadget lensing simulation pipeline on the IBM Blue Gene at Brookhaven National Laboratory, allowing us to create an extensive simulation suite of ninety 5123-particle N-body simulations and sample many cosmological models and initial conditions.

Kratochvil, Jan Michael; Lim, E. A.; Wang, S.; Haiman, Z.; May, M.; Huffenberger, K.

2011-01-01

86

Galilean-invariant scalar fields can strengthen gravitational lensing.

The mystery of dark energy suggests that there is new gravitational physics on long length scales. Yet light degrees of freedom in gravity are strictly limited by Solar System observations. We can resolve this apparent contradiction by adding a Galilean-invariant scalar field to gravity. Called Galileons, these scalars have strong self-interactions near overdensities, like the Solar System, that suppress their dynamical effect. These nonlinearities are weak on cosmological scales, permitting new physics to operate. In this Letter, we point out that a massive-gravity-inspired coupling of Galileons to stress energy can enhance gravitational lensing. Because the enhancement appears at a fixed scaled location for dark matter halos of a wide range of masses, stacked cluster analysis of weak lensing data should be able to detect or constrain this effect. PMID:21668215

Wyman, Mark

2011-05-20

87

Weak Lensing from Space I: Instrumentation and Survey Strategy

A wide field space-based imaging telescope is necessary to fully exploit the technique of observing dark matter via weak gravitational lensing. This first paper in a three part series outlines the survey strategies and relevant instrumental parameters for such a mission. As a concrete example of hardware design, we consider the proposed Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Using SNAP engineering models, we quantify the major contributions to this telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF). These PSF contributions are relevant to any similar wide field space telescope. We further show that the PSF of SNAP or a similar telescope will be smaller than current ground-based PSFs, and more isotropic and stable over time than the PSF of the Hubble Space Telescope. We outline survey strategies for two different regimes - a ''wide'' 300 square degree survey and a ''deep'' 15 square degree survey that will accomplish various weak lensing goals including statistical studies and dark matter mapping.

Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Bacon, David; Bernstein, Gary; Ellis, Richard; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Kim, Alex; Lampton, Mike; McKay, Tim; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Kreiger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.; Devin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, D.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

2003-04-23

88

We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

2009-01-29

89

First measurement of gravitational lensing by cosmic voids in SDSS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurement of the diminutive lensing signal arising from matter underdensities associated with cosmic voids. While undetectable individually, by stacking the weak gravitational shear estimates around 901 voids detected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 by Sutter et al., we find substantial evidence for a depression of the lensing signal compared to the cosmic mean. This depression is most pronounced at the void radius, in agreement with analytical models of void matter profiles. Even with the largest void sample and imaging survey available today, we cannot put useful constraints on the radial dark matter void profile. We invite independent investigations of our findings by releasing data and analysis code to the public at https://github.com/pmelchior/void-lensing.

Melchior, Peter; Sutter, P. M.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Krause, Elisabeth; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

2014-06-01

90

Gravitational Lensing Limits on Early-Type Galaxies

Gravitational lenses are a unique new constraint on the structure of galaxies. We review the evidence that most lenses are early-type galaxies, the optical properties of the lens galaxies, the evidence against constant M/L models, recent work on the axis ratios of the mass distribution, and the role stellar dynamics plays in gravitational lensing.

C. S. Kochanek; C. R. Keeton

1996-11-26

91

Influence of plasma on effects of gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate influence of plasma on effects of gravitational lensing. In presence of plasma the lensing becomes chromatic because the photon deflection angle depends on photon frequency in presence of plasma. In presence of plasma the positions and magnifications of images are different for different wavelengths. We present the model of gravitational lensing in plasma where these effects are calculated.

Tsupko, Oleg; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady

92

Strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves in Einstein Telescope

Gravitational wave experiments have entered a new stage which gets us closer to the opening a new observational window on the Universe. In particular, the Einstein Telescope (ET) is designed to have a fantastic sensitivity that will provide with tens or hundreds of thousand NS-NS inspiral events per year up to the redshift z = 2. Some of such events should be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxies. We explore the prospects of observing gravitationally lensed inspiral NS-NS events in the Einstein telescope. Being conservative we consider the lens population of elliptical galaxies. It turns out that depending on the local insipral rate ET should detect from one per decade detection in the pessimistic case to a tens of detections per year for the most optimistic case. The detection of gravitationally lensed source in gravitational wave detectors would be an invaluable source of information concerning cosmography, complementary to standard ones (like supernovae or BAO) independent of the local cosmic distance ladder calibrations.

Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zhu, Zong-Hong, E-mail: aleksandra.piorkowska@us.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

2013-10-01

93

Mutual coherence of gravitationally lensed images

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual coherence of two images of a distant source, both focussed into a telescope by an intervening gravitational lens, is investigated for the case of stellar-mass lenses. The degree of coherence is given as a function of the source's physical parameters (extent and shape, intensity distribution over surface, sharpness of edge) and its detectability is discussed. The lensing configuration is likened to a VLBI experiment of extremely long baseline. Effects of inhomogeneous intergalactic plasma on coherence, and of lensing amplification on source counts are studied. It is stressed that a measurement of the mutual coherence could prove the existence of dark stellar mass objects (missing mass problem) and of an inhomogeneous intergalactic matter.

Schneider, P.; Schmid-Burgk, J.

1985-07-01

94

Gravitational lensing of wormholes in noncommutative geometry

It has been shown that a noncommutative-geometry background may be able to support traversable wormholes. This paper discusses the possible detection of such wormholes in the outer regions of galactic halos by means of gravitational lensing. The procedure allows a comparison to other models such as the NFW model and f(R) modified gravity and is likely to favor a model based on noncommutative geometry.

Kuhfittig, Peter K F

2015-01-01

95

Lyman Alpha Emitters in gravitational lensed fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the luminosity function of Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) at redshifts between z~6.5 in strong gravitational lensed (GL) fields by clusters of galaxies, using OSIRIS tunable filters (TFs) at the GTC. OSIRIS TFs enhance the emission line contrast, together with the total flux magnification produced by the lens, will be used to detect faint LAEs and to extend the low luminosity queue of the Luminosity Function (LF) of LAEs.

De Leo, M. A.; de Diego, J. A.; Verdugo, T.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.

2013-05-01

96

Weak Lensing with Sizes, Magnitudes and Shapes

Weak lensing can be observed through a number of effects on the images of distant galaxies; their shapes are sheared, their sizes and fluxes (magnitudes) are magnified and their positions on the sky are modified by the lensing field. Galaxy shapes probe the shear field whilst size, magnitude and number density probe the convergence field. Both contain cosmological information. In this paper we are concerned with the magnification of the size and magnitude of individual galaxies as a probe of cosmic convergence. We develop a Bayesian approach for inferring the convergence field from a measured size, magnitude and redshift and demonstrate that the inference on convergence requires detailed knowledge of the joint distribution of intrinsic sizes and magnitudes. We build a simple parameterised model for the size-magnitude distribution and estimate this distribution for CFHTLenS galaxies. In light of the measured distribution, we show that the typical dispersion on convergence estimation is ~0.8, compared to ~0.38 ...

Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew

2014-01-01

97

Gravitational lenses - Research results of the decade (1979-1988)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is a brief survey of the theoretical results relating to the gravitational focusing, or gravitational lensing effect. Patterns of obtaining solutions in the approximations of geometrical and wave optics are shown. The influence of random effects such as inhomogeneities of gravitation fields and the interstellar plasma is studied. Some astrophysical applications of the lensing effect are considered.

Bliokh, P. V.; Minakov, A. A.

98

Gravitational lenses - Research results of the decade (1979-1988)

The present paper is a brief survey of the theoretical results relating to the gravitational focusing, or gravitational lensing effect. Patterns of obtaining solutions in the approximations of geometrical and wave optics are shown. The influence of random effects such as inhomogeneities of gravitation fields and the interstellar plasma is studied. Some astrophysical applications of the lensing effect are considered.

P. V. Bliokh; A. A. Minakov

1989-01-01

99

Invariants of simple gravitational lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present approximate tests which can be applied to a newly observed quadruple QSO, or to a quadruplet of extended objects distorted by a foreground cluster of galaxies. These tests indicate whether the responsible gravitational lens may have a simple mass distribution. If the lens galaxy is detected, the tests give an approximate orientation for it, which can be compared with the observed orientation of the galaxy. The tests do not require construction of an explicit lens model, and therefore can save time and effort. In the case of many objects distorted by a cluster, these diagnostics can help to select possible quadruplet candidates.

Kassiola, Aggeliki; Kovner, Israel

1995-01-01

100

Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress & Future Goals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This award was intended to provide financial support for an international astrophysics conference on gravitational lensing which was held at Boston University from July 25 to July 30, 1999. Because of the nature of the award, no specific research was proposed, nor was any carried out. The participants at the conference presented results of their on-going research efforts, and written summaries of their presentations have been published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as part of their conference series. The reference to the conference proceedings book is Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress and Future Goals, ASP Conference Series volume 237, eds. T. G. Brainerd and C. S. Kochanek (2001). The ISBN number of this book is 1-58381-074-9. The goal of the conference was to bring together both senior and junior investigators who were actively involved in all aspects of gravitational lensing research. This was the first conference in four years to address gravitational lensing from such a broad perspective (the previous such conference being IAU Symposium 173 held in Melbourne, Australia in July 1995). The conference was attended by 190 participants, who represented of order 70 different institutions and of order 15 different countries. The Scientific Organizing Committee members were Matthias Bartelmann (co-chair), Tereasa Brainerd (co-chair), Ian Browne, Richard Ellis, Nick Kaiser, Yannick Mellier, Sjur Refsdal, HansWalter Rix, Joachim Wambsganss, and Rachel Webster. The Local Organizing Committee members were Tereasa Brainerd (chair), Emilio Falco, Jacqueline Hewitt, Christopher Kochanek, and Irwin Shapiro. The oral sessions were organized around specific applications of gravitational lensing and included invited reviews, invited 'targeted talks', and contributed talks. The review speakers were Roger Blandford, Tereasa Brainerd, Gus Evrard, Nick Kaiser, Guinevere Kaufmann, Chris Kochanek, Charley Lineweaver, Gerry Luppino, Shude Mao, Paul Schechter, Peter Snhneider, amd Ed Turner. The 'targeted talk' speakers were Andy Boden, Ian Browne, Emilio Falco, Harry Ferguson, Bhuvnesh Jain, Christine Jones, Arlie Petters, Hans-Walter Rix, Penny Sackett, Prasenjit Saha, Virginia Trimble, and Joachim Wambsganss. Due to limited time, only 25% of the abstracts which were submitted for consideration as contributed talks could actually be accepted for the final program; those which were not selected as talks were presented as posters, and a special poster viewing session was held to allow participants to present their work. A copy of the complete Final Program of the conference is included in the following pages.

Brainerd, Tereasa

2001-01-01

101

Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

2012-09-19

102

Weak Lensing Tomography Using > 50 High Redshift, z > 0.4, Galaxy Clusters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing is a powerful and unique tool for studying galaxy clusters and cosmology. I will be presenting weak gravitational lensing shear results from a sample set of 57 high redshift galaxy clusters, z > 0.4, from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys in several different optical bandpasses. I will discuss point spread function (psf) measurement adaptations in the principal component analysis made to improve the data. I will address the implications that increased sample size, psf changes, background galaxy cuts, mass profile choice and redshift have on the tomography signal and cosmological constraints.

Santana, Rebecca

2015-01-01

103

Systematic errors in weak lensing: application to SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing

Weak lensing is emerging as a powerful observational tool to constrain cosmological models, but is at present limited by an incomplete understanding of many sources of systematic error. Many of these errors are multiplicative and depend on the population of background galaxies. We show how the commonly cited geometric test, which is rather insensitive to cosmology, can be used as

Rachel Mandelbaum; Christopher M. Hirata; Uros Seljak; Jacek Guzik; Nikhil Padmanabhan; Cullen Blake; Michael R. Blanton; Robert Lupton; Jonathan Brinkmann

2005-01-01

104

Cluster cores, gravitational lensing, and cosmology

Many multiply--imaged quasars have been found over the years, but none so far with image separation in excess of 8\\arcsec. The absence of such large splittings has been used as a test of cosmological models: the standard Cold Dark Matter model has been excluded on the basis that it predicts far too many large--separation double images. These studies assume that the lensing structure has the mass profile of a singular isothermal sphere. However, such large splittings would be produced by very massive systems such as clusters of galaxies for which other gravitational lensing data suggest less singular mass profiles. Here we analyze two cases of mass profiles for lenses: an isothermal sphere with a finite core radius (density \\rho \\propto (r^2+r_{core}^2)^{-1}), and a Hernquist profile (\\rho \\propto r^{-1}(r+a)^{-3}). We find that small core radii r_{core} \\sim 30 h^{-1} kpc, as suggested by the cluster data, or large a \\gsim 300 h^{-1} kpc, as needed for compatibility with gravitational distortion data, would r...

Alvarado-Flores, R; Flores, Ricardo A; Primack, Joel R

1995-01-01

105

Gravitational lensing by a rotating massive object in a plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study gravitational lensing in the vicinity of a slowly rotating massive object surrounded by a plasma. We have studied two effects: (i) the influence of the frame dragging on the deflection angle of the light ray in the presence of plasma (ii) Faraday rotation of the polarization plane of the light. We derive the expression for the lensing angle in a non-diagonal space-time in the weak field regime in the presence of plasma and discuss it for the spacetime metric of the slowly rotating object. The obtained deflection angle depends on (i) the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to the dispersion properties of the plasma; (ii) the gravitational mass M; and (iii) the angular momentum J of the gravitational lens. We studied the influence of rotation of the gravitational lens on the magnification of brightness of the source star in the case of microlensing and have shown that it is negligibly small. For the completeness of our study the effect of the Faraday rotation of the polarization plane is considered.

Morozova, V. S.; Ahmedov, B. J.; Tursunov, A. A.

2013-08-01

106

Systematic errors in weak lensing: application to SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing

Weak lensing is emerging as a powerful observational tool to constrain cosmological models, but is at present limited by an incomplete understanding of many sources of systematic error. Many of these errors are multiplicative and depend on the population of background galaxies. We show how the commonly cited geometric test, which is rather insensitive to cosmology, can be used as a ratio test of systematics in the lensing signal at the 1 per cent level. We apply this test to the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which at present is the sample with the highest weak lensing signal to noise and has the additional advantage of spectroscopic redshifts for lenses. This allows one to perform meaningful geometric tests of systematics for different subsamples of galaxies at different mean redshifts, such as brighter galaxies, fainter galaxies and high-redshift luminous red galaxies, both with and without photometric redshift estimates. We use overlapping objects between SDSS and th...

Mandelbaum, R; Seljak, U; Guzik, J; Padmanabhan, N; Blake, C; Blanton, M R; Lupton, R; Brinkmann, J; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros; Guzik, Jacek; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Blake, Cullen; Blanton, Michael R.; Lupton, Robert; Brinkmann, Jonathan

2005-01-01

107

H_0 from gravitational lenses: recent results

The 0th, 1st and 2nd derivatives of a ``Fermat potential'' give the three D's of gravitational lensing: delay, deflection and distortion. Observations of these delays, deflections and distortions for doubly and quadruply imaged quasars give estimates of Hubble's constant, H_0. The single largest contribution to the uncertainty in H_0 arises from the difficulty in constraining the degree of central concentration of the lensing potential. Fortunately, astronomers have spent a good deal of effort over the past quarter century addressing just this question. If galaxies at z=0.5 are like nearby galaxies, the associated systematic uncertainty in H_0 is less than 10%. The expected lens-to-lens scatter is 20%. Results from three particularly well constrained systems are reported.

Paul L. Schechter

2000-09-04

108

Systematic errors in weak lensing: application to SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing

Weak lensing is emerging as a powerful observational tool to constrain cosmological models, but is at present limited by an incomplete understanding of many sources of systematic error. Many of these errors are multiplicative and depend on the population of background galaxies. We show how the commonly cited geometric test, which is rather insensitive to cosmology, can be used as a ratio test of systematics in the lensing signal at the 1 per cent level. We apply this test to the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which at present is the sample with the highest weak lensing signal to noise and has the additional advantage of spectroscopic redshifts for lenses. This allows one to perform meaningful geometric tests of systematics for different subsamples of galaxies at different mean redshifts, such as brighter galaxies, fainter galaxies and high-redshift luminous red galaxies, both with and without photometric redshift estimates. We use overlapping objects between SDSS and the DEEP2 and 2SLAQ spectroscopic surveys to establish accurate calibration of photometric redshifts and to determine the redshift distributions for SDSS. We use these redshift results to compute the projected surface density contrast DeltaSigma around 259 609 spectroscopic galaxies in the SDSS; by measuring DeltaSigma with different source samples we establish consistency of the results at the 10 per cent level (1-sigma). We also use the ratio test to constrain shear calibration biases and other systematics in the SDSS survey data to determine the overall galaxy-galaxy weak lensing signal calibration uncertainty. We find no evidence of any inconsistency among many subsamples of the data.

Rachel Mandelbaum; Christopher M. Hirata; Uros Seljak; Jacek Guzik; Nikhil Padmanabhan; Cullen Blake; Michael R. Blanton; Robert Lupton; Jonathan Brinkmann

2005-08-10

109

Neutrino halos in clusters of galaxies and their weak lensing signature

We study whether non-linear gravitational effects of relic neutrinos on the development of clustering and large-scale structure may be observable by weak gravitational lensing. We compute the density profile of relic massive neutrinos in a spherical model of a cluster of galaxies, for several neutrino mass schemes and cluster masses. Relic neutrinos add a small perturbation to the mass profile, making it more extended in the outer parts. In principle, this non-linear neutrino perturbation is detectable in an all-sky weak lensing survey such as EUCLID by averaging the shear profile of a large fraction of the visible massive clusters in the universe, or from its signature in the general weak lensing power spectrum or its cross-spectrum with galaxies. However, correctly modeling the distribution of mass in baryons and cold dark matter and suppressing any systematic errors to the accuracy required for detecting this neutrino perturbation is severely challenging.

Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Peña-Garay, Carlos [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010-Barcelona (Spain); Quilis, Vicent, E-mail: villa@ific.uv.es, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es, E-mail: vicent.quilis@uv.es [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner, 50, E-46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

2011-06-01

110

Weighing the light gravitino mass with weak lensing surveys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the discovery potential of light gravitino mass m 3/2 by combining future cosmology surveys and collider experiments. The former probe the imprint of light gravitinos in the cosmic matter density field, whereas the latter search signatures of a supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Free-streaming of light gravitinos suppresses the density fluctuations at galactic and sub-galactic length scales, where weak gravitational lensing can be used as a powerful probe. We perform numerical simulations of structure formation to quantify the effect. We then run realistic ray-tracing simulations of gravitational lensing to measure the cosmic shear in models with light gravitino. We forecast the possible reach of future wide-field surveys by Fisher analysis; the light gravitino mass can be determined with an accuracy of m 3/2 = 4 ± 1 eV by a combination of the Hyper Suprime Cam survey and cosmic microwave background anisotropy data obtained by Planck satellite. The corresponding accuracy to be obtained by the future Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is ?m 3/2 = 0 .6 eV. Data from experiments at Large Hadron Collider at 14 TeV will provide constraint at m 3/2 ? 5 eV in the minimal framework of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) model. We conclude that a large class of the GMSB model can be tested by combining the cosmological observations and the collider experiments.

Kamada, Ayuki; Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

2014-06-01

111

Weak lensing using only galaxy position angles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a method for performing a weak lensing analysis using only measurements of galaxy position angles. By analysing the statistical properties of the galaxy orientations given a known intrinsic ellipticity distribution, we show that it is possible to obtain estimates of the shear by minimizing a ?2 statistic. The method is demonstrated using simulations where the components of the intrinsic ellipticity are taken to be Gaussian distributed. Uncertainties in the position angle measurements introduce a bias into the shear estimates which can be reduced to negligible levels by introducing a correction term into the formalism. We generalize our approach by developing an algorithm to obtain direct shear estimators given any azimuthally symmetric intrinsic ellipticity distribution. We introduce a method of measuring the position angles of the galaxies from noisy pixelized images, and propose a method to correct for biases which arise due to pixelization and correlations between measurement errors and galaxy ellipticities. We also develop a method to constrain the sample of galaxies used to obtain an estimate of the intrinsic ellipticity distribution such that fractional biases in the resulting shear estimates are below a given threshold value. We demonstrate the angle-only method by applying it to simulations where the ellipticities are taken to follow a lognormal distribution. We compare the performance of the position-angle-only method with the standard method based on full ellipticity measurements by reconstructing lensing convergence maps from both numerical simulations and from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey data. We find that the difference between the convergence maps reconstructed using the two methods is consistent with noise.

Whittaker, Lee; Brown, Michael L.; Battye, Richard A.

2014-12-01

112

Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors

Thermal lensing limits the performance of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors that use high light powers. We evaluate the effects of thermal lensing in such systems and estimate their gravitational wave sensitivity assuming that fused silica optical substrates are employed. Although useful sensitivity can be achieved with established designs, the new technique of resonant sideband extraction is most promising for

K. A. Strain; K. Danzmann; J. Mizuno; P. G. Nelson; A. Rüdiger; R. Schilling; W. Winkler

1994-01-01

113

Non-Perturbative Gravitational Lensing by Three Dimensional Mass Models

Gravitational lensing is the bending and distortion of light rays by the gravitational pull of massive objects in the universe. Lensing studies are significant to the current revolution in modern astrophysics through which the ultimate questions of the universe – how did the universe begin and what conditions permit life to develop – are being answered. Although the distortion of

Thomas Kling

2005-01-01

114

Gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma

We develop a model of gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to the dispersion properties of the plasma, in the presence of a plasma inhomogeneity, and of gravity. The second effect leads, even in a uniform plasma, to a

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; O. Yu. Tsupko

2010-01-01

115

Dark Energy Constraints from Weak-Lensing Cross-Correlation Cosmography

We present a method for implementing the idea of Jain & Taylor for constraining cosmological parameters with weak gravitational lensing. Photometric redshift information on foreground galaxies is used to produce templates of the mass structure at foreground slices zl, and the predicted distortion field is cross-correlated with the measured shapes of sources at redshift zs. The variation of the cross-correlation

G. M. Bernstein; B. Jain

2004-01-01

116

Observational signatures of the weak lensing magnification of supernovae

Due to the deflection of light by density fluctuations along the line of sight, weak lensing is an unavoidable systematic uncertainty in the use of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological distance indicators. We derive the expected weak lensing signatures of SNe Ia by convolving the intrinsic distribution in SN Ia peak luminosity with magnification distributions of point sources. We analyze current SN Ia data, and find marginal evidence for weak lensing effects. The statistics is poor because of the small number of observed SNe Ia. Future observational data will allow unambiguous detection of the weak lensing effect of SNe Ia. The observational signatures of weak lensing of SNe Ia that we have derived provide useful templates with which future data can be compared.

Yun Wang

2005-03-14

117

Weak lensing goes bananas: What flexion really measures

In weak gravitational lensing, the image distortion caused by shear measures the projected tidal gravitational field of the deflecting mass distribution. To lowest order, the shear is proportional to the mean image ellipticity. If the image sizes are not small compared to the scale over which the shear varies, higher-order distortions occur, called flexion. For ordinary weak lensing, the observable quantity is not the shear, but the reduced shear, owing to the mass-sheet degeneracy. Likewise, the flexion itself is unobservable. Rather, higher-order image distortions measure the reduced flexion, i.e., derivatives of the reduced shear. We derive the corresponding lens equation in terms of the reduced flexion and calculate the resulting relation between brightness moments of source and image. Assuming an isotropic distribution of source orientations, estimates for the reduced shear and flexion are obtained; these are then tested with simulations. In particular, the presence of flexion affects the determination of the reduced shear. The results of these simulations yield the amount of bias of the estimators, as a function of the shear and flexion. We point out and quantify a fundamental limitation of the flexion formalism, in terms of the product of reduced flexion and source size. If this product increases above the derived threshold, multiple images of the source are formed locally, and the formalism breaks down. Finally, we show how a general (reduced) flexion field can be decomposed into its four components: two of them are due to a shear field, carrying an E- and B-mode in general. The other two components do not correspond to a shear field; they can also be split up into corresponding E- and B-modes.

Peter Schneider; Xinzhong Er

2007-09-07

118

Gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma

We develop a model of gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to dispersion properties of plasma, in presence of a plasma inhomogeneity, and of a gravity. The second effect leads, even in a uniform plasma, to a difference of the gravitational photon deflection angle from the vacuum case, and to its dependence on the photon frequency. We take into account both effects, and derive the expression for the lensing angle in the case of a strongly nonuniform plasma in presence of the gravitation. Dependence of the lensing angle on the photon frequency in a homogeneous plasma resembles the properties of a refractive prism spectrometer, which strongest action is for very long radiowaves. We discuss the observational appearances of this effect for the gravitational lens with a Schwarzschild metric, surrounded by a uniform plasma. We obtain formulae for the lensing angle and the magnification factors in this case and discuss a possibility of observation of this effect by the planned VLBI space project Radioastron. We also consider models with a nonuniform plasma distribution. For different gravitational lens models we compare the corrections to the vacuum lensing due to the gravitational effect in plasma, and due to the plasma inhomogeneity. We have shown that the gravitational effect could be detected in the case of a hot gas in the gravitational field of a galaxy cluster.

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; O. Yu. Tsupko

2010-06-11

119

Gravitational Lensing and the Redshift Distribution of $B>25$ galaxies

In addition to the determination of the mass distribution of lenses (see P. Schneider, this conference), strong and weak lensing can also be powerfull tools to analyse the redshift distribution of faint galaxies. In this review, I summarize the present status of redshifts of galaxies beyond $B=25$ as they are inferred by spectroscopy of magnified galaxies, lensing inversion and magnification bias.

Y. Mellier

1996-08-25

120

FASTLens (FAst STatistics for weak Lensing) : Fast method for Weak Lensing Statistics and map making

With increasingly large data sets, weak lensing measurements are able to measure cosmological parameters with ever greater precision. However this increased accuracy also places greater demands on the statistical tools used to extract the available information. To date, the majority of lensing analyses use the two point-statistics of the cosmic shear field. These can either be studied directly using the two-point correlation function, or in Fourier space, using the power spectrum. But analyzing weak lensing data inevitably involves the masking out of regions or example to remove bright stars from the field. Masking out the stars is common practice but the gaps in the data need proper handling. In this paper, we show how an inpainting technique allows us to properly fill in these gaps with only $N \\log N$ operations, leading to a new image from which we can compute straight forwardly and with a very good accuracy both the pow er spectrum and the bispectrum. We propose then a new method to compute the bispectrum with a polar FFT algorithm, which has the main advantage of avoiding any interpolation in the Fourier domain. Finally we propose a new method for dark matter mass map reconstruction from shear observations which integrates this new inpainting concept. A range of examples based on 3D N-body simulations illustrates the results.

S. Pires; J. -L. Starck; A. Amara; R. Teyssier; A. Refregier; J. Fadili

2008-04-25

121

Modulation of a Chirp Gravitational Wave from a Compact Binary due to Gravitational Lensing

A possible wave effect in the gravitational lensing phenomenon is discussed. We consider the interference of two coherent gravitational waves of slightly different frequencies from a compact binary, due to the gravitational lensing by a galaxy halo. This system shows the modulation of the wave amplitude. The lensing probability of such the phenomenon is of order 10^{-5} for a high-z source, but it may be advantageous to the observation due to the magnification of the amplitude.

Kazuhiro Yamamoto

2005-05-06

122

Galaxy-cluster associations from gravitational lensing

We investigate the associations between background galaxies and foreground clusters of galaxies due to the effect of gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies. Similar to the well-known quasar-galaxy ones, these associations depend sensitively on the shape of galaxy number-magnitude or number-flux relation, and both positive and ``negative" associations are found to be possible, depending on the limiting magnitude and/or the flux threshold in the surveys. We calculate the enhancement factors assuming a singular isothermal sphere model for clusters of galaxies and a pointlike model for background sources selected in three different wavelengths, $B$, $K$ and radio. Our results show that $K-$ selected galaxies might constitute the best sample to test the ``negative" associations while it is unlikely that one can actually observe any association for blue galaxies. We also point out that bright radio sources ($S>1$ Jy) can provide strong positive associations, which may have been already detected in 3CR sample.

Xiang-Ping Wu; Francois Hammer

1993-12-24

123

Can Strong Gravitational Lensing Constrain Dark Energy?

We discuss the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the source to the lens, $D_{ds}$, and to the observer at present, $D_{s}$, for various dark energy models. It is well known that the difference of $D_s$s between the models is apparent and this quantity is used for the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. However we investigate the difference between the ratio of the angular diameter distances for a cosmological constant, $(D_{ds}/D_{s})^{\\Lambda}$ and that for other dark energy models, $(D_{ds}/D_{s})^{\\rm{other}}$ in this paper. It has been known that there is lens model degeneracy in using strong gravitational lensing. Thus, we investigate the model independent observable quantity, Einstein radius ($\\theta_E$), which is proportional to both $D_{ds}/D_s$ and velocity dispersion squared, $\\sigma_v^2$. $D_{ds}/D_s$ values depend on the parameters of each dark energy model individually. However, $(D_{ds}/D_s)^{\\Lambda} - (D_{ds}/D_{s})^{\\rm{other}}$ for the various dark energy models, is well within the error of $\\sigma_v$ for most of the parameter spaces of the dark energy models. Thus, a single strong gravitational lensing by use of the Einstein radius may not be a proper method to investigate the property of dark energy. However, better understanding to the mass profile of clusters in the future or other methods related to arc statistics rather than the distances may be used for constraints on dark energy.

Seokcheon Lee; Kin-Wang Ng

2007-07-12

124

Disentangling dark sector models using weak lensing statistics

We perform multi-plane ray-tracing using the GLAMER gravitational lensing code within high-resolution light-cones extracted from the CoDECS simulations: a suite of cosmological runs featuring a coupling between Dark Energy and Cold Dark Matter. We show that the presence of the coupling is evident not only in the redshift evolution of the normalisation of the convergence power spectrum, but also in differences in non-linear structure formation with respect to {\\Lambda}CDM. Using a tomographic approach under the assumption of a {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, we demonstrate that weak lensing measurements would result in a {\\sigma}8 value that changes with the source redshift if the true underlying cosmology is a coupled Dark Energy one. This provides a generic null test for these types of models. We also find that different models of coupled Dark Energy can show either an enhanced or a suppressed correlation between convergence maps with differing source redshifts as compared to {\\Lambda}CDM. This would provide a direc...

Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Petkova, Margarita; -,; Astronomia, Dipartimento di Fisica e; di Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum Università; di Bologna, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico; di Bologna, INFN - Sezione; Université, Aix Marseille; CNRS,; LAM,; France,; Laboratory, Jet Propulsion; Physics, Department of; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet),

2015-01-01

125

Probing the cosmic web: intercluster filament detection using gravitational lensing

The problem of detecting dark matter filaments in the cosmic web is considered. Weak lensing is an ideal probe of dark matter, and therefore forms the basis of particularly promising detection methods. We consider and develop a number of weak lensing techniques that could be used to detect filaments in individual or stacked cluster fields, and apply them to synthetic

James M. G. Mead; Lindsay J. King; Ian G. McCarthy

2010-01-01

126

Weak gravitational lensing due to the inhomogeneous matter distribution in the universe is an important systematic uncertainty in the use of standard candles in cosmology. There are two different descriptions of weak lensing amplification, one uses a local smoothness parameter $\\tilde{\\alpha}$, the other uses reduced convergence $\\eta= 1+ \\kappa/|\\kappa_{min}|$ (where $\\kappa$ is convergence). The $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ description involves Dyer-Roeder distance $D_A(\\tilde{\\alpha}|z)$ ($\\tilde{\\alpha}=1$ corresponds to a smooth universe); it is simple and convenient, and has been used by the community to illustrate the effect of weak lensing on point sources such as type Ia supernovae. Wang (1999) has shown that the $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ description can be made realistic by allowing $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ to be a local variable, the local smoothness parameter. The $\\eta$ description has been used by Wang, Holz, & Munshi (2002) to derive a universal probability distribution (UPDF) for weak lensing amplification. In this paper, we bridge the two different descriptions of weak lensing amplification by relating the reduced convergence $\\eta$ and the local smoothness parameter $\\tilde{\\alpha}$. We give the variance of $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ in terms of the matter power spectrum, thus providing a quantitative guidance to the use of Dyer-Roeder distances in illustrating the effect of weak lensing. The by-products of this work include a corrected definition of the reduced convergence, and simple and accurate analytical expressions for $D_A(\\tilde{\\alpha}|z)$. Our results should be very useful in studying the weak lensing of standard candles.

Yun Wang; Jason Tenbarge; Bobby Fleshman

2003-07-23

127

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational lensing effect is important to the detection of electromagnetic signals in astrophysics. The gravitational wave lensing effect has also been found significant to gravitational wave detection in the past decade. Recent analysis shows that the lensing events for advanced detectors could be quite plausible. The black holes in our Milky Way Galaxy may play the role of lens objects. These facts motivate us to study the lensing effects on gravitational wave signals for advanced detectors. Taking advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope for examples, we investigate the lensing effects on the parameter extraction of gravitational wave signals. Using the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation together with matched filtering methods, we find that the lensing effect for a lens object with small mass is negligible. But when the mass of the lens object increases to larger than 1000M? the lensing effect becomes important. Using the template without lensing corrections would result in loss of signal detections. In contrast if we consider templates with lensing effects, the lensed signal may provide much information about the lens black hole. These facts may give us a new way to determine the parameters of the lensing object. For example, this kind of signal may also help us estimate the mass and the distance of the supermassive black hole hosted at the center of our Galaxy.

Cao, Zhoujian; Li, Li-Fang; Wang, Yan

2014-09-01

128

What is Gravitational Lensing? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Gravitational lensing is explained by Einstein's general theory of relativity: galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which are very massive objects, act on spacetime by causing it to become curved. Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima, astrophysicists with the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, will discuss how scientists use gravitational lensing to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter in the universe.

Leauthaud, Alexie; Nakajima, Reiko [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics

2011-04-28

129

What is Gravitational Lensing? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Gravitational lensing is explained by Einstein's general theory of relativity: galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which are very massive objects, act on spacetime by causing it to become curved. Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima, astrophysicists with the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, will discuss how scientists use gravitational lensing to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter in the universe.

Leauthaud, Alexie; Nakajima, Reiko (Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics) [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics

2009-07-28

130

Mitigating Image Persistence in WFC3 NIR Observations to Allow Weak Lensing Shape Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing, the slight distortion of the shapes of background galaxies by foreground dark matter, has become an important tool in precision cosmology. With the addition of the of the near infrared {NIR} WFC3 channel later this year, there will be NIR surveys in which weak lensing will be a primary or secondary science goal. We have identified an important instrumental systematic effect, image persistence, or ghosting, that is present in HgCdTe NIR detectors such as WFC3. This effect will cause non-negligible shape distortions that mimic a weak lensing signal and prevent precise weak lensing measurements. We have outlined a mitigation strategy that entials quantifying the effect and then removing the effect from the data as the first stage in image processing. We have all the necessary tools, including two HgCdTe detectors in our labs undergoing persistence characterization, an existing image simulation pipeline, and well-tested weak lensing shape measurement software. Using science and calibration imaging data taken during the normal course of Cycle 17 operations, we will develop a model of persistence in WFC3, produce a removal algorithm, and deliver the results to STScI for dissemination to the community. We will also monitor WFC3 over the course of Cycle 17 to see if the persistence worsens due to charged particle radiation damage.

Rhodes, Jason

2009-07-01

131

Probing the dark matter issue in f( R)-gravity via gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a general class of analytic f( R)-gravity theories, we discuss the weak field limit in view of gravitational lensing. Though an additional Yukawa term in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to the standard Newtonian limit of General Relativity, the motion of massless particles results unaffected thanks to suitable cancellations in the post-Newtonian limit. Thus, all the lensing observables are equal to the ones known from General Relativity. Since f( R)-gravity is claimed, among other things, to be a possible solution to overcome for the need of dark matter in virialized systems, we discuss the impact of our results on the dynamical and gravitational lensing analyses. In this framework, dynamics could, in principle, be able to reproduce the astrophysical observations without recurring to dark matter, but in the case of gravitational lensing we find that dark matter is an unavoidable ingredient. Another important implication is that gravitational lensing, in the post-Newtonian limit, is not able to constrain these extended theories, since their predictions do not differ from General Relativity.

Lubini, M.; Tortora, C.; Näf, J.; Jetzer, Ph.; Capozziello, S.

2011-12-01

132

To the horizon and beyond: Weak lensing of the CMB and binary inspirals into horizonless objects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines two predictions of general relativity: weak lensing and gravitational waves. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is gravitationally lensed by the large-scale structure between the observer and the last- scattering surface. This weak lensing induces non-Gaussian correlations that can be used to construct estimators for the deflection field. The error and bias of these estimators are derived and used to analyze the viability of lensing reconstruction for future CMB experiments. Weak lensing also affects the one-point probability distribution function of the CMB. The skewness and kurtosis induced by lensing and the Sunayev- Zel'dovich (SZ) effect are calculated as functions of the angular smoothing scale of the map. While these functions offer the advantage of easy computability, only the skewness from lensing-SZ correlations can potentially be detected, even in the limit of the largest amplitude fluctuations allowed by observation. Lensing estimators are also essential to constrain inflation, the favored explanation for large-scale isotropy and the origin of primordial perturbations. B-mode polarization is considered to be a "smoking-gun" signature of inflation, and lensing estimators can be used to recover primordial B-modes from lensing-induced contamination. The ability of future CMB experiments to constrain inflation is assessed as functions of survey size and instrumental sensitivity. A final application of lensing estimators is to constrain a possible cutoff in primordial density perturbations on near-horizon scales. The paucity of independent modes on such scales limits the statistical certainty of such a constraint. Measurements of the deflection field can be used to constrain at the 3s level the existence of a cutoff large enough to account for current CMB observations. A final chapter of this thesis considers an independent topic: the gravitational-wave (GW) signature of a binary inspiral into a horizonless object. If the supermassive objects at galactic centers lack the horizons of traditional black holes, inspiraling objects could emit GWs after passing within their surfaces. The GWs produced by such an inspiral are calculated, revealing distinctive features potentially observable by future GW observatories.

Kesden, Michael

133

A dearth of dark matter in strong gravitational lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I show that the lensing masses of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera Surveys sample of strong gravitational lenses are consistent with the stellar masses determined from population synthesis models using the Salpeter initial mass function. This is true in the context of both General Relativity and modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), and is in agreement with the expectation of MOND that there should be little classical discrepancy within the high surface brightness regions probed by strong gravitational lensing. There is also dynamical evidence from this sample supporting the claim that the mass-to-light ratio of the stellar component increases with the velocity dispersion.

Sanders, R. H.

2014-04-01

134

Gravitational Lenses and the Structure and Evolution of Galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The grant has supported the completion of 16 papers and 4 conference proceedings to date. During the first year of the project we completed five papers, each of which represents a new direction in the theory and interpretation of gravitational lenses. In the first paper, "The Importance of Einstein Rings", we developed the first theory for the formation and structure of the Einstein rings formed by lensing extended sources like the host galaxies of quasar and radio sources. We applied the theory to three lenses with lensed host galaxies. For the time delay lens PG 1115+080 we found that the structure of the Einstein ring ruled out models of the gravitational potential which permitted a large Hubble constant (70 km/s Mpc). In the second paper, :Cusped Mass Models Of Gravitational Lenses", we introduced a new class of lens models where the central density is characterized by a cusp ( rho proportional to tau(sup -gamma), 1 less than gamma less than 2) as in most modern models and theories of galaxies rather than a finite core radius. In the third paper, "Global Probes of the Impact of Baryons on Dark Matter Halos", we made the first globally consistent models for the separation distribution of gravitational lenses including both galaxy and cluster lenses. We show that the key physics for the origin of the sharp separation cutoff in the separation distribution near 3 arc sec is the effect of the cooling baryons in galaxies on the density structure of the system.

Kochanek, Christopher

2003-01-01

135

We present a list of 13 candidate gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 95 deg{sup 2} of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, a surface density of 0.14 {+-} 0.04 deg{sup -2}. The selected sources have 500 {mu}m flux densities (S {sub 500}) greater than 100 mJy. Gravitational lensing is confirmed by follow-up observations in 9 of the 13 systems (70%), and the lensing status of the four remaining sources is undetermined. We also present a supplementary sample of 29 (0.31 {+-} 0.06 deg{sup -2}) gravitationally lensed SMG candidates with S {sub 500} = 80-100 mJy, which are expected to contain a higher fraction of interlopers than the primary candidates. The number counts of the candidate lensed galaxies are consistent with a simple statistical model of the lensing rate, which uses a foreground matter distribution, the intrinsic SMG number counts, and an assumed SMG redshift distribution. The model predicts that 32%-74% of our S {sub 500} {>=} 100 mJy candidates are strongly gravitationally lensed ({mu} {>=} 2), with the brightest sources being the most robust; this is consistent with the observational data. Our statistical model also predicts that, on average, lensed galaxies with S {sub 500} = 100 mJy are magnified by factors of {approx}9, with apparently brighter galaxies having progressively higher average magnification, due to the shape of the intrinsic number counts. 65% of the sources are expected to have intrinsic 500 {mu}m flux densities less than 30 mJy. Thus, samples of strongly gravitationally lensed SMGs, such as those presented here, probe below the nominal Herschel detection limit at 500 {mu}m. They are good targets for the detailed study of the physical conditions in distant dusty, star-forming galaxies, due to the lensing magnification, which can lead to spatial resolutions of {approx}0.''01 in the source plane.

Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; De Bernardis, Francesco; Calanog, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Amblard, A. [NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)] [NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Arumugam, V. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Blundell, R.; Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Carpenter, J. M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Castro-Rodriguez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)] [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

2013-01-01

136

Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (?CDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

2012-03-01

137

Large-Scale QSO-Galaxy Correlations and Weak Lensing

Several recent studies show that bright, intermediate and high redshift optically and radio selected QSOs are positively correlated with nearby galaxies on a range of angular scales up to a degree. Obscuration by unevenly distributed Galactic dust can be ruled out as the cause, leaving weak statistical lensing as the physical process responsible. However the amplitude of correlations on < 1 degree scales is at least a factor of a few larger than lensing model predictions. A possible way to reconcile the observations and theory is to revise the weak lensing formalism. We extend the standard lensing formulation to include the next higher order term (second order) in the geodesic equation of motion for photons. We derive relevant equations applicable in the weak lensing regime, and discuss qualitative properties of the updated formulation. We then perform numerical integrations of the revised equation and study the effect of the extra term using two different types of cosmic mass density fluctuations. We find that nearby large-scale coherent structures increase the amplitude of the predicted lensing-induced correlations between QSOs and foreground galaxies by ~ 10% (not a factor of several required by observations), while the redshift of the optimal, i.e. `most correlated' structures is moved closer to the observer compared to what is predicted using the standard lensing equation.

Liliya L. R. Williams

1999-12-22

138

Gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a model of gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to the dispersion properties of the plasma, in the presence of a plasma inhomogeneity, and of gravity. The second effect leads, even in a uniform plasma, to a difference of the gravitational photon deflection angle from the vacuum case, and to its dependence on the photon frequency. We take into account both effects, and derive the expression for the lensing angle in the case of a strongly non-uniform plasma in the presence of gravitation. The dependence of the lensing angle on the photon frequency in a homogeneous plasma resembles the properties of a refractive prism spectrometer, the strongest action of which is for very long radio waves. We discuss the observational appearance of this effect for the gravitational lens with a Schwarzschild metric, surrounded by a uniform plasma. We obtain formulae for the lensing angle and the magnification factors in this case and discuss the possibility of observation of this effect by the planned very long baseline interferometry space project RadioAstron. We also consider models with a non-uniform plasma distribution. For different gravitational lens models we compare the corrections to the vacuum lensing due to the gravitational effect in the plasma, and due to the plasma inhomogeneity. We show that the gravitational effect could be detected in the case of a hot gas in the gravitational field of a galaxy cluster.

Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.

2010-06-01

139

Scaling the universe: Gravitational lenses and the Hubble constant

Gravitational lenses, besides being interesting in their own right, have been demonstrated to be suitable as “gravitational standard rulers” for the measurement of the rate of expansion of the Universe (Ho), as well as to constrain the values of the cosmological parameters such as ?o and ?o that control the evolution of the volume of the Universe with cosmic time. PMID:10200245

Myers, Steven T.

1999-01-01

140

Gravitational lensing by black holes: The case of Sgr A*

The strong gravitational fields created by black holes dramatically affect the propagation of photons by bending their trajectories. Gravitational lensing thus stands as the main source of information on the space-time structure in such extreme regimes. We will review the theory and phenomenology of gravitational lensing by black holes, with the generation of higher order images and giant caustics by rotating black holes. We will then focus on Sgr A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, for which next-to-come technology will be able to reach resolutions of the order of the Schwarzschild radius and ultimately test the existence of an event horizon.

Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

2014-01-14

141

Weak Lensing Mass Calibration of the RBC X-ray Galaxy Cluster Catalog

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fully realize the potential of galaxy clusters as a cosmological probe, we must understand the mass function of the galaxy clusters we observe. Weak gravitational lensing provides a valuable tool for measuring the cluster masses because it is a direct probe of the gravitational field of the cluster, without assumptions about cluster structure. Here we present a weak lensing measurement of the masses of clusters in the RBC catalog. Our clusters are drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, an X-ray selected catalog, with a well-understood selection function. We compare our results to simulation outputs to probe the impact of substructure and three-dimensional shape not captured by simple analytical models, and discuss the relationship between the galaxy cluster masses we measure and the masses inferred based on assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium.

Simet, Melanie; Battaglia, Nicholas; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros

2015-01-01

142

Accurate weak lensing of standard candles. I. Flexible cosmological fits

With the availability of thousands of type Ia supernovae in the near future the magnitude scatter induced by lensing will become a major issue as it affects parameter estimation. Current N-body simulations are too time consuming to be integrated in the likelihood analyses used for estimating the cosmological parameters. In this paper we show that in the weak lensing regime a statistical numerical approximation produces accurate results orders of magnitude faster. We write down simple fits to the second, third and fourth central moments of the lensing magnification probability distribution as a function of redshift, of the power spectrum normalization and of the present-day matter density. We also improve upon existing models of lensing variance and show that a shifted lognormal distribution fits well the numerical one. These fits can be easily employed in cosmological likelihood analyses. Moreover, our theoretical predictions make it possible to invert the problem and begin using supernovae lensing to constrain the cosmological parameters.

Valerio Marra; Miguel Quartin; Luca Amendola

2013-09-02

143

Gravitational lensing on the Cosmic Microwave Background by gravity waves

We study the effect of a stochastic background of gravitational waves on the gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. It has been shown that matter density inhomogeneities produce a smoothing of the acoustic peaks in the angular power spectrum of the CMB anisotropies. A gravitational wave background gives rise to an additional smoothing of the spectrum. For the most simple case of a gravitational wave background arising during a period of inflation, the effect results to be three to four orders of magnitude smaller than its scalar counterpart, and is thus undetectable. It could play a more relevant role in models where a larger background of gravitational waves is produced.

Silvia Mollerach

1997-08-21

144

How Sensitive Are Weak Lensing Statistics to Dark Energy Content?

Future weak lensing surveys will directly probe the clustering of dark matter, in addition to providing a test for various cosmological models. Recent studies have provided us with the tools which can be used to construct the complete probability distribution function for convergence fields. It is also possible to construct the bias associated with the hot-spots in convergence maps. These techniques can be used in both the quasi-linear and the highly nonlinear regimes using various well developed numerical methods. We use these results here to study the weak lensing statistics of cosmological models with dark energy. We study how well various classes of dark energy models can be distinguished from models with a cosmological constant. We find that the ratio of the square root of the variance of convergence is complementary to the convergence skewness $S_3$ in probing dark energy equation of state; it can be used to predict the expected difference in weak lensing statistics between various dark energy models, and for choosing optimized smoothing angles to constrain a given class of dark energy models. Our results should be useful for probing dark energy using future weak lensing data with high statistics from galaxy weak lensing surveys and supernova pencil beam surveys.

Dipak Munshi; Yun Wang

2002-06-27

145

Gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma

We develop a model of gravitational lensing in a non-uniform plasma. When a\\u000agravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on the\\u000afrequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to dispersion properties of plasma,\\u000ain presence of a plasma inhomogeneity, and of a gravity. The second effect\\u000aleads, even in a uniform plasma, to a difference of

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; O. Yu. Tsupko

2010-01-01

146

Gravitational Lenses and the Structure and Evolution of Galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first year of the project we completed five papers, each of which represents a new direction in the theory and interpretation of gravitational lenses. In the first paper, The Importance of Einstein Rings, we developed the first theory for the formation and structure of the Einstein rings formed by lensing extended sources like the host galaxies of quasar and radio sources. In the second paper, Cusped Mass Models Of Gravitational Lenses, we introduced a new class of lens models. In the third paper, Global Probes of the Impact of Baryons on Dark Matter Halos, we made the first globally consistent models for the separation distribution of gravitational lenses including both galaxy and cluster lenses. The last two papers explore the properties of two lenses in detail. During the second year we have focused more closely on the relationship of baryons and dark matter. In the third year we have been further examining the relationship between baryons and dark matter. In the present year we extended our statistical analysis of lens mass distributions using a self-similar model for the halo mass distribution as compared to the luminous galaxy.

Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kochanek, Christopher

2004-01-01

147

General requirements on matter power spectrum predictions for cosmology with weak lensing tomography

Forthcoming projects such as DES, LSST, WFIRST, and Euclid aim to measure weak lensing shear correlations with unprecedented precision, constraining the dark energy equation of state at the percent level. Reliance on photometrically-determined redshifts constitutes a major source of uncertainty for these surveys. Additionally, interpreting the weak lensing signal requires a detailed understanding of the nonlinear physics of gravitational collapse. We present a new analysis of the stringent calibration requirements for weak lensing analyses of future imaging surveys that addresses both photo-z uncertainty and errors in the calibration of the matter power spectrum. We find that when photo-z uncertainty is taken into account the requirements on the level of precision in the prediction for the matter power spectrum are more stringent than previously thought. Including degree-scale galaxy clustering statistics in a joint analysis with weak lensing not only strengthens the survey's constraining power by ? 20%, but can also have a profound impact on the calibration demands, decreasing the degradation in dark energy constraints with matter power spectrum uncertainty by a factor of 2-5. Similarly, using galaxy clustering information significantly relaxes the demands on photo-z calibration. We compare these calibration requirements to the contemporary state-of-the-art in photometric redshift estimation and predictions of the power spectrum and suggest strategies to utilize forthcoming data optimally.

Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R. [Pittsburgh Particle physics Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ma, Zhaoming, E-mail: aph15@pitt.edu, E-mail: zentner@pitt.edu, E-mail: mzm@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2012-04-01

148

A Comparison of Weak-lensing and X-ray masses of Galaxy Clusters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing effect on galaxies behind galaxy clusters is a powerful, unique tool to measure cluster masses out to virial radii, regardless of assumptions of dynamical state of matters. The weak-lensing study enables us to measure cluster masses even where hydrostatic equilibrium assumption is no longer valid, which is complementary to X-ray measurement. Recent optical observations using wide-field cameras of ground telescopes, such as the Subaru telescope, made remarkable progresses of the study. The Suzaku X-ray satellite allows us to measure properties of intracluster medium (ICM) in cluster outskirts. By combining with Chandra/XMM-Newton observations of cluster central regions, we are able, for the first time, to investigate X-ray properties of the ICM in the entire region. Here, we are now ready to compare weak-lensing and X-ray masses out to virial radii. This talk gives a review of recent results of weak-lensing, X-ray and joint studies of galaxy clusters.

Okabe, N.

2014-07-01

149

A comprehensive search for gravitational lensing of GRBs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of gravitational lensing may affect GRBs if they lie at cosmological distances. Given the non-detection of lensing events due to the known galaxy field and assuming that QSO images are distorted by the same lens field, we have derived a very conservative upper limit on the redshift of zgrbmax~4.06. If dark matter comprises a certain fraction of the mass of the universe and is composed by individual objects, the lack of mega-, micro-, pico-, and femto-lensing events is also used to set limits on the cosmological abundance of these compact objects.

Marani, G. F.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Hurley, K.; Bonnell, J. T.

1998-05-01

150

The Effect of Weak Lensing on Distance Estimates from Supernovae

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7?). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4?. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H 0 data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on ? m and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

Smith, Mathew; Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Cinabro, David; Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shapiro, Charles; Sollerman, Jesper

2014-01-01

151

Galaxy cluster center detection methods with weak lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise location of galaxy cluster centers is a persistent problem in weak lensing mass estimates and in interpretations of clusters in a cosmological context. In this work, we test methods of centroid determination from weak lensing data and examine the effects of such self-calibration on the measured masses. Drawing on lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a 275 square degree region of coadded data in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with a catalog of MaxBCG clusters, we show that halo substructure as well as shape noise and stochasticity in galaxy positions limit the precision of such a self-calibration (in the context of Stripe 82, to ˜ 500 h-1 kpc or larger) and bias the mass estimates around these points to a level that is likely unacceptable for the purposes of making cosmological measurements. We also project the usefulness of this technique in future surveys.

Simet, Melanie

152

Gravitational Lensing and Distant Clusters of Galaxies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present results from an ongoing program of Chandra imaging and spectroscopy of lensing clusters of galaxies. The X-ray data provide clear evidence that the program objects, including Abell 370, EMSS1358+6245 and EMSS1054-0321, exhibit a variety of dynamical states. Significant spatial variations in plasma temperature are observed within two of these clusters. I compare the quantity and spatial distribution of the dark matter in the cluster cores inferred from the lensing data with that obtained from the X-ray emitting gas. This comparison generally supports previously proposed explanations of the discrepancy between X-ray and lensing mass estimates. This work was supported by NASA through contracts NAS-8-37716 and 1797-MIT-NA-A-38252.

Bautz, M. W.

2000-10-01

153

Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ? 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ? 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (? 60%) or heavy (? 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (? 2 per year). PMID:21231571

Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

2010-12-17

154

Reverberation Mapping of a Gravitationally-lensed Quasar

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a continuation of the program we began in 2013B to perform reverberation mapping on a gravitationally lensed quasar. Gravitationally lensed quasars are already rich test beds for studying cosmology, black hole accretion physics, dark matter, and galaxy properties. Here, we will expand their use by spectroscopically monitoring the CIV quasar emission line with GMOS to measure the broad line region size and black hole mass of the z=1.7 lensed quasar HE0435-1223. The success of this program has significant implications for studies of quasar physics, galaxy evolution at high redshift, and further studies of cosmology, and it is possible with only a modest addition (<2.5 nights) of Gemini time in 2014A.

Denney, Kelly D.; Courbin, Frederic; Kochanek, Christopher S.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Meylan, Georges; Morgan, Christopher W.; Mosquera, Ana; Moustakas, Leonidas; Onken, Christopher A.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Sluse, Dominique

2014-02-01

155

Wave Effect in Gravitational Lensing by the Ellis Wormhole

We propose the use of modulated spectra of astronomical sources due to gravitational lensing to probe Ellis wormholes. The modulation factor due to gravitational lensing by the Ellis wormhole is calculated. Within the geometrical optics approximation, the normal point mass lens and the Ellis wormhole are indistinguishable unless we know the source's unlensed luminosity. This degeneracy is resolved with the significant wave effect in the low frequency domain if we take the deviation from the geometrical optics into account. We can roughly estimate the upper bound for the number density of Ellis wormholes as $n\\lesssim 10^{-9}\\{AU}^{-3}$ with throat radius $a\\sim1\\cm$ from the existing femto-lensing analysis for compact objects.

Chul-Moon Yoo; Tomohiro Harada; Naoki Tsukamoto

2013-03-06

156

Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Challenge Handbook

GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) is a public image analysis challenge aimed at the development of algorithms to analyze astronomical images. Specifically, the challenge is to measure varying image distortions in the presence of a variable convolution kernel, pixelization and noise. This is the second in a series of challenges set to the astronomy, computer science and statistics communities,

Thomas Kitching; Adam Amara; Mandeep Gill; Stefan Harmeling; Catherine Heymans; Richard Massey; Barnaby Rowe; Tim Schrabback; Lisa Voigt; Sreekumar Balan; Gary Bernstein; Matthias Bethge; Sarah Bridle; Frederic Courbin; Marc Gentile; Alan Heavens; Michael Hirsch; Reshad Hosseini; Alina Kiessling; Donnacha Kirk; Konrad Kuijken; Rachel Mandelbaum; Baback Moghaddam; Guldariya Nurbaeva; Stephane Paulin-Henriksson; Anais Rassat; Jason Rhodes; Bernhard Schölkopf; John Shawe-Taylor; Marina Shmakova; Andy Taylor; Malin Velander; Ludovic van Waerbeke; Dugan Witherick; David Wittman

2011-01-01

157

Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Challenge Handbook

GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) is a public image analysis challenge aimed at the development of algorithms to analyze astronomical images. Specifically, the challenge is to measure varying image distortions in the presence of a variable convolution kernel, pixelization and noise. This is the second in a series of challenges set to the astronomy, computer science and statistics communities,

Thomas Kitching; Sreekumar Balan; Gary Bernstein; Matthias Bethge; Sarah Bridle; Frederic Courbin; Marc Gentile; Alan Heavens; Michael Hirsch; Reshad Hosseini; Alina Kiessling; Adam Amara; Donnacha Kirk; Konrad Kuijken; Rachel Mandelbaum; Baback Moghaddam; Guldariya Nurbaeva; Anais Rassat; Jason Rhodes; Bernhard Schölkopf; John Shawe-Taylor; Mandeep Gill; Marina Shmakova; Andy Taylor; Malin Velander; Ludovic van Waerbeke; Dugan Witherick; David Wittman; Stefan Harmeling; Catherine Heymans; Richard Massey; Barnaby Rowe; Tim Schrabback; Lisa Voigt

2010-01-01

158

Master Thesis The Effects of Dark Matter on Gravitational Lensing

Master Thesis The Effects of Dark Matter on Gravitational Lensing Properties of Galaxy Clusters, Australia #12;#12;Summary Dark matter is one of the main components in the universe. The type of dark matter cosmological model with cold dark matter (CDM) will have less structure compared to an equivalent model

van Suijlekom, Walter

159

Strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the strong gravitational lensing in a five dimensional background with Gauss-Bonnet gravity, so that in 4-dimensions the Gauss-Bonnet correction disappears. By considering the logarithmic term for deflection angle, we obtain the deflection angle hat alpha and corresponding parameters ? and bar b. Finally, we estimate some properties of relativistic images such as ??, s and rm.

Sadeghi, J.; Vaez, H.

2014-06-01

160

Modified gravity: the CMB, weak lensing and general parameterisations

We examine general physical parameterisations for viable gravitational models in the f(R) framework. This is related to the mass of an additional scalar field, called the scalaron, that is introduced by the theories. Using a simple parameterisation for the scalaron mass M(a) we show there is an exact correspondence between the model and popular parameterisations of the modified Poisson equation ?(a,k) and the ratio of the Newtonian potentials ?(a,k). We argue that although f(R) models are well described by the general [?(a,k),?(a,k)] parameterization, specific functional forms of ?,? in the literature do not accurately represent f(R) behaviour, specifically at low redshift. We subsequently construct an improved description for the scalaron mass (and therefore ?(a,k) and ?(a,k)) which captures their essential features and has benefits derived from a more physical origin. We study the scalaron's observational signatures and show the modification to the background Friedmann equation and CMB power spectrum to be small. We also investigate its effects in the linear and non linear matter power spectrum-where the signatures are evident-thus giving particular importance to weak lensing as a probe of these models. Using this new form, we demonstrate how the next generation Euclid survey will constrain these theories and its complementarity to current solar system tests. In the most optimistic case Euclid, together with a Planck prior, can constrain a fiducial scalaron mass M{sub 0} = 9.4 × 10{sup ?30}eV at the ? 20% level. However, the decay rate of the scalaron mass, with fiducial value ? = 1.5, can be constrained to ? 3% uncertainty.

Thomas, Shaun A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Appleby, Stephen A.; Weller, Jochen, E-mail: shaun.thomas@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: stephen.appleby@ph.tum.de, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2011-03-01

161

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an accurate gravitational lens theory for an inhomogeneity embedded in an otherwise homogeneous universe, which to the lowest order is applicable to any mass distribution. We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a FLRW cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) caused by individual large scale inhomogeneities, in particular, cosmic voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the CMB temperature fluctuation across such a lens as the derivative of the lens Fermat potential. Our formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. Our results are particularly useful for modeling ISW effects extracted through stacking large numbers of cosmic voids and clusters (that is, the aperture photometry method). For structures co-expanding with the background cosmology, i.e., for time-independent density contrasts, we find that the gravitational lensing time delay alone can produce fluctuations of the order of seen in recent observations by WMAP and Planck. We revisit the possibility of explaining the non-Gaussian cold spot on the south hemisphere via the Rees-Sciama effect of a large cosmic void using constraints obtained from the most recent void catalogs and our new void-lensing formalism, and compare it with other explanations such as a collapsing cosmic texture. We also study the remapping of primordial CMB anisotropies, the weak-lensing shear, and magnification caused by void lensing.

Chen, Bin; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

2014-01-01

162

Gravitational lenses in generalized Einstein-aether theory: The bullet cluster

We study the lensing properties of an asymmetric mass distribution and vector field in generalized Einstein-aether (GEA) theory. As vector-field fluctuations are responsible in GEA for seeding baryonic structure formation, vector-field concentrations can exist independently of baryonic matter. Such concentrations would not be expected to be tied to baryonic matter except gravitationally, and so, like dark matter halos, would become separated from baryonic matter in interacting systems such as the bullet cluster. These vector-field concentrations cause metric deviations that affect weak lensing. Therefore, the distribution of weak lensing deviates from that which would be inferred from the luminous mass distribution, in a way that numerical calculations demonstrate can be consistent with observations. This suggests that MOND-inspired theories can reproduce weak lensing observations, but makes clear the price: the existence of a coherent large-scale fluctuation of a field(s) weakly tied to the baryonic matter, not completely dissimilar to a dark matter halo.

Dai, D.-C. [HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Matsuo, Reijiro; Starkman, Glenn [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States)

2008-11-15

163

The Statistics of Nearly On-Axis Gravitational Lensing Events

A small volume of space, nearly on-axis behind a gravitational lens with respect to a given source, will receive a greatly increased radiation flux. In the idealized case of a point mass lens acting on a point source in complete isolation, the volume will approach zero only as the flux tends to infinity; in fact, the volume weighted rms flux is divergent. In realistic cases, finite source size and the effects of other gravitational deflections (i.e., non-zero shear) limit the maximum flux and considerably complicate the physics, but very large fluxes are still produced in small volumes. We consider the physics and statistics of these Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events (EGLE) and present an initial examination of their possible astrophysical effects for various known and putative populations of lensing objects and sources, with particular attention to the case in which finite source size is important but shear is not.

Yun Wang

1995-09-07

164

Gravitational lensing in plasma: Relativistic images at homogeneous plasma

We investigate the influence of plasma presence on relativistic images formed by Schwarzschild black hole lensing. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on a frequency of the electromagnetic wave due to refraction properties, and the dispersion properties of the light propagation in gravitational field in plasma. The last effect leads to difference, even in uniform plasma, of gravitational deflection angle in plasma from vacuum case. This angle depends on the photon frequency, what resembles the properties of the refractive prism spectrometer. Here we consider the case of a strong deflection angle for the light, traveling near the Schwarzschild black hole, surrounded by a uniform plasma. Asymptotic formulae are obtained for the case of a very large deflection angle, exceeding $2\\pi$. We apply these formulae for calculation of position and magnification of relativistic images in a homogeneous plasma, which are formed by the photons performing one or several revolutions ar...

Tsupko, Oleg Yu

2013-01-01

165

Resolved Spectroscopy of Gravitationally Lensed Galaxies at z~=2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially resolved spectroscopy is even more powerful when combined with magnification by gravitational lensing. I discuss observations of lensed galaxies at z~=2 with spatial resolution reaching 100 parsecs. Near-IR integral field spectroscopy reveals the kinematics, distribution and physical properties of star forming regions, and gas-phase metallicity gradients. Roughly two thirds of observed galaxies are isolated systems with coherent velocity fields, large velocity dispersion, multiple giant star-forming regions, and negative gas-phase metallicity gradients, suggestive of inside-out growth in gravitationally unstable disks. The remainder are undergoing mergers and have shallower metallicity gradients, indicating mixing of the interstellar gas via gravitational interaction. The metallicity gradients in isolated galaxies are consistent with simulations using standard feedback prescriptions, whereas simulations with enhanced feedback predict shallower gradients. These measurements therefore constrain the growth of galaxies from mergers and star formation as well as the regulatory feedback.

Jones, Tucker

2015-02-01

166

Non-linear relativistic contributions to the cosmological weak-lensing convergence

Relativistic contributions to the dynamics of structure formation come in a variety of forms, and can potentially give corrections to the standard picture on typical scales of 100 Mpc. These corrections cannot be obtained by Newtonian numerical simulations, so it is important to accurately estimate the magnitude of these relativistic effects. Density fluctuations couple to produce a background of gravitational waves, which is larger than any primordial background. A similar interaction produces a much larger spectrum of vector modes which represent the frame-dragging rotation of spacetime. These can change the metric at the percent level in the concordance model at scales below the equality scale. Vector modes modify the lensing of background galaxies by large-scale structure. This gives in principle the exciting possibility of measuring relativistic frame dragging effects on cosmological scales. The effects of the non-linear tensor and vector modes on the cosmic convergence are computed and compared to first-order lensing contributions from density fluctuations, Doppler lensing, and smaller Sachs-Wolfe effects. The lensing from gravitational waves is negligible so we concentrate on the vector modes. We show the relative importance of this for future surveys such as Euclid and SKA. We find that these non-linear effects only marginally affect the overall weak lensing signal so they can safely be neglected in most analyses, though are still much larger than the linear Sachs-Wolfe terms. The second-order vector contribution can dominate the first-order Doppler lensing term at moderate redshifts and are actually more important for survey geometries like the SKA.

Sambatra Andrianomena; Chris Clarkson; Prina Patel; Obinna Umeh; Jean-Philippe Uzan

2014-02-18

167

Non-linear relativistic contributions to the cosmological weak-lensing convergence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic contributions to the dynamics of structure formation come in a variety of forms, and can potentially give corrections to the standard picture on typical scales of 100 Mpc. These corrections cannot be obtained by Newtonian numerical simulations, so it is important to accurately estimate the magnitude of these relativistic effects. Density fluctuations couple to produce a background of gravitational waves, which is larger than any primordial background. A similar interaction produces a much larger spectrum of vector modes which represent the frame-dragging rotation of spacetime. These can change the metric at the percent level in the concordance model at scales below the equality scale. Vector modes modify the lensing of background galaxies by large-scale structure. This gives in principle the exciting possibility of measuring relativistic frame dragging effects on cosmological scales. The effects of the non-linear tensor and vector modes on the cosmic convergence are computed and compared to first-order lensing contributions from density fluctuations, Doppler lensing, and smaller Sachs-Wolfe effects. The lensing from gravitational waves is negligible so we concentrate on the vector modes. We show the relative importance of this for future surveys such as Euclid and SKA. We find that these non-linear effects only marginally affect the overall weak lensing signal so they can safely be neglected in most analyses, though are still much larger than the linear Sachs-Wolfe terms. The second-order vector contribution can dominate the first-order Doppler lensing term at moderate redshifts and are actually more important for survey geometries like the SKA.

Andrianomena, Sambatra; Clarkson, Chris; Patel, Prina; Umeh, Obinna; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

2014-06-01

168

Gravitational Lensing and Distant Clusters of Galaxies

I present results from an ongoing program of Chandra imaging and spectroscopy of lensing clusters of galaxies. The X-ray data provide clear evidence that the program objects, including Abell 370, EMSS1358+6245 and EMSS1054-0321, exhibit a variety of dynamical states. Significant spatial variations in plasma temperature are observed within two of these clusters. I compare the quantity and spatial distribution of

M. W. Bautz

2000-01-01

169

We investigate the weak gravitational lensing effect on the two-point correlation function of local maxima (hot spots) in the cosmic 21 cm fluctuation map. The intrinsic two-point function has a pronounced depression feature around the angular scale of $\\\\theta \\\\sim 40$ arcmin, which depends on the observed frequency and corresponds to the scale of the acoustic oscillation of cosmic plasma

H. Tashiro; T. Futamase

2009-01-01

170

Multiple Weak Deflections in Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing

The frequency and effects of multiple weak deflections in galaxy-galaxy lensing are investigated via Monte Carlo simulations. The lenses in the simulations are galaxies with known redshifts and known rest-frame blue luminosities. The frequency of multiple deflections above a given threshold shear value is quantified for discrete source redshifts, as well as for a set of sources that are broadly distributed in redshift space. In general, the closest lens in projection on the sky is not the only lens for a given source. In addition, ~50% of the time the closest lens is not the most important lens for a given source. Compared to a naive single-deflection calculation in which only the lensing due to the closest weak lens is considered, a full multiple-deflection calculation yields a higher net shear for individual sources, as well as a higher mean tangential shear around the lens centers. The full multiple-deflection calculation also shows that galaxy-galaxy lensing may contribute a substantial amount to cosmic s...

Brainerd, Tereasa G

2010-01-01

171

Gravitational Lensing in the metric theory proposed by Sobouti

Recently, Y. Sobouti (2007) has provided a metric theory f(R) that can account for certain dynamical anomalies observed in spiral galaxies. Mendoza & Rosas-Guevara (2007) have shown that in this theory there is an extra-bending as compared to standard general relativity. In the present work we have developed in more specific detail this additional lensing effect and we have made evaluations of the alpha parameter used in the model adjusting the theory to observations in X-rays of 13 clusters of galaxies with gravitational lensing (Hoekstra (2007)).

Tula Bernal; Sergio Mendoza

2008-11-12

172

Gravitational lensing model degeneracies: Is steepness all-important?

In gravitational lensing, steeper mass profiles generically produce longer time delays but smaller magnifications, without necessarily changing the image positions or magnification ratios between different images. This is well known. We find in this paper, however, that even if steepness is fixed, time delays can still have significant model dependence, which we attribute to shape modeling degeneracies. This conclusion follows from numerical experiments with models of 35 galaxy lenses. We suggest that varying and twisting ellipticities, features that are explored by pixelated lens models but not so far by parametric models, have an important effect on time delays.

P. Saha; L. L. R. Williams

2006-08-24

173

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB < 24.7, for galaxies with signal-to-noise ratio ?SN ? 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

2013-03-01

174

A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 sq deg of multicolour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'(AB)<24.7, for galaxies with signal-to-noise ratio greater than about 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disk plus bulge) models, to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with bayesian marginalisation over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking i...

Miller, L; Kitching, T D; Van Waerbeke, L; Erben, T; Hildebrandt, H; Hoekstra, H; Mellier, Y; Rowe, B T P; Coupon, J; Dietrich, J P; Fu, L; Harnois-Deraps, J; Hudson, M J; Kilbinger, M; Kuijken, K; Schrabback, T; Semboloni, E; Vafaei, S; Velander, M

2013-01-01

175

We present a coherent theoretical framework for computing gravitational lensing effects and redshift-space distortions in an inhomogeneous universe and investigate their impacts on galaxy two-point statistics. Adopting the linearized FRW metric, we derive the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects that include the weak lensing distortion, magnification, and time delay effects, and the redshift-space distortion, Sachs-Wolfe, and integrated Sachs-Wolfe effects, respectively. Based on this framework, we first compute their effects on observed source fluctuations, separating them as two physically distinct origins: the volume effect that involves the change of volume and is always present in galaxy two-point statistics, and the source effect that depends on the intrinsic properties of source populations. Then we identify several terms that are ignored in the standard method, and we compute the observed galaxy two-point statistics, an ensemble average of all the combinations of the intrinsic source fluctuations and the additional contributions from the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects. This unified treatment of galaxy two-point statistics clarifies the relation of the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects to the metric perturbations and the underlying matter fluctuations. For near future dark energy surveys, we compute additional contributions to the observed galaxy two-point statistics and analyze their impact on the anisotropic structure. Thorough theoretical modeling of galaxy two-point statistics would be not only necessary to analyze precision measurements from upcoming dark energy surveys, but also provide further discriminatory power in understanding the underlying physical mechanisms.

Jaiyul Yoo

2009-01-07

176

Probing a massive radio galaxy with gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational lens system CLASS B2108+213 has two lensed images separated by 4.56arcsec. Such a wide image separation suggests that the lens is either a massive galaxy or composed of a group of galaxies. To investigate the structure of the lensing potential we have carried out new high-resolution imaging of the two lensed images at 1.7GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and at 5GHz with global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Compact and extended emission is detected from the two lensed images, which provides additional constraints to the lensing mass model. We find that the data are consistent with either a single lensing galaxy or a two galaxy lens model that takes account of a nearby companion to the main lensing galaxy within the Einstein radius of the system. However, for an ensemble of global power-law mass models, those with density profiles steeper than isothermal are a better fit. The best-fitting profile for a single spherical mass model has a slope of ? = 2.45+0.19-0.18. The system also has a third radio component which is coincident with the main lensing galaxy. This component is detected at milliarcsecond scales for the first time by the 1.7-GHz VLBA and 5-GHz global VLBI imaging. However, the third radio component is found not to be consistent with a core lensed image because the radio spectrum differs from the two lensed images, and its flux density is too high when compared to what is expected from simple mass models with a variable power-law density profile and/or a reasonable core radius. Furthermore, 1.4GHz imaging of the system with the Multi-Element Radio Link Interferometric Network (MERLIN) finds extended lobe emission on either side of the main lensing galaxy. Therefore, the radio emission from the third radio component is almost certainly from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) within the main lensing galaxy, which is classified as a Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) type radio source.

More, A.; McKean, J. P.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Porcas, R. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

2008-03-01

177

Robust weak-lensing mass calibration of Planck galaxy clusters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of the tension in cosmological constraints reported by the Planck team between their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected cluster counts and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, we compare the Planck cluster mass estimates with robust, weak-lensing mass measurements from the Weighing the Giants (WtG) project. For the 22 clusters in common between the Planck cosmology sample and WtG, we find an overall mass ratio of

von der Linden, Anja; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Morris, R. Glenn; Wright, Adam; Allen, Mark T.; Burchat, Patricia R.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

2014-09-01

178

Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discussed.

Bijunath Patla; Robert J. Nemiroff

2011-12-12

179

Is Gravitational Lensing by Intercluster Filaments Always Negligible?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intercluster filaments negligibly contribute to the weak lensing signal in general relativity (GR), ?N~10-4-10-3. In the context of relativistic modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) introduced by Bekenstein, however, a single filament inclined by ~45° from the line of sight can cause substantial distortion of background sources pointing toward the filament's axis [?=?=(1-A-1)/2~0.01] this is rigorous for infinitely long uniform filaments, but also qualitatively true for short filaments (~30 Mpc), and even in regions where the projected matter density of the filament is equal to zero. Since galaxies and galaxy clusters are generally embedded in filaments or are projected on such structures, this contribution complicates the interpretation of the weak lensing shear map in the context of MOND. While our analysis is of mainly theoretical interest providing order-of-magnitude estimates only, it seems safe to conclude that when modeling systems with anomalous weak lensing signals, e.g., the ``bullet cluster'' of Clowe et al., the ``cosmic train wreck'' of A520 from Mahdavi et al., and the ``dark clusters'' of Erben et al., filamentary structures might contribute in a significant and likely complex fashion. On the other hand, our predictions of a (conceptual) difference in the weak lensing signal could, in principle, be used to falsify MOND/TeVeS and its variations.

Feix, Martin; Xu, Dong; Shan, HuanYuan; Famaey, Benoit; Limousin, Marceau; Zhao, HongSheng; Taylor, Andy

2008-08-01

180

Is Gravitational Lensing by Intercluster Filaments Always Negligible?

Intercluster filaments negligibly contribute to the weak lensing signal in general relativity (GR), $\\gamma_{N}\\sim 10^{-4}-10^{-3}$. In the context of relativistic modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) introduced by Bekenstein, however, a single filament inclined by $\\approx 45^\\circ$ from the line of sight can cause substantial distortion of background sources pointing towards the filament's axis ($\\kappa=\\gamma=(1-A^{-1})/2\\sim 0.01$); this is rigorous for infinitely long uniform filaments, but also qualitatively true for short filaments ($\\sim 30$Mpc), and even in regions where the projected matter density of the filament is equal to zero. Since galaxies and galaxy clusters are generally embedded in filaments or are projected on such structures, this contribution complicates the interpretation of the weak lensing shear map in the context of MOND. While our analysis is of mainly theoretical interest providing order-of-magnitude estimates only, it seems safe to conclude that when modeling systems with anomalous weak lensing signals, e.g. the "bullet cluster" of Clowe et al., the "cosmic train wreck" of Abell 520 from Mahdavi et al., and the "dark clusters" of Erben et al., filamentary structures might contribute in a significant and likely complex fashion. On the other hand, our predictions of a (conceptual) difference in the weak lensing signal could, in principle, be used to falsify MOND/TeVeS and its variations.

Martin Feix; Dong Xu; HuanYuan Shan; Benoit Famaey; Marceau Limousin; HongSheng Zhao; Andy Taylor

2007-10-25

181

Gravitational lensing in a cold dark matter universe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitational lensing due to mass condensations in a biased cold dark matter (CDM) universe is investigated using the Press-Schechter (1974) theory with density fluctuation amplitudes taken from previous N-body work. Under the critical assumption that CDM haloes have small core radii, a distribution of image angular separations for high-z lensed quasars with a peak at about 1 arcsec and a half-width of a factor of about 10. Allowing for selection effects at small angular separations, this is in good agreement with the observed separations. The estimated frequency of lensing is somewhat lower than that observed, but the discrepancy can be removed by invoking amplification bias and by making a small upward adjustment to the density fluctuation amplitudes assumed in the CDM model.

Narayan, Ramesh; White, Simon D. M.

1988-01-01

182

Constraining fast radio burst progenitors with gravitational lensing

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are new transient radio sources discovered recently. Because of the angular resolution restriction in radio surveys, no optical counter part has been identified yet so it is hard to determine the progenitor of FRBs. In this paper we propose to use radio lensing survey to constrain FRB progenitors. We show that, different types of progenitors lead to different probabilities for a FRB to be gravitationally lensed by dark matter halos in foreground galaxies, since different type progenitors result in different redshift distributions of FRBs. For example, the redshift distribution of FRBs arising from double stars shifts toward lower redshift than of the FRBs arising from single stars, because double stars and single stars have different evolution timescales. With detailed calculations, we predict that the FRB sample size for producing one lensing event varies significantly for different FRB progenitor models. We argue that this fact can be used to distinguish different FRB models and als...

Li, Chun-Yu

2014-01-01

183

Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Challenge Handbook

GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) is a public image analysis challenge aimed at the development of algorithms to analyse astronomical images. Specifically the challenge is to measure varying image distortions in the presence of a variable convolution kernel, pixelization and noise. This is the second in a series of challenges set to the astronomy, computer science and statistics communities, providing a structured environment in which methods can be improved and tested in preparation for planned astronomical surveys. GREAT10 extends upon previous work by introducing variable fields into the challenge. The 'Galaxy Challenge' involves the precise measurement of galaxy shape distortions, quantified locally by two parameters called shear, in the presence of a known convolution kernel. Crucially, the convolution kernel and the simulated gravitational lensing shape distortion both now vary as a function of position within the images, as is the case for real data. In addition we introduce the 'St...

Kitching, Thomas; Gill, Mandeep; Harmeling, Stefan; Heymans, Catherine; Massey, Richard; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Voigt, Lisa; Balan, Sreekumar; Bernstein, Gary; Bethge, Matthias; Bridle, Sarah; Courbin, Frederic; Gentile, Marc; Heavens, Alan; Hirsch, Michael; Hosseini, Reshad; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Kuijken, Konrad; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Moghaddam, Baback; Nurbaeva, Guldariya; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Rassat, Anais; Rhodes, Jason; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Shawe-Taylor, John; Shmakova, Marina; Taylor, Andy; Velander, Malin; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Witherick, Dugan; Wittman, David

2010-01-01

184

Lensing by Distant Clusters: HST Observations of Weak Shear in the Field of 3C324

We present the detection of weak gravitational lensing in the field of the radio galaxy 3C324 (z=1.206) using deep HST imaging. ~From an analysis of the shapes of faint R=24.5-27.5 galaxies in the field we measure a weak, coherent distortion centered close to the radio source. This shear field most likely arises from gravitational lensing of distant field galaxies by a foreground mass concentration. In the light of previous observations of this region, which indicate the presence of a rich cluster around the radio source, we suggest that the most likely candidate for the lens is the cluster associated with the radio galaxy at z=1.2. If so, this is the most distant cluster to have been detected by weak shear observations. Such a statement has two important consequences. Firstly, it shows that massive, collapsed structures exist in the high redshift Universe, and secondly that a significant fraction of the R=24.5-27.5 field galaxy population lies beyond z=1.2.

Ian Smail; Mark Dickinson

1995-10-08

185

Gravitational lensing in the Kerr-Randers optical geometry

A new geometric method to determine the deflection of light in the equatorial plane of the Kerr solution is presented, whose optical geometry is a surface with a Finsler metric of Randers type. Applying the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to a suitable osculating Riemannian manifold, adapted from a construction by Naz\\i m, it is shown explicitly how the two leading terms of the asymptotic deflection angle of gravitational lensing can be found in this way.

M. C. Werner

2012-11-15

186

We present a statistical comparison of three different estimates of cluster mass, namely, the dynamical masses obtained from the velocity dispersion of optical galaxies, the X-ray masses measured from the temperature of X-ray emitting gas under the assumption of isothermal hydrostatic equilibrium, and the gravitational lensing masses derived from the strong/weak distortions of background galaxy images. Using a sample of 29 lensing clusters available in literature, we have shown that the dynamical masses are in agreement with the gravitational lensing masses, while the X-ray method has systematically underestimated cluster masses by a factor 2-3 as compared with the others. These results imply that galaxies indeed trace the gravitational potential of their clusters, and there is no bias between the velocities of the dark matter particles and the galaxies in clusters. The X-ray cluster mass discrepancy is probably from the simplification in the models for the X-ray gas distribution and dynamical evolution.

Xiang-Ping Wu; Li-Zhi Fang

1997-01-25

187

Galaxy Cluster Studies with Weak Lensing Magnification and Shear

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnification component of weak lensing provides complementary information to the more commonly measured shear distortion. While low redshift halos are better constrained by shear, at increasingly high redshifts the magnification signal becomes quite competitive. We present recent measurements of halo masses from the stacked magnification signal of >18,000 galaxy clusters in the 154 deg^2 Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We perform the first direct cluster mass comparison between magnification and shear, finding global agreement between the independent methods, but with systematic effects influencing particular cluster redshift ranges. We measure the mass-richness scaling relation of the CFHTLenS 3D-MF cluster sample, and search for evidence of its evolution with redshift.

Ford, Jes

2015-01-01

188

Gravitational lensing in plasma: Relativistic images at homogeneous plasma

We investigate the influence of plasma presence on relativistic images formed by Schwarzschild black hole lensing. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on a frequency of the electromagnetic wave due to refraction properties, and the dispersion properties of the light propagation in gravitational field in plasma. The last effect leads to difference, even in uniform plasma, of gravitational deflection angle in plasma from vacuum case. This angle depends on the photon frequency, what resembles the properties of the refractive prism spectrometer. Here we consider the case of a strong deflection angle for the light, traveling near the Schwarzschild black hole, surrounded by a uniform plasma. Asymptotic formulae are obtained for the case of a very large deflection angle, exceeding $2\\pi$. We apply these formulae for calculation of position and magnification of relativistic images in a homogeneous plasma, which are formed by the photons performing one or several revolutions around the central object. We conclude that the presence of the uniform plasma increases the angular size of relativistic rings or the angular separation of point images from the gravitating center. The presence of the uniform plasma increases also a magnification of relativistic images. The angular separation and the magnification become significantly larger than in the vacuum case, when the photon frequency goes to a plasma frequency.

Oleg Yu. Tsupko; Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

2013-05-30

189

Gravitational lensing in plasma: Relativistic images at homogeneous plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the influence of plasma presence on relativistic images formed by Schwarzschild black hole lensing. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on a frequency of the electromagnetic wave due to refraction properties, and the dispersion properties of the light propagation in gravitational field in plasma. The last effect leads to a difference, even in uniform plasma, of the gravitational deflection angle in plasma from the vacuum case. This angle depends on the photon frequency, which resembles the properties of the refractive prism spectrometer. Here we consider the case of a strong deflection angle for the light, traveling near the Schwarzschild black hole, surrounded by a uniform plasma. Asymptotic formulas are obtained for the case of a very large deflection angle, exceeding 2?. We apply these formulas for calculation of position and magnification of relativistic images in a homogeneous plasma, which are formed by the photons performing one or several revolutions around the central object. We conclude that the presence of the uniform plasma increases the angular size of relativistic rings or the angular separation of point images from the gravitating center. The presence of the uniform plasma increases also a magnification of relativistic images. The angular separation and the magnification become significantly larger than in the vacuum case, when the photon frequency goes to a plasma frequency.

Tsupko, Oleg Yu.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S.

2013-06-01

190

TESTING THE DARK ENERGY WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING STATISTICS

We study the redshift distribution of two samples of early-type gravitational lenses, extracted from a larger collection of 122 systems, to constrain the cosmological constant in the {Lambda}CDM model and the parameters of a set of alternative dark energy models (XCDM, Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati, and Ricci dark energy models), in a spatially flat universe. The likelihood is maximized for {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.70 {+-} 0.09 when considering the sample excluding the Sloan Lens ACS systems (known to be biased toward large image-separation lenses) and no-evolution, and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.81 {+-} 0.05 when limiting to gravitational lenses with image separation {Delta}{theta} > 2'' and no-evolution. In both cases, results accounting for galaxy evolution are consistent within 1{sigma}. The present test supports the accelerated expansion, by excluding the null hypothesis (i.e., {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0) at more than 4{sigma}, regardless of the chosen sample and assumptions on the galaxy evolution. A comparison between competitive world models is performed by means of the Bayesian information criterion. This shows that the simplest cosmological constant model-that has only one free parameter-is still preferred by the available data on the redshift distribution of gravitational lenses. We perform an analysis of the possible systematic effects, finding that the systematic errors due to sample incompleteness, galaxy evolution, and model uncertainties approximately equal the statistical errors, with present-day data. We find that the largest sources of systemic errors are the dynamical normalization and the high-velocity cutoff factor, followed by the faint-end slope of the velocity dispersion function.

Cao Shuo; Zhu Zonghong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Covone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

2012-08-10

191

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational wave (GW) experiments are entering their advanced stage which should soon open a new observational window on the Universe. Looking into this future, the Einstein Telescope (ET) was designed to have a fantastic sensitivity improving significantly over the advanced GW detectors. One of the most important astrophysical GW sources supposed to be detected by the ET in large numbers are double compact objects (DCO) and some of such events should be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxies. We explore the prospects of observing gravitationally lensed inspiral DCO events in the ET. This analysis is a significant extension of our previous paper [1]. We are using the intrinsic merger rates of the whole class of DCO (NS-NS,BH-NS,BH-BH) located at different redshifts as calculated by [2] by using StarTrack population synthesis evolutionary code. We discuss in details predictions from each evolutionary scenario. Our general conclusion is that ET would register about 50-100 strongly lensed inspiral events per year. Only the scenario in which nascent BHs receive strong kick gives the predictions of a few events per year. Such lensed events would be dominated by the BH-BH merging binary systems. Our results suggest that during a few years of successful operation ET will provide a considerable catalog of strongly lensed events.

Biesiada, Marek; Ding, Xuheng; Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

2014-10-01

192

Weak Lensing Measurements: A Revisited Method and Application toHubble Space Telescope Images

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak distortions produced by gravitational lensing in the images of background galaxies provide a unique method to measure directly the distribution of mass in the universe. However, because the induced distortions are only of a few percent, this technique requires high-precision measurements of the lensing shear and cautious corrections for systematic effects. Kaiser, Squires, & Broadhurst proposed a method to calibrate the ellipticity-shear relation in the presence of point-spread function (PSF) anisotropies and camera distortions. Here, we revisit the Kaiser, Squires, & Broadhurst method in the context of the demanding search for weak lensing by large-scale structure. We show that both the PSF and the camera distortions can be corrected for using source moments, as opposed to ellipticities. We clarify the applicability of some of the approximations made in this method. We derive expressions for the corrections that involve only the galaxy moments. By decomposing the moments into spinors, we derive an explicit relation between the shear and the average ellipticity. We discuss the shortcomings of the method and test its validity using numerical simulations. As an application of the method, we repeat the analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 camera performed by Hoekstra et al. We confirm the presence of sizable (~10%) PSF ellipticities at the edge of the WFPC2 chips. However, we find that the camera distortion is radial, rather than tangential. We also show that the PSF ellipticity varies by as much as 2% over time. We use these measurements to correct the shape of galaxies in the HST Survey Strip (the ``Groth'' Strip). By considering the dependence of the ellipticities on object size, we show that, after corrections, the residual systematic uncertainty for galaxies with radii greater than 0.15" is about 0.4% when averaged over each chip. We discuss how these results provide good prospects for measuring weak lensing by large-scale structure with deep HST surveys.

Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Groth, Edward J.

2000-06-01

193

A universal probability distribution function for weak-lensing amplification

We present an approximate form for the weak lensing magnification distribution of standard candles, valid for all cosmological models, with arbitrary matter distributions, over all redshifts. Our results are based on a universal probability distribution function (UPDF), $P(\\eta)$, for the reduced convergence, $\\eta$. For a given cosmological model, the magnification probability distribution, $P(\\mu)$, at redshift $z$ is related to the UPDF by $P(\\mu)=P(\\eta)/2|\\kappa_{min}|$, where $\\eta=1+(\\mu-1)/(2|\\kappa_{min}|)$, and $\\kappa_{min}$ (the minimum convergence) can be directly computed from the cosmological parameters ($\\Omega_m$ and $\\Omega_\\Lambda$). We show that the UPDF can be well approximated by a three-parameter stretched Gaussian distribution, where the values of the three parameters depend only on $\\xi_\\eta$, the variance of $\\eta$. In short, all possible weak lensing probability distributions can be well approximated by a one-parameter family. We establish this family, normalizing to the numerical ray-shooting results for a ${\\Lambda}$CDM model by Wambsganss et al. (1997). Each alternative cosmological model is then described by a single function $\\xi_\\eta(z)$. We find that this method gives $P(\\mu)$ in excellent agreement with numerical ray-tracing and three-dimensional shear matrix calculations, and provide numerical fits for three representative models (SCDM, $\\Lambda$CDM, and OCDM). Our results provide an easy, accurate, and efficient method to calculate the weak lensing magnification distribution of standard candles, and should be useful in the analysis of future high-redshift supernova data.

Yun Wang; Daniel E. Holz; Dipak Munshi

2002-04-10

194

Gravitationally Lensed X-Ray Sources at the Galactic Center

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two thousand x-ray sources located within 20 pc of the Galactic Center (GC) have been identified by Muno et al. (2003). If an x-ray source is located behind the Galactic Center and offset by a small angle from the GC projected on the sky, then that x-ray source could be gravitationally lensed. The consequences of finding gravitationally lensed sources at the Galactic Center include the ability to independently measure the mass of the GC as well as provide a new probe of the density distribution of the GC (e.g. Wardle & Yusef-Zadeh 1992). Inspecting x-ray images of the GC we were immediately drawn to a set of four x-ray objects. The identified objects are cataloged as CXOJ 174541.0-290014, 174540.1-290005, 174540.0-290031, and 174538.1-290022. These are the brightest and most obvious variable x-ray objects whose positions suggest patterns of images that may either be an inclined quad or two sets of dual gravitational lens patterns. Based on the image patterns, and image brightnesses and relative variations, we modeled possible lens systems using two algorithms. Both of the algorithms describing gravitational lenses are based on the Fermat potential and its time derivatives. For a lens radius of R = 0.01 pc, the total enclosed mass is 2.6 x 107 M? and for R = 0.001 pc, the total enclosed mass is 2.6 x 105 M?. These masses are consistent with other measurements of the mass of the GC, such as 4.5 x 106 M? (Ghez et al. 2008). We will present these results and our plans to further study the nature of these x-ray objects.

Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, L.

2012-01-01

195

How Gravitational Lensing Helps ?-Ray Photons Avoid ? - ? Absorption

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate potential ? - ? absorption of ?-ray emission from blazars arising from inhomogeneities along the line of sight, beyond the diffuse Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). As plausible sources of excess ? - ? opacity, we consider (1) foreground galaxies, including cases in which this configuration leads to strong gravitational lensing, (2) individual stars within these foreground galaxies, and (3) individual stars within our own galaxy, which may act as lenses for microlensing events. We found that intervening galaxies close to the line of sight are unlikely to lead to significant excess ? - ? absorption. This opens up the prospect of detecting lensed gamma-ray blazars at energies above 10 GeV with their gamma-ray spectra effectively only affected by the EBL. The most luminous stars located either in intervening galaxies or in our galaxy provide an environment in which these gamma-rays could, in principle, be significantly absorbed. However, despite a large microlensing probability due to stars located in intervening galaxies, ?-rays avoid absorption by being deflected by the gravitational potentials of such intervening stars to projected distances ("impact parameters") where the resulting ? - ? opacities are negligible. Thus, neither of the intervening excess photon fields considered here, provide a substantial source of excess ? - ? opacity beyond the EBL, even in the case of very close alignments between the background blazar and a foreground star or galaxy.

Barnacka, Anna; Böttcher, Markus; Sushch, Iurii

2014-08-01

196

Constraints on the warm dark matter model from gravitational lensing

Formation of sub-galactic halos is suppressed in warm dark matter (WDM) model due to thermal motion of WDM particles. This may provide a natural resolution to some puzzles in standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory such as the cusped density profiles of virialized dark halos and the overabundance of low mass satellites. One of the observational tests of the WDM model is to measure the gravitationally lensed images of distant quasars below sub-arcsecond scales. In this Letter, we report a comparison of the lensing probabilities of multiple images between CDM and WDM models using a singular isothermal sphere model for the mass density profiles of dark halos and the Press-Schechter mass function for their distribution and cosmic evolution. It is shown that the differential probability of multiple images with small angular separations down to 10 milliarcseconds should allow one to set useful constraints on the WDM particle mass. We discuss briefly the feasibility and uncertainties of this method in future radio surveys (e.g. VLBI) for gravitational lensing.

Yan-Jie Xue; Xiang-Ping Wu

2001-01-30

197

Constraining fast radio burst progenitors with gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are new transient radio sources discovered recently. Because of the angular resolution restriction in radio surveys, no optical counter part has been identified yet so it is hard to determine the progenitor of FRBs. In this paper we propose to use radio lensing survey to constrain FRB progenitors. We show that, different types of progenitors lead to different probabilities for a FRB to be gravitationally lensed by dark matter halos in foreground galaxies, since different type progenitors result in different redshift distributions of FRBs. For example, the redshift distribution of FRBs arising from double stars shifts toward lower redshift than of the FRBs arising from single stars, because double stars and single stars have different evolution timescales. With detailed calculations, we predict that the FRB sample size for producing one lensing event varies significantly for different FRB progenitor models. We argue that this fact can be used to distinguish different FRB models and also discuss the practical possibility of using lensing observation in radio surveys to constrain FRB progenitors.

Li, ChunYu; Li, LiXin

2014-07-01

198

Weak lensing analysis of RXC J2248.7-4431

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a weak lensing analysis of the cluster of galaxies RXC J2248.7-4431, a massive system at z = 0.3475 with prominent strong lensing features covered by the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Based on UBVRIZ imaging from the Wide-Field Imager camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope, we measure photometric redshifts and shapes of background galaxies. The cluster is detected as a mass peak at 5? significance. Its density can be parametrized as a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile with two free parameters, the mass M_{200m}=33.1^{+9.6}_{-6.8}× 10^{14}{ M_{?}} and concentration c_{200m}=2.6^{+1.5}_{-1.0}. We discover a second cluster inside the field of view at a photometric redshift of z ? 0.6, with an NFW mass of M_{200m}=4.0^{+3.7}_{-2.6}× 10^{14}{ M_{?}}.

Gruen, D.; Brimioulle, F.; Seitz, S.; Lee, C.-H.; Young, J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Eichner, T.; Riffeser, A.; Vikram, V.; Weidinger, T.; Zenteno, A.

2013-06-01

199

An attempt to measure the time delays of three gravitational lenses

I present the results of reduction and analysis of two seasons of gravitational lens monitoring using the Very Large Array (VLA) at 8.5 GHz. The campaign monitored five gravitational lenses, GL1608, GL1830, GL1632, GL1838, ...

Chistol, Gheorghe

2007-01-01

200

Breaking the disk / halo degeneracy with gravitational lensing

The degeneracy between the disk and the dark matter contribution to galaxy rotation curves remains an important uncertainty in our understanding of disk galaxies. Here we discuss a new method for breaking this degeneracy using gravitational lensing by spiral galaxies, and apply this method to the spiral lens B1600+434 as an example. The combined image and lens photometry constraints allow models for B1600+434 with either a nearly singular dark matter halo, or a halo with a sizable core. A maximum disk model is ruled out with high confidence. Further information, such as the circular velocity of this galaxy, will help break the degeneracies. Future studies of spiral galaxy lenses will be able to determine the relative contribution of disk, bulge, and halo to the mass in the inner parts of galaxies.

Maller, A H; Guhathakurta, P; Hjorth, J; Jaunsen, A O; Alvarado-Flores, R; Primack, Joel R; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Simard, Luc; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hjorth, Jens; Jaunsen, Andreas O.; Flores, Ricardo A.; Primack, Joel R.

1999-01-01

201

A Lefschetz fixed point theorem in gravitational lensing

Topological invariants play an important r\\^{o}le in the theory of gravitational lensing by constraining the image number. Furthermore, it is known that, for certain lens models, the image magnifications $\\mu_i$ obey invariants of the form $\\sum_i \\mu_i=1$. In this paper, we show that this magnification invariant is the holomorphic Lefschetz number of a suitably defined complexified lensing map, and hence a topological invariant. We also provide a heat kernel proof of the holomorphic Lefschetz fixed point formula which is central to this argument, based on Kotake's proof of the more general Atiyah-Bott theorem. Finally, we present a new astronomically motivated lens model for which this invariant holds.

Marcus C. Werner

2007-05-17

202

The gravitational lens as a radiospectrometer

Gravitational lensing is predicted by general relativity and is found in observations. Weak lensing and observational examples of lenses, as well as strong lensing with relativistic rings, are considered. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on a frequency of the electromagnetic wave due to refraction properties, and the dispersion properties of the light

G. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

2010-01-01

203

THE WEIGHT OF EMPTINESS: THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING SIGNAL OF STACKED VOIDS

The upcoming new generation of spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will provide large samples of cosmic voids, large distinct, underdense structures in the universe. Combining these with future galaxy imaging surveys, we study the prospects of probing the underlying matter distribution in and around cosmic voids via the weak gravitational lensing effects of stacked voids, utilizing both shear and magnification information. The statistical precision is greatly improved by stacking a large number of voids along different lines of sight, even when taking into account the impact of inherent miscentering and projection effects. We show that Dark Energy Task Force Stage IV surveys, such as the Euclid satellite and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, should be able to detect the void lensing signal with sufficient precision from stacking abundant medium-sized voids, thus providing direct constraints on the matter density profile of voids independent of assumptions on galaxy bias.

Krause, Elisabeth; Dore, Olivier [Department of Astrophysics, Caltech, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Tzu-Ching; Umetsu, Keiichi [IAA, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-01-10

204

A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Strong Gravitational Lensing Galaxies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems allow us to compare competing cosmologies as long as one can be reasonably sure of the mass distribution within the intervening lens. In this paper, we assemble a catalog of 69 such systems from the Sloan Lens ACS and Lens Structure and Dynamics surveys suitable for this analysis, and carry out a one-on-one comparison between the standard model, ?CDM, and the {{R}h}=ct universe, which has thus far been favored by the application of model selection tools to other kinds of data. We find that both models account for the lens observations quite well, though the precision of these measurements does not appear to be good enough to favor one model over the other. Part of the reason is the so-called bulge-halo conspiracy that, on average, results in a baryonic velocity dispersion within a fraction of the optical effective radius virtually identical to that expected for the whole luminous-dark matter distribution modeled as a singular isothermal ellipsoid, though with some scatter among individual sources. Future work can greatly improve the precision of these measurements by focusing on lensing systems with galaxies as close as possible to the background sources. Given the limitations of doing precision cosmological testing using the current sample, we also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on the current lens measurements to estimate how large the source catalog would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ? 99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ?CDM, a sample of ? 200 strong gravitational lenses would be sufficient to rule out {{R}h}=ct at this level of accuracy, while ? 300 strong gravitational lenses would be required to rule out ?CDM if the real universe were instead {{R}h}=ct. The difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ?CDM. We point out that, should the {{R}h}=ct universe eventually emerge as the correct cosmology, its lack of any free parameters for this kind of work will provide a remarkably powerful probe of the mass structure in lensing galaxies, and a means of better understanding the origin of the bulge-halo conspiracy.

Melia, Fulvio; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

2015-01-01

205

WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE CFHTLS-WIDE SURVEY

We present the first weak gravitational lensing analysis of the completed Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). We study the 64 deg{sup 2} W1 field, the largest of the CFHTLS-Wide survey fields, and present the largest contiguous weak lensing convergence 'mass map' yet made. 2.66 million galaxy shapes are measured, using the Kaiser Squires and Broadhurst Method (KSB) pipeline verified against high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging that covers part of the CFHTLS. Our i'-band measurements are also consistent with an analysis of independent r'-band imaging. The reconstructed lensing convergence map contains 301 peaks with signal-to-noise ratio {nu} > 3.5, consistent with predictions of a {Lambda}CDM model. Of these peaks, 126 lie within 3.'0 of a brightest central galaxy identified from multicolor optical imaging in an independent, red sequence survey. We also identify seven counterparts for massive clusters previously seen in X-ray emission within 6 deg{sup 2} XMM-LSS survey. With photometric redshift estimates for the source galaxies, we use a tomographic lensing method to fit the redshift and mass of each convergence peak. Matching these to the optical observations, we confirm 85 groups/clusters with {chi}{sup 2}{sub reduced} < 3.0, at a mean redshift (z{sub c} ) = 0.36 and velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub c}) = 658.8 km s{sup -1}. Future surveys, such as DES, LSST, KDUST, and EUCLID, will be able to apply these techniques to map clusters in much larger volumes and thus tightly constrain cosmological models.

Shan Huanyuan; Tao Charling [Department of Physics and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS-Universite de Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Fan Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Massey, Richard [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thanjavur, Karun [Canada France Hawaii Telescope, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); McCracken, Henry J., E-mail: shanhuany@gmail.com [Institude d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

2012-03-20

206

Cross-Correlation Tomography: Measuring Dark Energy Evolution with Weak Lensing

A cross-correlation technique of lensing tomography is developed to probe dark energy in the Universe. The variation of weak shear with redshift around foreground galaxies depends only on the angular distances and is robust to the dominant systematic error in lensing. We estimate the marginalized accuracies that deep lensing surveys with photometric redshifts can provide on the dark energy density

Bhuvnesh Jain; Andy Taylor

2003-01-01

207

Gravitational lens equation for embedded lenses; magnification and ellipticity

We give the lens equation for light deflections caused by point mass condensations in an otherwise spatially homogeneous and flat universe. We assume the signal from a distant source is deflected by a single condensation before it reaches the observer. We call this deflector an embedded lens because the deflecting mass is part of the mean density. The embedded lens equation differs from the conventional lens equation because the deflector mass is not simply an addition to the cosmic mean. We prescribe an iteration scheme to solve this new lens equation and use it to compare our results with standard linear lensing theory. We also compute analytic expressions for the lowest order corrections to image amplifications and distortions caused by incorporating the lensing mass into the mean. We use these results to estimate the effect of embedding on strong lensing magnifications and ellipticities and find only small effects, <1%, contrary to what we have found for time delays and for weak lensing, {approx}5%.

Chen, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Mathematics Department, University of Oklahoma, 601 Elm Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Kantowski, R.; Dai, X. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2011-10-15

208

The gravitational lens as a radiospectrometer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing is predicted by general relativity and is found in observations. Weak lensing and observational examples of lenses, as well as strong lensing with relativistic rings, are considered. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on a frequency of the electromagnetic wave due to refraction properties, and the dispersion properties of the light propagation in plasma. We consider here the effects of weak and strong gravitational lensing, observations of gravitational lenses, and spectrometric properties of a gravitational lens in a plasma.

Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.

209

Gravitational field fluctuations in weakly clustered systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational field in a collisionless, weakly clustered protogalactic system are induced by local fluctuations in the number density of small collapsed peaks. The probability distribution of the stochastic forces generated by these fluctuations is calculated, and a generalization of the Holtsmark distribution, previously studied in a stellar dynamical context by Chandrasekhar and Von Neumann and by Kandrup, is found. The probability distribution of the torques induced by these stochastic forces is also found, the analog of the Holtsmark law for the torque distribution is introduced, and different cases corresponding to different power laws are studied. These considerations are applied to realistic models of protogalactic and protocluster density perturbations. The force probability distribution is remarkably influenced by the clustering of substructure: the profile is more strongly peaked, and the asymptotic decay is almost suppressed, resulting in an enhanced probability near the average value.

Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

1992-06-01

210

The mutual coherence of the images of gravitationally lensed objects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual coherence gamma(tau) of unresolved images of gravitationally lensed sources depends on: (1) the intensity distribution over the source; (2) the lens properties; and (3) the distance to lens and source. The gravitational lens geometry is equivalent to a VLBI setup with huge (but fixed) baseline. For simple situations, exact results for gamma(tau) are derived and compared to calculations for the VLBI case. Measurements of gamma(tau) could detect lens events caused by stars, and an inhomogeneous component of an intergalactic plasma. Although the amplitude of gamma(tau) is small for likely situations, one can obtain huge quantities of statistics by which detectable results could be yielded.

Schneider, P.

1983-06-01

211

Search for strong gravitational lensing effect in the current GRB data of BATSE

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) trace the high- z universe, there is an appreciable probability for a GRB to be gravitational lensed by galaxies in the universe. Herein we consider the gravitational lensing effect of GRBs contributed by the dark matter halos in galaxies. Assuming that all halos have the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) mass profile in the mass range 1010 h -1 M ? < M < 2×1013 h -1 M ? and all GRB samples follow the intrinsic redshift distribution and luminosity function derived from the Swift LGRBs sample, we calculated the gravitational lensing probability in BATSE, Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM GRBs, respectively. With an derived probability result in BATSE GRBs, we searched for lensed GRB pairs in the BATSE5B GRB Spectral catalog. The search did not find any convincing gravitationally lensed events. We discuss our result and future observations for GRB lensing observation.

Li, ChunYu; Li, LiXin

2014-08-01

212

Application of a New, Relativistic Gravitational Lensing Technique to RXJ1347-1145

Gravitational lensing is the bending and distortion of light rays by the gravitational pull of massive objects in the universe. Lensing studies are significant to the current revolution in modern astrophysics through which the ultimate questions of the universe – how did the universe begin and what conditions permit life to develop – are being answered. Although the distortion of

Thomas P. Kling

2004-01-01

213

Shear-flexion cross-talk in weak-lensing measurements

Gravitational flexion, caused by derivatives of the gravitational tidal field, is potentially important for the analysis of the dark matter distribution in gravitational lenses, such as galaxy clusters or the dark matter haloes of galaxies. Flexion estimates rely on measurements of galaxy-shape distortions with spin-1 and spin-3 symmetry. We show in this paper that and how such distortions are generally

M. Viola; P. Melchior; M. Bartelmann

2011-01-01

214

X-RAY MONITORING OF GRAVITATIONAL LENSES WITH CHANDRA

We present Chandra monitoring data for six gravitationally lensed quasars: QJ 0158-4325, HE 0435-1223, SDSS 0924+0219, SDSS 1004+4112, HE 1104-1805, and Q 2237+0305. X-ray microlensing variability is detected in all six lenses with high confidence. We furthermore detect energy-dependent microlensing in HE 0435-1223, SDSS 0924+0219, SDSS 1004+4112, and Q 2237+0305. Through a detailed spectral analysis for each lens we find that simple power-law models plus Gaussian emission lines give good fits to the spectra. We detect intrinsic spectral variability in two epochs of Q 2237+0305, and differential absorption between images in QJ 0158-4325 and Q2237+0305. We also detect the Fe K{alpha} emission line in all six lenses, and the Ni XXVII K{alpha} line in two images of Q 2237+0305. The rest-frame equivalent widths of the Fe K{alpha} lines are measured to be 0.4-1.2 keV, significantly higher than those measured in typical active galactic nuclei of similar X-ray luminosities. This suggests that the Fe K{alpha} emission region is more compact or centrally concentrated than the continuum emission region.

Chen Bin; Dai Xinyu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Blackburne, Jeffrey A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chartas, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Morgan, Christopher W., E-mail: bchen@ou.edu [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

2012-08-10

215

A gravitationally lensed quasar with quadruple images separated by 14.62 arcseconds

Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for the study of the distribution of\\u000adark matter in the Universe. The cold-dark-matter model of the formation of\\u000alarge-scale structures predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed\\u000aby concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be\\u000asplit by over 7 arcsec. Numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars\\u000ahave, however,

Masamune Oguri; Bartosz Pindor; Joseph F. Hennawi; Kuenley Chiu; Wei Zheng; Shin-Ichi Ichikawa; Michael D. Gregg; Robert H. Becker; Yasushi Suto; Michael A. Strauss; Charles R. Keeton; James Annis; Francisco J. Castander; Daniel J. Eisenstein; Joshua A. Frieman; Masataka Fukugita; David E. Johnston; Stephen M. Kent; Robert C. Nichol; Hans-Walter Rix; Erin Scott Sheldon; Neta A. Bahcall; J. Brinkmann; Željko Ivezi?; Don Q. Lamb; Timothy A. McKay; Donald P. Schneider; Donald G. York; Naohisa Inada

2003-01-01

216

Direct measurement of the magnification produced by galaxy clusters as gravitational lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Weak lensing is one of the most readily available diagnostic tools to measure the total density profiles of distant clusters of galaxies. Unfortunately, it suffers from the well-known mass-sheet degeneracy, so that weak lensing analyses cannot lead to fully reliable determinations of the total mass of the clusters. One possible way to set the relevant scale of the density profile would be to make a direct measurement of the magnification produced by the clusters as gravitational lenses; in the past, this objective has been addressed in a number of ways, but with no significant success. Aims: We revisit a suggestion made a few years ago for this general purpose, based on the use of the fundamental plane as a standard rod for early-type galaxies. Here we move one step further, beyond the simple outline of the idea given earlier, and quantify some statistical properties of this innovative diagnostic tool, with the final goal of identifying clear guidelines for a future observational test of concrete cases, which turns out to be well within the current instrument capabilities. Methods: The study is carried out by discussing the statistical properties of fundamental plane measurements for a sample of early-type source galaxies behind a massive cluster, for which a weak lensing analysis is assumed to be available. Some general results are first obtained analytically and then tested and extended by means of dedicated simulations. Results: We proceed with determining the optimal way of using fundamental plane measurements to determine the mass scale of a given cluster, which we find to be the study of a sample of early-type galaxies behind the cluster distributed approximately uniformly on the sky. We discuss the role of the redshift distribution of the source galaxies, in relation to the redshift of the lensing cluster and to the limitations of fundamental plane measurements. Simple simulations are carried out for clusters with intrinsic properties similar to those of the Coma cluster. We also show that, within a realistic cosmological scenario, substructures do not contribute much to the magnification signal that we are looking for, but add only a modest amount of scatter. Conclusions: We find that for a massive cluster (M200 > 1015 M?) located at redshift 0.3 ± 0.1, a set of about 20 fundamental plane measurements, combined with a robust weak lensing analysis, should be able to lead to a mass determination with a precision of 20% or better.

Sonnenfeld, A.; Bertin, G.; Lombardi, M.

2011-08-01

217

Puzzles in Time Delay and Fermat Principle in Gravitational Lensing

The current standard time delay formula (CSTD) in gravitational lensing and its claimed relation to the lens equation through Fermat's principle (least time principle) have been puzzling to the author for some time. We find that the so-called geometric path difference term of the CSTD is an error, and it causes a double counting of the correct time delay. We examined the deflection angle and the time delay of a photon trajectory in the Schwarzschild metric that allows exact perturbative calculations in the gravitational parameter $GM$ in two coordinate systems -- the standard Schwarzschild coordinate system and the isotropic Schwarzschild coordinate system. We identify a coordinate dependent term in the time delay which becomes irrelevant for the arrival time difference of two images. It deems necessary to sort out unambiguously what is what we measure. We calculate the second order corrections for the deflection angle and time delay. The CSTD does generate correct lens equations including multiple scattering lens equations under the variations and may be best understood as a generating function. It is presently unclear what the significance is. We call to reanalyze the existing strong lensing data with time delays.

Sun Hong Rhie

2011-03-16

218

A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe.

Water masers are found in dense molecular clouds closely associated with supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies. On the basis of the understanding of the local water-maser luminosity function, it was expected that masers at intermediate and high redshifts would be extremely rare. However, galaxies at redshifts z > 2 might be quite different from those found locally, not least because of more frequent mergers and interaction events. Here we use gravitational lensing to search for masers at higher redshifts than would otherwise be possible, and find a water maser at redshift 2.64 in the dust- and gas-rich, gravitationally lensed type-1 quasar MG J0414+0534 (refs 6-13). The isotropic luminosity is 10,000 (, solar luminosity), which is twice that of the most powerful local water maser and half that of the most distant maser previously known. Using the locally determined luminosity function, the probability of finding a maser this luminous associated with any single active galaxy is 10(-6). The fact that we see such a maser in the first galaxy we observe must mean that the volume densities and luminosities of masers are higher at redshift 2.64. PMID:19092930

Impellizzeri, C M Violette; McKean, John P; Castangia, Paola; Roy, Alan L; Henkel, Christian; Brunthaler, Andreas; Wucknitz, Olaf

2008-12-18

219

Constraints on early dark energy from CMB lensing and weak lensing tomography

Dark energy can be studied by its influence on the expansion of the Universe as well as on the growth history of the large-scale structure. In this paper, we follow the growth of the cosmic density field in early dark energy cosmologies by combining observations of the primary CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra at high redshift, of the CMB lensing deflection field at intermediate redshift and of weak cosmic shear at low redshifts for constraining the allowed amount of early dark energy. We present these forecasts using the Fisher matrix formalism and consider the combination of Planck data with the weak lensing survey of Euclid. We find that combining these data sets gives powerful constraints on early dark energy and is able to break degeneracies in the parameter set inherent to the various observational channels. The derived statistical 1{sigma}-bound on the early dark energy density parameter is {sigma}({Omega}{sup e}{sub d}) = 0.0022 which suggests that early dark energy models can be well examined in our approach. In addition, we derive the dark energy figure of merit for the considered dark energy parameterisation and comment on the applicability of the growth index to early dark energy cosmologies.

Hollenstein, Lukas; Crittenden, Robert [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Sapone, Domenico [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)] [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Schaefer, Bjoern Malte, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@port.ac.uk, E-mail: domenico.sapone@unige.ch, E-mail: robert.crittenden@port.ac.uk, E-mail: spirou@ita.uni-heidelberg.de [Astronomisches Recheninstitut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2009-04-15

220

Three Gravitational Lenses for the Price of One: Enhanced Strong Lensing Through Galaxy Clustering

We report the serendipitous discovery of two strong gravitational lens candidates (ACS J160919+6532 and ACS J160910+6532) in deep images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, each less than 40'' from the previously known gravitational lens system CLASS B1608+656. The redshifts of both lens galaxies have been measured with Keck and Gemini: one is a member of a small galaxy group at z {approx} 0.63, which also includes the lensing galaxy in the B1608+656 system, and the second is a member of a foreground group at z {approx} 0.43. By measuring the effective radii and surface brightnesses of the two lens galaxies, we infer their velocity dispersions based on the passively evolving Fundamental Plane (FP) relation. Elliptical isothermal lens mass models are able to explain their image configurations within the lens hypothesis, with a velocity dispersion compatible with that estimated from the FP for a reasonable source-redshift range. Based on the large number of massive early-type galaxies in the field and the number-density of faint blue galaxies, the presence of two additional lens systems around CLASS B1608+656 is not unlikely in hindsight. Gravitational lens galaxies are predominantly early-type galaxies, which are clustered, and the lensed quasar host galaxies are also clustered. Therefore, obtaining deep high-resolution images of the fields around known strong lens systems is an excellent method of enhancing the probability of finding additional strong gravitational lens systems.

Fassnacht, Chris D.; McKean, J.P.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Treu, T.; Blandford, R.D.; Auger, M.W.; Jeltema, T.E.; Lubin, L.M.; Margoniner, V.E.; Wittman, D.; /UC, Davis

2006-04-03

221

Strong gravitational lensing in a squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetime

We investigate the strong gravitational lensing in a Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. We find the size of the extra dimension imprints in the radius of the photon sphere, the deflection angle, the angular position, and magnification of the relativistic images. Supposing that the gravitational field of the supermassive central object of the Galaxy can be described by this metric, we estimated the numerical values of the coefficients and observables for gravitational lensing in the strong field limit.

Liu Yue; Chen Songbai; Jing Jiliang [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control (Hunan Normal University), Ministry of Education (China)

2010-06-15

222

EFFECTIVE MODELS FOR STATISTICAL STUDIES OF GALAXY-SCALE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

We have worked out simple analytical formulae that accurately approximate the relationship between the position of the source with respect to the lens center and the amplification of the images, hence the lens cross section, for realistic lens profiles. We find that, for essentially the full range of parameters either observationally determined or yielded by numerical simulations, the combination of dark matter and star distribution can be very well described, for lens radii relevant to strong lensing, by a simple power law whose slope is very weakly dependent on the parameters characterizing the global matter surface density profile and close to isothermal in agreement with direct estimates for individual lens galaxies. Our simple treatment allows an easy insight into the role of the different ingredients that determine the lens cross section and the distribution of gravitational amplifications. They also ease the reconstruction of the lens mass distribution from the observed images and, vice versa, allow a fast application of ray-tracing techniques to model the effect of lensing on a variety of source structures. The maximum amplification depends primarily on the source size. Amplifications larger than Almost-Equal-To 20 are indicative of compact source sizes at high-z, in agreement with expectations if galaxies formed most of their stars during the dissipative collapse of cold gas. Our formalism has allowed us to reproduce the counts of strongly lensed galaxies found in the H-ATLAS Science Demonstration Phase field. While our analysis is focused on spherical lenses, we also discuss the effect of ellipticity and the case of late-type lenses (showing why they are much less common, even though late-type galaxies are more numerous). Furthermore, we discuss the effect of a cluster halo surrounding the early-type lens and of a supermassive black hole at its center.

Lapi, A. [Dipartimento Fisica, Universita 'Tor Vergata', Via Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Negrello, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Cai, Z.-Y.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L. [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

2012-08-10

223

A Bayesian Analysis of Regularised Source Inversions in Gravitational Lensing

Strong gravitational lens systems with extended sources are of special interest because they provide additional constraints on the models of the lens systems. To use a gravitational lens system for measuring the Hubble constant, one would need to determine the lens potential and the source intensity distribution simultaneously. A linear inversion method to reconstruct a pixellated source distribution of a given lens potential model was introduced by Warren and Dye. In the inversion process, a regularization on the source intensity is often needed to ensure a successful inversion with a faithful resulting source. In this paper, we use Bayesian analysis to determine the optimal regularization constant (strength of regularization) of a given form of regularization and to objectively choose the optimal form of regularization given a selection of regularizations. We consider and compare quantitatively three different forms of regularization previously described in the literature for source inversions in gravitational lensing: zeroth-order, gradient and curvature. We use simulated data with the exact lens potential to demonstrate the method. We find that the preferred form of regularization depends on the nature of the source distribution.

Suyu, Sherry H.; /Caltech /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Marshall, P.J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Hobson, M.P.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Blandford, R.D.; /Caltech /KIPAC, Menlo

2006-01-25

224

Adaptive optics observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1405+0959

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the result of Subaru Telescope multiband adaptive optics observations of the complex gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1405+0959, which is produced by two lensing galaxies. These observations reveal dramatically enhanced morphological detail, leading to the discovery of an additional object 0.26 arcsec from the secondary lensing galaxy, as well as three collinear clumps located in between the two lensing galaxies. The new object is likely to be the third quasar image, although the possibility that it is a galaxy cannot be entirely excluded. If confirmed via future observations, it would be the first three-image lensed quasar produced by two galaxy lenses. In either case, we show based on gravitational lensing models and photometric redshift that the collinear clumps represent merging images of a portion of the quasar host galaxy, with a magnification factor of ˜ 15-20, depending on the model.

Rusu, Cristian E.; Oguri, Masamune; Minowa, Yosuke; Iye, Masanori; More, Anupreeta; Inada, Naohisa; Oya, Shin

2014-11-01

225

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing has been identified as a critical cosmological tool in studying the evolution of large scale structure in the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. One of the primary physical systematics of weak lensing due to large scale structure (cosmic shear) is the intrinsic alignment (IA) of galaxies, which poses a barrier to precision weak lensing measurements. Methods for identifying and removing its effects on cosmological information are key to the success of weak lensing survey science goals. We have expanded model-independent techniques to isolate and remove the IA contamination from the lensing signal. These self-calibration techniques take advantage of complementary survey information to self-calibrate the lensing signal, which along with unique lensing and IA geometry and separation dependencies, allow us to reconstruct the IA correlations at the level of the spectrum and bispectrum. We have demonstrated that the self-calibration approach can reduce the IA bias over most relevant scale and redshift ranges by up to a factor of 10 or more. This could reduce a potential 10-20% bias in some cosmological information down to the 1-2% level. The self-calibration techniques have the added benefit of preserving the IA signal, which itself provides additional information that can be used in studying the formation and evolution of large scale structure in the universe. We have also identified a new source of intrinsic alignment contamination in cross-correlations with cosmic microwave background lensing and proposed a method to calibrate it, and we explored the potential of future surveys to measure directly various 2- and 3-point intrinsic alignment correlations. Finally, we have investigated the use of exact anisotropic and inhomogeneous models in general relativity for large- and small-scale structures in the universe, developing the frameworks necessary to analyze gravitational lensing in such models, and have compared them to observations, identifying potential sources of bias. We have found, for example, that ignoring substructure level anisotropies in structures could bias the lensing convergence, shear, and kinematic mass estimates by up to 10% or more. We conclude by presenting a numerical code package for calculations in such exact anisotropic and inhomogeneous models.

Troxel, Michael A.

226

Gravitational waves propagate along null geodesics like light rays in the geometrical optics approximation, and they may have a chance to suffer from gravitational lensing by intervening objects, as is the case for electromagnetic waves. Long wavelength of gravitational waves and compactness of possible sources may enable us to extract information in the interference among the lensed images. We point out that the interference term contains information of relative transverse velocity of the source-lens-observer system, which may be obtained by possible future space-borne gravitational wave detectors such as BBO/DECIGO.

Yousuke Itoh; Toshifumi Futamase; Makoto Hattori

2009-08-03

227

Gravitational waves propagate along null geodesics like light rays in the geometrical optics approximation, and they may have a chance to suffer from gravitational lensing by intervening objects, as is the case for electromagnetic waves. Long wavelengths of gravitational waves and compactness of possible sources may enable us to extract information in the interference among the lensed images. We point out that the interference term contains information of relative transverse velocity of the source-lens-observer system, which may be obtained by possible future space-borne gravitational wave detectors such as BBO/DECIGO.

Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Hattori, Makoto [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2009-08-15

228

Seeing the Invisible Universe with Gravitational Lensing and SNAP

Recent high-precision cosmological measurements provide solid evidence that normal matter comprises only 4% of the content of the Universe. The dominant substances are completely invisible and have never been detected in a laboratory: 23% in some 'dark matter' particles, and 73% in a form of 'dark energy' that is currently accelerating the expansion of the Universe. The dark matter and dark energy do, however, distort our view of the Universe behind them through gravitational lensing, just as the 'obscure glass' on the doors of a shower stall is designed to be transparent but produces a distorted view of its occupant. I will describe how present and future experiments such as the SNAP spacecraft can measure this very subtle distorting effect and use it to infer the properties of the dark matter and dark energy that dominate the Universe.

Bernstein, Gary (University of Pennsylvania) [University of Pennsylvania

2005-11-03

229

The correlation function of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The correlation of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing is calculated as a function of the power spectrum of density fluctuations in the universe by generalizing an analytical method developed by Gunn (1967). The method is applied to a model where identical objects with spherically symmetric density profiles are randomly laid down in space, and to the cold dark matter model. The possibility of detecting this correlation is discussed. Although an ellipticity correlation can also be caused by an intrinsic alignment of the axes of galaxies belonging to a cluster or a supercluster, a method is suggested by which one type of correlation can be distinguished from another. The advantage of this ellipticity correlation is that it is one of the few astronomical observations that can directly probe large-scale mass fluctuations in the universe.

Miralda-Escude, Jordi

1991-01-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing has been identified as a critical tool in studying the evolution of large scale structure in the universe, as well as shedding light on the nature and influence of dark matter and dark energy. One of the primary systematic biases in weak lensing due to large scale structure (or cosmic shear) is the intrinsic alignment (IA) of galaxies, which poses a barrier to precision weak lensing measurements. Methods for identifying and removing its effects on cosmological information are key to the success of current and planned lensing surveys. We have expanded model-independent techniques to indirectly isolate and remove the IA contamination from the lensing signal. These self-calibration techniques take advantage of complimentary survey information to self-calibrate the lensing signal, which along with the unique lensing and IA geometry and separation dependencies, allow us to reconstruct the various IA correlations at the level of the spectrum and bispectrum. For cross-correlations, we have demonstrated that the self-calibration approach can reduce the IA bias over most relevant scale and redshift ranges by up to a factor of 10 or more. In the case of auto-correlations, we have demonstrated the feasibility of implementing the self-calibration for conservative estimates of photo-z accuracy in planned surveys. This could reduce a potential 10-20% bias in some cosmological information down to the 1-2% level. In both cases, the self-calibration has the added benefit of preserving the IA signal, that itself provides additional information which can be used in studying the formation and evolution of large scale structure in the universe. We have also investigated some impacts on kinematic and lensing information derived from the use of exact relativistic models for structures and cosmology with some level of anisotropies. We have found, for example, that ignoring substructure level anisotropies in structures could bias mass estimates by up to 10%.

Troxel, Michael A.; Ishak-Boushaki, M. B.

2014-01-01

231

Fermat Potentials for Non-Perturbative Gravitational Lensing

The images of many distant galaxies are displaced, distorted and often multiplied by the presence of foreground massive galaxies near the line of sight; the foreground galaxies act as gravitational lenses. Commonly, the lens equation, which relates the placement and distortion of the images to the real source position in the thin-lens scenario, is obtained by extremizing the time of arrival among all the null paths from the source to the observer (Fermat's principle). We show that the construction of envelopes of certain families of null surfaces consitutes an alternative variational principle or version of Fermat's principle that leads naturally to a lens equation in a generic spacetime with any given metric. We illustrate the construction by deriving the lens equation for static asymptotically flat thin lens spacetimes. As an application of the approach, we find the bending angle for moving thin lenses in terms of the bending angle for the same deflector at rest. Finally we apply this construction to cosmological spacetimes (FRW) by using the fact they are all conformally related to Minkowski space.

Simonetta Frittelli; Thomas P. Kling; Ezra T. Newman

2002-05-03

232

Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy.

I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe-the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects. PMID:20123743

Ellis, Richard S

2010-03-13

233

Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy

I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe—the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects. PMID:20123743

Ellis, Richard S.

2010-01-01

234

Structure and History of Dark Matter Halos Probed with Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test with gravitational lensing (GL) data the dark matter (DM) halos embedding the luminous baryonic component of galaxy clusters; our benchmark is provided by their two-stage cosmogonical development that we compute with its variance, and by the related "?-profiles" we derive. The latter solve the Jeans equation for the self-gravitating, anisotropic DM equilibria, and yield the radial runs of the density ?(r) and the velocity dispersion ?2 r (r) in terms of the DM "entropy" K ? ?2 r /?2/3 vprop r ? highlighted by recent N-body simulations; the former constrains the slope to the narrow range ? ? 1.25-1.3. These physically based ?-profiles meet the overall requirements from GL observations, being intrinsically flatter at the center and steeper in the outskirts relative to the empirical Navarro, Frenk, & White formula. Specifically, we project them along the line of sight and compare with a recent extensive data set from strong and weak lensing observations in and around the cluster A1689. We find an optimal fit at both small and large scales in terms of a halo constituted by an early body with ? ? 1.25 and by recent extensive outskirts, that make up an overall mass 1015 M sun with a concentration parameter c ? 10 consistent with the variance we compute in the ?CDM cosmogony. The resulting structure corresponds to a potential well shallow in the outskirts as that inferred from the X rays radiated from the hot electrons and baryons constituting the intracluster plasma.

Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.

2009-04-01

235

Weak lensing measurements in simulations of radio images

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of weak lensing shear measurements for simulated galaxy images at radio wavelengths. We construct a simulation pipeline into which we can input galaxy images of known shapelet ellipticity, and with which we then simulate observations with eMERLIN and the international LOFAR array. The simulations include the effects of the CLEAN algorithm, uv sampling, observing angle and visibility noise, and produce realistic restored images of the galaxies. We apply a shapelet-based shear measurement method to these images and test our ability to recover the true source shapelet ellipticities. We model and deconvolve the effective point spread function, and find suitable parameters for CLEAN and shapelet decomposition of galaxies. We demonstrate that ellipticities can be measured faithfully in these radio simulations, with no evidence of an additive bias and a modest (10 per cent) multiplicative bias on the ellipticity measurements. Our simulation pipeline can be used to test shear measurement procedures and systematics for the next generation of radio telescopes.

Patel, Prina; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Bacon, David J.; Rowe, Barnaby; Smirnov, Oleg M.; Beswick, Rob J.

2014-11-01

236

The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.

Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.

2014-03-01

237

Constraints on early-type galaxy structure from spectroscopically selected gravitational lenses

This thesis describes all aspects of a unique spectroscopic survey for strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lenses: motivation, candidate selection, ground-based spectroscopic follow-up, Hubble Space Telescope imaging, data ...

Bolton, Adam Stallard

2005-01-01

238

Weak lensing leads to the non-Gaussian magnification distribution of standard candles at a given redshift z, p(mu|z). In this paper we give accurate and simple empirical fitting formulae of the weak lensing numerical simulation results with the generalized Dyer-Roeder prescription. The smoothness parameter alpha essentially represents the amount of matter that can cause magnification of a given source. Since matter

Yun Wang

1999-01-01

239

Mass-concentration relation and weak lensing peak counts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The statistics of peaks in weak lensing convergence maps is a promising tool for investigating both the properties of dark matter haloes and constraining the cosmological parameters. Aims: We study how the number of detectable peaks and its scaling with redshift depend upon the cluster's dark matter halo profiles and use peak statistics to constrain the parameters of the mass-concentration (MC) relation. We investigate which constraints the Euclid mission can set on the MC coefficients taking degeneracies with the cosmological parameters into account, too. Methods: To this end, we first estimated the number of peaks and its redshift distribution for different MC relations and found that the steeper the mass dependence and the greater the normalisation, the larger the number of detectable clusters, with the total number of peaks changing up to 40% depending on the MC relation. We then performed a Fisher matrix forecast of the errors on the MC relation parameters, as well as on cosmological parameters. Results: We find that peak number counts detected by Euclid can determine the normalization Av, the mass Bv, redshift Cv slopes, and intrinsic scatter ?v of the MC relation to an unprecedented accuracy, which is ?(Av) /Av = 1%, ?(Bv) /Bv = 4%, ?(Cv) /Cv = 9%, and ?(?v) /?v = 1% if all cosmological parameters are assumed to be known. If we relax this severe assumption, constraints are degraded, but remarkably good results can be restored by setting only some of the parameters or combining peak counts with Planck data. This precision can give insight into competing scenarios of structure formation and evolution and into the role of baryons in cluster assembling. Alternatively, for a fixed MC relation, future peak counts can perform as well as current BAO and SNeIa when combined with Planck.

Cardone, V. F.; Camera, S.; Sereno, M.; Covone, G.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.

2015-02-01

240

Rotation of Galaxies as a Signature of Cosmic Strings in Weak Lensing Surveys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector perturbations sourced by topological defects can generate rotations in the lensing of background galaxies. This is a potential smoking gun for the existence of defects since rotation generates a curl-like component in the weak lensing signal which is not generated by standard density perturbations at linear order. This rotation signal is calculated as generated by cosmic strings. Future large scale weak lensing surveys should be able to detect this signal even for string tensions an order of magnitude lower than current constraints.

Thomas, Daniel B.; Contaldi, Carlo R.; Magueijo, João

2009-10-01

241

The effect of clulstering of galaxies on the statistics of gravitational lenses

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is examined whether clustering of galaxies can significantly alter the statistical properties of gravitational lenses? Only models of clustering that resemble the observed distribution of galaxies in the properties of the two-point correlation function are considered. Monte-Carlo simulations of the imaging process are described. It is found that the effect of clustering is too small to be significant, unless the mass of the deflectors is so large that gravitational lenses become common occurrences. A special model is described which was concocted to optimize the effect of clustering on gravitational lensing but still resemble the observed distribution of galaxies; even this simulation did not satisfactorily produce large numbers of wide-angle lenses.

Anderson, N.; Alcock, C.

1986-01-01

242

The effective number density of galaxies for weak lensing measurements in the LSST project

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future weak lensing surveys potentially hold the highest statistical power for constraining cosmological parameters compared to other cosmological probes. The statistical power of a weak lensing survey is determined by the sky coverage, the inverse of the noise in shear measurements and the galaxy number density. The combination of the latter two factors is often expressed in terms of neff - the `effective number density of galaxies used for weak lensing measurements'. In this work, we estimate neff for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project, the most powerful ground-based lensing survey planned for the next two decades. We investigate how the following factors affect the resulting neff of the survey with detailed simulations: (1) survey time, (2) shear measurement algorithm, (3) algorithm for combining multiple exposures, (4) inclusion of data from multiple filter bands, (5) redshift distribution of the galaxies and (6) masking and blending. For the first time, we quantify in a general weak lensing analysis pipeline the sensitivity of neff to the above factors. We find that with current weak lensing algorithms, expected distributions of observing parameters, and all lensing data (r and i band, covering 18 000 degree2 of sky) for LSST, neff ? 37 arcmin-2 before considering blending and masking, neff ? 31 arcmin-2 when rejecting seriously blended galaxies and neff ? 26 arcmin-2 when considering an additional 15 per cent loss of galaxies due to masking. With future improvements in weak lensing algorithms, these values could be expected to increase by up to 20 per cent. Throughout the paper, we also stress the ways in which neff depends on our ability to understand and control systematic effects in the measurements.

Chang, C.; Jarvis, M.; Jain, B.; Kahn, S. M.; Kirkby, D.; Connolly, A.; Krughoff, S.; Peng, E.-H.; Peterson, J. R.

2013-09-01

243

Effects of Multiple Weak Deflections on the Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing Signal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a powerful tool with which the dark mass distribution around galaxies can be constrained directly. One potential complication to the interpretation of an observed galaxy-galaxy lensing signal, however, is the effect of multiple weak deflections. A number of previous studies have shown that for a typical deep data set, background source galaxies will have been lensed at a comparable level by two or more foreground galaxies. Contrary to naive expectations, these multiple weak deflections that are undergone by the images of the source galaxies do not generally cancel out, nor can they usually be ignored. Previous work as shown that at large angular scales the net shear experienced by distant source galaxies due to all foreground lenses generally exceeds the shear due to the single lens with the smallest impact parameter (the "closest lens"). When multiple deflections that have occurred in the observational data are not included in the interpretation of the observed shear profile, systematic errors in the constraints on the lens masses can occur. Here we explore the effects of multiple deflections on the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal using various toy models. We show that the main cause for the difference between the shear profile resulting from all foreground weak lenses and the shear profile resulting from the single closest weak lens is the fact that galaxies have a broad distribution in redshift space. That is, it is not correct to consider realistic galaxy-galaxy lensing as being confined primarily to a single lens plane in redshift space. We also explore the effect of multiple weak deflections on the surface mass density inferred for foreground lenses when the net mean tangential shear (i.e., the shear that results when all multiple weak deflections are taken into account) is used.

Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Blumenthal, Kelly

2014-06-01

244

The Effect of Satellite Galaxies on Gravitational Lensing Flux Ratios

Gravitational lenses with anomalous flux ratios are often cited as possible evidence for dark matter satellites predicted by simulations of hierarchical merging in cold dark matter cosmogonies. We show that the fraction of quads with anomalous flux ratios depends primarily on the total mass and spatial extent of the satellites, and the characteristic lengthscale R of their distribution. If R is 100 kpc, then for a moderately elliptical galaxy with a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 250 km/s, a mass of 3 x 10^9 solar masses in highly-concentrated (Plummer model) satellites is needed for 20% of quadruplets to show anomalous flux ratios, rising to 1.25 x 10^10 solar masses for 50%. Several times these masses are required if the satellites have more extended Hernquist profiles. Compared to a typical elliptical, the flux ratios of quads formed by typical edge-on disc galaxies with maximum discs are significantly less susceptible to changes through substructure -- three times the mass in satellite galaxies is needed to affect 50% of the systems. In many of the lens systems with anomalous flux ratios, there is evidence for visible satellites (e.g., B2045+265 or MG0414+0534). We show that optically identified substructure should not be preponderant among lens systems with anomalies. There are two possible resolutions of this difficulty. First, in some cases, visible substructure may be projected within or close to the Einstein radius and wrongly ascribed as the culprit, whereas dark matter substructure is causing the flux anomaly. Second, bright satellites, in which baryon cooling and condensation has taken place, may have higher central densities than dark satellites, rendering them more efficient at causing flux anomalies.

E. M. Shin; N. W. Evans

2008-01-15

245

Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon

Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.

Wu Xiaoning [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2734, Beijing, 100080 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KITPC-CAS), P.O. Box 2732, Beijing, 100080 (China); Huang Chaoguang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KITPC-CAS), P.O. Box 2732, Beijing, 100080 (China); Sun Jiarui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China)

2008-06-15

246

Accurate Weak Lensing of Standard Candles, Part 1: Flexible Cosmological Fits

With the availability of thousands of type Ia supernovae in the near future the magnitude scatter induced by lensing will become a major issue as it affects parameter estimation. Current N-body simulations are too time consuming to be integrated in the likelihood analyses used for estimating the cosmological parameters. In this paper we show that in the weak lensing regime a statistical numerical approximation produces accurate results orders of magnitude faster. We write down simple fits to the second, third and fourth central moments of the lensing magnification probability distribution as a function of redshift, of the power spectrum normalization and of the present-day matter density. We also improve upon existing models of lensing variance and show that a shifted lognormal distribution fits well the numerical one. These fits can be easily employed in cosmological likelihood analyses. Moreover, our theoretical predictions make it possible to invert the problem and begin using supernovae lensing to constra...

Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca

2013-01-01

247

Probing the cosmic web: inter-cluster filament detection using gravitational lensing

The problem of detecting dark matter filaments in the cosmic web is\\u000aconsidered. Weak lensing is an ideal probe of dark matter, and therefore forms\\u000athe basis of particularly promising detection methods. We consider and develop\\u000aa number of weak lensing techniques that could be used to detect filaments in\\u000aindividual or stacked cluster fields, and apply them to synthetic

James M. G. Mead; Lindsay J. King; Ian G. McCarthy

2009-01-01

248

Gravitational lensing of quasars by edge-on spiral galaxies

In this thesis, I studied the lensed quasar CX2201-3201, which is lensed by an edge-on spiral galaxy. The unusually high tilt of the spiral galaxy provides us with a rare opportunity for mass modeling. In addition, the ...

Wang, Emily P

2007-01-01

249

We present a newly developed code that allows simulations of optical observations of galaxy fields with a variety of instruments. The code incorporates gravitational lensing effects and is targetted at simulating lensing by galaxy clusters. Our goal is to create the tools required for comparing theoretical expectations with observations to obtain a better understanding of how observational noise affects lensing applications such as mass estimates, studies on the internal properties of galaxy clusters and arc statistics. Starting from a set of input parameters, characterizing both the instruments and the observational conditions, the simulator provides a virtual observation of a patch of the sky. It includes several sources of noise such as photon-noise, sky background, seeing, and instrumental noise. Ray-tracing through simulated mass distributions accounts for gravitational lensing. Source morphologies are realistically simulated based on shapelet decompositions of galaxy images retrieved from the GOODS-ACS ...

Meneghetti, Massimo; Grazian, Andrea; De Lucia, Gabriella; Dolag, Klaus; Bartelmann, Matthias; Heymans, Catherine; Moscardini, Lauro; Radovich, Mario

2007-01-01

250

Galaxies acting as gravitational lenses are surrounded by, at most, a handful of images. This apparent paucity of information forces one to make the best possible use of what information is available to invert the lens system. In this paper, we explore the use of a genetic algorithm to invert in a non-parametric way strong lensing systems containing only a small number of images. Perhaps the most important conclusion of this paper is that it is possible to infer the mass distribution of such gravitational lens systems using a non-parametric technique. We show that including information about the null space (i.e. the region where no images are found) is prerequisite to avoid the prediction of a large number of spurious images, and to reliably reconstruct the lens mass density. While the total mass of the lens is usually constrained within a few percent, the fidelity of the reconstruction of the lens mass distribution depends on the number and position of the images. The technique employed to include null space information can be extended in a straightforward way to add additional constraints, such as weak lensing data or time delay information.

J. Liesenborgs; S. De Rijcke; H. Dejonghe; P. Bekaert

2007-07-17

251

SDSS J0246-0825: A New Gravitationally Lensed Quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

We report the discovery of a new two-image gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J024634.11-082536.2 (SDSS J0246-0825). This object was selected as a lensed quasar candidate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by the same algorithm that was used to discover other SDSS lensed quasars (e.g., SDSS J0924+0219). Multicolor imaging with the Magellan Consortium's Walter Baade 6.5-m telescope and the spectroscopic observations using the W. M. Keck Observatory's Keck II telescope confirm that SDSS J0246-0825 consists of two lensed images ({Delta}{theta} = 1''.04) of a source quasar at z = 1.68. Imaging observations with the Keck telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope reveal an extended object between the two quasar components, which is likely to be a lensing galaxy of this system. From the absorption lines in the spectra of quasar components and the apparent magnitude of the galaxy, combined with the expected absolute magnitude from the Faber-Jackson relation, we estimate the redshift of the lensing galaxy to be z = 0.724. A highly distorted ring is visible in the Hubble Space Telescope images, which is likely to be the lensed host galaxy of the source quasar. Simple mass modeling predicts the possibility that there is a small (faint) lensing object near the primary lensing galaxy.

Inada, N; Burles, S; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H; Schechter, P L; Eisenstein, D J; Oguri, M; Castander, F J; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Pindor, B; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; White, R L; Brinkmann, J; Szalay, A; York, D G

2005-11-10

252

CLASH: Weak-lensing Shear-and-magnification Analysis of 20 Galaxy Clusters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a joint shear-and-magnification weak-lensing analysis of a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters at 0.19 <~ z <~ 0.69 selected from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis uses wide-field multi-color imaging, taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. From a stacked-shear-only analysis of the X-ray-selected subsample, we detect the ensemble-averaged lensing signal with a total signal-to-noise ratio of ~= 25 in the radial range of 200-3500 kpc h -1, providing integrated constraints on the halo profile shape and concentration-mass relation. The stacked tangential-shear signal is well described by a family of standard density profiles predicted for dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), truncated variants of NFW, and Einasto models. For the NFW model, we measure a mean concentration of c200c=4.01+0.35-0.32 at an effective halo mass of M200c=1.34+0.10-0.09× 1015 M_?. We show that this is in excellent agreement with ? cold dark matter (?CDM) predictions when the CLASH X-ray selection function and projection effects are taken into account. The best-fit Einasto shape parameter is ? _E=0.191+0.071-0.068, which is consistent with the NFW-equivalent Einasto parameter of ~0.18. We reconstruct projected mass density profiles of all CLASH clusters from a joint likelihood analysis of shear-and-magnification data and measure cluster masses at several characteristic radii assuming an NFW density profile. We also derive an ensemble-averaged total projected mass profile of the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual mass profiles. The stacked total mass profile, constrained by the shear+magnification data, is shown to be consistent with our shear-based halo-model predictions, including the effects of surrounding large-scale structure as a two-halo term, establishing further consistency in the context of the ?CDM model. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Society of Japan.

Umetsu, Keiichi; Medezinski, Elinor; Nonino, Mario; Merten, Julian; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Donahue, Megan; Czakon, Nicole; Molino, Alberto; Seitz, Stella; Gruen, Daniel; Lemze, Doron; Balestra, Italo; Benítez, Narciso; Biviano, Andrea; Broadhurst, Tom; Ford, Holland; Grillo, Claudio; Koekemoer, Anton; Melchior, Peter; Mercurio, Amata; Moustakas, John; Rosati, Piero; Zitrin, Adi

2014-11-01

253

SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Inada, Naohisa [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oguri, Masamune [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2010-08-15

254

The Mass Of The Coma Cluster From Weak Lensing In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey

We present a weak lensing analysis of the Coma Cluster using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release Five. Complete imaging of a ~ 200 square degree region is used to measure the tangential shear of this cluster. The shear is fit to an NFW model and we find a virial radius of r_{200}=1.99_{-0.22}^{+0.21}h^{-1}Mpc which corresponds to a virial mass of M_{200}=1.88_{-0.56}^{+0.65}\\times10^{15}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}. We additionally compare our weak lensing measurement to the virial mass derived using dynamical techniques, and find they are in agreement. This is the lowest redshift, largest angle weak lensing measurement of an individual cluster to date.

Jeffrey M. Kubo; Albert Stebbins; James Annis; Ian P. Dell'Antonio; Huan Lin; Hossein Khiabanian; Joshua A. Frieman

2007-09-04

255

I suggest that measurements of intensity fluctuations caused by classical wave interactions can be used to find unresolved gravitational lenses and determine time delays of essentially arbitrary length among the images formed by a gravitational lens. No interferometry i s needed, the time delays can be measured by analyzing the intensity signal alone. The technique works with lensed sources that have constant luminosities and is capable of measuring very long time delays. I suggest interferometric techniques, capable of measuring time delays of arbitrary length, that can be used to refine the measurements.

Ermanno F. Borra

1997-04-09

256

Statistics of Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events. I.The Zero Shear Case

For a given source and lens pair, there is a thin on-axis tube-like volume behind the lens in which the radiation flux from the source is greatly increased due to gravitational lensing. Any objects (such as dust grains) which pass through such a thin tube will experience strong bursts of radiation, i.e., Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events (EGLE). We study the physics and statistics of EGLE for the case in which finite source size is more important than shear. One of the several possible significant astrophysical effects is investigated with an illustrative calculation.

Yun Wang; Edwin L. Turner

1995-09-07

257

A Weak Lensing Survey in the Fields of z~1 Luminous Radio Sources

In this paper we present weak lensing observations of the fields around 8 z~1 luminous radio sources. These data are searched for the lensing signatures of clusters that are either physically associated with the radio objects, or are foreground systems projected along the line of sight. The radio sources were all imaged with WFPC-2/HST providing high quality shape information on large numbers of faint galaxies around them. Statistical analysis of the coherent shear field visible in the shapes of the faint galaxies indicates that we have detected a weak lensing signal close to one of the targets, 3C336 at z=0.927, with a high level of confidence. A second, independent WFPC-2 observation of this target reinforces this detection. Our results support the earlier suggestion of weak lensing in this field by Fort et al (1996) using ground-based data. We also combined the shear distributions in the remaining 7 field to improve our sensitivity to weak shear signals from any structure typically associated with these sources. We find no detectable signal and estimate an upper limit on the maximum shear allowed by our observations. Using an N(z) estimated from lensing analyses we convert our observed lensing signal and limits into estimates of the masses of the various structures. We suggest that further lensing observations of distant radio sources and their host environments may allow the cluster L_X-mass relationship to be mapped at high-z. This is crucial for interpreting the results of the next generation of deep X-ray surveys, and thus constraining the redshift evolution of the cluster mass function out to z=1.

Richard G. Bower; Ian Smail

1996-12-16

258

Establishing a universal relation between gravitational waves and black hole lensing

Black hole lensing and gravitational waves are, respectively, closely dependent of the property of the lens and radiation source. In this letter, a universal relation between them is established for a rotating black hole acting simultaneously as a lens and a gravitational wave source, in an asymptotically flat spacetime. The relation only relies on the lens geometry and observable, while is independent of the specific nature of the black hole. Therefore, the possible gravitational wave sources could be located with modern astronomical instrument from the side of the lensing without knowing the specific nature of the black hole lens. Moreover, the low bound of the frequency of the gravitational waves can also be well determined.

Shao-Wen Wei; Yu-Xiao Liu

2013-09-25

259

Mapping the dark matter with weak gravitational lensing

We consider the problem of reconstructing the projected mass distribution in clusters from coherent distortions of background galaxies. The ellipticity of a background galaxy provides an estimate of the trace-free components of the tidal field. We present a technique for inverting this problem. The resulting surface density contains a strong, but incoherent, random component arising from the random intrinsic galaxy

Nick Kaiser; Gordon Squires

1993-01-01

260

A measurement of weak lensing by large scale structure in RCS fields

We have analysed ~24 square degrees of R_C-band imaging data from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS), and measured the excess correlations between galaxy ellipticities on scales ranging from 1 to 30 arcminutes. We have used data from two different telescopes: ~16.4 square degrees of CFHT data and ~7.6 square degrees of CTIO 4-meter data, distributed over 13 widely separated patches. For the first time, a direct comparison can be made of the lensing signal measured using different instruments, which provides an important test of the weak lensing analysis itself. The measurements obtained from the two telescopes agree well. For the lensing analysis we use galaxies down to a limiting magnitude of R_C=24, for which the redshift distribution is known relatively well. This allows us to constrain some cosmological parameters. For the currently favored $\\Lambda$CDM model $(\\Omega_m=0.3, \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, \\Gamma=0.21)$ we obtain $\\sigma_8=0.81^{+0.14}_{-0.19}$ (95% confidence), in agreement with the results from Van Waerbeke et al. (2001) which used fainter galaxies (and consequently higher redshift galaxies). The good agreement between these two very different weak lensing studies demonstrates that weak lensing is a useful tool in observational cosmology.

Henk Hoekstra; Howard K. C. Yee; Michael D. Gladders; L. Felipe Barrientos; Patrick B. Hall; Leopoldo Infante

2002-02-14

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct a joint X-ray and weak-lensing study of four relaxed galaxy clusters (Hydra A, A 478, A 1689, and A 1835) observed by both Suzaku and Subaru out to virial radii, with the aim of understanding recently discovered unexpected features of the intracluster medium (ICM) in cluster outskirts. We show that the average hydrostatic-to-lensing total mass ratio for the four clusters decreases from ˜ 70% to ˜ 40% as the overdensity contrast decreases from 500 to the virial value. The average gas mass fraction from lensing total mass estimates increases with cluster radius and agrees with the cosmic mean baryon fraction within the virial radius, whereas the X-ray-based gas fraction considerably exceeds the cosmic values due to underestimation of the hydrostatic mass. We also develop a new advanced method for determining normalized cluster radial profiles for multiple X-ray observables by simultaneously taking into account both their radial dependence and multivariate scaling relations with weak-lensing masses. Although the four clusters span a range of halo mass, concentration, X-ray luminosity, and redshift, we find that the gas entropy, pressure, temperature, and density profiles are all remarkably self-similar when scaled with the weak-lensing M200 mass and r200 radius. The entropy monotonically increases out to ˜ 0.5 r200 ˜ r1000 following the accretion shock heating model K(r) ? r1.1, and flattens at ? 0.5 r200. The universality of the scaled entropy profiles indicates that the thermalization mechanism over the entire cluster region (> 0.1 r200) is controlled by gravitation in a common way for all clusters, although the heating efficiency in the outskirts needs to be modified from the standard r1.1 law. The bivariate scaling functions of the gas density and temperature reveal that the flattening of the outskirts entropy profile is caused by the steepening of the temperature, rather than the flattening of the gas density.

Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi; Tamura, Takayuki; Fujita, Yutaka; Takizawa, Motokazu; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Matsushita, Kyoko; Hamana, Takashi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Futamase, Tasushi; Kawaharada, Madoka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Kosuke; Tam, Sutieng

2014-10-01

262

Testing gravity on kiloparsec scales with strong gravitational lenses

Modifications to GR generically predict time and scale-dependent effects which may be probed by observations of strong lensing by galaxies. Measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion determine the dynamical mass whereas measurements of the Einstein radius determine the lensing mass. In GR these two masses are equal; in alternative gravity theories they may not be. Using measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion and strong lensing around galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey we place constraints on lensing in modified gravity theories and extend previous studies by applying this data to explore its dependence on various properties of the lens such as the lens redshift or mass and thereby constrain scalar-tensor, f(R) gravity theories, and generic parameterizations of deviations from GR. Besides applying the observations to these specific gravity theories, the data places a constraint on a generic dependence of modifications to GR on the lens mass and redshift. At the 68% confidence level we find that the ratio between the lensing and dynamical masses can only vary by less then 50% over a mass range for the lens galaxies of 1E12 < M/Msun < 1E14 and less than 40% over the redshift range 0.06 < z < 0.36.

Tristan L. Smith

2009-07-28

263

Sneaky Gamma-Rays: Using Gravitational Lensing to Avoid Gamma-Gamma-Absorption

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been suggested that gravitational lensing studies of gamma-ray blazars might be a promising avenue to probe the location of the gamma-ray emitting region in blazars. Motivated by these prospects, we have investigated potential gamma-gamma absorption signatures of intervening lenses in the very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from lensedblazars. We considered intervening galaxies and individual stars within these galaxies. We find that the collective radiation field of galaxies acting as sources of macrolensing are not expected to lead to significant gamma-gamma absorption. Individual stars within intervening galaxies could, in principle, cause a significant opacity to gamma-gamma absorption for VHE gamma-rays if the impact parameter (the distance of closest approach of the gamma-ray to the center of the star) is small enough. However, we find that the curvature of the photon path due to gravitational lensing will cause gamma-ray photons to maintain a sufficiently large distance from such stars to avoid significant gamma-gamma absorption. This re-inforces the prospect of gravitational-lensing studies of gamma-ray blazars without interference due to gamma-gamma absorption due to the lensing objects.

Boettcher, Markus; Barnacka, Anna

2014-08-01

264

Nonsingular Density Profiles of Dark Matter Halos and Strong Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the statistics of strong gravitational lenses to investigate whether mass profiles with a flat density core are supported. The probability for lensing by halos modeled by a nonsingular truncated isothermal sphere (NTIS) with image separations greater than a certain value (ranging from 0" to 10") is calculated. NTIS is an analytical model for the postcollapse equilibrium structure of virialized objects derived by Shapiro, Iliev, & Raga. This profile has a soft core and matches quite well with the mass profiles of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies deduced from their observed rotation curves. It also agrees well with the NFW (Navarro-Frenk-White) profile at all radii outside of a few NTIS core radii. Unfortunately, comparing the results with those for singular lensing halos (NFW and SIS + NFW) and strong lensing observations, the probabilities for lensing by NTIS halos are far too low. As this result is valid for any other nonsingular density profile (with a large core radius), we conclude that nonsingular density profiles (with a large core radius) for CDM halos are ruled out by statistics of strong gravitational lenses.

Chen, Da-Ming

2005-08-01

265

Testing the MOND paradigm of modified dynamics with galaxy-galaxy gravitational lensing.

The MOND paradigm of modified dynamics predicts that the asymptotic gravitational potential of an isolated, bounded (baryonic) mass, M, is ?(r)=(MGa0)1/2ln(r). Relativistic MOND theories predict that the lensing effects of M are dictated by ?(r) as general-relativity lensing is dictated by the Newtonian potential. Thus MOND predicts that the asymptotic Newtonian potential deduced from galaxy-galaxy gravitational lensing will have (1) a logarithmic r dependence, and (2) a normalization (parametrized standardly as 2?2) that depends only on M: ?=(MGa0/4)1/4. I compare these predictions with recent results of galaxy-galaxy lensing, and find agreement on all counts. For the “blue”-lenses subsample (“spiral” galaxies) MOND reproduces the observations well with an r?-band M/Lr??(1–3)(M/L)?, and for “red” lenses (“elliptical” galaxies) with M/Lr??(3–6)(M/L)?, both consistent with baryons only. In contradistinction, Newtonian analysis requires, typically, M/Lr??130(M/L)?, bespeaking a mass discrepancy of a factor ?40. Compared with the staple, rotation-curve tests, MOND is here tested in a wider population of galaxies, through a different phenomenon, using relativistic test objects, and is probed to several-times-lower accelerations–as low as a few percent of a0. PMID:23931350

Milgrom, Mordehai

2013-07-26

266

The galaxy cluster 1E0657-56 (z = 0.296) is remarkably well-suited for addressing outstanding issues in both galaxy evolution and fundamental physics. We present a reconstruction of the mass distribution from both strong and weak gravitational lensing data. Multi-color, high-resolution HST ACS images allow detection of many more arc candidates than were previously known, especially around the subcluster. Using the known redshift of one of the multiply imaged systems, we determine the remaining source redshifts using the predictive power of the strong lens model. Combining this information with shape measurements of ''weakly'' lensed sources, we derive a high-resolution, absolutely-calibrated mass map, using no assumptions regarding the physical properties of the underlying cluster potential. This map provides the best available quantification of the total mass of the central part of the cluster. We also confirm the result from Clowe et al. (2004, 2006a) that the total mass does not trace the baryonic mass.

Bradac, Marusa; Clowe, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Marshall, Phil; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Markevitch, Maxim; Randall, Scott; Schrabback, Tim; Zaritsky,; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bonn, Inst. Astrophys. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Florida U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2006-09-27

267

We present weak gravitational lensing analysis of 22 high-redshift (z {approx}> 1) clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope images. Most clusters in our sample provide significant lensing signals and are well detected in their reconstructed two-dimensional mass maps. Combining the current results and our previous weak-lensing studies of five other high-z clusters, we compare gravitational lensing masses of these clusters with other observables. We revisit the question whether the presence of the most massive clusters in our sample is in tension with the current {Lambda}CDM structure formation paradigm. We find that the lensing masses are tightly correlated with the gas temperatures and establish, for the first time, the lensing mass-temperature relation at z {approx}> 1. For the power-law slope of the M-T{sub X} relation (M{proportional_to}T{sup {alpha}}), we obtain {alpha} = 1.54 {+-} 0.23. This is consistent with the theoretical self-similar prediction {alpha} = 3/2 and with the results previously reported in the literature for much lower redshift samples. However, our normalization is lower than the previous results by 20%-30%, indicating that the normalization in the M-T{sub X} relation might evolve. After correcting for Eddington bias and updating the discovery area with a more conservative choice, we find that the existence of the most massive clusters in our sample still provides a tension with the current {Lambda}CDM model. The combined probability of finding the four most massive clusters in this sample after the marginalization over cosmological parameters is less than 1%.

Jee, M. J.; Lubin, L.; Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Dawson, K. S.; Harris, D. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Perlmutter, S.; Suzuki, N.; Meyers, J.; Barbary, K. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koester, B.; Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Barrientos, F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ford, H. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilbank, D. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gonzalez, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

2011-08-20

268

Weak lensing and dark energy: The impact of dark energy on nonlinear dark matter clustering

We examine the influence of percent-level dark energy corrections to the nonlinear matter power spectrum on constraints of the dark energy equation of state from future weak lensing probes. We explicitly show that a poor approximation (off by > or approx.10%) to the nonlinear corrections causes a > or approx. 1{sigma} bias on the determination of the dark energy equation of state. Future weak lensing surveys must therefore incorporate dark energy modifications to the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate to the percent-level, to avoid introducing significant bias in their measurements. For the WMAP5 cosmology, the more accurate power spectrum is more sensitive to dark energy properties, resulting in a factor of 2 improvement in dark energy equation of state constraints. We explore the complementary constraints on dark energy from future weak lensing and supernova surveys. A space-based, Joint Dark Energy Mission-like survey measures the equation of state in five independent redshift bins to {approx}10%, while this improves to {approx}5% for a wide-field ground-based survey like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. These constraints are contingent upon our ability to control weak lensing systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level.

Joudaki, Shahab; Cooray, Asantha; Holz, Daniel E. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2009-07-15

269

Combining Weak Lensing Tomography with Halo Clustering to Probe Dark Energy

Two methods of constraining the properties of dark energy are weak lensing tomography and cluster counting. Uncertainties in mass calibration of clusters can be reduced by using the properties of halo clustering (the clustering of clusters). However, within a single survey, weak lensing and halo clustering probe the same density fluctuations. We explore the question of whether this information can be used twice -- once in weak lensing and then again in halo clustering to calibrate cluster masses -- or whether the combined dark energy constraints are weaker than the sum of the individual constraints. For a survey like the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we find that the cosmic shearing of source galaxies at high redshifts is indeed highly correlated with halo clustering at lower redshifts. Surprisingly, this correlation does not degrade cosmological constraints for a DES-like survey, and in fact, constraints are marginally improved since the correlations themselves act as additional observables. This considerably simplifies the analysis for a DES-like survey: when weak lensing and halo clustering are treated as independent experiments, the combined dark energy constraints (cluster counts included) are accurate if not slightly conservative. Our findings mirror those of Takada and Bridle, who investigated correlations between the cosmic shear and cluster counts.

Charles Shapiro; Scott Dodelson

2007-06-16

270

Statistics of Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events. II.The Small Shear Case

We consider an astrophysical system with a population of sources and a population of lenses. For each pair of source and lens, there is a thin on-axis tube-like volume behind the lens in which the radiation flux from the source is greatly increased due to gravitational lensing. Any objects (such as dust grains) which pass through such a thin tube will experience strong bursts of radiation, i.e., Extreme Gravitational Lensing Events (EGLE). We study the physics and statistics of EGLE for the case in which the shear is larger or comparable to the finite source size. We find that the presence of shear has only a small effect on the EGLE statistics.

Yun Wang; Edwin L. Turner

1996-07-16

271

Structure and History of Dark Matter Halos Probed with Gravitational Lensing

We test with gravitational lensing (GL) data the dark matter (DM) halos embedding the luminous baryonic component of galaxy clusters; our benchmark is provided by their two-stage cosmogonical development that we compute with its variance, and by the related \\

A. Lapi; A. Cavaliere

2009-01-01

272

Design issues for a mission to exploit the gravitational lensing effect at 550 AU

Reported herein are the first results of a NASA-sponsored study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, exploring the scientific promise and technological viability of a mission to exploit the gravitational lensing effect of the Sun to obtain huge antenna gains for electromagnetic waves grazing the Sun's disk. With regard to scientific promise, these results, reported at

John L. West

1999-01-01

273

Gravitationally lensed quasar 0957+561: VLA observations and mass models

The gravitationally lensed quasar 0957+561 has been studied at wavelengths of 2, 6, 18, and 21 cm, using the VLA. The A and B quasar images have essentially identical radio spectra but polarization rotation measures that differ by 100 rad mâ»Â². The lambda = 6 cm maps are of especially high quality and show many more features than are visible

P. E. Greenfield; D. H. Roberts; B. F. Burke

1985-01-01

274

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the semiclassical approach to the lensing of photons in a spherically symmetric gravitational background, starting from Born level and include in our analysis the radiative corrections obtained from the electroweak theory for the graviton/photon/photon vertex. In this approach, the cross section is related to the angular variation of the impact parameter ( b), which is then solved for b as a function of the angle of deflection, and measured in horizon units ( b h ? b/(2 GM)). Exact numerical solutions for the angular deflection are presented. The numerical analysis shows that perturbation theory in a weak background agrees with the classical Einstein formula for the deflection already at distances of the order of 20 horizon units (˜20 b h ) and it is optimal in the description both of very strong and weak lensings. We show that the electroweak corrections to the cross section are sizeable, becoming very significant for high energy gamma rays. Our analysis covers in energy most of the photon spectrum, from the cosmic microwave background up to very high energy gamma rays, and scatterings with any value of the photon impact parameter. We also study the helicity-flip photon amplitude, which is of O( ? 2) in the weak coupling ?, and its massless fermion limit, which involves the exchange of a conformal anomaly pole. The corresponding cross section is proportional to the Born level result and brings to a simple renormalization of Einsten's formula.

Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Maglio, Matteo Maria; Serino, Mirko

2015-01-01

275

Caustics, Critical Curves and Cross Sections for Gravitational Lensing by Disk Galaxies

We study strong gravitational lensing by spiral galaxies, modeling them as infinitely thin uniform disks embedded in singular isothermal spheres. We derive general properties of the critical curves and caustics analytically. The multiple-image cross section is a sensitive function of the inclination angle of the disk relative to the observer. We compute the inclination averaged cross section for several sets of lensing parameters. For realistic disk mass and size parameters, we find that the cross section for multiple imaging is increased by only a modest factor and no dramatic increase in the optical depth for strong lensing of QSOs would be expected. However, the cross section for high magnifications is significantly increased due to the inclusion of a disk, especially for nearly edge-on configurations; due to the strong observational selection effects favoring high magnifications, there might be significant consequences for lensing statistics.

Yun Wang; Edwin L. Turner

1997-02-10

276

Gravitational Lensing as Signal and Noise in Lyman-alpha Forest Measurements

In Lyman-alpha forest measurements it is generally assumed that quasars are mere background light sources which are uncorrelated with the forest. Gravitational lensing of the quasars violates this assumption. This effect leads to a measurement bias, but more interestingly it provides a valuable signal. The lensing signal can be extracted by correlating quasar magnitudes with the flux power spectrum and with the flux decrement. These correlations will be challenging to measure but their detection provides a direct measure of how features in the Lyman-alpha forest trace the underlying mass density field. Observing them will test the fundamental hypothesis that fluctuations in the forest are predominantly driven by fluctuations in mass, rather than in the ionizing background, helium reionization or winds. We discuss ways to disentangle the lensing signal from other sources of such correlations, including dust, continuum and background residuals. The lensing-induced measurement bias arises from sample selection: ...

LoVerde, Marilena; Hui, Lam; Menard, Brice; Lidz, Adam

2010-01-01

277

Coupling of Gravitation and Electromagnetism in the Weak Field Approximation

Using the weak field approximation, we can express the theory of general relativity in a Maxwell-type structure comparable to electromagnetism. We find that every electromagnetic field is coupled to a gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic field. Acknowledging the fact that both fields originate from the same source, the particle, we can express the magnetic and electric field through their gravitational respective analogues using the proportionality coefficient k. This coefficient depends on the ratio of mass and charge and the ratio between the electromagnetic and gravitic-gravitomagnetic permittivity and permeability respectively. Although the coefficient is very small, the fact that electromagnetic fields in material media can be used to generate gravitational and gravitomagnetic fields and vice versa is not commonly known. We find that the coupling coefficient can be increased by massive ion currents, electron and nuclear spin-alignment. Advances in material sciences, cryogenic technology and high frequency electromagnetic fields in material media may lead to applications of the derived relationships.

M. Tajmar; C. de Matos

2000-03-03

278

IM3SHAPE: A maximum-likelihood galaxy shear measurement code for cosmic gravitational lensing

We present and describe im3shape, a new publicly available galaxy shape measurement code for weak gravitational lensing shear. im3shape performs a maximum likelihood fit of a bulge-plus-disc galaxy model to noisy images, incorporating an applied point spread function. We detail challenges faced and choices made in its design and implementation, and then discuss various limitations that affect this and other maximum likelihood methods. We assess the bias arising from fitting an incorrect galaxy model using simple noise-free images and find that it should not be a concern for current cosmic shear surveys. We test im3shape on the GREAT08 Challenge image simulations, and meet the requirements for upcoming cosmic shear surveys in the case that the simulations are encompassed by the fitted model, using a simple correction for image noise bias. For the fiducial branch of GREAT08 we obtain a negligible additive shear bias and sub-two percent level multiplicative bias, which is suitable for analysis of current surveys...

Zuntz, Joe; Voigt, Lisa; Hirsch, Michael; Rowe, Barnaby; Bridle, Sarah

2013-01-01

279

Weak lensing by intergalactic ministructures in quadruple lens systems: simulation and detection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the weak lensing effects of line-of-sight structures on quadruple images in quasar-galaxy strong lens systems based on N-body and ray-tracing simulations that can resolve haloes with a mass of ˜105 M?. The intervening haloes and voids disturb the magnification ratios of lensed images as well as their relative positions due to lensing. The magnification ratios typically change by O(10 per cent) when the shifts of relative angular positions of lensed images are constrained to <0.004 arcsec. The constrained amplitudes of projected density perturbations due to line-of-sight structures are O(108) M? arcsec- 2. These results are consistent with our new analytical estimate based on the two-point correlation of density fluctuations. The observed mid-infrared flux ratios for six quasar-galaxy lens systems with quadruple images agree well with the numerically estimated values without taking into account subhalos residing in the lensing galaxies. We find that the constrained mean amplitudes of projected density perturbations in the line of sight are negative, which suggests that the fluxes of lensed images are perturbed mainly by minivoids and minihaloes in underdense regions. We derive a new fitting formula for estimating the probability distribution function of magnification perturbation. We also find that the mean amplitude of magnification perturbation roughly equals the standard deviation regardless of the model parameters.

Takahashi, Ryuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

2014-05-01

280

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After some historical remarks, we consider observational data on the gravitational lensing, different types of lensing: strong, weak, and microlensing, discovery of planets around distant stars by microlensing. We consider lensing with large deviation angles, when light passes close to the gravitational radius of the lens, and formation of weak relativistic rings. In the last part we consider an influence of plasma on the gravitational lensing. When a gravitating body is surrounded by a plasma, the lensing angle depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, due to dispersion properties of plasma, in presence of a plasma inhomogeneity, and due to a gravity. The second effect leads, even in a uniform plasma, to a difference of the gravitational photon deflection angle from the vacuum case, and to its dependence on the photon frequency. Both effects are taken into account. Dependence of the lensing angle on the photon frequency in a homogeneous plasma resembles the properties of a refractive prism spectrometer, which strongest action is for longest radiowaves. We have shown that the gravitational effect could be detected in the case of a hot gas in the gravitational field of a galaxy cluster.

Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.

281

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 4 deg2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10-3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub, in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09^{+0.42}_{-0.32} for the former model and 0.99_{-0.23}^{+0.34} for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ~0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h -1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ~ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster. Based on data collected from the Subaru Telescope and obtained from SMOKA, operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kuroshima, Risa

2014-04-01

282

Joint cosmic microwave background and weak lensing analysis: constraints on cosmological parameters.

We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations together with the red-sequence cluster survey weak lensing results to derive constraints on a range of cosmological parameters. This particular choice of observations is motivated by their robust physical interpretation and complementarity. Our combined analysis, including a weak nucleosynthesis constraint, yields accurate determinations of a number of parameters including the amplitude of fluctuations sigma(8)=0.89+/-0.05 and matter density Omega(m)=0.30+/-0.03. We also find a value for the Hubble parameter of H(0)=70+/-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the Hubble Space Telescope key-project result. We conclude that the combination of CMB and weak lensing data provides some of the most powerful constraints available in cosmology today. PMID:12857304

Contaldi, Carlo R; Hoekstra, Henk; Lewis, Antony

2003-06-01

283

The next generation of telescopes will usher in an era of precision cosmology, capable of determining the cosmological model to beyond the percent level. For this to be effective, the theoretical model must be understood to at least the same level of precision. A range of subtle relativistic effects remain to be explored theoretically, and offer the potential for probing general relativity in this new regime. We present the distance-redshift relation to second order in cosmological perturbation theory for a general dark energy model. This relation determines the magnification of sources at high precision, as well as redshift space distortions in the mildly non-linear regime. We identify a range of new lensing effects, including: double-integrated and nonlinear integrated Sach-Wolfe contributions, transverse Doppler effects, lensing from the induced vector mode and gravitational wave backgrounds, in addition to lensing from the second-order potential. Modifications to Doppler lensing from redshift-space distortions are identified. Finally, we find a new double-coupling between the density fluctuations integrated along the line of sight, and gradients in the density fluctuations coupled to transverse velocities along the line of sight. These can be large and thus offer important new probes of gravitational lensing and general relativity. This paper accompanies arXiv:1402.1933, where a comprehensive derivation is given.

Obinna Umeh; Chris Clarkson; Roy Maartens

2014-09-22

284

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of telescopes will usher in an era of precision cosmology, capable of determining the cosmological model to beyond the percent level. For this to be effective, the theoretical model must be understood to at least the same level of precision. A range of subtle relativistic effects remain to be explored theoretically, and offer the potential for probing general relativity in this new regime. We present the distance-redshift relation to second order in cosmological perturbation theory for a general dark energy model. This relation determines the magnification of sources at high precision, as well as redshift space distortions in the mildly non-linear regime. We identify a range of new lensing effects, including: double-integrated and nonlinear-integrated Sachs-Wolfe contributions, transverse Doppler effects, lensing from the induced vector mode and gravitational wave backgrounds, in addition to lensing from the second-order potential. Modifications to Doppler lensing from redshift space distortions are identified. Finally, we find a new double-coupling between the density fluctuations integrated along the line of sight, and gradients in the density fluctuations coupled to transverse velocities along the line of sight. These can be large and thus offer important new probes of gravitational lensing and general relativity. This paper accompanies paper II (Umeh, Clarkson and Maartens 2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 205001) , where a comprehensive derivation is given.

Umeh, Obinna; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

2014-10-01

285

Mapping the Small-Scale Structure of Dark Matter Halos with Strong Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of substructure within dark matter halos surrounding galaxies has been an area of intensive study for over a decade. The number of observed low-mass satellites of the Milky Way is about three orders of magnitude lower than what cold dark matter (CDM) simulations predict, an issue that is referred to as the "Missing Satellite Problem". Disagreement between the abundance of dark matter subhalos and the CDM predictions may lead to exciting insights into the micro-physics of dark matter particles. However, measuring the abundance of subhalos, which may be entirely composed of dark matter, requires a purely gravitational probe. I have simulated observations of gravitationally lensed sub-millimeter galaxies, showing that they can be used to detect dark matter subhalos in the lensing galaxies, using the gravitationally-induced distortions that they cause in the images of background sources. I have shown that by measuring the observed surface brightness correlations of lensed images we can detect the power spectrum of low-mass dark matter subhalos with high significance. In this talk, I will give an overview of an observational campaign that I'm leading to use ALMA and a newly discovered population of strongly lensed sub-millimeter galaxies to measure the mass function of dark matter subhalos with unprecedented accuracy.

Hezaveh, Yashar D.

2015-01-01

286

Constraining the minimum luminosity of high redshift galaxies through gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate the effects of gravitational lensing on the source count of high redshift galaxies as projected to be observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields program and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. Taking the mass density profile of the lensing object to be the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) or the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, we model a lens residing at a redshift of zL = 0.5 and explore the radial dependence of the resulting magnification bias and its variability with the velocity dispersion of the lens, the photometric sensitivity of the instrument, the redshift of the background source population, and the intrinsic maximum absolute magnitude (Mmax) of the sources. We find that gravitational lensing enhances the number of galaxies with redshifts zgtrsim 13 detected in the angular region ?E/2 <= ? <= 2?E (where ?E is the Einstein angle) by a factor of ~ 3 and 1.5 in the HUDF (df/d?0 ~ 9 nJy) and medium-deep JWST surveys (df/d?0 ~ 6 nJy). Furthermore, we find that even in cases where a negative magnification bias reduces the observed number count of background sources, the lensing effect improves the sensitivity of the count to the intrinsic faint-magnitude cut-off of the Schechter luminosity function. In a field centered on a strong lensing cluster, observations of zgtrsim 6 and zgtrsim 13 galaxies with JWST can be used to infer this cut-off magnitude for values as faint as Mmax ~ -14.4 and -16.1 mag (Lmin ? 2.5 × 1026 and 1.2 × 1027 erg s-1 Hz-1) respectively, within the range bracketed by existing theoretical models. Gravitational lensing may therefore offer an effective way of constraining the low-luminosity cut-off of high-redshift galaxies.

Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

2013-12-01

287

A New Estimate of the Hubble Time with Improved Modeling of Gravitational Lenses

This paper examines free-form modeling of gravitational lenses using Bayesian ensembles of pixelated mass maps. The priors and algorithms from previous work are clarified and significant technical improvements are made. Lens reconstruction and Hubble Time recovery are tested using mock data from simple analytic models and recent galaxy-formation simulations. Finally, using published data, the Hubble Time is inferred through the simultaneous reconstruction of eleven time-delay lenses. The result is H_0^{-1}=13.7^{+1.8}_{-1.0} Gyr.

Jonathan Coles

2008-02-21

288

Accurate Weak Lensing of Standard Candles, Part 2: Measuring sigma8 with Supernovae

Soon the number of type Ia supernova (SN) measurements should exceed 100,000. Understanding the effect of weak lensing by matter structures on the supernova brightness will then be more important than ever. Although SN lensing is usually seen as a source of systematic noise, we will show that it can be in fact turned into signal. More precisely, the non-Gaussianity introduced by lensing in the SN Hubble diagram dispersion depends rather sensitively on the amplitude sigma8 of the matter power spectrum. By exploiting this relation, we are able to predict constraints on sigma8 of 7% (3%) for a catalog of 100,000 (500,000) SNe of average magnitude error 0.12 without having to assume that such intrinsic dispersion is known a priori. This method is independent of and complementary to the standard methods based on CMB, cosmic shear or cluster abundance observables.

Quartin, Miguel; Amendola, Luca

2014-01-01

289

The generation of gravitational waves. I - Weak-field sources

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives and summarizes a 'plug-in-and-grind' formalism for calculating the gravitational waves emitted by any system with weak internal gravitational fields. If the internal fields have negligible influence on the system's motions, the formalism reduces to standard 'linearized theory'. Independent of the effects of gravity on the motions, the formalism reduces to the standard 'quadrupole-moment formalism' if the motions are slow and internal stresses are weak. In the general case, the formalism expresses the radiation in terms of a retarded Green's function for slightly curved spacetime and breaks the Green's function integral into five easily understood pieces: direct radiation, produced directly by the motions of the source; whump radiation, produced by the 'gravitational stresses' of the source; transition radiation, produced by a time-changing time delay ('Shapiro effect') in the propagation of the nonradiative 1/r field of the source; focusing radiation, produced when one portion of the source focuses, in a time-dependent way, the nonradiative field of another portion of the source; and tail radiation, produced by 'back-scatter' of the nonradiative field in regions of focusing.

Thorne, K. S.; Kovacs, S. J.

1975-01-01

290

Source-position transformation: an approximate invariance in strong gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main obstacle that gravitational lensing has in determining accurate masses of deflectors, or in determining precise estimates for the Hubble constant, is the degeneracy of lensing observables with respect to the mass-sheet transformation (MST). The MST is a global modification of the mass distribution which leaves all image positions, shapes, and flux ratios invariant, but which changes the time delay. Here we show that another global transformation of lensing mass distributions exists which leaves image positions and flux ratios almost invariant, and of which the MST is a special case. As is the case for the MST, this new transformation only applies if one considers only those source components that are at the same distance from us. Whereas for axi-symmetric lenses this source position transformation exactly reproduces all strong lensing observables, it does so only approximately for more general lens situations. We provide crude estimates for the accuracy with which the transformed mass distribution can reproduce the same image positions as the original lens model, and present an illustrative example of its performance. This new invariance transformation is most likely the reason why the same strong lensing information can be accounted for with rather different mass models.

Schneider, Peter; Sluse, Dominique

2014-04-01

291

SDSS J102111.02+491330.4: A Newly discovered gravitationally lensed quasar

We report follow-up observations of two gravitational lens candidates identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) dataset. We have confirmed that SDSS J102111.02+491330.4 is a previously unknown gravitationally lensed quasar. This lens system exhibits two images of a z = 1.72 quasar, with an image separation of 1.14'' {+-} 0.04''. Optical and near-IR imaging of the system reveals the presence of the lensing galaxy between the two quasar images. Observations of SDSS J112012.12+671116.0 indicate that it is more likely a binary quasar than a gravitational lens. This system has two quasars at a redshift of z = 1.49, with an angular separation of 1.49'' {+-} 0.02''. However, the two quasars have markedly different SEDs and no lens galaxy is apparent in optical and near-IR images of this system. We also present a list of 31 SDSS lens candidates which follow-up observations have confirmed are not gravitational lenses.

Pindor, Bart; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Becker, Robert H.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Brasi, Guido; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Miller, Doug; Barentine, J.C.; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Harvanek,; Kleinman, S.J.; Krzesinski, Jurek; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Davis /LLNL, Livermore /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /Tokyo U.

2005-09-01

292

A 7 deg2 survey for galaxy-scale gravitational lenses with the HST imaging archive

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a visual search for galaxy-scale gravitational lenses in ˜7 deg2 of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The data set comprises the whole imaging data ever taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the filter F814W (I-band) up to 2011 August 31, i.e. 6.03 deg2 excluding the field of the Cosmic Evolution Survey which has been the subject of a separate visual search. In addition, we have searched for lenses in the whole Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR imaging data set in all filters (1.01 deg2) up to the same date. Our primary goal is to provide a sample of lenses with a broad range of different morphologies and lens-source brightness contrast in order to estimate a lower limit to the number of galaxy-scale strong lenses in the future Euclid survey in its VIS band. Our criteria to select lenses are purely morphological as we do not use any colour or redshift information. The final candidate selection is very conservative hence leading to a nearly pure but incomplete sample. We find 49 new lens candidates: 40 in the ACS images and 9 in the WFC3 images. Out of these, 16 candidates are secure lenses owing to their striking morphology, 21 more are very good candidates and 12 more have morphologies compatible with gravitational lensing but also compatible with other astrophysical objects such as ring and chain galaxies or mergers. Interestingly, some lens galaxies include low surface brightness galaxies, compact groups and mergers. The imaging data set is heterogeneous in depth and spans a broad range of galactic latitudes. It is therefore insensitive to cosmic variance and allows us to estimate the number of galaxy-scale strong lenses on the sky for a putative survey depth, which is the main result of this work. Because of the incompleteness of the sample, the estimated lensing rates should be taken as lower limits. Using these, we anticipate that a 15 000 deg2 space survey such as Euclid will find at least 60 000 galaxy-scale strong lenses down to a limiting AB magnitude of I = 24.5 (10?) or I = 25.8 (3?).

Pawase, R. S.; Courbin, F.; Faure, C.; Kokotanekova, R.; Meylan, G.

2014-04-01

293

CFHTLenS: testing the laws of gravity with tomographic weak lensing and redshift-space distortions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark energy may be the first sign of new fundamental physics in the Universe, taking either a physical form or revealing a correction to Einsteinian gravity. Weak gravitational lensing and galaxy peculiar velocities provide complementary probes of general relativity, and in combination allow us to test modified theories of gravity in a unique way. We perform such an analysis by combining measurements of cosmic shear tomography from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) with the growth of structure from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and the Six-degree-Field Galaxy Survey, producing the strongest existing joint constraints on the metric potentials that describe general theories of gravity. For scale-independent modifications to the metric potentials which evolve linearly with the effective dark energy density, we find present-day cosmological deviations in the Newtonian potential and curvature potential from the prediction of general relativity to be ??/? = 0.05 ± 0.25 and ??/? = -0.05 ± 0.3, respectively (68 per cent confidence limits).

Simpson, Fergus; Heymans, Catherine; Parkinson, David; Blake, Chris; Kilbinger, Martin; Benjamin, Jonathan; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Coupon, Jean; Fu, Liping; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hudson, Michael J.; Kuijken, Koenraad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Vafaei, Sanaz; Velander, Malin

2013-03-01

294

The influence of galaxy formation physics on weak lensing tests of general relativity

Forthcoming projects such as the Dark Energy Survey, Joint Dark Energy Mission, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, aim to measure weak lensing shear correlations with unprecedented accuracy. Weak lensing observables are sensitive to both the distance-redshift relation and the growth of structure in the Universe. If the cause of accelerated cosmic expansion is dark energy within general relativity, both cosmic distances and structure growth are governed by the properties of dark energy. Consequently, one may use lensing to check for this consistency and test general relativity. After reviewing the phenomenology of such tests, we address a major challenge to such a program. The evolution of the baryonic component of the Universe is highly uncertain and can influence lensing observables, manifesting as modified structure growth for a fixed cosmic distance scale. Using two proposed methods, we show that one could be led to reject the null hypothesis of general relativity when it is the true theory if this uncertainty in baryonic processes is neglected. Recent simulations suggest that we can correct for baryonic effects using a parameterized model in which the halo mass-concentration relation is modified. The correction suffices to render biases small compared to statistical uncertainties. We study the ability of future weak lensing surveys to constrain the internal structures of halos and test the null hypothesis of general relativity simultaneously. Compared to alternative methods which null information from small-scales to mitigate sensitivity to baryonic physics, this internal calibration program should provide limits on deviations from general relativity that are several times more constraining. Specifically, we find that limits on general relativity in the case of internal calibration are degraded by only {approx} 30% or less compared to the case of perfect knowledge of nonlinear structure.

Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R., E-mail: aph15@pitt.edu, E-mail: zentner@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2009-04-15

295

We are conducting a systematic lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z~0.2 using the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes. We summarize initial results from our survey, including a measurement of the inner slope of the mass profile of A383, and a search for gravitationally lensed Extremely Red Objects.

Graham P. Smith

2002-01-15

296

Impact of Dark Matter Substructure on the Matter and Weak Lensing Power Spectra

We explore the effect of substructure in dark matter halos on the power spectrum and bispectrum of matter fluctuations and weak lensing shear. By experimenting with substructure in a cosmological N = 512^3 simulation, we find that when a larger fraction of the host halo mass is in subhalos, the resulting power spectrum has less power at 1 power at k > 100 h Mpc^{-1}. We explain this effect using an analytic halo model including subhalos, which shows that the 1 100 h Mpc^{-1}. The corresponding effect due to substructures on the weak lensing power spectrum is up to about 11% at angular scale l power spectrum to a few percent accuracy for future surveys would therefore require large cosmological simulations that also have exquisite numerical resolution to model accurately the survivals of dark matter subhalos in the tidal fields of their hosts.

Bradley Hagan; Chung-Pei Ma; Andrey V. Kravtsov

2005-07-25

297

On the universality of microlensing in quadruple gravitational lenses

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that multiply imaged quasars are likely to be affected by microlensing. Quadruply imaged systems are especially useful laboratories for studying microlensing because their macrolens models are relatively well constrained. We begin with analytical results for a simple family of galaxy models. These results can be used to estimate the magnifications and time delays for the quadruple systems. We compute expected brightness fluctuations due to microlensing in several such systems for a range of source sizes. Among these we treat for the first time the limiting case of a completely unresolved source. For the case of MG 0414+0534 we interpret the discrepant optical-to-radio flux ratios for the different components as the result of microlensing. On the assumption that the lensing galaxy is roughly isothermal this gives a 95% confidence upper limit on the optical source size of 10(exp 16) cm x (mean value of M)/0.1 solar mass(exp 1/2) where (M) is the average stellar mass of the lensing galaxy. For more centrally concentrated macromodels the upper limit is greater. Sufficiently long strings of photometric observations can in principle constrain the degree of concentration.

Witt, Hans J.; Mao, S.; Schechter, Paul L.

1995-01-01

298

A Large Sky Simulation of the Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background

Large scale structure deflects cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. Since large angular scales in the large scale structure contribute significantly to the gravitational lensing effect, a realistic simulation of CMB lensing requires a sufficiently large sky area. We describe simulations that include these effects, and present both effective and multiple plane ray-tracing versions of the algorithm, which employs spherical harmonic space and does not use the flat sky approximation. We simulate lensed CMB maps with an angular resolution of ~0.9 arcmin. The angular power spectrum of the simulated sky agrees well with analytical predictions. Maps generated in this manner are a useful tool for the analysis and interpretation of upcoming CMB experiments such as PLANCK and ACT.

Sudeep Das; Paul Bode

2008-04-25

299

The Shear Testing Programme 2: Factors affecting high-precision weak-lensing analyses

The Shear Testing Programme (STEP) is a collaborative project to improve the accuracy and reliability of weak-lensing measurement, in preparation for the next generation of wide-field surveys. We review 16 current and emerging shear-measurement methods in a common language, and assess their performance by running them (blindly) on simulated images that contain a known shear signal. We determine the common

Richard Massey; Catherine Heymans; Joel Bergé; Gary Bernstein; Sarah Bridle; Douglas Clowe; Håkon Dahle; Richard Ellis; Thomas Erben; Marco Hetterscheidt; F. William High; Christopher Hirata; Henk Hoekstra; Patrick Hudelot; Mike Jarvis; David Johnston; Konrad Kuijken; Vera Margoniner; Rachel Mandelbaum; Yannick Mellier; Reiko Nakajima; Stephane Paulin-Henriksson; Molly Peeples; Chris Roat; Alexandre Refregier; Jason Rhodes; Tim Schrabback; Mischa Schirmer; Uros Seljak; Elisabetta Semboloni; Ludovic van Waerbeke

2007-01-01

300

We constrain the scalar field dark energy model with an inverse power-law potential, i.e., $V(\\phi)\\propto {\\phi}^{-\\alpha}$ ($\\alpha>0$), from a set of recent cosmological observations by compiling an updated sample of Hubble parameter measurements including 30 independent data points. Our results show that the constraining power of the updated sample of $H(z)$ data with the HST prior on $H_0$ is stronger than those of the SCP Union2 and Union2.1 compilations. A recent sample of strong gravitational lensing systems is also adopted to confine the model even though the results are not significant. A joint analysis of the strong gravitational lensing data with the more restrictive updated Hubble parameter measurements and the Type Ia supernovae data from SCP Union2 indicates that the recent observations still can not distinguish whether dark energy is a time-independent cosmological constant or a time-varying dynamical component.

Yun Chen; Chao-Qiang Geng; Shuo Cao; Yu-Mei Huang; Zong-Hong Zhu

2015-01-18

301

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constrain the scalar field dark energy model with an inverse power-law potential, i.e., V(phi) propto phi?? (? > 0), from a set of recent cosmological observations by compiling an updated sample of Hubble parameter measurements including 30 independent data points. Our results show that the constraining power of the updated sample of H(z) data with the HST prior on H0 is stronger than those of the SCP Union2 and Union2.1 compilations. A recent sample of strong gravitational lensing systems is also adopted to confine the model even though the results are not significant. A joint analysis of the strong gravitational lensing data with the more restrictive updated Hubble parameter measurements and the Type Ia supernovae data from SCP Union2 indicates that the recent observations still can not distinguish whether dark energy is a time-independent cosmological constant or a time-varying dynamical component.

Chen, Yun; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Cao, Shuo; Huang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Zong-Hong

2015-02-01

302

The snapshot survey - A search for gravitationally lensed quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first results from the HST Non-Proprietary Snapshot Survey are presented in order to investigate new examples of multiply imaged quasars that are the result of gravitational lensing. None of the approximately 30 quasars observed at high spatial resolution show evidence of multiple imaging by gravitational lensing. These results are compared with lower resolution ground-based surveys and current theoretical predictions. Several engineering problems in the observatory's performance are addressed. It particular, the large telescope pointing errors and drift rates are found to be primarily the result of the lack of correction for stellar aberration when pointing and tracking are performed solely with gyroscopes. The implications for the possibly low intrinsic gyro drift rate on future observations are discussed.

Bahcall, J. N.; Maoz, D.; Doxsey, R.; Schneider, D. P.; Bahcall, N. A.; Lahav, O.; Yanny, B.

1992-01-01

303

MEASURING PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY THROUGH WEAK-LENSING PEAK COUNTS

We explore the possibility of detecting primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type using weak-lensing peak counts. We measure the peak abundance in sets of simulated weak-lensing maps corresponding to three models f{sub NL} = 0, - 100, and 100. Using survey specifications similar to those of EUCLID and without assuming any knowledge of the lens and source redshifts, we find the peak functions of the non-Gaussian models with f{sub NL} = {+-}100 to differ by up to 15% from the Gaussian peak function at the high-mass end. For the assumed survey parameters, the probability of fitting an f{sub NL} = 0 peak function to the f{sub NL} = {+-}100 peak functions is less than 0.1%. Assuming the other cosmological parameters are known, f{sub NL} can be measured with an error {Delta}f{sub NL} {approx} 13. It is therefore possible that future weak-lensing surveys like EUCLID and LSST may detect primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of peak counts, and provide information complementary to that obtained from the cosmic microwave background.

Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: lmarian@astro.uni-bonn.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Zuerich, CH 8057 (Switzerland)

2011-02-10

304

Weak lensing leads to the non-Gaussian magnification distribution of standard candles at given redshift $z$, $p(\\mu|z)$. In this paper, we give accurate and simple empirical fitting formulae of the weak lensing numerical simulation results with the generalized Dyer-Roeder prescription. The smoothness parameter $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ essentially represents the amount of matter that can cause magnification of a given source. Since matter distribution in our universe is inhomogeneous, we can think of our universe as a mosaic of cones centered on the observer, each with a different value of $\\tilde{\\alpha}$. We define the {\\it direction dependent} smoothness parameter $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ via the Dyer-Roeder equation; there is a unique mapping between $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ and the magnification of a source. We find that the distribution of $\\tilde{\\alpha}$ at given $z$, $p(\\tilde{\\alpha}|z)$, is well described by a modified Gaussian distribution. For the same matter distribution, i.e., the same $p(\\tilde{\\alpha}|z)$, different values of $\\Omega_m$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}$ can lead to very different magnification distributions. Our formulae can be conveniently used to calculate the weak lensing effects for observed Type Ia supernovae at arbitrary redshifts.

Yun Wang

1999-06-25

305

We present a newly developed code that allows simulations of optical observations of galaxy fields with a variety of instruments. The code incorporates gravitational lensing effects and is targetted at simulating lensing by galaxy clusters. Our goal is to create the tools required for comparing theoretical expectations with observations to obtain a better understanding of how observational noise affects lensing applications such as mass estimates, studies on the internal properties of galaxy clusters and arc statistics. Starting from a set of input parameters, characterizing both the instruments and the observational conditions, the simulator provides a virtual observation of a patch of the sky. It includes several sources of noise such as photon-noise, sky background, seeing, and instrumental noise. Ray-tracing through simulated mass distributions accounts for gravitational lensing. Source morphologies are realistically simulated based on shapelet decompositions of galaxy images retrieved from the GOODS-ACS archive. According to their morphological class, spectral-energy-distributions are assigned to the source galaxies in order to reproduce observations of each galaxy in arbitrary photometric bands. We illustrate our techniques showing virtual observations of a galaxy-cluster core as it would be observed with the space telescope DUNE, which was recently proposed to ESA within its "Cosmic vision" programme. (Abridged)

Massimo Meneghetti; Peter Melchior; Andrea Grazian; Gabriella De Lucia; Klaus Dolag; Matthias Bartelmann; Catherine Heymans; Lauro Moscardini; Mario Radovich

2007-11-21

306

The time delay in strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction

The time delay between two relativistic images in the strong gravitational lensing governed by Gauss-Bonnet gravity is studied. We derive and calculate the expression of time delay due to the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. It is shown that the time delay for two images with larger space each other is longer. We also find that the ratio of Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and the mass of gravitational source changes in the region like $\\frac{\\alpha}{M}\\in[0,2)$. The time delay is divergent with $\\frac{\\alpha}{M}\\longrightarrow 2$.

Jingyun Man; Hongbo Cheng

2014-09-13

307

Time Delay in Gravitational Lensing by a Charged Black Hole of String Theory

We calculate the time delay between different relativistic images formed by the gravitational lensing produced by the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Stromiger (GMGHS) charged black hole of heterotic string theory. Modeling the supermassive central objects of some galaxies as GMGHS black holes, numerical values of the time delays are estimated and compared with the correspondient Reissner-Nordstrom black holes . The time difference amounts to hours, thus being measurable and permiting to distinguish between General Relativity and String Theory charged black holes.

Alexis Larranaga

2007-07-16

308

The strong field gravitational lensing in the Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string

In this work the gravitational lensing in the strong field limit around the Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string is studied. We find the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images depending on the tension of cosmic string. It is interesting that the angular separation $s$ increases and the relative magnification $r$ decreases when the tension of string is greater. It is also interesting that the deflection angle is greater when the tension of cosmic string is stronger.

Hongbo Cheng; Huawen Wang; Jingyun Man

2010-10-12

309

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of thesis is to help scientists resolve one of the great mysteries of our time: the nature of Dark Matter. Dark Matter is currently believed to make up over 80% of the material in our universe, yet we have so far inferred but a few of its basic properties. Here we study the Dark Matter surrounding a galaxy cluster, Abell 1689, via the most direct method currently available--gravitational lensing. Abell 1689 is a "strong" gravitational lens, meaning it produces multiple images of more distant galaxies. The observed positions of these images can be measured very precisely and act as a blueprint allowing us to reconstruct the Dark Matter distribution of the lens. Until now, such mass models of Abell 1689 have reproduced the observed multiple images well but with significant positional offsets. Using a new method we develop here, we obtain a new mass model which perfectly reproduces the observed positions of 168 knots identified within 135 multiple images of 42 galaxies. An important ingredient to our mass model is the accurate measurement of distances to the lensed galaxies via their photometric redshifts. Here we develop tools which improve the accuracy of these measurements based on our study of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the only image yet taken to comparable depth as the magnified regions of Abell 1689. We present results both for objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and for galaxies gravitationally lensed by Abell 1689. As part of this thesis, we also provide reviews of Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing, including a chapter devoted to the mass profiles of Dark Matter halos realized in simulations. The original work presented here was performed primarily by myself under the guidance of Narciso Benítez and Holland Ford as a member of the Advanced Camera for Surveys GTO Science Team at Johns Hopkins University and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucfa. My advisors served on my thesis committee along with Rick White, Gabor Domokos, and Steve Zelditch.

Coe, Daniel Aaron

310

Gravitational lensing provides a unique and powerful probe of the mass\\u000adistributions of distant galaxies. Four-image lens systems with fold and cusp\\u000aconfigurations have two or three bright images near a critical point. Within\\u000athe framework of singularity theory, we derive analytic relations that are\\u000asatisfied for a light source that lies a small but finite distance from the\\u000aastroid

Arthur B. Congdon; Charles R. Keeton; C. Erik Nordgren

2008-01-01

311

Cosmological constraints from strong gravitational lensing in clusters of galaxies.

Current efforts in observational cosmology are focused on characterizing the mass-energy content of the universe. We present results from a geometric test based on strong lensing in galaxy clusters. Based on Hubble Space Telescope images and extensive ground-based spectroscopic follow-up of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, we used a parametric model to simultaneously constrain the cluster mass distribution and dark energy equation of state. Combining our cosmological constraints with those from x-ray clusters and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year data gives Omega(m) = 0.25 +/- 0.05 and w(x) = -0.97 +/- 0.07, which are consistent with results from other methods. Inclusion of our method with all other available techniques brings down the current 2sigma contours on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w(x) by approximately 30%. PMID:20724628

Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul; D'Aloisio, Anson; Limousin, Marceau; Richard, Johan; Schimd, Carlo

2010-08-20

312

First evidence of a gravitational lensing-induced echo in gamma rays with Fermi LAT

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This article shows the first evidence ever of gravitational lensing phenomena in high energy gamma-rays. This evidence comes from the observation of an echo in the light curve of the distant blazar PKS 1830-211 induced by a gravitational lens system. Methods: Traditional methods for estimating time delays in gravitational lensing systems rely on the cross-correlation of the light curves from individual images. We used the 300 MeV-30 GeV photons detected by the Fermi-LAT instrument. It cannot separate the images of known lenses, so the observed light curve is the superposition of individual image light curves. The Fermi-LAT instrument has the advantage of providing long, evenly spaced, time series with very low photon noise. This allows us to use Fourier transform methods directly. Results: A time delay between the two compact images of PKS 1830-211 has been searched for by both the autocorrelation method and the "double power spectrum" method. The double power spectrum shows a 4.2? proof of a time delay of 27.1 ± 0.6 days, consistent with others' results.

Barnacka, A.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Moudden, Y.

2011-04-01

313

A further discussion on quasar-galaxy associations from gravitational lensing

Quasar-galaxy associations, if they result from the effect of gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies, depend sensitively on the shape of the quasar number counts. Two kinds of quasar number-magnitude relations are predicted to produce quite different properties in quasar-galaxy associations: the counts of Boyle, Shanks and Peterson (1988; BSP) provide both positive and ``negative" associations between distant quasars and foreground galaxies, relating closely with the knee ($B\\approx19.15$) in these counts. However, Hawkins and V\\'eron (1993; HV) quasar data lead to only a positive magnitude-independent quasar-galaxy association. The current observational evidence on quasar-galaxy associations, either positive or null, is shown to be the natural result of gravitational lensing if quasars follow the BSP number-magnitude relation. On the other hand, the HV counts are unable to produce the reported associations by the mechanism of gravitational lensing. It is emphasized that special attention should be paid to the limiting magnitudes in the selected quasar samples when one works on quasar-galaxy associations.

Xiang-Ping Wu

1993-12-24

314

A NEW APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING THE MOST POWERFUL GRAVITATIONAL LENSING TELESCOPES

The best gravitational lenses for detecting distant galaxies are those with the largest mass concentrations and the most advantageous configurations of that mass along the line of sight. Our new method for finding such gravitational telescopes uses optical data to identify projected concentrations of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). LRGs are biased tracers of the underlying mass distribution, so lines of sight with the highest total luminosity in LRGs are likely to contain the largest total mass. We apply this selection technique to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and identify the 200 fields with the highest total LRG luminosities projected within a 3.'5 radius over the redshift range 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 0.7. The redshift and angular distributions of LRGs in these fields trace the concentrations of non-LRG galaxies. These fields are diverse; 22.5% contain one known galaxy cluster and 56.0% contain multiple known clusters previously identified in the literature. Thus, our results confirm that these LRGs trace massive structures and that our selection technique identifies fields with large total masses. These fields contain two to three times higher total LRG luminosities than most known strong-lensing clusters and will be among the best gravitational lensing fields for the purpose of detecting the highest redshift galaxies.

Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Keeton, Charles R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2013-05-20

315

SDSS J133401.39+331534.3: A NEW SUBARCSECOND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR

The quasar SDSS J133401.39+331534.3 at z = 2.426 is found to be a two-image gravitationally lensed quasar with an image separation of 0.''833. The object is first identified as a lensed quasar candidate in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search, and then confirmed as a lensed system from follow-up observations at the Subaru and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes. We estimate the redshift of the lensing galaxy to be 0.557 based on absorption lines in the quasar spectra as well as the color of the galaxy. In particular, we observe the system with the Subaru Telescope AO188 adaptive optics with a laser guide star, in order to derive accurate astrometry, which well demonstrates the usefulness of the laser guide star adaptive optics imaging for studying strong lens systems. Our mass modeling with improved astrometry implies that a nearby bright galaxy {approx}4'' apart from the lensing galaxy is likely to affect the lens potential.

Rusu, Cristian E.; Iye, Masanori [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oguri, Masamune [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Inada, Naohisa [Department of Physics, Nara National College of Technology, Yamatokohriyama, Nara 639-1080 (Japan); Kayo, Issha [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Hayano, Yutaka; Oya, Shin; Hattori, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Minowa, Yosuke; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Terada, Hiroshi; Takami, Hideki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

2011-09-01

316

We take advantage of the magnification in size and flux of a galaxy provided by gravitational lensing to analyze the properties of 62 strongly lensed galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. The sample of lensed galaxies spans a redshift range of 0.20 ? z ? 1.20 with a median redshift of z = 0.61. We use the lens modeling code LENSFIT to derive the luminosities, sizes, and Sérsic indices of the lensed galaxies. The measured properties of the lensed galaxies show a primarily compact, {sup d}isk{sup -}like population with the peaks of the size and Sérsic index distributions corresponding to ?1.50 kpc and n ? 1, respectively. Comparison of the SLACS galaxies to a non-lensing, broadband imaging survey shows that a lensing survey allows us to probe a galaxy population that reaches ?2 mag fainter. Our analysis allows us to compare the (z) = 0.61 disk galaxy sample (n ? 2.5) to an unprecedented local galaxy sample of ?670, 000 SDSS galaxies at z ? 0.1; this analysis indicates that the evolution of the luminosity-size relation since z ? 1 may not be fully explained by a pure-size or pure-luminosity evolution but may instead require a combination of both. Our observations are also in agreement with recent numerical simulations of disk galaxies that show evidence of a mass-dependent evolution since z ? 1, where high-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} > 10{sup 9} M{sub ?}) evolve more in size and low-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} ? 10{sup 9} M{sub ?}) evolve more in luminosity.

Bandara, Kaushala; Crampton, David; Peng, Chien; Simard, Luc [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2013-11-01

317

Statistical evidence for extinction in gravitational lenses: Is the Universe old and dusty?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreground galaxies that amplify the light from background quasars may also dim that light if the galaxies contain enough dust. This reduced optical flux can cause dusty lens systems to be missed by optical lensing searches, but will not affect radio searches. Thus, if dust occurs frequently in lenses, we expect radio-selected lens systems to be redder on average than optical-selected ones. We apply this test using optical-infrared colors of a large set of lens systems, compiled from Apache Point Observatory data and the literature. We find that radio-selected systems are indeed redder than optical-selected ones. We then compare the colors of the lensed samples to those of unlensed quasars from the literature, and find that radio-selected lensed systems are also redder than radio-selected unlensed quasars. This argues that at least part of the color difference between the two lens samples is due to dust. Extinction by dust in lenses could hide the large number of lensed systems predicted for a flat universe with a large value of the cosmological constant Lambda . Thus, the results presented here weaken the best constraint on cosmological scenarios with Lambda > 0. Such scenarios allow the universe to be older than its apparent expansion age 1/H_0. A nonzero Lambda can also satisfy predictions of inflationary models of the early universe and play a role in large scale structure formation models. Finally, we consider the use of gravitational lenses to study the interstellar medium at cosmological distances, and outline further ways of testing the dusty lens hypothesis to see if the Universe might be old and dusty.

Rhoads, J. E.; Malhotra, S.; Turner, E. L.

1996-12-01

318

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use weak gravitational lensing to measure the masses of five galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with the primary goal of comparing these with the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray-based mass estimates. The clusters span redshifts 0.28 < z < 0.43 and have masses M 500 > 2 × 1014 h -1 M ?, and three of the five clusters were discovered by the SPT survey. We observed the clusters in the g'r'i' passbands with the Megacam imager on the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. We measure a mean ratio of weak-lensing (WL) aperture masses to inferred aperture masses from the SZ data, both within an aperture of R 500, SZ derived from the SZ mass, of 1.04 ± 0.18. We measure a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R 500, SZ to spherical SZ masses of 1.07 ± 0.18, and a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R 500, WL to spherical SZ masses of 1.10 ± 0.24. We explore potential sources of systematic error in the mass comparisons and conclude that all are subdominant to the statistical uncertainty, with dominant terms being cluster concentration uncertainty and N-body simulation calibration bias. Expanding the sample of SPT clusters with WL observations has the potential to significantly improve the SPT cluster mass calibration and the resulting cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster survey. These are the first WL detections using Megacam on the Magellan Clay telescope.

High, F. W.; Hoekstra, H.; Leethochawalit, N.; de Haan, T.; Abramson, L.; Aird, K. A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Bazin, G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Conroy, M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Murray, S. S.; Natoli, T.; Nurgaliev, D.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Stubbs, C. W.; Šuhada, R.; Tokarz, S.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

2012-10-01

319

We use weak gravitational lensing to measure the masses of five galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with the primary goal of comparing these with the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray-based mass estimates. The clusters span redshifts 0.28 < z < 0.43 and have masses M{sub 500} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }, and three of the five clusters were discovered by the SPT survey. We observed the clusters in the g'r'i' passbands with the Megacam imager on the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. We measure a mean ratio of weak-lensing (WL) aperture masses to inferred aperture masses from the SZ data, both within an aperture of R{sub 500,SZ} derived from the SZ mass, of 1.04 {+-} 0.18. We measure a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R{sub 500,SZ} to spherical SZ masses of 1.07 {+-} 0.18, and a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R{sub 500,WL} to spherical SZ masses of 1.10 {+-} 0.24. We explore potential sources of systematic error in the mass comparisons and conclude that all are subdominant to the statistical uncertainty, with dominant terms being cluster concentration uncertainty and N-body simulation calibration bias. Expanding the sample of SPT clusters with WL observations has the potential to significantly improve the SPT cluster mass calibration and the resulting cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster survey. These are the first WL detections using Megacam on the Magellan Clay telescope.

High, F. W.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Leethochawalit, N. [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Abramson, L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Conroy, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bazin, G. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: fwhigh@kicp.uchicago.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

2012-10-10

320

We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0? and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3?. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics. PMID:24745402

Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

2014-04-01

321

Gravitational lensing effects of vacuum strings - Exact solutions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exact interior and exterior solutions to Einstein's field equations are derived for vacuum strings. The exterior solution for a uniform density vacuum string corresponds to a conical space while the interior solution is that of a spherical cap. For Mu equals 0-1/4 the external metric is ds-squared = -dt-squared + dr-squared + (1-4 Mu)-squared r-squared dphi-squared + dz-squared, where Mu is the mass per unit length in the string in Planck masses per Planck length. A maximum mass per unit length for a string is 6.73 x 10 to the 27th g/cm. It is shown that strings cause temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and produce equal brightness double QSO images separated by up to several minutes of arc. Formulae for lensing probabilities, image splittings, and time delays are derived for strings in a realistic cosmological setting. String searches using ST, the VLA, and the COBE satellite are discussed.

Gott, J. R., III

1985-01-01

322

Constraints on Omega_m and sigma_8 from weak lensing in RCS fields

We have analysed 53 square degrees of imaging data from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS), and measured the excess correlations in the shapes of galaxies on scales out to ~1.5 degrees. We separate the signal into an ``E''- (lensing) and ``B''-mode (systematics), which allows us to study residual systematics. On scales larger than 10 arcminutes, we find no ``B''-mode. On smaller scales we find a small, but significant ``B''-mode. This signal is also present when we select a sample of bright galaxies. These galaxies are rather insensitive to observational distortions, and we therefore conclude that the oberved ``B''-mode is likely to be caused by intrinsic alignments. We therefore limit the cosmic shear analysis to galaxies with 220.1+0.16\\Omega_m$ (95% confidence). Comparison of the RCS results with three other recent cosmic shear measurements shows excellent agreement. The current weak lensing results are also in good agreement with CMB measurements, when we allow the reionization optical depth tau and the spectral index n_s to vary. We present a simple demonstration of how the weak lensing results can be used as a prior in the parameter estimation from CMB measurements to derive constraints on the reionization optical depth tau. (abridged)

Henk Hoekstra; Howard Yee; Mike Gladders

2002-06-03

323

The standard cosmology is based on general relativity (GR) and includes dark matter and dark energy and predicts a fixed relationship between the gravitational potentials responsible for gravitational lensing and the matter overdensity. Alternative theories of gravity often make different predictions. We propose a set of measurements which can test this relationship, thereby distinguishing between dark energy or matter models

Pengjie Zhang; Michele Liguori; Rachel Bean; Scott Dodelson

2007-01-01

324

Impact of Baryonic Processes on Weak Lensing Cosmology: Higher-Order Statistics and Parameter Bias

We study the impact of baryonic physics on cosmological parameter estimation with weak lensing surveys. We run a set of cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with different galaxy formation models. We then perform ray-tracing simulations through the total matter density field to generate 100 independent convergence maps of 25 deg$^2$ field-of-view, and use them to examine the ability of the following three lensing statistics as cosmological probes; power spectrum, peak counts, and Minkowski Functionals. For the upcoming wide-field observations such as Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey with a sky coverage of 1400 deg$^2$, the higher-order statistics provide tight constraints on the matter density, density fluctuation amplitude, and dark energy equation of state, but appreciable parameter bias is induced by the baryonic processes such as gas cooling and stellar feedback. When we use power spectrum, peak counts, and Minkowski Functionals, the relative bias in the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$ ...

Osato, Ken; Yoshida, Naoki

2015-01-01

325

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of galaxy intrinsic clustering severely hampers the weak lensing reconstruction from cosmic magnification. In Paper I, we proposed a minimal variance estimator to overcome this problem. By utilizing the different dependences of cosmic magnification and galaxy intrinsic clustering on galaxy flux, we demonstrated that the otherwise overwhelming galaxy intrinsic clustering can be significantly suppressed such that lensing maps can be reconstructed with promising accuracy. This procedure relies heavily on the accuracy of determining the galaxy bias from the same data. Paper I adopts an iterative approach, which degrades towards high redshift. The current paper presents an alternative method, improving over Paper I. We prove that the measured galaxy clustering between flux bins allows for simultaneous determination of the lensing power spectrum and the flux dependence of galaxy bias, at this redshift bin. Compared to Paper I, the new approach is not only more straightforward but also more robust. It identifies an ambiguity in determining the galaxy bias and further discovers a mathematically robust way to suppress this ambiguity to negligible level (˜0.1 per cent). The accurately determined galaxy bias can then be applied to the minimal variance estimator proposed in Paper I to improve the lensing map-making. The gain at high redshift is significant. These maps can be used to measure other statistics, such as cluster finding and peak statistics. Furthermore, by including galaxy clustering measurement between different redshift bins, we can also determine the lensing cross power spectrum between these bins, up to a small and correctable multiplicative factor (˜0.2-1 per cent for different redshift bin couples).

Yang, Xinjuan; Zhang, Pengjie; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Yu

2015-02-01

326

Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galaxy Groups from Weak Lensing

We present the findings of our weak lensing study of a sample of 116 CNOC2 galaxy groups. The lensing signal is used to estimate the mass-to-light ratio of these galaxy groups. The best fit isothermal sphere model to our lensing data has an Einstein radius of 0.88"+/-0.12", which corresponds to a shear-weighted velocity dispersion of 245+/-18 km/s. The mean mass-to-light ratio within 1 h^-1 Mpc is 185+/-28 h times solar in the B-band and is independent of radius from the group center. The signal-to-noise ratio of the shear measurement is sufficient to split the sample into subsets of "poor" and "rich" galaxy groups. The poor galaxy groups were found to have an average velocity dispersion of 193+/-38 km/s and a mass-to-light ratio of 134+/-26 h times solar in the B-band, while the rich galaxy groups have a velocity dispersion of 270+/-39 km/s and a mass-to-light ratio of 278+/-42 h times solar in the B-band, similar to the mass-to-light ratio of clusters. This steep increase in the mass-to-light ratio as a function of mass, suggests that the mass scale of ~10^13 solar masses is where the transition between the actively star-forming field environment and the passively-evolving cluster environment occurs. This is the first such detection from weak lensing.

Laura C. Parker; Michael J. Hudson; Ray G. Carlberg; Henk Hoekstra

2005-08-15

327

STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING BY THE SUPER-MASSIVE cD GALAXY IN ABELL 3827

We have discovered strong gravitational lensing features in the core of the nearby cluster Abell 3827 by analyzing Gemini South GMOS images. The most prominent strong lensing feature is a highly magnified, ring-shaped configuration of four images around the central cD galaxy. GMOS spectroscopic analysis puts this source at z {approx} 0.2. Located {approx}20'' away from the central galaxy is a secondary tangential arc feature which has been identified as a background galaxy with z {approx} 0.4. We have modeled the gravitational potential of the cluster core, taking into account the mass from the cluster, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and other galaxies. We derive a total mass of (2.7 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup 13} M {sub sun} within 37 h {sup -1} kpc. This mass is an order of magnitude larger than that derived from X-ray observations. The total mass derived from lensing data suggests that the BCG in this cluster is perhaps the most massive galaxy in the nearby universe.

Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P. L.; Lee, H.; Diaz, R.; Bergmann, M.; Turner, J. E. H.; Miller, B. W.; West, M. J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Verdugo, T. [Departamento de FIsica y Astronomia, Universidad de ValparaIso, Avenida Gran Bretana 1111, ValparaIso (Chile)

2010-06-01

328

Gravitational lensing as signal and noise in Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements

In Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements it is generally assumed that quasars are mere background light sources which are uncorrelated with the forest. Gravitational lensing of the quasars violates this assumption. This effect leads to a measurement bias, but more interestingly it provides a valuable signal. The lensing signal can be extracted by correlating quasar magnitudes with the flux-power spectrum and with the flux decrement. These correlations will be challenging to measure but their detection provides a direct measure of how features in the Lyman-{alpha} forest trace the underlying mass density field. Observing them will test the fundamental hypothesis that fluctuations in the forest are predominantly driven by fluctuations in mass, rather than in the ionizing background, helium reionization, or winds. We discuss ways to disentangle the lensing signal from other sources of such correlations, including dust, continuum, and background residuals. The lensing-induced measurement bias arises from sample selection: one preferentially collects spectra of magnified quasars which are behind overdense regions. This measurement bias is {approx}0.1-1% for the flux-power spectrum, optical depth, and the flux probability distribution. Since the effect is systematic, quantities such as the amplitude of the flux-power spectrum averaged across scales should be interpreted with care.

LoVerde, Marilena [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); ISCAP and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Marnerides, Stefanos [ISCAP and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hui, Lam [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); ISCAP and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); CCPP and Department of Physics, New York University, New York 10003 (United States); Menard, Brice [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lidz, Adam [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-11-15

329

Probing the inner kpc of massive galaxies with strong gravitational lensing

We examine the prospects of detecting demagnified images of gravitational lenses in observations of strongly lensed mm-wave molecular emission lines with ALMA. We model the lensing galaxies as a superposition of a dark matter component, a stellar component, and a central supermassive black hole and assess the detectability of the central images for a range of relevant parameters (e.g., stellar core, black hole mass, and source size). We find that over a large range of plausible parameters, future deep observations of lensed molecular lines with ALMA should enable detection of the central images at $\\gtrsim 3\\sigma$ significance. We use a Fisher analysis to examine the constraints that could be placed on these parameters in various scenarios and find that for large stellar cores, both the core size and the mass of the central SMBHs can be accurately measured. We also study the prospects for detecting binary SMBHs with such observations and find that only under rare conditions and with very long integrations ($...

Hezaveh, Yashar D; Blandford, Roger D

2015-01-01

330

Probing the Inner Kiloparsec of Massive Galaxies With Strong Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the prospects of detecting demagnified images of gravitational lenses in observations of strongly lensed millimeter-wave molecular emission lines with ALMA. We model the lensing galaxies as a superposition of a dark matter component, a stellar component, and a central super-massive black hole (SMBH) and assess the detectability of the central images for a range of relevant parameters (e.g., stellar core, black hole mass, and source size). We find that over a large range of plausible parameters, future deep observations of lensed molecular lines with ALMA should enable the detection of the central images at ? 3? significance. We use a Fisher analysis to examine the constraints that could be placed on these parameters in various scenarios and find that for large stellar cores, both the core size and the mass of the central SMBHs can be accurately measured. We also study the prospects for detecting binary SMBHs with such observations and find that only under rare conditions and with very long integrations (˜40 hr) the masses of both SMBHs may be measured using the distortions of central images.

Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Marshall, Philip J.; Blandford, Roger D.

2015-02-01

331

NOISY WEAK-LENSING CONVERGENCE PEAK STATISTICS NEAR CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND BEYOND

Taking into account noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, in this paper, we study the peak statistics in weak-lensing convergence maps around clusters of galaxies and beyond. We emphasize how the noise peak statistics is affected by the density distribution of nearby clusters, and also how cluster-peak signals are changed by the existence of noise. These are the important aspects to be thoroughly understood in weak-lensing analyses for individual clusters as well as in cosmological applications of weak-lensing cluster statistics. We adopt Gaussian smoothing with the smoothing scale {theta} {sub G} = 0.5arcmin in our analyses. It is found that the noise peak distribution near a cluster of galaxies sensitively depends on the density profile of the cluster. For a cored isothermal cluster with the core radius R{sub c} , the inner region with R {<=} R{sub c} appears noisy containing on average {approx}2.4 peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 for R{sub c} = 1.7arcmin and the true peak height of the cluster {nu} = 5.6, where {nu} denotes the convergence signal-to-noise ratio. For a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster of the same mass and the same central {nu}, the average number of peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 within R {<=} R{sub c} is {approx}1.6. Thus a high peak corresponding to the main cluster can be identified more cleanly in the NFW case. In the outer region with R{sub c} < R {<=} 5R{sub c} , the number of high noise peaks is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure noise case without the nearby cluster. For {nu} {>=} 4, depending on the treatment of the mass-sheet degeneracy in weak-lensing analyses, the enhancement factor f is in the range of {approx}5 to {approx}55 for both clusters as their outer density profiles are similar. The properties of the main-cluster-peak identified in convergence maps are also significantly affected by the presence of noise. Scatters as well as a systematic shift for the peak height are present. The height distribution is peaked at {nu} {approx} 6.6, rather than at {nu} = 5.6, corresponding to a shift of {Delta}{nu} {approx} 1, for the isothermal cluster. For the NFW cluster, {Delta}{nu} {approx} 0.8. The existence of noise also causes a location offset for the weak-lensing identified main-cluster-peak with respect to the true center of the cluster. The offset distribution is very broad and extends to R {approx} R{sub c} for the isothermal case. For the NFW cluster, it is relatively narrow and peaked at R {approx} 0.2R{sub c} . We also analyze NFW clusters of different concentrations. It is found that the more centrally concentrated the mass distribution of a cluster is, the less its weak-lensing signal is affected by noise. Incorporating these important effects and the mass function of NFW dark matter halos, we further present a model calculating the statistical abundances of total convergence peaks, true and false ones, over a large field beyond individual clusters. The results are in good agreement with those from numerical simulations. The model then allows us to probe cosmologies with the convergence peaks directly without the need of expensive follow-up observations to differentiate true and false peaks.

Fan Zuhui; Shan Huanyuan; Liu Jiayi, E-mail: fan@bac.pku.edu.c [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-08-20

332

Spurious shear in weak lensing with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete 10-yr survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image ˜20 000 deg2 of the sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r ˜ 27.5, with over four billion well-measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high-fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterize the atmospheric point spread function due to its high-frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than ˜10 arcmin in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10-4-10-3 level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch data set that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

Chang, C.; Kahn, S. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Peterson, J. R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M. A.; Jee, M. J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P. J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Peng, E.; Rasmussen, A. P.; Shmakova, M.; Sylvestre, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

2013-01-01

333

An optimal survey geometry of weak lensing survey: minimizing supersample covariance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upcoming wide-area weak lensing surveys are expensive both in time and cost and require an optimal survey design in order to attain maximum scientific returns from a fixed amount of available telescope time. The supersample covariance (SSC), which arises from unobservable modes that are larger than the survey size, significantly degrades the statistical precision of weak lensing power spectrum measurement even for a wide-area survey. Using the 1000 mock realizations of the lognormal model, which approximates the weak lensing field for a ?-dominated cold dark matter model, we study an optimal survey geometry to minimize the impact of SSC contamination. For a continuous survey geometry with a fixed survey area, a more elongated geometry such as a rectangular shape of 1:400 side length ratio reduces the SSC effect and allows for a factor of 2 improvement in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of power spectrum measurement up to ?max ? a few 103, compared to compact geometries such as squares or circles. When we allow the survey geometry to be disconnected but with a fixed total area, assuming 1 × 1 deg2 patches as the fundamental building blocks of survey footprints, the best strategy is to locate the patches with ˜15 deg separation. This separation angle corresponds to the scale at which the two-point correlation function has a negative minimum. The best configuration allows for a factor of 100 gain in the effective area coverage as well as a factor of 2.5 improvement in the S/N at high multipoles, yielding a much wider coverage of multipoles than in the compact geometry.

Takahashi, Ryuichi; Soma, Shunji; Takada, Masahiro; Kayo, Issha

2014-11-01

334

Accurate weak lensing of standard candles. II. Measuring ?8 with supernovae

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon the number of type Ia supernova (SN) measurements should exceed 100 000. Understanding the effect of weak lensing by matter structures on the supernova brightness will then be more important than ever. Although SN lensing is usually seen as a source of systematic noise, we will show that it can be in fact turned into signal. More precisely, the non-Gaussianity introduced by lensing in the SN Hubble diagram dispersion depends rather sensitively on the amplitude ?8 of the matter power spectrum. By exploiting this relation, we are able to predict constraints on ?8 of 7% (3%) for a catalog of 100 000 (500 000) SNe of average magnitude error 0.12, without having to assume that such intrinsic dispersion and its redshift evolution are known a priori. The intrinsic dispersion has been assumed to be Gaussian; possible intrinsic non-Gaussianities in the data set (due to the SN themselves and/or to other transients) could be potentially dealt with by means of additional nuisance parameters describing higher moments of the intrinsic dispersion distribution function. This method is independent of and complementary to the standard methods based on cosmic microwave background, cosmic shear, or cluster abundance observables.

Quartin, Miguel; Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca

2014-01-01

335

Accurate Weak Lensing of Standard Candles. II. Measuring sigma8 with Supernovae

Soon the number of type Ia supernova (SN) measurements should exceed 100,000. Understanding the effect of weak lensing by matter structures on the supernova brightness will then be more important than ever. Although SN lensing is usually seen as a source of systematic noise, we will show that it can be in fact turned into signal. More precisely, the non-Gaussianity introduced by lensing in the SN Hubble diagram dispersion depends rather sensitively on the amplitude sigma8 of the matter power spectrum. By exploiting this relation, we are able to predict constraints on sigma8 of 7% (3%) for a catalog of 100,000 (500,000) SNe of average magnitude error 0.12 without having to assume that such intrinsic dispersion is known a priori. The intrinsic dispersion has been assumed to be Gaussian; possible intrinsic non-Gaussianities in the dataset (due to the SN themselves and/or to other transients) could be potentially dealt with by means of additional nuisance parameters describing higher moments of the intrinsic dispersion distribution function. This method is independent of and complementary to the standard methods based on CMB, cosmic shear or cluster abundance observables.

Miguel Quartin; Valerio Marra; Luca Amendola

2014-01-10

336

[ABRIDGED] We present results from an HST lensing analysis of the complete Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) cluster sample. We identify various new multiple-images previously undiscovered, allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. The analysis is performed in two different common parameterizations (one adopts light-traces-mass for both galaxies and dark matter while the other adopts an analytical, elliptical NFW form for the dark matter), to provide a better assessment of the underlying systematics - which is most important for deep lensing surveys such as CLASH and the Hubble Frontier Fields, especially when studying high-redshift magnified objects. We find that the typical (median), relative systematic differences throughout the central FOV are $\\sim40\\%$ in the (dimensionless) mass density,...

Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Maturi, Matteo; Bartelmann, Matthias; Postman, Marc; Umetsu, Keiichi; Seidel, Gregor; Sendra, Irene; Broadhurst, Tom; Balestra, Italo; Biviano, Andrea; Grillo, Claudio; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Bradley, Larry; Carrasco, Mauricio; Donahue, Megan; Ford, Holland; Frye, Brenda L; Moustakas, John

2014-01-01

337

Strong gravitational lensing in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the strong gravitational lensing in a rotating squashed Kaluza-Klein (KK) black hole spacetime. Our result show that the strong gravitational lensings in the rotating squashed KK black hole spacetime have some distinct behaviors from those in the backgrounds of the four-dimensional Kerr black hole and of the squashed KK Gödel black hole. In the rotating squashed KK black hole spacetime, the marginally circular photon radius ? ps , the coefficient , , the deflection angle ?( ?) in the ? direction and the corresponding observational variables are independent of whether the photon goes with or against the rotation of the background, which is different with those in the usual four-dimensional Kerr black hole spacetime. Moreover, we also find that with the increase of the scale of extra dimension ?0, the marginally circular photon radius ? ps and the angular position of the relativistic images ? ? first decreases and then increases in the rotating squashed KK black hole for fixed rotation parameter b, but in the squashed KK Gödel black hole they increase for the smaller global rotation parameter j and decrease for the larger one. In the extremely squashed case ? 0 = 0, the coefficient a in the rotating squashed KK black hole increases monotonously with the rotation parameter, but in the squashed KK Gödel black hole it is a constant and independent of the global rotation of the Gödel Universe. These information could help us to understand further the effects of the rotation parameter and the scale of extra dimension on the strong gravitational lensing in the black hole spacetimes.

Ji, Liyong; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang

2014-03-01

338

Strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we investigate the strong gravitational lansing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole. The deflection angle is considered by the logarithmic term proposed by Bozza et al. Then we study the variation of deflection angle and its parameters abar and bbar. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole in a Gödel background. Then by the relations between lensing parameters and observables, we estimate the observables for different values of charge, extra dimension and Gödel parameters.

Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.

2014-01-01

339

Strong gravitational lensing across a dilaton anti-de Sitter black hole

In this work we investigate the gravitational lensing effect in the strong field region around dilaton black holes in an anti-de Sitter space. We also analyze the dependence of the radius of the photon sphere and deflection angle on dilaton coupling and the cosmological constant in this black hole spacetime. Finally the values of minimum impact parameter, the separation between the first and the other images, as well as the ratio between the flux of the first image and the flux coming from all the other images are determined to characterize some possible distinct signatures of such black holes.

Ghosh, Tanwi; SenGupta, Soumitra [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

2010-02-15

340

Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Fieldsstarf

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute2, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48^{+0.13}_{-0.09}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX, and the University of Hawaii.

Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

2013-11-01

341

SDSS J131339.98+515128.3: A new GravitationallyLensed Quasar Selected Based on Near-infrared Excess

We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J131339.98+515128.3, at a redshift of 1:875 with an image separation of 1: 0024. The lensing galaxy is clearly detected in visible-light follow-up observations. We also identify three absorption-line doublets in the spectra of the lensed quasar images, from which we measure the lens redshift to be 0:194. Like several other known lenses, the lensed quasar images have different continuum slopes. This difference is probably the result of reddening and microlensing in the lensing galaxy. The lensed quasar was selected by correlating Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic quasars with Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) sources and choosing quasars that show near-infrared (IR) excess. The near-IR excess can originate, for example, from the contribution of the lensing galaxy at near-IR wavelengths. We show that the near-IR excess technique is indeed an efficient method to identify lensed systems from a large sample of quasars.

Ofek, E.O.; Oguri, M.; Jackson, N.; Inada, N.; Kayo, I.

2007-09-28

342

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. II. A WEAK LENSING STUDY OF HALO CENTERING

Locating the centers of dark matter halos is critical for understanding the mass profiles of halos, as well as the formation and evolution of the massive galaxies that they host. The task is observationally challenging because we cannot observe halos directly, and tracers such as bright galaxies or X-ray emission from hot plasma are imperfect. In this paper, we quantify the consequences of miscentering on the weak lensing signal from a sample of 129 X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field with redshifts 0 < z < 1 and halo masses in the range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. By measuring the stacked lensing signal around eight different candidate centers (such as the brightest member galaxy, the mean position of all member galaxies, or the X-ray centroid), we determine which candidates best trace the center of mass in halos. In this sample of groups, we find that massive galaxies near the X-ray centroids trace the center of mass to {approx}< 75 kpc, while the X-ray position and centroids based on the mean position of member galaxies have larger offsets primarily due to the statistical uncertainties in their positions (typically {approx}50-150 kpc). Approximately 30% of groups in our sample have ambiguous centers with multiple bright or massive galaxies, and some of these groups show disturbed mass profiles that are not well fit by standard models, suggesting that they are merging systems. We find that halo mass estimates from stacked weak lensing can be biased low by 5%-30% if inaccurate centers are used and the issue of miscentering is not addressed.

George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rykoff, Eli S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Massey, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mei, Simona, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Bureau des Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation (GEPI), University of Paris Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2012-09-20

343

Galaxies in X-Ray Groups. II. A Weak Lensing Study of Halo Centering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locating the centers of dark matter halos is critical for understanding the mass profiles of halos, as well as the formation and evolution of the massive galaxies that they host. The task is observationally challenging because we cannot observe halos directly, and tracers such as bright galaxies or X-ray emission from hot plasma are imperfect. In this paper, we quantify the consequences of miscentering on the weak lensing signal from a sample of 129 X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field with redshifts 0 < z < 1 and halo masses in the range 1013-1014 M ?. By measuring the stacked lensing signal around eight different candidate centers (such as the brightest member galaxy, the mean position of all member galaxies, or the X-ray centroid), we determine which candidates best trace the center of mass in halos. In this sample of groups, we find that massive galaxies near the X-ray centroids trace the center of mass to <~ 75 kpc, while the X-ray position and centroids based on the mean position of member galaxies have larger offsets primarily due to the statistical uncertainties in their positions (typically ~50-150 kpc). Approximately 30% of groups in our sample have ambiguous centers with multiple bright or massive galaxies, and some of these groups show disturbed mass profiles that are not well fit by standard models, suggesting that they are merging systems. We find that halo mass estimates from stacked weak lensing can be biased low by 5%-30% if inaccurate centers are used and the issue of miscentering is not addressed.

George, Matthew R.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ma, Chung-Pei; Rykoff, Eli S.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Massey, Richard; Mei, Simona

2012-09-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose deep imaging of intra-cluster regions near the cores of two extremely overdense superclusters (overdensity 50-100 in terms of average spatial density of rich clusters): the Aquarius supercluster (ASC) and the Microscopium supercluster (MSC), both located at ~ - 30°, for the purpose of mapping their dark matter distributions through weak lensing of sources behind them. These superclusters are similar in overdensity to the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC). Our application of the Fundamental Plane (Batiste & Pearson, 2013) to the CSC suggests that there is collapse going on in the supercluster, whereas N-body analyses (Pearson & Batuski, 2013) indicate contrary results to that. The N-body analyses use only the masses within the clusters, which were shown to be insufficient to drive supercluster collapse, suggesting the presence of a yet undetected inter-cluster dark matter component. The ASC and MSC are similar objects to CSC. The DECam presents the perfect opportunity to trace the distribution of intra-cluster dark matter by imaging regions in our two supercluster cores (~ 3^° × 3?), with one field in each supercluster. Our analysis of the proposed photometry will map the distribution of dark matter through its weak lensing effects on sources behind our target supercluster cores.

Favia, Andrej; Batuski, David; Howell, Paul

2014-02-01

345

Analyzing Star Formation Properties in Dusty Early Universe Galaxies Using Gravitational Lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong gravitational lensing has recently become one of the most important tools for studying star formation properties in extremely high redshift galaxies. Dust-obscured star-forming galaxies found at far-infrared/sub-millimeter wavelengths are important in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) imaging of Lockman 102, a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy at z=5.29, discovered by the Herschel Space Observatory. The system was observed at 250, 350, 500 and 1000 microns, corresponding to rest frame wavelengths of 40, 56, 80, and 159 microns respectively. The observations were targeted at the thermal dust emission and the [CII] interstellar medium cooling line. We report an estimated photometric redshift of ~1.9 for the lensing galaxy, making it possibly the most distant lens currently known. We use uvmcmcfit, a publicly available Markov Chain Monte Carlo software tool we have developed for interferometric data, to fit lens models to Lockman 102. The results obtained from uvmcmcfit suggest the lensed system is composed of a single lensing galaxy and two extended sources. We have strong constraints on an intrinsic flux density of Lockman 102 of 4.55 + 0.45 mJy magnified by a factor of 12.5 + 1.2. From a modified blackbody fit we compute an intrinsic far infrared luminosity of 5.5e12 L?.This implies a star formation rate of ~950 M? yr-1, making Lockman 102 an extremely active dusty galaxy. We also compare Lockman 102 to other dusty luminous starburst galaxies at similar redshift, HLS0918 (Rawle et al. 2014) and AzTEC-3 (Riechers et al. 2014a) and determine it is among the most luminous and active galaxies ~1 Gyr after the Big Bang. It is only with strong lensing that the SMA is able to undertake such a detailed study of a galaxy at this distance; the continued improvements from new facilities such as ALMA offer a promising future in observing even more distant lensed systems.

Bradli, Jaclyn C.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Riechers, Dominik A.; Clements, David; Perez-Fournon, Ismael

2015-01-01

346

A technique for using radio jets as extended gravitational lensing probes

A new and potentially powerful method of measuring the mass of a galaxy (or dark matter concentration) which lies close in position to a background polarized radio jet is proposed. Using the fact that the polarization angle is not changed by lensing, an alignment-breaking parameter is defined which is a sensitive indicator of gravitational distortion. The method remains sensitive over a wide redshift range of the gravitational lens. This technique is applied to the analysis of polarimetric observations of the jet of 3C 9 at z = 2.012, combined with a newly discovered 20.3 mag foreground galaxy at z = 0.2538 to weigh the galaxy and obtain an approximate upper limit to the mass-to-light ratio. 15 refs.

Kronberg, P.P.; Dyer, C.C.; Burbidge, E.M.; Junkkarinen, V.T. (Toronto Univ. (Canada) California Univ., La Jolla (USA))

1991-01-01

347

Gravitational lensing and ghost images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes

We study deflection of light rays and gravitational lensing in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. Flatness of these spacetimes in the central region implies existence of interesting optical effects related to photons crossing the gravitational field of the no-horizon spacetimes with low impact parameters. These effects occur due to existence of a critical impact parameter giving maximal deflection of light rays in the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. We give the critical impact parameter in dependence on the specific charge of the spacetimes, and discuss "ghost" direct images of Keplerian discs, generated by photons with low impact parameters. The ghost images can occur only for large inclination angles of distant observers. We determine the range of the frequency shift of photons genering the gost images and determine distribution of the frequency shift accross these images. We compare them to those of the standard direct images of the Keplerian discs. The difference of the ranges of the frequency shif...

Schee, Jan

2015-01-01

348

Two New Gravitationally Lensed Double Quasars from theSloan Digital Sky Survey

We report the discoveries of the two-image gravitationally lensed quasars, SDSS J0746+4403 and SDSS J1406+6126, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). SDSS J0746+4403, which will be included in our lens sample for statistics and cosmology, has a source redshift of z{sub s} = 2.00, an estimated lens redshift of z{sub l} {approx} 0.3, and an image separation of 1.08''. SDSS J1406+6126 has a source redshift of z{sub s} = 2.13, a spectroscopically measured lens redshift of z{sub l} = 0.27, and an image separation of 1.98''. We find that the two quasar images of SDSS J1406+6126 have different intervening Mg II absorption strengths, which are suggestive of large variations of absorbers on kpc scales. The positions and fluxes of both the lensed quasar systems are easily reproduced by simple mass models with reasonable parameter values. These objects bring to 18 the number of lensed quasars that have been discovered from the SDSS data.

Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Kayo, Issha; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Richards, Gordon T.; /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Princeton U. Observ. /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Nagoya U. /Ohio State U., Dept.

2006-09-28

349

Smooth matter and source size in microlensing simulations of gravitationally lensed quasars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several gravitationally lensed quasars are observed with anomalous magnifications in pairs of images that straddle a critical curve. Simple theoretical arguments suggest that the magnification of these images should be approximately equivalent, whereas one image is observed to be significantly demagnified. Microlensing provides a possible explanation for this discrepancy. There are two key parameters when modelling this effect. The first, the fraction of smooth matter in the lens at the image positions, has been explored by Schechter & Wambsganss. They have shown that the anomalous flux ratio observed in the lensed quasar MG 0414+0534 is a priori a factor of 5 more likely if the assumed smooth matter content in the lens model is increased from 0 to 93 per cent. The second parameter, the size of the emission region, is explored in this paper, and shown to be more significant. We find that the broadening of the magnification probability distributions due to smooth matter content is washed out for source sizes that are predicted by standard models for quasars. We apply our model to the anomalous lensed quasar MG 0414+0534, and find a 95 per cent upper limit of 2.62 × 1016h-1/270 (M/Msolar)1/2 cm on the radius of the I-band emission region. The smooth matter percentage in the lens is unconstrained.

Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

2007-11-01

350

A new pixel-based method for analyzing spatially resolved, gravitationally lensed images

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lens modeling of spatially resolved sources is a challenging inverse problem that requires careful handling of parameter degeneracies. I describe a new pixel-based source reconstruction method and analyze statistical and systematic effects, including pixelization, noise, telescope pointing, and resolution. I show applications of the method to observations of two lensed, high-redshift galaxies. For SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 (also known as the Clone), a z=2.001 star-forming galaxy lensed by a foreground galaxy at z=0.42, the errors on the model are appropriately accounted for, and the results are in agreement with previous analyses. For SDSS J0901+1814 (J0901), a z=2.26 ultraluminous infrared star-forming galaxy lensed by a foreground group of galaxies at z=0.35, I constrain the lens model using CO rotational line maps of multiple velocity channels, in addition to optical and infrared data. The reconstructed velocity fields in the source plane make it possible to infer J0901's intrinsic dynamical mass and gas mass fraction. Combining the CO maps with H-alpha observations allows us to test the applicability of the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation at high redshift.

Tagore, Amitpal S.; Keeton, C. R.; Baker, A. J.

2014-01-01

351

Gravitational lensing provides a unique and powerful probe of the mass distributions of distant galaxies. Four-image lens systems with fold and cusp configurations have two or three bright images near a critical point. Within the framework of singularity theory, we derive analytic relations that are satisfied for a light source that lies a small but finite distance from the astroid caustic of a four-image lens. Using a perturbative expansion of the image positions, we show that the time delay between the close pair of images in a fold lens scales with the cube of the image separation, with a constant of proportionality that depends on a particular third derivative of the lens potential. We also apply our formalism to cusp lenses, where we develop perturbative expressions for the image positions, magnifications and time delays of the images in a cusp triplet. Some of these results were derived previously for a source asymptotically close to a cusp point, but using a simplified form of the lens equation whose validity may be in doubt for sources that lie at astrophysically relevant distances from the caustic. Along with the work of Keeton et al. (2005), this paper demonstrates that perturbation theory plays an important role in theoretical lensing studies.

Arthur B. Congdon; Charles R. Keeton; C. Erik Nordgren

2008-12-02

352

We compare the efficiency of weak-lensing-selected galaxy cluster counts and of the weak-lensing bispectrum at capturing non-Gaussian features in the dark matter distribution. We use the halo model to compute the weak-lensing power spectrum, the bispectrum, and the expected number of detected clusters, and derive constraints on cosmological parameters for a large, low systematic weak-lensing survey, by focusing on the OMEGA{sub m}-sigma{sub 8} plane and on the dark energy equation of state. We separate the power spectrum into the resolved and the unresolved parts of the data, the resolved part being defined as detected clusters, and the unresolved part as the rest of the field. We consider four kinds of clusters counts, taking into account different amount of information: signal-to-noise ratio peak counts, counts as a function of clusters' mass, counts as a function of clusters' redshift, and counts as a function of clusters' mass and redshift. We show that when combined with the power spectrum, those four kinds of counts provide similar constraints, thus allowing one to perform the most direct counts, signal-to-noise peak counts, and get percent level constraints on cosmological parameters. We show that the weak-lensing bispectrum gives constraints comparable to those given by the power spectrum and captures non-Gaussian features as well as cluster counts, its combination with the power spectrum giving errors on cosmological parameters that are similar to, if not marginally smaller than, those obtained when combining the power spectrum with cluster counts. We finally note that in order to reach its potential, the weak-lensing bispectrum must be computed using all triangle configurations, as equilateral triangles alone do not provide useful information. The appendices summarize the halo model, and the way the power spectrum and bispectrum are computed in this framework.

Berge, Joel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Amara, Adam [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: Joel.Berge@jpl.nasa.go [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, DAPNIA/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2010-04-01

353

Design issues for a mission to exploit the gravitational lensing effect at 550 AU

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported herein are the first results of a NASA-sponsored study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, exploring the scientific promise and technological viability of a mission to exploit the gravitational lensing effect of the Sun to obtain huge antenna gains for electromagnetic waves grazing the Sun's disk. With regard to scientific promise, these results, reported at about the halfway point of the study, substantiate the huge antenna gains offered by, as it will be called here, a Solar Gravitational Telescope (SGT) and point to the instrument's potential promise as a "discovery machine" but suggest considerable limitations to the telescope's usefulness as a general purpose astrophysical research tool. These limitations are seen to arise, primarily, from the geometry and scale of the "virtual" telescope which must be achieved and maintained to utilize the lensing effect and the turbulence effects of the Sun's plasma on the observed target's signal. With regard to technological viability, the preliminary results suggest a very aggressive use of unproven, as-yet-unflown new technology will be required to enable the desired science observations and mission durations approaching the short (3-10 year) NASA-targeted mission duration goal. Key needed new technologies are advanced propulsion, lightweight telescopes, membrane mirrors, inflatable/rigidizeable structures, and novel coronagraphic techniques.

West, John L.

1999-05-01

354

We study the equation of motion of photons and the strong gravitational lensing in a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime when the photons couple to Weyl tensor. We find that the propagation of the coupled photons and the corresponding gravitational lensing depend sharply on the coupling constant $\\alpha$ and the photon polarization directions. The marginally stable circular radius $r_{ps}$ exists only in the regime $\\alpha\\geq\\alpha_{c1}=-M^2/2$ for the photon with the polarization along $l_{\\mu}$ and in the regime $\\alpha\\leq\\alpha_{c2}=M^2$ for the photon with the polarization along $m_{\\mu}$. When the value of $\\alpha$ is beyond the above regime, we find that the marginally stable circular radius vanishes and there exists a singularity outside the event horizon of black hole in the propagation of the coupled photons. The deflection angle of the light ray near the singularity is a negative finite value, which is different entirely from that of the usual photons without the coupling to Weyl tensor. Finally, w...

Chen, Songbai

2015-01-01

355

We examine in a semiclassical framework the deflection function of strong gravitational lensing, for static and spherically symmetric black holes, endowed with a photon sphere. From a first-order WKB analysis near the maximum of the Regge-Wheeler potential, we extract the real phase shifts from the S-matrix elements and then we derive the associated semiclassical deflection function, characterized by a logarithmic divergent behavior. More precisely, using the complex angular momentum techniques, we show that the Regge poles and the associated greybody factor residues, for a massless scalar field theory, from which one can recover the black hole quasinormal complex frequencies as well as the fluctuations of the high energy absorption cross section, play naturally the role of critical parameters in the divergent behavior of the semiclassical deflection function. For very high frequencies, we finally recover the logarithmic part of the classical strong deflection limit, which clarifies analytically the fundamental link between quasinormal modes and strong gravitational lensing, suggested in recent works.

Bernard Raffaelli

2014-12-23

356

Gravitationally Lensed QSOs: Optical Monitoring with the EOCA and the Liverpool Telescope (LT)

The aim of this contribution is to present the two first phases of the optical monitoring programme of the Gravitational Lenses group at the Universidad de Cantabria (GLUC, http://grupos.unican.es/glendama/). In an initial stage (2003 March-June), the Estacion de Observacion de Calar Alto (EOCA) was used to obtain VR frames of SBS 0909+532 and QSO 0957+561. These observations in 2003 led to accurate fluxes of the two components of both double QSOs, which are being compared and complemented with data from other 1-1.5 m telescopes located in the North Hemisphere: Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (USA), Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan) and Wise Observatory (Israel). On the other hand, the GLUC started the second phase of its monitoring programme in 2005 January. In this second phase, they are using the 2 m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT). The key idea is the two-band photometric follow-up of four lensed QSOs with different main lensing galaxies: SBS 0909+532 (elliptical), QSO 0957+561 (giant cD), B1600+434 (edge-on spiral) and QSO 2237+0305 (face-on spiral). Thus, the light rays associated with the components of the four gravitational mirages cross different galaxy environments, and the corresponding light curves could unveil the content of these environments. While SBS 0909+532 and QSO 0957+561 are the targets for the two first years with the LT (2005-2006), the rest of targets (B1600+434 and QSO 2237+0305) will be monitored starting from 2007.

L. J. Goicoechea; A. Ullan; J. E. Ovaldsen; E. Koptelova; V. N. Shalyapin; R. Gil-Merino

2006-09-23

357

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the weak lensing effects by ministructures in the line of sight in a quadruply lensed quasar MG0414+0534 that shows an anomaly in the flux ratios. We find that the observed flux-ratio anomaly can be explained by a presence of either a minifilament or a minivoid in the line of sight with a surface mass density of the order of 108-9 h-1 M? arcsec-2 without taking into account any subhaloes in the lensing galaxy. The astrometric perturbation by a possible minifilament/minivoid at the primary lens plane is ?0.001 arcsec and the amplitudes of convergence perturbations due to these perturbers are ?? ˜ 0.004-0.008 at the place of an image that shows anomaly. In order to discriminate models with the line-of-sight ministructures from those with a subhalo(es) in the lensing galaxy, we need to precisely measure the projected convergence and shear perturbations around the lensing galaxy. The differential magnification effect could break the model degeneracy if the source size is ?100 pc. Observation at the submillimetre band using interferometers will enable us to determine the origin of anomalies in the flux ratios.

Inoue, Kaiki Taro

2015-02-01

358

Measurements of X-ray scaling laws are critical for improving cosmological constraints derived with the halo mass function and for understanding the physical processes that govern the heating and cooling of the intracluster medium. In this paper, we use a sample of 206 X-ray-selected galaxy groups to investigate the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L{sub X}) and halo mass (M{sub 200}) where M{sub 200} is derived via stacked weak gravitational lensing. This work draws upon a broad array of multi-wavelength COSMOS observations including 1.64 degrees{sup 2} of contiguous imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to a limiting magnitude of I{sub F814W} = 26.5 and deep XMM-Newton/Chandra imaging to a limiting flux of 1.0 x 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 0.5-2 keV band. The combined depth of these two data sets allows us to probe the lensing signals of X-ray-detected structures at both higher redshifts and lower masses than previously explored. Weak lensing profiles and halo masses are derived for nine sub-samples, narrowly binned in luminosity and redshift. The COSMOS data alone are well fit by a power law, M{sub 200} propor to (L{sub X}){sup a}lpha, with a slope of alpha = 0.66 +- 0.14. These results significantly extend the dynamic range for which the halo masses of X-ray-selected structures have been measured with weak gravitational lensing. As a result, tight constraints are obtained for the slope of the M-L{sub X} relation. The combination of our group data with previously published cluster data demonstrates that the M-L{sub X} relation is well described by a single power law, alpha = 0.64 +- 0.03, over two decades in mass, M{sub 200} approx 10{sup 13.5}-10{sup 15.5} h {sup -1}{sub 72} M{sub sun}. These results are inconsistent at the 3.7sigma level with the self-similar prediction of alpha = 0.75. We examine the redshift dependence of the M-L{sub X} relation and find little evidence for evolution beyond the rate predicted by self-similarity from z approx 0.25 to z approx 0.8.

Leauthaud, Alexie [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis; Cappelluti, Nico; Giodini, Stefania [Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garchingbei Muenchen (Germany); Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ilbert, Olivier; Le Fevre, Oliver [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, 13013 Marseille (France); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Massey, Richard; Heymans, Catherine [Institute for Astronomy, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Johnston, David E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-2900 (United States); Zhang, Yu-Ying [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellis, Richard S. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elvis, Martin, E-mail: asleauthaud@lbl.go [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-01-20

359

Impact of spurious shear on cosmological parameter estimates from weak lensing observables

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual errors in shear measurements, after corrections for instrument systematics and atmospheric effects, can impact cosmological parameters derived from weak lensing observations. Here we combine convergence maps from our suite of ray-tracing simulations with random realizations of spurious shear. This allows us to quantify the errors and biases of the triplet (?m,w ,?8) derived from the power spectrum (PS), as well as from three different sets of non-Gaussian statistics of the lensing convergence field: Minkowski functionals (MFs), low-order moments (LMs), and peak counts (PKs). Our main results are as follows: (i) We find an order of magnitude smaller biases from the PS than in previous work. (ii) The PS and LM yield biases much smaller than the morphological statistics (MF, PK). (iii) For strictly Gaussian spurious shear with integrated amplitude as low as its current estimate of ?sys2?10-7 , biases from the PS and LM would be unimportant even for a survey with the statistical power of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. However, we find that for surveys larger than ?100 deg2 , non-Gaussianity in the noise (not included in our analysis) will likely be important and must be quantified to assess the biases. (iv) The morphological statistics (MF, PK) introduce important biases even for Gaussian noise, which must be corrected in large surveys. The biases are in different directions in (?m,w ,?8) parameter space, allowing self-calibration by combining multiple statistics. Our results warrant follow-up studies with more extensive lensing simulations and more accurate spurious shear estimates.

Petri, Andrea; May, Morgan; Haiman, Zoltán; Kratochvil, Jan M.

2014-12-01

360

Weak Lensing by Large-Scale Structure with the FIRST Radio Survey

We present the first measurement of weak lensing by large-scale structure on 1-4 degree scales based on the FIRST Radio Survey, a quarter-sky, 20-cm survey produced with the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA). The large angular scales provide an unique measurement in the linear regime of the matter power spectrum. We use the shapelet method to estimate the shear of radio sources derived directly from the Fourier(uv) plane. With realistic simulations we verify that the method yields unbiased shear estimators. We quantify and correct for the systematic effects which can produce spurious shears, analytically and with simulations. We measure the shear correlation functions on angular scales of 0.5-40 degrees, and compute the corresponding aperture mass statistics. On 1-4 degrees scales, we find that the B-modes are consistent with zero, and detect a lensing E-mode signal significant at the 3.0 sigma level. After removing radio sources with an optical counterpart, the E-mode signal increases by 10-20%, as expected for a lensing signal derived from more distant sources. We use the E-mode measurement to constrain the mass power spectrum normalization sigma_8 and the median redshift z_m of the unidentified radio sources. We find sigma_8*(z_m/2)^(0.6) ~ 1.0 +/- 0.2, where the 1 sigma error bars include statistical errors, cosmic variance, and systematics. This is consistent with earlier determinations of sigma_8, and with our current knowledge of the redshift distribution of radio sources. Taking the prior sigma_8 = 0.9 +/- 0.1 (68%CL) from the WMAP experiment, this corresponds to z_m = 2.2 +/- 0.9 (68%CL) for radio sources without optical counterparts. Our results offer promising prospects for precision measurements of cosmic shear with future radio interferometers such as LOFAR and the SKA.

Tzu-Ching Chang; Alexandre Refregier; David J. Helfand

2004-08-30

361

Shape Reconstruction and Weak Lensing Measurement with Interferometers: A Shapelet Approach

We present a new approach for image reconstruction and weak lensing measurements with interferometers. Based on the shapelet formalism presented in Refregier (2001), object images are decomposed into orthonormal Hermite basis functions. The shapelet coefficients of a collection of sources are simultaneously fit on the uv plane, the Fourier transform of the sky brightness distribution observed by interferometers. The resulting chi-square fit is linear in its parameters and can thus be performed efficiently by simple matrix multiplications. We show how the complex effects of bandwidth smearing, time averaging and non-coplanarity of the array can be easily and fully corrected for in our method. Optimal image reconstruction, co-addition, astrometry, and photometry can all be achieved using weighted sums of the derived coefficients. As an example we consider the observing conditions of the FIRST radio survey (Becker et al. 1995; White et al. 1997). We find that our method accurately recovers the shapes of simulated images even for the sparse uv sampling of this snapshot survey. Using one of the FIRST pointings, we find our method compares well with CLEAN, the commonly used method for interferometric imaging. Our method has the advantage of being linear in the fit parameters, of fitting all sources simultaneously, and of providing the full covariance matrix of the coefficients, which allows us to quantify the errors and cross-talk in image shapes. It is therefore well-suited for quantitative shape measurements which require high-precision. In particular, we show how our method can be combined with the results of Refregier & Bacon (2001) to provide an accurate measurement of weak lensing from interferometric data.

Tzu-Ching Chang; Alexandre Refregier

2001-07-05

362

arXiv:0901.1132v1 A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe

arXiv:0901.1132v1 [astroÂph] 8 Jan 2009 A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe Bonn, Germany Water masers 1 4 are found in dense molecular clouds closely associated with supermassive black holes in the centres of active galaxies. Based upon the understanding of the local water maser

Brunthaler, Andreas

363

No Gravitational Lensing in Vacuum Space a fraction of a Solar Radius above Solar Rim

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant findings show that one of the most misunderstood of all observed astrophysical phenomena is that of gravitational lensing. The Mathematical Physics of Gauss' law of gravity, the analogy of the Gauss' law of charges is directly applicable to the gravitational light bending at the sun. Astrophysical observations are consistent with an indirect interaction involving a plasma medium, not a direct interaction in the empty vacuum space above the rim. A century of observations reveal that gravitational light bending effects have been noted to occur predominantly at the thin plasma rim of the sun, not in the vacuum space a fraction of a solar radius above the rim. Light bending as predicted by General Relativity should be an easily detectable at analytical Gaussian spherical surfaces of various radii; at 2R, 3R, 4R and 5R respectively, where R is the radius of the sun. The observational evidence is clearly inconsistent with the light bending rule of General Relativity since this vacuum space and the solar plasma rim are exposed to virtually the same field.

Dowdye, Edward

2011-06-01

364

A search for gravitationally lensed water masers in dusty quasars and star-forming galaxies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminous extragalactic water masers are known to be associated with active galactic nuclei and have provided accurate estimates for the mass of the central supermassive black hole and the size and structure of the circumnuclear accretion disc in nearby galaxies. To find water maser systems at much higher redshifts, we have begun a survey of known gravitationally lensed quasars and star-forming galaxies. In this paper, we present a search for 22 GHz (rest-frame) water masers towards five dusty, gravitationally lensed quasars and star-forming galaxies at redshifts between 2.3 and 2.9 with the Effelsberg radio telescope and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). Our observations do not find any new definite examples of high-redshift water maser galaxies, suggesting that large reservoirs of dust and gas are not a sufficient condition for powerful water maser emission. However, we do find the tentative detection of a water maser system in the active galaxy IRAS 10214+4724 at redshift 2.285. Our survey has now doubled the number of gravitationally lensed galaxies and quasars that have been searched for high-redshift water maser emission. We also present an updated analysis of the high-redshift water maser luminosity function that is based on the results presented here and from the only cosmologically distant (z > 1) water maser galaxy found thus far, MG J0414+0534 at redshift 2.64. By comparing with the water maser luminosity function locally and at moderate redshifts, we find that there must be some evolution in the luminosity function of water maser galaxies at high redshifts. By assuming a moderate evolution [(1 +z)4] in the water maser luminosity function, we find that blind surveys for water maser galaxies are only worthwhile with extremely high sensitivity like that of the planned Square Kilometre Array (Phase 2), which is scheduled to be completed by 2020. However, instruments like the EVLA and MeerKAT will be capable of detecting water maser systems similar to the one found from MG J0414+0534 through dedicated pointed observations, providing suitable high-redshift targets can be selected.

McKean, J. P.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Roy, A. L.; Castangia, P.; Samuel, F.; Brunthaler, A.; Henkel, C.; Wucknitz, O.

2011-02-01

365

Weak-lensing detection of intracluster filaments with ground-based data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the current standard model of cosmology, matter in the Universe arranges itself along a network of filamentary structure. These filaments connect the main nodes of this so-called "cosmic web", which are clusters of galaxies. Although its large-scale distribution is clearly characterized by numerical simulations, constraining the dark-matter content of the cosmic web in reality turns out to be difficult. The natural method of choice is gravitational lensing. However, the direct detection and mapping of the elusive filament signal is challenging and in this work we present two methods that are specifically tailored to achieve this task. A linear matched filter aims at detecting the smooth mass-component of filaments and is optimized to perform a shear decomposition that follows the anisotropic component of the lensing signal. Filaments clearly inherit this property due to their morphology. At the same time, the contamination arising from the central massive cluster is controlled in a natural way. The filament 1? detection is of about ? ~ 0.01 - 0.005 according to the filter's template width and length, enabling the detection of structures beyond reach with other approaches. The second, complementary method seeks to detect the clumpy component of filaments. The detection is determined by the number density of subclump identifications in an area enclosing the potential filament, as was found within the observed field with the filter approach. We tested both methods against mocked observations based on realistic N-body simulations of filamentary structure and proved the feasibility of detecting filaments with ground-based data.

Maturi, Matteo; Merten, Julian

2013-11-01

366

MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS

An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.

Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kang, X., E-mail: chuzhe@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2013-03-10

367

The Impact of Galaxies on their Environment from Observations of Gravitationally lensed QSOs

Observations of absorption systems in close, multiple lines of sight to gravitationally lensed QSOs can be used to infer the density fluctuations and motions of the gas clouds giving rise to the Lyman alpha forest phenomenon and to QSO metal absorption lines. We describe a survey of lensed QSOs with the Keck HIRES instrument and argue that one can derive limits on the frequency and importance of hydrodynamical disturbances inflicted by galaxies on the surrounding gas from such data. We discuss differences between the kinematic properties of low density unsaturated Lyman alpha forest absorption systems, high ionization CIV absorption systems, and low ionization gas visible in SiII and CII. The general intergalactic medium appears to show very little turbulence, but the presumable denser CIV systems exhibit evidence of having been stirred repeatedly (by winds ?) in the past on time scales similar to those governing stellar feedback and possibly galaxy mergers. The quiescence of the low density IGM can be used to put upper limits on the incidence and energetics of galactic winds on a cosmological time scale.

Michael Rauch

2001-11-01

368

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lens modelling of spatially resolved sources is a challenging inverse problem with many observational constraints and model parameters. We examine established pixel-based source reconstruction algorithms for de-lensing the source and constraining lens model parameters. Using test data for four canonical lens configurations, we explore statistical and systematic uncertainties associated with gridding, source regularization, interpolation errors, noise, and telescope pointing. Specifically, we compare two gridding schemes in the source plane: a fully adaptive grid that follows the lens mapping but is irregular, and an adaptive Cartesian grid. We also consider regularization schemes that minimize derivatives of the source (using two finite difference methods) and introduce a scheme that minimizes deviations from an analytic source profile. Careful choice of gridding and regularization can reduce `discreteness noise' in the ?2 surface that is inherent in the pixel-based methodology. With a gridded source, some degree of interpolation is unavoidable, and errors due to interpolation need to be taken into account (especially for high signal-to-noise data). Different realizations of the noise and telescope pointing lead to slightly different values for lens model parameters, and the scatter between different `observations' can be comparable to or larger than the model uncertainties themselves. The same effects create scatter in the lensing magnification at the level of a few per cent for a peak signal-to-noise ratio of 10, which decreases as the data quality improves.

Tagore, Amitpal S.; Keeton, Charles R.

2014-11-01

369

Gravitational lensing provides a unique and powerful probe of the mass distributions of distant galaxies. Four-image lens systems with fold and cusp configurations have two or three bright images near a critical point. Within the framework of singularity theory, we derive analytic relations that are satisfied for a light source that lies a small but finite distance from the astroid caustic of a four-image lens. Using a perturbative expansion of the image positions, we show that the time delay between the close pair of images in a fold lens scales with the cube of the image separation, with a constant of proportionality that depends on a particular third derivative of the lens potential. We also apply our formalism to cusp lenses, where we develop perturbative expressions for the image positions, magnifications and time delays of the images in a cusp triplet. Some of these results were derived previously for a source asymptotically close to a cusp point, but using a simplified form of the lens equation whose v...

Congdon, Arthur B; Nordgren, C Erik

2008-01-01

370

Strong gravitational lensing in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

We have investigated the strong gravitational lensing in a rotating squashed Kaluza-Klein (KK) black hole spacetime. Our result show that the strong gravitational lensings in the rotating squashed KK black hole spacetime have some distinct behaviors from those in the backgrounds of the four-dimensional Kerr black hole and of the squashed KK G\\"{o}del black hole. In the rotating squashed KK black hole spacetime, the marginally circular photon radius $\\rho_{ps}$, the coefficient $\\bar{a}$, $\\bar{b}$, the deflection angle $\\alpha(\\theta)$ in the $\\phi$ direction and the corresponding observational variables are independent of whether the photon goes with or against the rotation of the background, which is different with those in the usual four-dimensional Kerr black hole spacetime. Moreover, we also find that with the increase of the scale of extra dimension $\\rho_0$, the marginally circular photon radius $\\rho_{ps}$ and the angular position of the relativistic images $\\theta_\\infty$ first decreases and then increases in the rotating squashed KK black hole for fixed rotation parameter $b$, but in the squashed KK G\\"{o}del black hole they increase for the smaller global rotation parameter $j$ and decrease for the larger one. In the extremely squashed case $\\rho_0=0$, the coefficient $\\bar{a}$ in the rotating squashed KK black hole increases monotonously with the rotation parameter, but in the squashed KK G\\"{o}del black hole it is a constant and independent of the global rotation of the G\\"{o}del Universe.

LiYong Ji; Songbai Chen; Jiliang Jing

2014-02-26

371

Very weak lensing in the CFHTLS Wide: Cosmology from cosmic shear in the linear regime

We present an exploration of weak lensing by large-scale structure in the linear regime, using the third-year (T0003) CFHTLS Wide data release. Our results place tight constraints on the scaling of the amplitude of the matter power spectrum sigma_8 with the matter density Omega_m. Spanning 57 square degrees to i'_AB = 24.5 over three independent fields, the unprecedented contiguous area of this survey permits high signal-to-noise measurements of two-point shear statistics from 1 arcmin to 4 degrees. Understanding systematic errors in our analysis is vital in interpreting the results. We therefore demonstrate the percent-level accuracy of our method using STEP simulations, an E/B-mode decomposition of the data, and the star-galaxy cross correlation function. We also present a thorough analysis of the galaxy redshift distribution using redshift data from the CFHTLS T0003 Deep fields that probe the same spatial regions as the Wide fields. We find sigma_8(Omega_m/0.25)^0.64 = 0.785+-0.043 using the aperture-mass statistic for the full range of angular scales for an assumed flat cosmology, in excellent agreement with WMAP3 constraints. The largest physical scale probed by our analysis is 85 Mpc, assuming a mean redshift of lenses of 0.5 and a LCDM cosmology. This allows for the first time to constrain cosmology using only cosmic shear measurements in the linear regime. Using only angular scales theta> 85 arcmin, we find sigma_8(Omega_m/0.25)_lin^0.53 = 0.837+-0.084, which agree with the results from our full analysis. Combining our results with data from WMAP3, we find Omega_m=0.248+-0.019 and sigma_8 = 0.771+-0.029.

L. Fu; E. Semboloni; H. Hoekstra; M. Kilbinger; L. van Waerbeke; I. Tereno; Y. Mellier; C. Heymans; J. Coupon; K. Benabed; J. Benjamin; E. Bertin; O. Doré; M. J. Hudson; O. Ilbert; R. Maoli; C. Marmo; H. J. McCracken; B. Ménard

2007-12-06

372

Sérsic galaxy models in weak lensing shape measurement: model bias, noise bias and their interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic shear is a powerful probe of cosmological parameters, but its potential can be fully utilized only if galaxy shapes are measured with great accuracy. Two major effects have been identified which are likely to account for most of the bias seen for maximum likelihood methods in recent shear measurement challenges. Model bias occurs when the true galaxy shape is not well represented by the fitted model. Noise bias occurs due to the non-linear relationship between image pixels and galaxy shape. In this paper we investigate the potential interplay between these two effects when an imperfect model is used in the presence of high noise. We present analytical expressions for this bias, which depends on the residual difference between the model and real data. They can lead to biases not accounted for in previous calibration schemes. By measuring the model bias, noise bias and their interaction, we provide a complete statistical framework for measuring galaxy shapes with model fitting methods from GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT)-like images. We demonstrate the noise and model interaction bias using a simple toy model, which indicates that this effect can potentially be significant. Using real galaxy images from the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) we quantify the strength of the model bias, noise bias and their interaction. We find that the interaction term is often of a similar size to the model bias term, and is smaller than the requirements of current and near future galaxy surveys.

Kacprzak, Tomasz; Bridle, Sarah; Rowe, Barnaby; Voigt, Lisa; Zuntz, Joe; Hirsch, Michael; MacCrann, Niall

2014-07-01

373

We report the discovery of the two-image gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J133222.62+034739.9 (SDSS J1332+0347) with an image separation of {Delta}{theta} = 1.14''. This system consists of a source quasar at z{sub s} = 1.445 and a lens galaxy at z{sub l} = 0.191. The agreement of the luminosity, ellipticity and position angle of the lens galaxy with those expected from lens model confirms the lensing hypothesis.

Morokuma, Tomoki; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Kawano, Yozo; Tokita, Kouichi; Kayo, Issha; Hall, Patrick B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Richards,; York, Donald G.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Princeton U. /Tokyo, Astron. Observ. /Nagoya U. /York U., Canada /Ohio State U.,

2006-09-28

374

Gravitational Lensing by Spinning Black Holes in Astrophysics, and in the Movie Interstellar

Interstellar is the first Hollywood movie to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. For this we developed a code called DNGR (Double Negative Gravitational Renderer) to solve the equations for ray-bundle (light-beam) propagation through the curved spacetime of a spinning (Kerr) black hole, and to render IMAX-quality, rapidly changing images. Our ray-bundle techniques were crucial for achieving IMAX-quality smoothness without flickering. This paper has four purposes: (i) To describe DNGR for physicists and CGI practitioners . (ii) To present the equations we use, when the camera is in arbitrary motion at an arbitrary location near a Kerr black hole, for mapping light sources to camera images via elliptical ray bundles. (iii) To describe new insights, from DNGR, into gravitational lensing when the camera is near the spinning black hole, rather than far away as in almost all prior studies. (iv) To describe how the images of the black hole Gargantua and its accretion disk,...

James, Oliver; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S

2015-01-01

375

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis conducts the investigation into the metallicity history of galaxies between redshift 1 and 3, using gravitationally lensed galaxies. We use metallicity as a tool to understand the formation and evolution history of galaxies. We direct our research in two areas. 1. We combine our new sample of gravitationally lensed galaxies with existing lensed and non-lensed samples to conduct the largest investigation so far into the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at z > 1. We apply a self-consistent metallicity calibration scheme to investigate the metallicity evolution of star-forming galaxies as a function of redshift. We find that at the median redshift of z = 2.07, the median metallicity of the lensed sample is 0.35 dex lower than the local SDSS star-forming galaxies and 0.18 dex lower than the z ˜ 0.8 DEEP2 galaxies. Our lensed sample shows a much larger metallicity range and scatter (> 0.2 dex) than the z ˜ 2 UV selected galaxies at similar masses. These offsets translate into a metallicity evolution of -0.23 +/- 0.01 dex per unit redshift from z ˜ 0 ? 1, and -0.14 +/- 0.08 dex per unit redshift from z ˜ 1 ? 3. A more rapid evolution is seen between z ˜ 1 ? 3 (with a mean fall in metallicity of -0.05 +/- 0.01 dex Gyr--1 ) than z ˜ 0 ? 1 (-0.020 +/- 0.001 dex Gyr--1). This evolution agrees with the most recent cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with momentum driven winds within the errors. 2. Combining the magnification power of gravitational lensing and AO-aided Integral Field Unit spectrographs (IFUs) is the only way to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise and angular resolution for spatially resolved metallicity studies. Using this technique, we present the first metallicity gradient measurement for a grand-design face-on spiral galaxy at z ˜ 1.5. The gradients of our spiral and another 2 lensed galaxies at z ˜ 2 are much steeper than local disk galaxies, supporting an "inside-out" galaxy formation scenario. We also report spatially resolved emission lines of a z ˜ 1 lensed galaxy. We find significant shock excitation due to galactic outflows. Our analysis suggests that shocked regions may mimic flat or inverted metallicity gradients at high redshift. We find that high angular resolution observations provide the most accurate metallicity gradient measurement, whereas seeing-limited studies under estimate the slope of the gradients.

Yuan, Tiantian

2012-05-01

376

Casimir effect in a weak gravitational field and the spacetime index of refraction

In a recent paper [arXiv:0904.2904] using a conjecture it is shown how one can calculate the effect of a weak stationary gravitational field on vacuum energy in the context of Casimir effect in an external gravitational field treated in 1+3 formulation of spacetime decomposition.. In this article, employing quntum field theory in curved spacetime, we explicitly calculate the effect of a weak static gravitational field on virtual massless scalar particles in a Casimir apparatus. It is shown that, as expected from the proposed conjecture, both the frequency and renormalized energy of the virtual scalar field are affected by the gravitational field through its index of refraction. This could be taken as a strong evidence in favour of the proposed conjecture. Generalizations to weak {\\it stationary} spacetimes and virtual photons are also discussed.

B. Nazari; M. Nouri-Zonoz

2010-10-07

377

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has successfully compiled data on more than 300,000 quasars. It, therefore, provides the best sample of multiple-image, gravitationally-lensed quasistellar objects (QSOs) with a well-defined selection effect. We use a SDSS Quasar Lens Search (SQLS) sample of lensed quasars to investigate the constraints on the matter density ? m and the cosmological constant ??. In order to be free from magnification bias, we use only image separation statistics, which requires detailed knowledge of the source's luminosity function at all redshifts. The maximum-likelihood analysis shows that cosmological models with non-zero cosmological constant are more likely, but the statistical significance is not large enough. Monte-Carlo simulation show that 100 or more lensed QSOs can provide constraints comparable to other major cosmological constraints. It also shows that unless the number of lensed QSOs is an order-of-magnitude larger, the lensing statistics test has a degeneracy in the ??-? m parameter space in the direction roughly perpendicular to ?? + ? m = 1 and that the lensing statistics test alone cannot determine ?? and ? m simultaneously. We also derive constraints on the equation-of-state parameter for dark energy.

Han, Du-Hwan; Park, Myeong-Gu

2014-09-01

378

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the halo mass of galaxy groups from maximum-likelihood weak lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a maximum-likelihood weak-lensing analysis of the mass distribution in optically selected spectroscopic Galaxy Groups (G3Cv5) in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using background Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric galaxies. The scaling of halo mass, Mh, with various group observables is investigated. Our main results are as follows. (1) The measured relations of halo mass with group luminosity, virial volume and central galaxy stellar mass, M*, agree very well with predictions from mock group catalogues constructed from a GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model implemented in the Millennium ?CDM N-body simulation. (2) The measured relations of halo mass with velocity dispersion and projected half-abundance radius show weak tension with mock predictions, hinting at problems in the mock galaxy dynamics and their small-scale distribution. (3) The median Mh|M* measured from weak lensing depends more sensitively on the lognormal dispersion in M* at fixed Mh than it does on the median M*|Mh. Our measurements suggest an intrinsic dispersion of ?log(M*)˜ 0.15. (4) Comparing our mass estimates with those in the catalogue, we find that the G3Cv5 mass can give biased results when used to select subsets of the group sample. Of the various new halo-mass estimators that we calibrate using our weak-lensing measurements, group luminosity is the best single-proxy estimator of group mass.

Han, Jiaxin; Eke, Vincent R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Michael D.; Peacock, John A.; Jing, Yipeng; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

2015-01-01

379

This paper uses the Schwarzschild metric to derive an effective refractive index and acceleration vector that account for relativistic deflection of light rays, in an otherwise classical kinematic framework. The new refractive index and the known path equation are integrated to give accurate results for travel time and deflection angle, respectively. A new formula for coordinate acceleration is derived which describes the path of a massless test particle in the vicinity of a spherically symmetric mass density distribution. A standard ray-shooting technique is used to compare the deflection angle and time delay predicted by this new formula with the previously calculated values, and with standard first order approximations. Finally, the ray shooting method is used in theoretical examples of strong and weak lensing, reproducing known observer-plane caustic patterns for multiple masses.

S. J. Walters; L. K. Forbes; P. D. Jarvis

2010-08-17

380

Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements

This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes {approx}130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible and bounding them where not. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios and provide a cosmological interpretation.

Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Ben P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Annis, James; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka

2007-09-28

381

CFHTLenS: Weak lensing calibrated scaling relations for low mass clusters of galaxies

We present weak lensing and X-ray analysis of 12 low mass clusters from the CFHTLenS and XMM-CFHTLS surveys. We combine these systems with high-mass systems from CCCP and low-mass systems from COSMOS to obtain a sample of 70 systems, which we divide into subsamples of 15 merging and 55 relaxed systems. We measure L-T, M-L and M-T scaling relations and find in all cases that the power-law slopes of the full, merging and relaxed subsamples are consistent. For the M-T we find slopes consistent with the self-similar model, whereas L-T results in steeper and M-L in flatter relations. We find a marginal trend for larger scatter and lower normalisation in the M-L and M-T relations for the merging subsample, which we attribute to triaxiality and substructure. We explore the effects of X-ray cross-calibration and find that Chandra calibration leads to flatter L-T and M-T relations. We also utilise the three surveys making up the sample as overlapping mass bins. For COSMOS and CFHTLS we find slopes consistent with the ...

Kettula, K; van Uitert, E; Hoekstra, H; Finoguenov, A; Lerchster, M; Erben, T; Heymans, C; Hildebrandt, H; Kitching, T D; Mahdavi, A; Mellier, Y; Miller, L; Mirkazemi, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Coupon, J; Egami, E; Fu, L; Hudson, M J; Kneib, J P; Kuijken, K; McCracken, H J; Pereira, M J; Rowe, B; Schrabback, T; Tanaka, M; Velander, M

2014-01-01

382

Using Weak-Lensing Dilution to Improve Measurements of the Luminous and Dark Matter in A1689

The E\\/S0 sequence of a cluster defines a boundary redward of which a reliable weak-lensing signal can be obtained from background galaxies, uncontaminated by cluster members. For bluer colors, both background and cluster members are present, reducing the average distortion signal by the proportion of unlensed cluster members. In deep Subaru and HST\\/ACS images of A1689, the tangential distortion of

Elinor Medezinski; Tom Broadhurst; Keiichi Umetsu; Dan Coe; Narciso Benítez; Holland Ford; Yoel Rephaeli; Nobuo Arimoto; Xu Kong

2007-01-01

383

ASCA Observations of Three Gravitational Lensing Clusters of Galaxies; CL0500-24; CL2244-02 and A370

The X-ray emission temperature and the beta model parameters of the X-ray surface brightness profile are determined with ASCA SIS for three distant (z ~0.3) clusters of galaxies with long bright arcs of gravitational lensing effect. The long arc images provide us with a direct measure of the mass interior to the arcs. Assuming a spherical symmetry for the mass

N. Ota; K. Mitsuda; Y. Fukazawa

1998-01-01

384

Constraints on intrinsic alignment contamination of weak lensing surveys using the MegaZ-LRG sample

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlations between the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and the large-scale galaxy density field provide an important tool to investigate galaxy intrinsic alignments, which constitute the major potential astrophysical systematic in cosmological weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys, but also yield insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies. We measure galaxy position-shape correlations in the MegaZ-LRG sample for more than 800 000 luminous red galaxies for comoving transverse separations of 0.3 < rp < 60 h-1 Mpc, making the first such measurement with a photometric redshift sample. In combination with a re-analysis of several spectroscopic SDSS samples, we constrain an intrinsic alignment model for early-type galaxies over long baselines in redshift (z ? 0.7) and luminosity (4 mag) with high statistical precision. We develop and test the formalism to incorporate photometric redshift scatter in the modelling of these observations. For rp > 6 h-1 Mpc, the fits to galaxy position-shape correlation functions are consistent with the scaling with rp and redshift of a revised, nonlinear version of the linear alignment model (Hirata & Seljak 2004) for all samples. An extra redshift dependence ? (1 + z)?other is constrained to ?other = -0.3 ± 0.8 (1?). To obtain consistent amplitudes for all data, an additional dependence on galaxy luminosity ? L? with ?=1.1+0.3-0.2 is required. The normalisation of the intrinsic alignment power spectrum is found to be (0.077 ± 0.008) ?cr-1 for galaxies at redshift 0.3 and r band magnitude of - 22 (k- and evolution-corrected to z = 0). Assuming zero intrinsic alignments for blue galaxies, we assess the bias on cosmological parameters for a tomographic CFHTLS-like lensing survey given our new constraints on the intrinsic alignment model parameter space. Both the resulting mean bias and its uncertainty are smaller than the 1? statistical errors when using the constraints from all samples combined. The addition of MegaZ-LRG data is critical to achieving constraints this strong, reducing the uncertainty in intrinsic alignment bias on cosmological parameters by factors of three to seven. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Joachimi, B.; Mandelbaum, R.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bridle, S. L.

2011-03-01

385

We present the results of the Gravitational LEnsing Accuracy Testing 2008 (GREAT08) Challenge, a blind analysis challenge to infer weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from images. The primary goal was to stimulate new ideas by presenting the problem to researchers outside the shear measurement community. Six GREAT08 Team methods were presented at the launch of the Challenge and five additional

Sarah Bridle; Sreekumar T. Balan; Matthias Bethge; Marc Gentile; Stefan Harmeling; Catherine Heymans; Michael Hirsch; Reshad Hosseini; Mike Jarvis; Donnacha Kirk; Thomas Kitching; Konrad Kuijken; Antony Lewis; Stephane Paulin-Henriksson; Bernhard Schölkopf; Malin Velander; Lisa Voigt; Dugan Witherick; Adam Amara; Gary Bernstein; Frédéric Courbin; Mandeep Gill; Alan Heavens; Rachel Mandelbaum; Richard Massey; Baback Moghaddam; Anais Rassat; Alexandre Réfrégier; Jason Rhodes; Tim Schrabback; John Shawe-Taylor; Marina Shmakova; Ludovic Van Waerbeke; David Wittman

2010-01-01

386

We present a Subaru weak lensing measurement of ACT-CL J0022.2-0036, one of the most luminous, high-redshift (z=0.81) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) clusters discovered in the 268 deg^2 equatorial region survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. For the weak lensing analysis using i'-band images, we use a model-fitting (Gauss-Laguerre shapelet) method to measure shapes of galaxy images, where we fit galaxy images in different exposures simultaneously to obtain best-fit ellipticities taking into account the different PSFs in each exposure. We also take into account the astrometric distortion effect on galaxy images by performing the model fitting in the world coordinate system. To select background galaxies behind the cluster at z=0.81, we use photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for every galaxy derived from the co-added images of multi-passband Br'i'z'Y, with PSF matching/homogenization. After a photo-z cut for background galaxy selection, we detect the tangential weak lensing distortion signal with a total si...

Miyatake, Hironao; Takada, Masahiro; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Spergel, David N; Bickerton, Steven J; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul A; Reese, Erik D; Sifon, Cristobal; Wollack, Edward J; Yasuda, Naoki

2013-01-01

387

Practical cosmology with lenses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys with submillimetre telescopes are revealing large numbers of gravitationally lensed high-redshift sources. I describe how, in practice, these lensed systems could be simultaneously used to estimate the values of cosmological parameters, test models for the evolution of the distribution of dark-matter haloes and investigate the properties of the source population. Even the existing sample of lenses found with the Herschel Space Observatory is enough to formally rule out the standard models of the evolving population of dark-matter haloes, with the likely explanation a combination of baryon physics and the perturbation by infalling baryons of the density distribution of dark matter at the centres of the haloes. Independently of the evolution of the haloes, observations of a sample of 100 lensed systems would be enough to estimate ?? with a precision of 5 per cent and observations of 1000 lenses would be enough to estimate w, the parameter in the equation of state of dark energy, with a precision similar to that obtained from the Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background. While the fraction of submillimetre sources that are lensed depends weakly on the specific halo mass function that is used in the model, it depends very strongly on the evolution of the submillimetre luminosity function of the source population. Therefore measurements of the lensing fraction could be used to investigate galaxy evolution in a way that is independent of the properties of the intervening haloes.

Eales, S. A.

2015-01-01

388

Critical Lines in Gravitational Lenses and the Determination of Cosmological Parameters

We investigate the cosmological test recently proposed by B. Fort, Y. Mellier and M. Dantel-Fort (FMD), where the observed location of the critical line in gravitational lensing is used to determine the cosmological parameters, $\\Omega$ and $\\lambda$. Applying this method to the cluster of galaxies Cl0024+1654, FMD obtained a constraint on the cosmological constant, $\\lambda > 0.6$, assuming the spatially flat universe. It plays a crucial role in this method that the angular diameter distance-redshift relation depends on the cosmological models through the cosmological parameters. First, using the angular diameter distance in the Friedmann-Lemaitre- Robertson-Walker universe, we show that one can hardly determine $\\Omega$ by this method without the assumption of the spatially flat universe. We also investigate the effect of inhomogeneities of the universe by using the Dyer-Roeder angular diameter distance. It is shown that the effect of inhomogeneities can become too large to be ignored, particularly for a high density universe. As a result, this method cannot be taken as a clear cosmological test to determine $\\Omega$ and $\\lambda$, though it may provide a bound on $\\Omega$ and $\\lambda$. Moreover, we mention the uncertainty of the determination of the velocity dispersion, which is regarded as one of the most serious problems in this test.

Hideki Asada

1996-11-14

389

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.

Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Wollack, Ed

2014-01-01

390

The Baryonic and Dark Matter Properties of High Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Disk Galaxies

We present a detailed study of the structural properties of four gravitationally lensed disk galaxies at z=1. Modelling the rotation curves on sub-kpc scales we derive the values for the disk mass, the reference dark matter density and core radius, and the angular momentum per unit mass. The derived models suggest that the rotation curve profile and amplitude are best fit with a dark matter component similar to those of local spiral galaxies. The stellar component also has a similar length scale, but with substantially smaller masses than similarly luminous disk galaxies in the local universe. Comparing the average dark matter density inside the optical radius we find that the disk galaxies at z=1 have larger densities (by up to a factor of 7) than similar disk galaxies in the local Universe. Furthermore, the angular momentum per unit mass versus reference velocity is well matched to the local relation, suggesting that the angular momentum of the disk remains constant between high redshifts and the present day. Though statistically limited, these observations point towards a spirals' formation scenario in which stellar disks are slowly grown by the accretion of angular momentum conserving material.

P. Salucci; A. M. Swinbank; A. Lapi; I. Yegorova; R. G. Bower; Ian Smail; G. P. Smith

2007-08-06

391

Dusty starburst galaxies in the early Universe as revealed by gravitational lensing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.

Vieira, J. D.; Marrone, D. P.; Chapman, S. C.; De Breuck, C.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Wei?, A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Biggs, A. D.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bothwell, M.; Bradford, C. M.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fassnacht, C. D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Halverson, N. W.; High, F. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Hunter, T. R.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-van, D.; Malkan, M.; McIntyre, V.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Murphy, E. J.; Natoli, T.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sharon, K.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Shirokoff, E.; Spilker, J. S.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Welikala, N.; Williamson, R.

2013-03-01

392

Black hole solution and strong gravitational lensing in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

A new theory of gravity called Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity was recently proposed by Ba\\~{n}ados and Ferreira. This theory leads to some exciting new features, such as free of cosmological singularities. In this paper, we first obtain a charged EiBI black hole solution with a nonvanishing cosmological constant when the electromagnetic field is included in. Then based on it, we study the strong gravitational lensing by the asymptotic flat charged EiBI black hole. The strong deflection limit coefficients and observables are shown to closely depend on the additional coupling parameter $\\kappa$ in the EiBI gravity. It is found that, compared with the corresponding charged black hole in general relativity, the positive coupling parameter $\\kappa$ will shrink the black hole horizon and photon sphere. Moreover, the coupling parameter will decrease the angular position and relative magnitudes of the relativistic images, while increase the angular separation, which may shine new light on testing such gravity theory in near future by the astronomical instruments.

Shao-Wen Wei; Ke Yang; Yu-Xiao Liu

2014-05-09

393

THE REMARKABLE {gamma}-RAY ACTIVITY IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED BLAZAR PKS 1830-211

We report the extraordinary {gamma}-ray activity (E > 100 MeV) of the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211 (z = 2.507) detected by AGILE between 2010 October and November. On October 14, the source experienced a factor of {approx}12 flux increase with respect to its average value and remained brightest at this flux level ({approx}500 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for about four days. The one-month {gamma}-ray light curve across the flare showed a mean flux F(E > 100 MeV) = 200 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which resulted in a factor of four enhancement with respect to the average value. Following the {gamma}-ray flare, the source was observed in near-IR (NIR)-optical energy bands at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and in X-Rays by Swift/X-Ray Telescope and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The main result of these multifrequency observations is that the large variability observed in {gamma}-rays does not have a significant counterpart at lower frequencies: no variation greater than a factor of {approx}1.5 appeared in the NIR and X-Ray energy bands. PKS 1830-211 is then a good '{gamma}-ray only flaring' blazar showing substantial variability only above 10-100 MeV. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings.

Donnarumma, I.; De Rosa, A.; Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Striani, E.; Pacciani, L. [INAF/IASF-Roma, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Miller, H. R.; Eggen, J.; Maune, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Georgia State University, GA 30303-3083 (United States); Popovic, L. C. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160, Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Simic, S. [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Yugoslavia Branch, Belgrade (Serbia); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Astronomy Centre, SRE-O, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Vercellone, S. [INAF/IASF Palermo Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Pucella, G. [ENEA-Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Giommi, P. [ASI-ASDC, Via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN Trieste, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bulgarelli, A. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Cattaneo, P. W., E-mail: immacolata.donnarumma@iasf-roma.inaf.it [INFN-Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

2011-08-01

394

Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension ? on the brane, and an extra parameter ? tunes the cross-over scale r{sub c}, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ?CDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ?CDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ?CDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ?CDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3? uncertainty in the angular scale range 700?

Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ''A. Avogadro'', Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Ambiente e il Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (Italy)

2011-01-01

395

Atmospheric point spread function interpolation for weak lensing in short exposure imaging data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main science goal for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is to measure the cosmic shear signal from weak lensing to extreme accuracy. One difficulty, however, is that with the short exposure time (?15 s) proposed, the spatial variation of the point spread function (PSF) shapes may be dominated by the atmosphere, in addition to optics errors. While optics errors mainly cause the PSF to vary on angular scales similar or larger than a single CCD sensor, the atmosphere generates stochastic structures on a wide range of angular scales. It thus becomes a challenge to infer the multiscale, complex atmospheric PSF patterns by interpolating the sparsely sampled stars in the field. In this paper we present a new method, PSFENT, for interpolating the PSF shape parameters, based on reconstructing underlying shape parameter maps with a multiscale maximum entropy algorithm. We demonstrate, using images from the LSST Photon Simulator, the performance of our approach relative to a fifth-order polynomial fit (representing the current standard) and a simple boxcar smoothing technique. Quantitatively, PSFENT predicts more accurate PSF models in all scenarios and the residual PSF errors are spatially less correlated. This improvement in PSF interpolation leads to a factor of 3.5 lower systematic errors in the shear power spectrum on scales smaller than ˜13 arcmin, compared to polynomial fitting. We estimate that with PSFENT and for stellar densities greater than ?1 arcmin-2, the spurious shear correlation from PSF interpolation, after combining a complete 10-yr data set from LSST, is lower than the corresponding statistical uncertainties on the cosmic shear power spectrum, even under a conservative scenario.

Chang, C.; Marshall, P. J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Peterson, J. R.; Kahn, S. M.; Gull, S. F.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M. A.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Peng, E.; Rasmussen, A. P.; Shmakova, M.; Sylvestre, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

2012-12-01

396

We present three-epoch multiband ($V_{606}$, $i_{775}$, $z_{850}$) measurements of galaxy shapes using the ``polar shapelet'' or Laguerre-expansions method with the Hubble Space Telescope ($HST$) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data, obtained as part of the {\\it Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey} (GOODS). We take advantage of the unique features of the GOODS/ACS Fields to test the reliability of this relatively new method of galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing analysis and to quantify the impact of the ACS Point Spread Function (PSF) on $HST$/ACS data. We estimate the bias introduced by the sharp PSF of the ACS on shape measurement. We show that the bias in the tangential shear due to galaxy-galaxy lensing can be safely neglected provided only well-resolved galaxies are used, while it would be comparable to the signal level (1--3%) for cosmic shear measurements. These results should of be general utility in planning and analyzing weak lensing measurements with $HST$/ACS data.

Yousin Park; Stefano Casertano; Henry C. Ferguson

2003-09-11