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1

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats of Blended Learning: Students' Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background: Blended learning (BL) in a cell biology course of the premedical program at the Kasturba Medical College International Centre, Manipal, India, commenced in 2006. The program provides training in basic sciences to students, especially from the United States and Canada. The approach to the study was phenomenographic, with a qualitative study design using an open-ended questionnaire, focused interviews and empirical observations. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of BL in a premedical class. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Ninety six students in a premedical cell biology class participated in the study. SWOT analysis of students’ perceptions was conducted manually. Statistical analysis included content analysis of qualitative data to classify data and aligning them into the SWOT analysis matrix. Results: The outcomes of the study revealed student perceptions in terms of SWOT of BL and the potential uses of this strategy. Conclusions: The study provides background for educators and curriculum experts to plan their modules while incorporating a BL approach.

Hande, S

2014-01-01

2

Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

Sharma, Manoj

2005-01-01

3

EVALUATION IN COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES: A STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to qualitatively analyse the extent to which community based rehabilitation programmes have been evaluated over the past thirty years. A framework of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was used in conducting this analysis. Using an extensive search of MEDLINE, 22 articles were located that described and evaluated one or more dimensions of CBR.

Manoj Sharma

2007-01-01

4

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2011-04-01

5

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

6

PERCEIVED STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS IMPACTING THE DIFFUSION OF DISTANCE EDUCATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with using distance education (DE) technologies in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Texas A&M University from the perspective of administrators, faculty, and professional support staff. Rogers ' Diffusion of Innovation (1995) served as the theoretical underpinnings for the study. Qualitative research (naturalistic

Theresa Pesl Murphrey; Kim E. Dooley

2000-01-01

7

Perspectives of Health Care Issues in Rural Kansas Communities: An Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of healthcare issues in rural Kansas communities. Methods. Ten focus groups were conducted with rural community leaders. Results . Community strengths included quality of life, community involvement, healthcare facilities, agency collaboration, and commitment to healthcare worker recruitment. Weaknesses were language barriers, aging population, healthcare workforce availability, physician and

Gina M. Berg-Copas; Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt; Ruth Wetta-Hall; David J. Cook

2009-01-01

8

Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Impacting the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with administrators, faculty, and support staff (n=42) in a university agriculture department revealed that they recognized distance technology as a means of reaching new audiences; policies and procedures must expand to address technology issues; competition, external dependence, and Internet misinformation were threats.…

Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

2000-01-01

9

The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting  

PubMed Central

Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of funding of personnel to coordinate the assessment process is the most important threat. Conclusion The BelRAI-software allows standardized transmural information transfer and the centralization of medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. It is strictly secured and follows strict privacy regulations, allowing hospitals to optimize (transmural) communication and interaction. However, weaknesses and threats exist and must be tackled in order to promote large scale implementation.

2013-01-01

10

Grip Strength Cutpoints for the Identification of Clinically Relevant Weakness  

PubMed Central

Background. Weakness is common and contributes to disability, but no consensus exists regarding a strength cutpoint to identify persons at high risk. This analysis, conducted as part of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project, sought to identify cutpoints that distinguish weakness associated with mobility impairment, defined as gait speed less than 0.8 m/s. Methods. In pooled cross-sectional data (9,897 men and 10,950 women), Classification and Regression Tree analysis was used to derive cutpoints for grip strength associated with mobility impairment. Results. In men, a grip strength of 26–32 kg was classified as “intermediate” and less than 26 kg as “weak”; 11% of men were intermediate and 5% were weak. Compared with men with normal strength, odds ratios for mobility impairment were 3.63 (95% CI: 3.01–4.38) and 7.62 (95% CI 6.13–9.49), respectively. In women, a grip strength of 16–20 kg was classified as “intermediate” and less than 16 kg as “weak”; 25% of women were intermediate and 18% were weak. Compared with women with normal strength, odds ratios for mobility impairment were 2.44 (95% CI 2.20–2.71) and 4.42 (95% CI 3.94–4.97), respectively. Weakness based on these cutpoints was associated with mobility impairment across subgroups based on age, body mass index, height, and disease status. Notably, in women, grip strength divided by body mass index provided better fit relative to grip strength alone, but fit was not sufficiently improved to merit different measures by gender and use of a more complex measure. Conclusions. Cutpoints for weakness derived from this large, diverse sample of older adults may be useful to identify populations who may benefit from interventions to improve muscle strength and function.

2014-01-01

11

Radiochemistry in the twenty-first century: Strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are discussed. For that purpose radiochemistry is subdivided into three categories. The first category covers fundamental aspects, e.g. nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers topics where radioactivity is inextricably involved, e.g. the nuclear fuel cycle, very heavy elements and other actinides, primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity, and radionuclide techniques for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as essential part of a technique. On one hand radioactivity is used here as source of ionising radiation for food conservation, polymerisation of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation. On the other hand it is used to get information on systems and materials, via radiotracer methods and nuclear activation techniques. In particular the latter field is experiencing strong competition with other, non-nuclear methods. In this frame it is indicated what is required to achieve a situation where nuclear analytical techniques may successfully be exploited to the full extent of their potentials, particularly in providing valuable and sometimes unique information.

de Goeij, J. J. M.

2003-01-01

12

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N = 181, 56% female and 44%…

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

13

"Mohr space" and its applications to weakness reactivation, strength decrease and anisotropies with pre-existing weakness(es)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohr circle, which was introduced by Otto Mohr (1882), is one of the most used and useful tool in structural geology, but it can be used in two dimension only. In this paper, a new graphical technique ("Mohr space") for any tri-axial stress state (principal stress axis may tilt), is proposed, and Mohr circle is expanded for three dimensional stress analysis. By compilation of the contour diagram of two orientation angles of any plane in "Mohr space", the correspondence between the pole (?n, ?n) and the orientation for any plane in "Mohr space" is established. As a result, the normal stress (?n) and shear stress (?n) of any plane (including weakness plane) can be conveniently and intuitively expressed in "Mohr-space", which may be much easier to understand than that of equations for most geologists. The results show that, the shape of "Mohr space" (including the feature of "Mohr space", the contours characteristics of two orientation angles) is determined by (?1-?2) / (?2-?3) or the relative ?2 value, and the size of "Mohr space" is determined by (?1-?3). "Mohr-space" can be used to predict the activation and relative activation of pre-existing weakness, and evaluate shear strength decrease and Anisotropies with Pre-existing Weakness(es). Because of its intuitive and convenience, "Mohr space" is expected to have broad application prospects.

Tong, H.

2012-12-01

14

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children’s mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth and fifth grade years (n = 181; 56% female). Procedural knowledge was regressed on levels of conceptual knowledge, and vice versa, to obtain residual scores. Residual scores capture variability in each kind of math knowledge that is not shared with the other type of knowledge. Cluster analysis using residuals indicated four distinct knowledge profiles in fourth graders: a) higher than expected conceptual knowledge and relatively lower procedural knowledge, b) relatively lower conceptual knowledge and higher procedural knowledge, c) lower concepts but expected levels of procedural knowledge, and d) relatively higher than expected levels of both procedural and conceptual knowledge. In fifth grade, another cluster emerged that showed lower procedures but expected levels of conceptual knowledge. In general, students with relatively lower than expected conceptual knowledge showed poorer accuracy on measures used to form the clusters and also word problem set-ups and estimation of sums. Implications for explaining seemingly conflicting results from prior work across studies were discussed.

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

15

Patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's knowledge about fractions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N=181, 56% female and 44% male). Procedural knowledge was regressed on levels of conceptual knowledge, and vice versa, to obtain residual scores. Residual scores capture variability in each kind of math knowledge that is not shared with the other type of knowledge. Cluster analysis using residuals indicated four distinct knowledge profiles in fourth graders: (a) higher than expected conceptual knowledge and relatively lower procedural knowledge, (b) relatively lower conceptual knowledge and higher procedural knowledge, (c) lower concepts but expected levels of procedural knowledge, and (d) relatively higher than expected levels of both procedural and conceptual knowledge. In fifth grade, another cluster emerged that showed lower procedures but expected levels of conceptual knowledge. In general, students with relatively lower than expected conceptual knowledge showed poorer accuracy on measures used to form the clusters and also word problem setups and estimation of sums. Implications for explaining seemingly conflicting results from prior work across studies are discussed. PMID:21945345

Hecht, Steven A; Vagi, Kevin J

2012-02-01

16

Strengths and Weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of NNESTs in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) are always compared with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) on linguistic grounds, their strengths and weaknesses as English teachers are worthy of investigation. This paper reports on a mixed methods study which examines the strengths and weaknesses of NNESTs and NESTs through the…

Ma, Lai Ping Florence

2012-01-01

17

Optical strength of weakly absorbing drops in intense light fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers possible mechanisms for the destruction (vaporization) of weakly absorbing water drops in intense laser radiation fields. Consideration is given to the effects of such processes as optical breakdown and stimulated Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering on drop vaporization parameters and to the effect of nonuniformity of optical field distribution in drops with radii up to 60 microns. It is shown

A. A. Zemlianov; V. A. Pogodaev; V. N. Pozhidaev; L. K. Chistiakova

1977-01-01

18

Critical length derived from weak layer shear strength spatial variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary process required for dry-snow slab avalanche release is failure initiation in a weak snow layer underlying a cohesive snow slab. The initiation is assumed to occur by damage accumulation followed by failure localization in a very weak zone of the weak layer so that a crack forms. If the crack further grows and reaches a certain (critical) size, it suddenly becomes self-propagating which may lead to catastrophic failure, i.e. avalanche release. For a 2-D snow cover on a slope, using the finite element method, we compute this critical length as a function of the properties of the snow slab and the spatially varying properties of the underlying weak layer. The simulation results suggest that the critical length increases with increasing slab stiffness and with increasing spatial variability (coefficient of variation and correlation length). Finally, we compare our results with field data of critical lengths obtained with either propagation saw tests (PSTs) or derived from snow micro-penetrometer (SMP) measurements.

Gaume, Johan; Schweizer, Jürg; van Herwijnen, Alec; Reuter, Benjamin; Chambon, Guillaume

2014-05-01

19

Renewable Energy Development Incentives: Strengths, Weaknesses and the Interplay  

SciTech Connect

Most existing mechanisms cannot be relied on to achieve long-term growth of renewable energy, either because of their own weaknesses or because of unpredictable variables. If there is widespread support for pursuing the benefits of renewable energy, then its growth should be ensured through ambitious, long-term, and widespread mandatory objectives, rather than by relying on voluntary choices or competitive forces. (author)

Birgisson, Gunnar; Petersen, Erik

2006-04-15

20

A weak pillar for American national security: The CIA's dismal performance against WMD threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

American preemptive or preventive military action against WMD-armed adversaries in the future will simply not be feasible without high-quality and timely intelligence. But is American intelligence up to this load-bearing task for the post-11 September national security? This article surveys the Central Intelligence Agency's record of gauging potential WMD threats for more than a decade and assesses its overall performance

Richard L. Russell

2005-01-01

21

Reasons Reviewers Reject and Accept Manuscripts: The Strengths and Weaknesses in Medical Education Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored strengths and weaknesses of medical education reports by analyzing ratings and written comments by reviewers. Found that the main strengths noted in accepted manuscripts were importance or timeliness of problem studied, excellence of writing, and soundness of study design. Ignoring the literature, designing poor studies, choosing…

Bordage, Georges

2001-01-01

22

Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

2013-01-01

23

Orbital Resonances in the Solar Nebula: Strengths and Weaknesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A planetesimal moving in the Solar Nebula experiences an aerodynamic drag which causes its orbit to circularize and shrink. However, resonant perturbations from a protoplanet interior to the planetesimal's orbit can counteract both the orbital decay and the damping of the eccentricity: the planetesimal can be captured into an orbital resonance and its eccentricity pumped up to a modestly high equilibrium value. Thus, orbital resonances constitute (partial) barriers to the delivery of planetesimals into the feeding zone of the protoplanet. We have established the characteristics of the phenomenon of resonance capture by gas drag in the circular restricted three-body approximation. We have determined the strengths of the equilibrium resonant orbits with respect to impulsive velocity perturbations. We conclude that planetesimals captured in orbital resonances are quite vulnerable to being dislocated from these orbits by mutual planetesimal interactions, but that the resonances are effective in slowing down the rate of orbital decay of planetesimals. Only very small bodies, less than or equal to 100 m, are able to reach a approx. 1 Earth mass protoplanet without being slowed down by resonances.

Malhotra, Renu

1993-01-01

24

Orbital Resonances in the Solar Nebula: Strengths and Weaknesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A planetesimal moving in the Solar Nebula experiences an aero- dynamic drag which causes its orbit to circularize and shrink. However, resonant perturbations from a protoplanet interior to the planetesimal's orbit ran counteract both the orbital decay and the damping of the eccentricity: the planetesimal can be captured into an orbital resonance and its eccentricity pumped up to a modestly high equilibrium value. Thus, orbital resonances constitute (partial) barriers to the delivery of planetesimals into the feeding zone of the protoplanet. We have established the characteristics of the phenomenon of resonance capture by gas drag in the circular restricted three-body approximation. We have determined the strengths of the equilibrium resonant orbits with respect to impulsive velocity perturbations. We conclude that planetesimals captured in orbital resonances are quite vulnerable to being dislocated from these orbits by mutual planetesimal interactions, but that the resonances are effective in slowing down the rate of orbital decay of planetesimals. Only very small bodies, less or approx. equal to 100 m, are able to reach a approx. 1 mass of the earth protoplanet without being slowed down by resonances.

Malhotra, Renu

1993-01-01

25

Determining Areas of Strengths and Weaknesses on the Stanford-Binet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sattler's standard deviation technique for interpreting strengths and weaknesses on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has been simplified by Kaufman and Waterstreet in the form of an easy-to-use table. A refinement of their table is presented, with an example to demonstrate its use. (Author/CTM)

Chase, Christopher H.; Sattler, Jerome M.

1980-01-01

26

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Total Quality Management in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines Total Quality Management (TQM), discusses its origins, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses as they apply to higher education. The paper defines TQM as a philosophy of organizations that defines quality and improves organizational performance and administrative systems. The system originated from statistical quality…

Hazzard, Terry

27

Building a Performance-Based Assessment System To Diagnose Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief description of the development of the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTTS) program by F. G. Roswell and J. S. Chall. It also describes the editorial and statistical procedures that were used to validate the program for determining students' strengths and weaknesses in important areas…

Hennings, Sara S.; Hughes, Kay E.

28

Profiles of Strengths and Weaknesses in Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 83 children with different special educational needs (SEN) assessments were contrasted with a control group (N = 40) without special needs on measures that aimed to identify potential areas of strengths as well as weaknesses in these SEN groups. Carefully selected groups of dyslexics, dyspraxics, children with specific language…

Everatt, John; Weeks, Sally; Brooks, Peter

2008-01-01

29

Weak > strong: the ironic effect of argument strength on supportive advocacy.  

PubMed

When people seek support for a cause, they typically present the strongest case they can muster. The present research suggests that under some conditions, the opposite strategy may be superior-in particular, presenting weak rather than strong arguments might stimulate greater advocacy and action. Across four studies, we show that when individuals already agree with a cause (i.e., it is pro-attitudinal), receiving weak arguments in its favor can prompt them into advocating more on its behalf. Perceived argumentation efficacy mediates this effect such that people exposed to weak arguments are more likely to think they have something valuable to contribute. Moreover, consistent with the notion that it is driven by feelings of increased efficacy, the effect is more likely to emerge when initial argumentation efficacy and attitude certainty are moderate or low. Individuals with high argumentation efficacy and high certainty generally advocate more, regardless of the strength of arguments received. PMID:23798375

Akhtar, Omair; Paunesku, David; Tormala, Zakary L

2013-09-01

30

Strength functions, entropies, and duality in weakly to strongly interacting fermionic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit statistical wave function properties of finite systems of interacting fermions in the light of strength functions and their participation ratio and information entropy. For weakly interacting fermions in a mean-field with random two-body interactions of increasing strength ? , the strength functions Fk(E) are well known to change, in the regime where level fluctuations follow Wigner’s surmise, from Breit-Wigner to Gaussian form. We propose an ansatz for the function describing this transition which we use to investigate the participation ratio ?2 and the information entropy Sinfo during this crossover, thereby extending the known behavior valid in the Gaussian domain into much of the Breit-Wigner domain. Our method also allows us to derive the scaling law ?d˜1/m ( m is number of fermions) for the duality point ?=?d , where Fk(E) , ?2 , and Sinfo in both the weak (?=0) and strong mixing (?=?) basis coincide. As an application, the ansatz function for strength functions is used in describing the Breit-Wigner to Gaussian transition seen in neutral atoms CeI to SmI with valence electrons changing from 4 to 8 .

Angom, D.; Ghosh, S.; Kota, V. K. B.

2004-07-01

31

Retail pharmacy staff perceptions of design strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper explored pharmacy staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) design in retail pharmacies using the sociotechnical systems framework. This study examined how adoption of e-prescribing technology is affecting clinical practice and patient care. Materials and methods Direct observations and think aloud protocols were used to collect data from seven retail pharmacies. Results Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians reported strengths of e-prescribing design that facilitated pharmacy work which included: legibility, ease of archiving, quick access to prescriptions and consistency in the format of electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions). Design weaknesses and potential hazards to patient care associated with e-prescribing systems were due to differences between pharmacy and prescriber computer systems which resulted in the selection of wrong patient or drug (name, directions, dose, strength, formulation, package sizes). There were unique strengths and weaknesses in the design of e-prescriptions peculiar to the three pharmacy computer systems examined in this study. Discussion Findings from this study can help inform policy on creating e-prescribing design standards for pharmacy. e-Prescribing system developers can use the results of this study to identify and apply the most usable features of the three main pharmacy computer systems to design systems that support dispensing efficiency and safety. Conclusions This is the first study to highlight design flaws with e-prescribing in retail pharmacies. The sociotechnical systems framework was useful in providing an indepth understanding of the pharmacist and pharmacy technician's interface with e-prescribing technology. This information can be used by policy makers to create e-prescribing standards for pharmacies.

Chui, Michelle A

2012-01-01

32

The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

Andrekus, N.J.

1989-01-01

33

Methods, strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of bioequivalence tests with special regard to immunosuppressive drugs.  

PubMed

Within the field of solid organ transplantation, the patents for a number of immunosuppressive drugs have expired in the last few years. Tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil are now available as generic drugs. In some countries, the market penetration of these generic formulations is as high as 70%, whereas in some other countries, this figure is below 10%. Several professional societies have published position papers on the risks and benefits of generic substitution of immunosuppressive drugs. It often appears that transplant professionals are not fully aware of the requirements for registration of generic drugs. This article describes the registration requirements with a focus on bioequivalence testing, the strengths and weaknesses in this process, and the differences between Europe and the US. PMID:23441971

van Gelder, Teun; Gabardi, Steven

2013-08-01

34

Study skills and habits in Shiraz dental students; strengths and weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The dental students, the same as other students, during their academic courses are required to learn a wide range of scientific subjects. Obviously, choosing the inappropriate method of study leads to confuse and disenchantment of students and it causes wasting of their energy. The purpose of this study was to assess the existing strengths and weaknesses of the skills and study habits in Dental Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009-10. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all of the dental students (n = 274), who studied at the time of study at all levels in the academic year of 2009-10, were selected by the census. Data were collected by using the Huston University questionnaire consisted of two parts of demographic questions and 64 specific areas of study skills in eight domains of time management, concentration/memory, study aids/note taking, test strategies, information processing, motivation, self-assessment/reading, and writing skills. Following the retranslation of the questionnaire, the validity was confirmed by using the content validity method. The reliability was obtained by using the Cronbach's Alpha of 0.92. The data were analyzed with SPSS software version 17 and using analytical statistic tests. Results: Students who have previously participated in the study skills workshops had stronger skills in comparison with the students who had not participated in these workshops. Time management skills (P = 0.04), motivation (P = 0.0001) and information processing (P = 0.03) in students with professional status were in a more favorable position and showed significant differences in terms of educational levels. The study skills mean score of the students living in student housings in comparison with the other students were significantly higher (P = 0.04). Marital status showed no significant differences in reading skills. Conclusion and Recommendations: The review of study skills in the undergraduate and post-graduate dental students indicated that the residents had higher reading skills. By recognizing the existing strengths and weaknesses and holding programs through counseling centers can develop the study skills in the students.

Zarshenas, Ladan; Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Mazarei, Elham; Najafi, Hooman Zarif; Shakour, Mahsa

2014-01-01

35

The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals.

Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

2014-01-01

36

The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

2014-01-01

37

Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

2013-01-01

38

Cavities of weak magnetic field strength in the wake of FTEs: Results from global magnetospheric MHD simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

2009-05-01

39

Cavities of Weak Magnetic Field Strength in the Wake of FTEs: Results from Global Magnetospheric MHD Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

2009-01-01

40

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Using Social Software in Higher and Further Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social software is increasingly being used in higher and further education to support teaching and learning processes. These applications provide students with social and cognitive stimulation and also add to the interaction between students and educators. However, in addition to the benefits the introduction of social software into a course…

Schroeder, A.; Minocha, S.; Schneider, C.

2010-01-01

41

Strengths and weaknesses of parent-staff communication in the NICU: a survey assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) find themselves in a situation of emotional strain. Communication in the NICU presents special challenges due to parental stress and the complexity of the highly technologized environment. Parents’ need for communication may not always be met by the NICU staff. This study aimed to describe strengths and weaknesses of parent–nurse and parent–doctor communication in a large level III NICU in Sweden in order to improve our understanding of parents’ communication needs. Methods Parents were asked to complete a survey consisting of sixteen questions about their experiences of communication with nurses and doctors in the NICU. In each question the parents evaluated some aspect of communication on a five- or six-point Likert scale. They also had the opportunity on each question to comment on their experiences in their own words. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 and qualitative manifest content analysis. Results 270 parents (71.4%) completed the survey. Parents generally rated communication with the staff in the NICU positively and appreciated having received emotional support and regular information about their child´s care. Although a large majority of the parents were satisfied with their communication with doctors and nurses, only about half of the parents felt the nurses and doctors understood their emotional situation very well. Some parents would have desired easier access to conversations with doctors and wanted medical information to be given directly by doctors rather than by nurses. Parents’ communication with the staff was hampered when many different nurses were involved in caring for the infant or when the transfer of information in connection with shift changes or between the maternity ward and NICU was poor. Parents also desired to be present during doctors’ rounds on their infant. Conclusions Training both doctors and nurses in communication skills, especially in how to meet parents’ emotional needs better, could make communication at the NICU more effective and improve parental well-being. Creating a framework for the parents of what to expect from NICU communication might also be helpful. In addition, our results support the use of primary nurse teams to improve continuity of care and thereby promote successful communication.

2013-01-01

42

The Strength of Weak Identities: Social Structural Sources of Self, Situation and Emotional Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern societies are highly differentiated, with relatively uncorrelated socially salient dimensions and a preponderance of weak, unidimensional (as opposed to strong, multiplex) ties. What are the implications of a society with fewer strong ties and more weak ties for the self? What do these changes mean for our emotional experience in everyday…

Smith-Lovin, Lynn

2007-01-01

43

MetaLib, WebFeat, and Google: The strengths and weaknesses of federated search engines compared with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Seeks to describe library federated search engines MetaLib and WebFeat as research tools by comparing MetaLib with WebFeat and by highlighting their strengths and weaknesses against Google and Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study tested MetaLib and WebFeat from various libraries; attended vendor demos and asked vendors questions; reviewed literature; and interviewed system administrators of MetaLib and WebFeat.

Xiaotian Chen

2006-01-01

44

Weak Grip Strength Does not Predict Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms or Injuries Among New Workers.  

PubMed

Purpose Grip strength is often tested during post-offer pre-placement screening for workers in hand-intensive jobs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between grip strength and upper extremity symptoms, work disability, and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UE MSDs) in a group of workers newly employed in both high and low hand intensive work. Methods 1,107 recently-hired workers completed physical examinations including grip strength measurements. Repeated surveys obtained over 3 years described the presence of upper extremity symptoms, report of physician-diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and job titles. Baseline measured grip values were used in analytic models as continuous and categorized values to predict upper extremity symptoms, work disability, or UE MSD diagnosis. Results Twenty-six percent of males and 20 % of females had low baseline hand strength compared to normative data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed no consistent associations between grip strength and three health outcomes (UE symptoms, work disability, and MSDs) in this young cohort (mean age 30 years). Past MSD and work type were significant predictors of these outcomes. Conclusions Physical hand strength testing was not useful for identifying workers at risk for developing UE MSDs, and may be an inappropriate measure for post-offer job screens. PMID:23857165

Dale, Ann Marie; Addison, Lesley; Lester, Josh; Kaskutas, Vicki; Evanoff, Bradley

2014-06-01

45

A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

2012-01-01

46

Nuclear Energy: Its Strengths, Weaknesses and Role in Finland (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear energy has, in principle, various strengths as an energy form. In spite of the drawbacks of nuclear power, the benefits exceed its cost. That is why power companies in Finland have decided to apply for the construction, of the fifth nuclear power ...

A. Ruuskanen

1991-01-01

47

Testing the strength of weak ties theory in small educational social networking websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most face-to-face interaction networks are structured as predicted by Granovetter's dasiastrength of weak tiespsila theory. This paper seeks to verify whether friendship relation in social networking websites is structured similarly as in face-to-face social networks. This is accomplished by examining the most important consequences of the theory in four smaller educational online social networks. It was found that all of

Haris Memic

2009-01-01

48

Determination of the K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of atoms using a weak beta source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of Gd, Hf and Ta atoms have been determined using a novel method. In this method, bremsstrahlung photons produced by beta particles from a weak beta source of 90Sr-90Y in a nickel foil are incident on an elemental target and the transmitted spectrum of photons emerging from the target is measured using an ORTEC make HPGe detector coupled to 8 K multichannel analyser. The recorded spectrum shows a sudden drop at the K shell binding energy of the target atom and an exponential decrease in the intensity above the K shell binding energy. These portions have been used to determine the K shell binding energy, photoelectric cross-section at the K edge, the K shell oscillator strength and the imaginary form factor of the elements Gd, Hf and Ta. Good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values is observed.

Hosur, Savita B.; Badiger, N. M.; Naik, L. R.

2008-05-01

49

Ion Velocity Distribution of a Weakly Ionized Gas in a Uniform Electric Field of Arbitrary Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity-distribution function of ions in a neutral gas is studied. A uniform electric field of arbitrary strength is assumed and only binary-ion-neutral-particle collisions are considered. Under these conditions part of the Boltzmann-equation collision operator is replaced by a kinetic model which enables the ion velocity distribution to be found in compact analytical form if the mean free time between

John H. Whealton; Shien-Biau Woo

1972-01-01

50

Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To explore the attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese towards the strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine.?DESIGN—Qualitative study of subjects' opinions using semi-structured focus group interviews.?SETTING—Southern district of Hong Kong Island where many of the residents have a fisherman background.?PARTICIPANTS—Twenty nine participants took part in eight focus group interviews. Measurements and main results—Participants' attitudes towards TCM and Western medicine were explored in the interviews. Both TCM and Western medicine are used concurrently by many people in Hong Kong. Patients make decisions on which type of doctors they want to see for the specific illnesses that they are suffering from. They consider both types of medicines to have strengths and weaknesses: TCM being better in curing the root of the problem but quite slow in action while Western medicine is more powerful but sometimes too powerful with significant side effects.?CONCLUSIONS—It is important for medical practitioners to be aware of the health attitudes of their patients from different ethnic backgrounds. It will lead to a better patient-doctor relationship and better compliance of treatment.???Keywords: Chinese medicine

Lam, T

2001-01-01

51

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of many safety critical systems poses new problems for mishap analysis. Techniques developed in the sixties and seventies cannot easily scale-up to analyze incidents involving tightly integrated software and hardware components. Similarly, the realization that many failures have systemic causes has widened the scope of many mishap investigations. Organizations, including NASA and the NTSB, have responded by starting research and training initiatives to ensure that their personnel are well equipped to meet these challenges. One strand of research has identified a range of mathematically based techniques that can be used to reason about the causes of complex, adverse events. The proponents of these techniques have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. Mathematical proofs can reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have opposed the introduction of these techniques by identifying social and political aspects to incident investigation that cannot easily be reconciled with a logic-based approach. Traditional theorem proving mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators routinely use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper summarizes some of the benefits that logics provide, describes their weaknesses, and proposes a number of directions for future research.

Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

2002-01-01

52

Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different fire regimes and incidence) have been selected to investigate, by questionnaire and meetings, stakeholders perception on present strength and weakness in the adopted plans. The results of the answers analysis show some main deficit aspects covering prevalently carthographic and procedural implementations: • Plans shall include a risk and vulnerability map; dangerous seasons are to be determined and have to be updated with current weather conditions. • Standardization of terminology and classifications in the plans. • Plans shall include a specific section for firefighting in RUI, socially being the most important areas to protect and where most complications during firefighting are found. • Protocols shall be adapted to the real on site situation. A single control center in the event of fire should be identified. This is particularly important if third-party resources are involved in the operations. • Use of new technologies, i.e. fire simulators, LIDAR, for fuel amount and availability determination, wind simulation, CO2 emissions, vegetation structure. In the same time some active proposals are supplyed by the operators, directly derived and linked with the wekness above mentioned: • Use of new technological tools for analysis (simulators, etc.) and for driving the operative aspects during the suppression. • Standardization of communication protocols in the plans and during the field operations. • Increase use of fire for landscape management in certain areas. • Investments shall be made in land resources rather than in air means, generally already sufficient. This analysis represents a first effort to collect and schematize the effective applicability level of the indications included in the Plans. It is the base for possible tuning of the research and policy lines and also to tuning the present documents; the indications supplied prove that the efforts done in research are been acquired by the operative sectors and that the active involvement of stakeholder is the future challenge to enhance the plans efficacy.

Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

2014-05-01

53

AERONET-OC: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Network for the Validation of Satellite Coastal Radiometric Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been implemented to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site consistent and accurate measurements collected by autonomous radiometer systems deployed on offshore fixed platforms. The ultimate purpose of AERONET-OC is the production of standardized measurements performed at different sites with identical measuring systems and protocols, calibrated using a single reference source and method, and processed with the same code. The AERONET-OC primary data product is the normalized water leaving radiance determined at center-wavelengths of interest for satellite ocean color applications, with an uncertainty lower than 5% in the blue-green spectral regions and higher than 8% in the red. Measurements collected at 6 sites counting the northern Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, the Persian Gulf, and, the northern and southern margins of the Middle Atlantic Bay, have shown the capability of producing quality assured data over a wide range of bio-optical conditions including Case-2 yellow substance- and sedimentdominated waters. This work briefly introduces network elements like: deployment sites, measurement method, instrument calibration, processing scheme, quality-assurance, uncertainties, data archive and products accessibility. Emphases is given to those elements which underline the network strengths (i.e., mostly standardization of any network element) and its weaknesses (i.e., the use of consolidated, but old-fashioned technology). The work also addresses the application of AERONET-OC data to the validation of primary satellite radiometric products over a variety of complex coastal waters and finally provides elements for the identification of new deployment sites most suitable to support satellite ocean color missions.

Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; D'Alimonte, Davide; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Schuster, Gregory; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Kaitala, Seppo; Seppala, Jukka

2008-01-01

54

Reduction of spectroscopic strength: Weakly-bound and strongly-bound single-particle states studied using one-nucleon knockout reactions  

SciTech Connect

Both one-proton and one-neutron knockout reactions were performed with fast beams of two asymmetric, neutron-deficient rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation. The reactions are used to probe the nucleon spectroscopic strengths at both the weakly and strongly bound nucleon Fermi surfaces. The one-proton knockout reactions {sup 9}Be({sup 28}S,{sup 27}P)X and {sup 9}Be({sup 24}Si,{sup 23}Al)X probe the weakly bound valence proton states and the one-neutron knockout reactions and {sup 9}Be({sup 28}S, {sup 27}S)X and {sup 9}Be({sup 24}Si, {sup 23}Si)X the strongly bound neutron states in the two systems. The spectroscopic strengths are extracted from the measured cross sections by comparisons with an eikonal reaction theory. The reduction of the experimentally deduced spectroscopic strengths, relative to the predictions of shell-model calculations, is of order 0.8-0.9 in the removal of weakly bound protons and 0.3-0.4 in the knockout of the strongly bound neutrons. These results support previous studies at the extremes of nuclear binding and provide further evidence that in asymmetric nuclear systems the nucleons of the deficient species, at the more-bound Fermi surface are more strongly correlated than those of the more weakly bound excess species.

Gade, A.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; McDaniel, S.; Siwek, K. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Adrich, P.; Bazin, D.; Campbell, C. M.; Obertelli, A.; Weisshaar, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Hosier, K.; McGlinchery, D.; Riley, L. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426 (United States); Tostevin, J. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2008-04-15

55

Strengths and weaknesses of guideline approaches to safeguard voluntary informed consent of patients within a dependent relationship  

PubMed Central

Background It is thought that a dependent relationship between patients and physicians who enroll their own patients in research compromises voluntary informed consent. Therefore, several ethical guidelines for human subject research provide approaches to mitigate these compromises. Currently, these approaches have not been critically evaluated. In this article, we analyze the approaches of ethical guidelines to manage the influence of a dependent relationship between patients and physicians on voluntary informed consent and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. Methods We performed a review of international ethical guidance documents on human subject research, listed in the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics and found through cross referencing. We also searched Global Ethics Observatory (GEObs) and the World Health Organization (WHO) website. Guidelines from all years were eligible for inclusion. The date last searched was December 2013. Discussion We identified two basic guideline approaches: 1. a process approach, which focuses on the person who obtains informed consent, that is, an independent individual, such as a research nurse or counselor; and 2. a content approach, emphasizing the voluntary nature of participation. Both approaches are valuable, either because the influence of the physician may diminish or because it empowers patients to make voluntary decisions. However, the approaches also face challenges. First, research nurses are not always independent. Second, physician-investigators will be informed about decisions of their patients. Third, involvement of a counselor is sometimes unfeasible. Fourth, the right to withdraw may be difficult to act upon in a dependent relationship. Conclusions Current guideline approaches to protect voluntary informed consent within a dependent relationship are suboptimal. To prevent compromises to voluntary informed consent, consent should not only be obtained by an independent individual, but this person should also emphasize the voluntary nature of participation. At the same time, dependency as such does not imply undue influence. Sometimes the physician may be best qualified to provide information, for example, for a very specialized study. Still, the research nurse should obtain informed consent. In addition, patients should be able to consult a counselor, who attends the informed consent discussions and is concerned with their interests. Finally, both physicians and research nurses should disclose research interests.

2014-01-01

56

Facing ambiguous threats.  

PubMed

On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

2006-11-01

57

Weak Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in HadAM3: The Role of Soil Moisture Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent model intercomparison, the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE), showed that there is a wide range of land-atmosphere coupling strengths, or the degree that soil moisture affects the generation of precipitation, amongst current atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Coupling strength in the Hadley Centre atmosphere model (HadAM3) is among the weakest of all AGCMs considered in GLACE. Reasons for

David M. Lawrence; Julia M. Slingo

2005-01-01

58

Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats that Impact the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies for Colleges of Agriculture in Land Grant Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land grant institutions have traditionally sought to bring education to the people. Many Colleges of Agriculture have been dedicating resources to high-speed Internet connections and interactive videoconferencing to meet demand from individuals seeking non-traditional access. As these programs are implemented, understanding perceptions, concerns, and interests regarding distance education (DE) technologies can facilitate the diffusion of DE technologies throughout the institution

Theresa Pesl Murphrey; Kim E. Dooley

59

The strength of weak programs in cultural sociology: A critique of Alexander’s critique of Bourdieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeffrey Alexander’s recent book on cultural sociology argues that sociologists must grant the realm of ideas autonomy to determine\\u000a behavior, unencumbered by interference from instrumental or material factors. He criticizes the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu\\u000a as “weak” for failing to give autonomy to culture by reducing it to self-interested behavior that immediately reflects class\\u000a position. However, Alexander’s arguments seriously distort

David Gartman

2007-01-01

60

Bond Lengths and Bond Strengths in Weak and Strong Chemisorption: N2, CO, and CO\\/H on Nickel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

New chemical-state-specific scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction experiments and density functional theory calculations, applied to CO, CO\\/H, and N2 adsorption on Ni(100), show that chemisorption bond length changes associated with large changes in bond strength are small, but those associated with changes in bond order are much larger, and are similar to those found in molecular systems. Specifically, halving the bond

D. I. Sayago; J. T. Hoeft; M. Polcik; M. Kittel; R. L. Toomes; J. Robinson; D. P. Woodruff; M. Pascal; C. L. Lamont; G. Nisbet

2003-01-01

61

Floods and health in Gambella region, Ethiopia: a qualitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of coping mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Floods are the most frequent and devastating type of natural disaster worldwide, causing unprecedented deaths, diseases, and destruction of property and crops. Flooding has a greater impact in developing countries due to lack of sufficient disaster management structures and a lack of economic resources. Objective This study was conducted with the aim of contributing to the knowledge base of development strategies that reduce flood-related health risks in developing countries. The study focused particularly on assessing the flood risks and health-related issues in the Gambella region of Ethiopia; with the intent of producing relevant information to assist with the improvements in the efficacy of the current flood coping strategies in the region. Methods Data were gathered through interviews with 14 officers from different government and non-governmental organizations and a questionnaire survey given to 35 flood victims in Itang woreda. A qualitative approach was applied and the data were analyzed using content analysis. Results It was found that flooding is a common problem in Gambella region. The findings also indicate that the flood frequency and magnitude has increased rapidly during the last decade. The increase in floods was driven mainly by climate change and changes in land use, specifically deforestation. The reported main impacts of flooding on human health in Gambella region were deaths, injuries, and diseases such as malaria and diarrhea. Another notable consequence of flooding was crop destruction and subsequent malnutrition. Conclusions Three weaknesses that were identified in the current coping strategies for flood-related health impacts in Gambella region were a lack of flood-specific policy, absence of risk assessment, and weak institutional capacity. This study recommends new policy approaches that will increase the effectiveness of the current flood coping strategies to sustainably address the impact of flooding on human health.

Wakuma Abaya, Samson; Mandere, Nicodemus; Ewald, Goran

2009-01-01

62

Strength from Weakness: Conformational Divergence between Solid and Solution States of Substituted Cyclitols Facilitated by CH···O Hydrogen Bonding.  

PubMed

We have investigated the conformational preferences of a series of cyclitol derivatives, namely mono- and diesters of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-myo-inositol and 1,2:5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-myo-inositol, in both solid and solution states. The solid-state conformations were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The solution-state conformations were determined by using NMR. The experimental (3)JHH values were applied in the Haasnoot-Altona equation to calculate the dihedral angle (?) between the respective vicinal protons. By fixing the dihedral angle between different sets of vicinal protons, the molecules were energy-minimized by MM2 method to visualize their conformation in solution. As the solvent polarities can influence the conformational preference, we have determined the conformations of these molecules in various solvents of different polarities such as benzene-d6, chloroform-d, acetonitrile-d3, acetone-d6, methanol-d4, and DMSO-d6. All of the compounds adopted boat conformations in solution irrespective of the solvents, acyl groups, or alkylidene protecting groups. This conformation places H6 and O3 of the cyclitol ring in proximity, such that an intramolecular CH···O hydrogen bond between them stabilizes this otherwise unstable conformation. However, in the solid state, several intermolecular CH···O hydrogen bonds force these molecules to adopt the chair conformation. This study uncovers the role of weak noncovalent interactions in influencing the molecular conformations differentially in different states. PMID:24784727

Vibhute, Amol M; Sureshan, Kana M

2014-06-01

63

Measuring the Brønsted acid strength of zeolites - does it correlate with the O-H frequency shift probed by a weak base?  

PubMed

Brønsted-acid zeolites are currently being used as catalysts in a wide range of technological processes, spanning from the petrochemical industry to biomass upgrade, methanol to olefin conversion and the production of fine chemicals. For most of the involved chemical processes, acid strength is a key factor determining catalytic performance, and hence there is a need to evaluate it correctly. Based on simplicity, the magnitude of the red shift of the O-H stretching frequency, ??(OH), when the Brønsted-acid hydroxyl group of protonic zeolites interacts with an adsorbed weak base (such as carbon monoxide or dinitrogen) is frequently used for ranking acid strength. Nevertheless, the enthalpy change, ?H(0), involved in that hydrogen-bonding interaction should be a better indicator; and in fact ??(OH) and ?H(0) are often found to correlate among themselves, but, as shown herein, that is not always the case. We report on experimental determination of the interaction (at a low temperature) of carbon monoxide and dinitrogen with the protonic zeolites H-MCM-22 and H-MCM-56 (which have the MWW structure type) showing that the standard enthalpy of formation of OHCO and OHNN hydrogen-bonded complexes is distinctively smaller than the corresponding values reported in the literature for H-ZSM-5 and H-FER, and yet the corresponding ??(OH) values are significantly larger for the zeolites having the MWW structure type (DFT calculations are also shown for H-MCM-22). These rather unexpected results should alert the reader to the risk of using the O-H frequency shift probed by an adsorbed weak base as a general indicator for ranking zeolite Brønsted acidity. PMID:24549190

Arean, Carlos O; Delgado, Montserrat R; Nachtigall, Petr; Thang, Ho Viet; Rubeš, Miroslav; Bulánek, Roman; Chlubná-Eliášová, Pavla

2014-06-01

64

When Students Make Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat

Kanan, Linda M.

2010-01-01

65

The Strength of Weak Learnability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of an hypothesis output by a learning algorithm in the distribution-free (PAC) learning model. A concept class is learnable (or strongly learnable) if, given access to a Source of examples of the unknown concept, the learner with high probability is able to output an hypothesis that is correct on all but

Robert E. Schapire

1990-01-01

66

Tips from the toolkit: 2--assessing organisational strengths.  

PubMed

'SWOT' is a familiar term used in the development of business strategy. It is based on the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as part of a strategic analysis approach. While there are a range of more sophisticated models for analysing and developing business strategy, it is a useful model for general practice as it is less time consuming than other approaches. The following article discusses some ways to apply this framework to assess organisational strengths (and weaknesses). It is based on The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' "General practice management toolkit". PMID:20369123

Steer, Neville

2010-03-01

67

Threat Analysis Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and prov...

D. P. Duggan J. T. Michalski

2007-01-01

68

A longitudinal study on the Ghislenghien disaster in Belgium: strengths and weaknesses of the study design and influence on response rate  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (Belgium) on physical, mental and social health, and to evaluate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the affected population. Objectives To describe the set up of the study, to report on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology employed and its influence on response rate. To clarify the importance of the study for the management of disasters. Methods/Design The study included adults (? 15 years) and children (8-14 years) at risk of developing adverse health effects related to the disaster. Subjects were connected to the disaster through their geographical or professional proximity as well as connections through relatives. Questionnaires were sent by regular mail 5 months and 14 months after the disaster. Pearson Chi square tests were used to investigate whether the response rate at 14 months depended on the exposure classification. Results The response rate at household level was respectively 18% (n = 607 families) and 56% (n = 338 families) 5 months and 14 months after the disaster. Response rate at the follow up period did not significantly differ by exposure classification. Discussion This paper discusses the difficulties and challenges encountered during the design of the study. It discusses the determinants of response in relation to disaster related characteristics. It further provides an overview of lessons learnt and the significance of the study for the management of large scale emergencies.

2009-01-01

69

Composite electromagnetic pulse threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromagnetic pulse threat that is based on a composite ambient field defined by a combination of lightning, NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) and microwave threats is discussed. The composite electromagnetic pulse threat has been used to harden a military helicopter. The hardening to a composite threat resulted in the development of simplified hardening verification procedures. It also provided an

Andrew S. Podgorski

1990-01-01

70

Composite electromagnetic pulse threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromagnetic pulse threat based on a composite ambient field defined by a combination of lightning, NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) and microwave threats is discussed. The composite electromagnetic pulse threat has been used to harden a military helicopter. The hardening to a composite threat resulted in the development of simplified hardening verification procedures. It also provided an economical advantage

A. S. Podgorski

1990-01-01

71

Strengths and Weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data-Loggers and Semi-structured Interviews for Capturing Fine-scale Human Mobility: Findings from Iquitos, Peru  

PubMed Central

Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80–100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50–80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n?=?101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility.

Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Reiner, Robert C.; Morrison, Amy C.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

2014-01-01

72

Strengths and weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers and semi-structured interviews for capturing fine-scale human mobility: findings from Iquitos, Peru.  

PubMed

Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80-100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50-80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n=101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility. PMID:24922530

Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Stoddard, Steven T; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

2014-06-01

73

Cyber threat panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Topics covered include: Information assurance & the risk equation; Advanced persistant threats (APTs) The threat of mobility to the US FAA.

Paul Vout

2012-01-01

74

Drug Threat Assessment: Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief update to the Kentucky Drug Threat Assessment, which is a strategic assessment of the status and outlook of the drug threat to Kentucky. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taking into acco...

2002-01-01

75

Cyber threat metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy

Jason Neal Frye; Cynthia K. Veitch; Mark Elliot Mateski; John T. Michalski; James Mark Harris; Cassandra M. Trevino; Scott Maruoka

2012-01-01

76

Cyber security threat management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discuss about the cyber security threat management. This paper presents the security standards and the general framework on creating and enforcing detailed control system security policy.

K. Kawano

2005-01-01

77

Cyber Threat Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particular...

C. Trevino C. Veitch J. Frye J. Michalski M. Harris M. Mateski S. Marouka

2012-01-01

78

Combatting Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction\\u000a for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the\\u000a development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider\\u000a misuse. We also consider future

Peter G. Neumann

79

Cyber threat trees for large system threat cataloging and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of cyber threat countermeasures requires identification of points in a system where redundancy or other modifications are needed. Because large systems have many possible threats that may be interdependent, it is crucial that such threats be cataloged in a manner that allows for efficient representation and ease of analysis to identify the most critical threats. To address this

P. Ongsakorn; K. Turney; M. Thornton; S. Nair; S. Szygenda; T. Manikas

2010-01-01

80

Combatting Insider Threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

Neumann, Peter G.

81

Weak bond screening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

82

Threat Assessment Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With every new case of school violence, district leaders are urged to be proactive in hopes of averting potential violence. Experts say part of that proactive work comes from a threat assessment plan that every district should have. While every district that receives funds from the U.S. Department of Education for school safety is required to have…

Pascopella, Angela

2008-01-01

83

Greatest Threat: Spiritual Decay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the real threat to our national security--that we are no longer a 'Nation Under God' and are no longer led by those who understand the spiritual dimension of leadership envisioned and demonstrated by our founding fathers. Our founding ...

R. L. VanAntwerp

1992-01-01

84

Proliferation: Threat and response  

SciTech Connect

;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

NONE

1996-04-01

85

RFID SECURITY THREAT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises benefits that accrue from being able to identify and track individual goods in commercial supply chains. This helps in inventory management, reduces theft, can be used in conjunction with other sensor technology to identify damaged goods, and promises cost reductions. The objective of this paper is to identify potential threats to commercial supply chains

Dale R. Thompson; Neeraj Chaudhry; Craig W. Thompson

86

Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantum Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a great deal of attention has focused on quantum computation following a sequence of results suggesting that quantum computers are more powerful than classical probabilistic computers. Following Shor's result that factoring and the extraction of discrete logarithms are both solvable in quantum polynomial time, it is natural to ask whether all of NP can be efficiently solved in quantum

Charles H. Bennett; Ethan Bernstein; Gilles Brassard; Umesh V. Vazirani

1997-01-01

87

The Zirconia Ceramic: Strengths and Weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Metal ceramic restorations were considered the gold standard as reliable materials. Increasing demand for esthetics supported the commercialization of new metal free restorations. A growing demand is rising for zirconia prostheses. Peer-reviewed articles published till July 2013 were identified through a Medline (Pubmed and Elsevier). Emphasizing was made on zirconia properties and applications. Zirconia materials are able to withstand posterior physiologic loads. Although zirconia cores are considered as reliable materials, these restorations are not problem free.

Daou, Elie E.

2014-01-01

88

Coding for pathology tests - strengths and weaknesses.  

PubMed

Laboratory professionals will increasingly find themselves called upon to assist with the coding of pathology test requests and reported results in the era of the e-Health Record (EHR). EHR users from outside pathology, including patients and clinicians, will expect seamless integration of pathology services, and question variations in test nomenclature, units, reference intervals, and interpretive comments. Scientists and pathologists will need to be ready to work with colleagues outside their traditional scientific disciplines, along with IT and terminology experts, to resolve illogical historical variations, highlight differences that might endanger patient safety, and help lay the foundations for evolving e-health systems that enhance healthcare without eroding the interpretive value of pathology reports from different laboratories. An overview of medical terminologies and Australasian eHealth harmonisation programs is also provided. PMID:22930607

Flatman, Robert

2012-08-01

89

Pollution: a global threat.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

McCrink-Goode, Melissa

2014-07-01

90

Flexible training under threat.  

PubMed

As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties. PMID:12422498

Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

2002-10-01

91

Not All Threats Are Equal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

Surface, Jeanne L.

2011-01-01

92

Drug Threat Assessment: Wisconsin. Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief update to the Wisconsin Drug Threat Assessment, which is a strategic assessment of the status and outlook of the drug threat to Wisconsin. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taking into ac...

2002-01-01

93

Threats to international science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

Kisslinger, Carl

94

Lesson Plan: Iceberg Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will learn about the potential threat posed by icebergs, particularly the enormous icebergs that have broken away from Antarctica's Ronne Ice Shelf. They will research a news article and various web sites (links are provided) to collect information about icebergs, discuss what icebergs are and where they are found, and brainstorm a list of potential problems that could occur. Groups of students will address the potential problems, develop solutions in written form, and present their proposals to the class.

2000-05-17

95

Lesson Plan: Iceberg Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will learn about the potential threat posed by icebergs, particularly the enormous icebergs that have broken away from Antarctica's Ronne Ice Shelf. They will research a news article and various web sites (links are provided) to collect information about icebergs, discuss what icebergs are and where they are found, and brainstorm a list of potential problems that could occur. Groups of students will address the potential problems, develop solutions in written form, and present their proposals to the class.

2010-09-07

96

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-01-01

97

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-05-01

98

Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.  

SciTech Connect

The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

2007-09-01

99

Laser Threat Analysis System (LTAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LTAS is a totally integrated modeling and simulation environment designed for the purpose of ascertaining the susceptibility of Air Force pilots and air crews to optical radiation threats. Using LTAS, mission planners can assess the operational impact of optically directed energy weapons and countermeasures. Through various scenarios, threat analysts are able to determine the capability of laser threats and their impact on operational missions including the air crew's ability to complete their mission effectively. Additionally, LTAS allows the risk of laser use on training ranges and the requirement for laser protection to be evaluated. LTAS gives mission planners and threat analysts complete control of the threat environment including threat parameter control and placement, terrain mapping (line-of-site), atmospheric conditions, and laser eye protection (LEP) selection. This report summarizes the design of the final version of LTAS, and the modeling methodologies implemented to accomplish analysis.

Pfaltz, John M.; Richardson, Christina E.; Ruiz, Abel; Barsalou, Norman; Thomas, Robert J.

2002-11-01

100

Preparedness for Infectious Threats  

PubMed Central

With the emergence of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso during early 2002, the public health community was faced with the challenge of providing access to an appropriate and affordable vaccine in time for the upcoming 2003 epidemic season. Recognizing the implications of the emergent threat, the World Health Organization developed a strategy, established a public–private partnership to provide the needed vaccine, and then ensured that a stockpile was available for future use. The trivalent N meningitidis ACW135 polysaccharide vaccine that resulted is now one of the primary tools for epidemic response in African meningitis belt countries. It will remain so for the foreseeable future and until appropriate and affordable conjugate vaccines become part of national immunization programs in the region.

Nelson, Christopher B.; Birmingham, Maureen; Costa, Alejandro; Daviaud, Joelle; Perea, William; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Tarantola, Daniel

2007-01-01

101

Bio-threat microparticle simulants  

DOEpatents

A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

2012-10-23

102

Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

Tunkel, Ronald F.

2010-01-01

103

Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat  

SciTech Connect

{ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

1988-01-01

104

Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

2008-01-01

105

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-03-01

106

Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

Gastaldo, Evann

1999-01-01

107

Health Threat from Wildfire Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... FACT SHEET Share Compartir Health Threat From Wildfire Smoke Smoke from wildfires is a mixture of gases ... heart and lung diseases. How to tell if smoke is affecting you Smoke can causeâ?? Coughing A ...

108

National Methamphetamine Threat Assessment, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Methamphetamine Threat Assessment 2008 is a national-level strategic assessment of methamphetamine trafficking in the United States. This assessment addresses significant trends in methamphetamine production, transportation, distribution, and...

2007-01-01

109

Multiple Threat Generator (MTG-100).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report describes the Multiple Threat Generator (MTG-100) designed, developed, fabricated, installed and tested at Rome Air Development Center, by Republic Electronic Industries Corp. The report describes the purpose of the equipment, gives ...

J. Michaels

1980-01-01

110

Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also ...

J. L. Regens

2003-01-01

111

Combating the Insider Cyber Threat  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

2008-01-02

112

Spin effects in the weak interaction  

SciTech Connect

Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

1990-01-01

113

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

114

Threat image projection in CCTV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operators are key components in a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system, being the link between the system technology and its effective use. Operators' performance will largely determine the level of service provided by the system. There have been few studies testing operator performance, while much work has been done to test the performance of the technology. Previous work on CCTV operator performance carried out by the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) has used filmed video and subjects who knew they were undergoing testing, meaning subjects are likely to be concentrating harder on performing well. HOSDB believes that there is a need for a test that would be able to be routinely used in a CCTV control room throughout the course of a normal shift to provide management with operational performance data. Threat Image Projection (TIP) is routinely used in X-Ray baggage scanners to keep operators alert to possible threats. At random intervals, a threat target image is superimposed over the image of the baggage being screened. The operator then responds to this threat. A similar system could be used for CCTV operators. A threat image would be randomly superimposed over the live CCTV feed and the operator would be expected to respond to this.

Neil, David; Thomas, Nicola; Baker, Bob

2007-10-01

115

Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.  

PubMed

The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments. PMID:22616115

Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

2012-01-01

116

The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.  

PubMed

The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children. PMID:15766897

Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Pälkäs, Outi; Ismail, Kamaran Hassan; Ali, Karzan Jalal; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

2005-03-01

117

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2003-01-01

118

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2004-01-01

119

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2005-01-01

120

Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

121

HR outsourcing: threat or opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The debate on human resource (HR) outsourcing is polarised. HR outsourcing is seen as an opportunity for the HR function by some and as a threat by others. The first view suggests that HR outsourcing is an instrument creating time for HR to become a strategic partner. The second view considers HR outsourcing as a cost-cutting instrument gradually

Jeroen Delmotte; Luc Sels

2008-01-01

122

Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear\\/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are

Vantine

2002-01-01

123

Combating the Insider Cyber Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of US national security by foreign agents as well as American citizens is a historical and current reality that's a persistent and increasing phenomenon. Surveys, such as the e-crime watch survey, reveal that current or former employees and contractors are the second greatest cybersecurity threat, exceeded only by hackers, and that the number of security incidents has increased

Frank L. Greitzer; Abdrew P. Moore; Dawn M. Cappelli; Dee H. Andrews; Lynn A. Carroll; Thomas D. Hull

2008-01-01

124

Genetic threats to population persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaggiotti, O. E. 2003: Genetic threats to population persistence. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 40: 155-168. Human activities are having a devastating effect on the survival of natural popula- tions. The reduction in population size and changes in the connectivity of populations due to human disturbances enhance the effect of demographic and genetic factors that can lead to population extinction. This

Oscar E. Gaggiotti

2003-01-01

125

Assessment of respiratory muscle function and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and

N. Syabbalo

1998-01-01

126

Weak Nuclear Forces cause the Strong Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the lattices.

Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

2008-05-29

127

Weakly ??-continuous functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a new class of generalizations of continuous functions via ??-open sets called weakly ??-continuous functions. Moreover, we study some of its fundamental properties and characterizations. The concept of weak ??-continuous is weaker than ??-continuous, weakly ?-continuous and weakly ?-continuous functions, are also discussed.

Aljarrah, Heyam Hussein; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2013-09-01

128

Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States, by Microorganism [page 49] Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Urgent Clostridium difficile [ ... page 53] Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae [page 55] Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Serious Multidrug-resistant ...

129

Detecting Potential Insider Threats Through Email Datamining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite a technology bias that focuses on external electronic threats, insiders pose the greatest threat to commercial and government organizations. One means of preventing insider theft is by stopping potential insiders from actually crossing the line. I...

J. Okolica

2006-01-01

130

Insider Threat Attributes and Mitigation Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malicious insiders pose a threat to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an organization's information. Many organizations look for hardware and software solutions that address insider threats but are unsure of what characteristics to look ...

G. J. Silowash

2013-01-01

131

Naval threat and countermeasures simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Canadian Naval threat\\/countermeasures simulator (NTCS) capable of modeling the engagement between a naval ship and an infrared (IR) guided anti-ship missile is presented. The NTCS program is built upon previously developed naval ship signature software entitled Ship Infrared Simulator (SHIPIR) which produces 3-D graphical imagery of a ship in its sea\\/sky background for a wide range of operational, atmospheric,

David A. Vaitekunas; Karim Alexan; A. M. Birk; Josee Morin

1994-01-01

132

New threats to academic freedom.  

PubMed

Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. PMID:24602125

Minerva, Francesca

2014-05-01

133

Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

Stover, Del

2005-01-01

134

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

135

Drug Threat Assessment Update: South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief update to the South Carolina Drug Threat Assessment, which is a strategic assessment of the status and outlook of the drug threat to South Carolina. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taki...

2002-01-01

136

Absorption strength in absorbing chaotic cavities.  

PubMed

We derive an exact formula to calculate the absorption strength in absorbing chaotic systems such as microwave cavities or acoustic resonators. The formula allows us to estimate the absorption strength as a function of the averaged reflection coefficient and the real coupling parameter. We also define the weak and strong absorption regimes in terms of the coupling parameter and the absorption strength. PMID:18851122

Báez, G; Martínez-Mares, M; Méndez-Sánchez, R A

2008-09-01

137

The role of threats in animal cooperation  

PubMed Central

In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors—impact, accuracy and perception—that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation.

Cant, Michael A.

2011-01-01

138

Weak Value Theory  

SciTech Connect

I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.

Shikano, Yutaka [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-03-28

139

Strength Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

Londeree, Ben R.

1981-01-01

140

Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?  

PubMed

Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

2014-03-01

141

Is there muscular weakness in Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

Controversy exists as to whether muscle weakness is present in Parkinson's disease (PD). Computerized literature searches identified clinical trials and reviews about muscular strength assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease, using the following databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Seventeen articles fulfilled all criteria for selection. These studies suggested that isokinetic muscle strength was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease and that muscle weakness was not specifically related to tremor or rigidity. Bilateral asymmetrical muscle weakness was present in Parkinson's disease when presenting with clinical unilateral hemiparkinsonism. Recent studies using sensitive mechanical devices have provided evidence that muscle strength is reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease compared with age-matched controls. The specific cause of this weakness is not known. Questions under debate were whether this weakness was of central or peripheral origin and whether it was intrinsic to the disease or a secondary phenomenon. PMID:19487924

Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Pérez-de-Heredia, Marta; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos; Muñoz-Hellín, Elena; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

2010-01-01

142

Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant psychological consequences. The greatest impact of a small release would probably be economic, associated with cleanup and restoration of the contaminated area. Another category of threat is the attack on a facility, either a power reactor or sabotage of a large radiation source. In general these facilities are hard targets (structurally), and damage and contamination are localized. The final category of threat is the use of radioactive materials to deliver a radiation dose to individuals. This type of attack is again localized and does not readily fall into the category of a weapon of mass destruction.

Vantine, H C

2002-10-04

143

Nonclassicality in weak measurements  

SciTech Connect

We examine weak measurements of arbitrary observables where the object is prepared in a mixed state and on which measurements with imperfect detectors are made. The weak value of an observable can be expressed as a conditional expectation value over an infinite class of different generalized Kirkwood quasiprobability distributions. 'Strange' weak values for which the real part exceeds the eigenvalue spectrum of the observable can only be found if the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill distribution is negative or, equivalently, if the real part of the weak value of the density operator is negative. We find that a classical model of a weak measurement exists whenever the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill representation of the observable equals the classical representation of the observable and the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill distribution is non-negative. Strange weak values alone are not sufficient to obtain a contradiction with classical models. We propose feasible weak measurements of photon number of the radiation field. Negative weak values of energy contradict all classical stochastic models, whereas negative weak values of photon number contradict all classical stochastic models where the energy is bounded from below by the zero-point energy. We examine coherent states in particular and find negative weak values with probabilities of 16% for kinetic energy (or squared field quadrature), 8% for harmonic oscillator energy, and 50% for photon number. These experiments are robust against detector inefficiency and thermal noise.

Johansen, Lars M. [Department of Technology, Buskerud University College, N-3601 Kongsberg (Norway); Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2004-11-01

144

Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system  

DOEpatents

A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

2012-12-25

145

Calculating the Threat of Tsunami  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Australian Academy of Science, Calculating the Threat of Tsunami is a recent feature of NOVA: Science in the News (described in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report describes recent "advances towards predicting tsunami by combining mathematics, geology, and physics." The importance of being able to predict tsunami was made clear when, on July 17, 1998, the north coast of Papua New Guinea and villages near the Sissano lagoon were destroyed by a massive tsunami. In addition to the general text, the special feature includes a Glossary, Activities, Further Reading, and a solid selection of Useful Sites. Anyone interested in tsunami will find a plethora of information for all levels at this site.

Sarre, Alastair.

1998-01-01

146

Real threat of nuclear smuggling  

SciTech Connect

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a `flying squad` with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs.

Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-01-01

147

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2009-09-01

148

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

149

DOE site-specific threat assessment  

SciTech Connect

A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

1985-07-12

150

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2008-05-29

151

Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

2004-01-01

152

The effects of direct versus witnessed threat on emergency department healthcare workers: implications for PTSD criterion A.  

PubMed

We compared post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster profiles in hospital emergency department (ED) medical staff (N=100) who experienced an emotionally distressing work event that presented either a direct threat to themselves or a witnessed threat to patients. The two groups displayed similar levels of PTSD symptoms, however, they differed on symptom profiles and work consequences. The direct threat group experienced significantly greater fear during the event, more ongoing arousal symptoms, and more job dissatisfaction than the witnessed threat group. The witnessed threat group was more likely to appraise their PTSD symptoms as reflecting personal weakness. Overall, the results point to the need for further research to identify distinctive features of responses to different types of traumatic stressors. PMID:18325730

Alden, Lynn E; Regambal, Marci J; Laposa, Judith M

2008-12-01

153

Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

2008-01-01

154

Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

1977-01-01

155

Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

156

The effect of threat upon interpersonal bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of threat on the process of bargaining was investigated experimentally by asking Ss to imagine proceeding across a certain route on a map and having various experiences. Threat was seen to affect bargaining detrimentally. In that regard, cooperative ventures were seen to be safer than competitive ones.

M. Deutsch; R. M. Krauss

1960-01-01

157

The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

2003-01-01

158

Stereotype Threat, Identity Salience, and Spatial Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat research provides insight into how the low standardized test scores of students from stigmatized social groups may derive in part from the negative performance expectations about these groups. Because these students belong to many social groups, one means of mitigating the threat is to remind them of their membership in groups…

McGlone, Matthew S.; Aronson, Joshua

2006-01-01

159

The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat  

SciTech Connect

This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

Regens, J. L.

2003-02-25

160

Cyber Threat Trend Analysis Model Using HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention is normally recognized as one of the best defense strategy against malicious hackers or attackers. The desire of deploying better prevention mechanisms has motivated many security researchers and practitioners, who are studies threat trend analysis models. However, threat trend is not directly revealed from the time-series data because the trend is implicit in its nature. Besides, traditional time-series analysis,

Do Hoon Kim; Taek Lee; Sung-Oh David Jung; Hoh Peter In; Hee Jo Lee

2007-01-01

161

FUZZBUSTER: Towards Adaptive Immunity from Cyber Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's computer systems are under relentless attack from cyber attackers armed with sophisticated vulnerability search and exploit development toolkits. To protect against such threats, we are developing FUZZBUSTER, an automated system that provides adaptive immunity against a wide variety of cyber threats. FUZZBUSTER reacts to observed attacks and proactively searches for never-before-seen vulnerabilities. FUZZBUSTER uses a suite of fuzz testing

David J. Musliner; Jeffrey M. Rye; Dan Thomsen; David D. McDonald; Mark H. Burstein; Paul Robertson

2011-01-01

162

Cyber Threat Trend Analysis Model Using HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention, not reaction, is normally recognized as one of the best defense strategy against malicious hackers or attackers. The desire of deploying better prevention mechanism motivated many security researchers and practitioners to develop a threat trend analysis model. However, threat trend is not directly revealed from the time-series data because it is normally implicit in its nature. Besides, traditional time-series

Do-hoon Kim; Taek Lee; Sung-oh David Jung; Hoh Peter In; Heejo Lee

2007-01-01

163

Weak Probabilistic Anonymity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymity means that the identity of the user performing a certain action is main- tained secret. The protocols for ensuring anonymity often use random mechanisms which can be described probabilistically. In this paper we propose a notion of weak probabilistic anonymity, where weak refers to the fact that some amount of proba- bilistic information may be revealed by the protocol.

Yuxin Deng; Catuscia Palamidessi; Jun Pang

2007-01-01

164

Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.  

PubMed

We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

2012-01-01

165

The "make/break test" as a diagnostic tool in functional weakness.  

PubMed Central

Strength was measured in four major muscle groups with a hand-held dynamometer. The "make" and "break" technique was used with and without encouragement, and fatiguability was tested in patients with organic weakness and patients with functional weakness. Patients with functional weakness could be distinguished from the other two groups by an increase in strength greater than 20% with the break compared with the make technique. Additionally they tend to show larger increases in strength with encouragement and their "fatiguability" was less.

van der Ploeg, R J; Oosterhuis, H J

1991-01-01

166

Nuclear threats from small states  

SciTech Connect

What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

Kahan, J.H.

1994-06-13

167

Spaghetti Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners explore how engineers characterize building materials. Learners test the strength of spaghetti and determine how the number of spaghetti strands affects the strength of a bundle of spaghetti. Use this activity to chemical bonds, mechanical testing, and engineering. Note: The pasta strands can be dipped in water and stuck together to more closely mimic the layers within a piece of plywood. More information about this can be found at the top of page 7, directly underneath the cartoon image. Safety note: Do not eat or drink any of the materials in this activity.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

168

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2013-10-01

169

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2013-10-01

170

Networked Learning a Relational Approach: Weak and Strong Ties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the idea of weak ties in networked learning. We go back to the original conception of the strength of weak ties and relate this to Bakhtin and a dialogic understanding of networked learning. These theoretical ideas are applied to the examination of two networked settings in which educational leaders exchange ideas and…

Jones, C. R.; Ferreday, D.; Hodgson, V.

2008-01-01

171

Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.  

PubMed

Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message. PMID:24393019

Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

2014-01-01

172

Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting

Catherine Mathe ´; Marie-France Sagot; Thomas Schiex; Pierre Rouze

2002-01-01

173

The Strengths and Weaknesses of ISO 9000 in Vocational Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ISO 9000 is a set of quality standards that assists an organization to identify, correct and prevent errors, and to promote continual improvement. Educational institutions worldwide are implementing ISO 9000 as they face increasing external pressure to maintain accountability for funding. Similar to other countries, in the United States vocational…

Bevans-Gonzales, Theresa L.; Nair, Ajay T.

2004-01-01

174

Outside discussant : strengths and weakness; what new, what missed  

Microsoft Academic Search

2) The homogamy in the marriage market has probably increased due to the increase in women's education and employment. Today's patter n of married women's employment , where well-educated mothers have great er employment rates than the lower- educated may lead to greater socioeconomic inequalities among family households and in children's welfare than in the pe riod when the male

Kari Waerness

175

Overview of inhalation exposure techniques: strengths and weaknesses.  

PubMed

The vast majority of toxicity studies and risk evaluations deal with single chemicals. Due to the growing interest in potential human health risks originating from exposure to environmental pollutants or lifestyle-related complex chemical mixtures, well thought-out tailor-made mechanistic inhalation toxicity studies have been performed. In contrast to the complex mixtures potentially encountered from hazardous waste sites, drinking water disinfection by-products, natural flavoring complexes or the cumulative intake of food additives and pesticide residues, the scientific evaluation of complex airborne mixtures, such as acid aerosols, atmospheres produced by combustion or thermolysis, e.g. residual oil fly ash (ROFA), diesel and gasoline exhaust, and tobacco smoke, or volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in residential areas, to mention but a few, is a daunting challenge for experimental toxicologists. These challenges include the controlled in situ generation of exposure atmospheres, the compositions of which are often process-determined and metastable. This means that volatile agents may partition with liquid aerosols or be adsorbed onto surfaces of solid aerosols. Similarly, the nature and composition of test atmospheres might change continuously through oxidation and aging of constituents or coagulation of particles. This, in turn, poses additional challenges to the analytical characterization of such complex test atmospheres, including the identification of potential experimental artifacts. Accordingly, highly standardized and controlled inhalation studies are required for hazard identification of complex mixtures and the results of inhalation studies have to be analyzed judiciously due to the great number of experimental variables. These variables may be related to technical issues or to the specific features of the animal model. Although inhalation exposure of animals mimics human exposure best, not all results obtained under such rigorous test conditions might necessarily also occur under real-life exposure conditions. In addition, to simulate experimentally specific use or exposure patterns may impose a particular challenge to traditional approaches in terms of relevant exposure metrics and the analytes chosen to characterize exposure atmospheres. This paper addresses major developments in the discipline of inhalation toxicology with particular emphasis on the state-of-the-art testing of complex mixtures. PMID:16092719

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2005-07-01

176

Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

McCaul, E. W., Jr.

2010-01-01

177

Soviet threat perceptions of NATO's Eurostrategic missiles  

SciTech Connect

The problem investigated here is how Soviet perceptions of particular military threats, in this case from NATO's new INF missiles, affect their arms control negotiating policy. This study most closely examines Soviet writings in the 1979-83 period and relies on extensive interviewing, sponsored by IREX, at the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institutes. It attempts to distinguish between Soviet portrayals and real perceptions of the military and political threats from the 1983 INF deployments. It explores how such Soviet assessments interrelate with Soviet military doctrine and broader foreign policy strategies, and how perceptions might differ among Soviet analysts and officials. It is divided into six chapters: (1) Historical Perspectives; (2) Soviet Threat Portrayals; (3) Evaluating Soviet Threat Portrayals; (4) Soviet Military Doctrine and the INF Threat; (5) Soviet Political-Military Interests at the INF Negotiations; (6) The Soviet Net Assessment. The study finds that Soviet threat portrayals are loosely consistent with Soviet perceptions of the potential threat, especially from an extended-range Pershing missile against their National Command Authorities.

Garner, W.V.

1985-01-01

178

Strength-based assessment in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Strength-based assessment can enhance clinical clarity, improve the range of information, and provide a more complete picture of clients and their circumstances. Deficit-oriented assessment has improved the assessment and treatment of a number of disorders but, at the same time, has created a negative bias, considered strengths as clinical peripheries or by-products, tended to reduce clients to diagnostic categories, and created a power differential, which could be counterproductive to clinical efficacy. Strength-based assessment explores weaknesses as well as strengths to effectively deal with problems. We present a number of strength-based strategies for use in clinical practice. These strategies, we hope, will help clinicians to operationalize how strengths and weaknesses reverberate and contribute to a client's psychological status, which is comprehensive and guards against negative bias. PMID:19294732

Rashid, Tayyab; Ostermann, Robert F

2009-05-01

179

Weak Bump Quasars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estima...

B. J. Wilkes J. Mcdowell

1994-01-01

180

Weak localization in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recently-developed theory of weak localization in monolayer and bilayer graphene. For high-density monolayer graphene and for any-density bilayers, the dominant factor affecting weak localization properties is trigonal warping of graphene bands, which reflects asymmetry of the carrier dispersion with respect to the center of the corresponding valley. The suppression of weak localization by trigonal warping is accompanied by a similar effect caused by random-bond disorder (due to bending of a graphene sheet) and by dislocation/antidislocation pairs. As a result, weak localization in graphene can be observed only in samples with sufficiently strong intervalley scattering, which is reflected by a characteristic form of negative magnetoresistance in graphene-based structures.

Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Kechedzhi, K.; McCann, E.; Altshuler, B. L.; Suzuura, H.; Ando, T.

2007-07-01

181

Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the range of 450-2350 MPa. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the yield strength and the tensile strength to the diamond pyramid hardness values for these steels. Both the yield strength and tensile strength of the steels exhibited a linear correlation with the hardness over the entire range of strength values. Empirical relationships are provided that enable the estimation of strength from a bulk hardness measurement. A weak effect of strain-hardening potential on the hardness-yield strength relationship was also observed.

Pavlina, E. J.; van Tyne, C. J.

2008-12-01

182

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Security threat assessment. 1540.203 Section 1540.203 Transportation...SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat assessment. (a) Each operator subject to...

2009-10-01

183

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prevent completion of the threat assessment). (5) Gender. (6...complete the security threat assessment, the Transportation Security...reduce the risk of injury or damage to the operator or facility...applicant's signed security threat assessment application. (2)...

2013-10-01

184

Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

2013-01-01

185

Threat of Transnational Crime in East Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project examines the problem of transnational organized crime and identifies it as a rising threat to national security. It defines and summarizes trends in five types of transnational organized crime: trafficking in drugs and precursor chem...

R. M. Miller

2002-01-01

186

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2010-01-08

187

Christian Extremism as a Domestic Terror Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americans readily identify Muslim extremism as a viable threat to America. However, they ignore or remain unaware of Christian extremism in the same context, despite the similarities in ideology that advocate violence against Americans. For example, the m...

F. D. Wong

2011-01-01

188

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

189

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2008-05-29

190

Detection and identification of threats hidden inside cargo shipments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for identifying at least one threat to the homeland security. Each threat is either hidden inside at least one cargo container before transit, or is placed inside at least one cargo container while in transit. Each threat while interacting with its surrounding generates a unique threat signature. The method comprises the following steps: (A) detecting at least one threat signature; and (B) processing each detected threat signature to determine a likelihood of at least one threat to become a threat to the homeland security.

2006-12-19

191

Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention  

SciTech Connect

The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

NOEL,WILLIAM P.

2000-01-01

192

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

193

An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

2009-01-01

194

Rheology of weakly vibrated granular media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We probe the rheology of weakly vibrated granular flows as function of flow rate, vibration strength, and pressure by performing experiments in a vertically vibrated split-bottom shear cell. For slow flows, we establish the existence of a vibration-dominated granular flow regime, where the driving stresses smoothly vanish as the driving rate is diminished. We distinguish three qualitatively different vibration-dominated rheologies, most strikingly a regime where the shear stresses no longer are proportional to the pressure.

Wortel, Geert H.; Dijksman, Joshua A.; van Hecke, Martin

2014-01-01

195

Weakly nonadditive Polychronakos statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-parameter fractional statistics is proposed, which can be used to model a weakly interacting Bose system. It is shown that the parameters of the introduced weakly nonadditive Polychronakos statistics can be linked to the effects of interactions as well as to finite-size corrections. Calculations are made of the specific heat and condensate fraction of the model system corresponding to harmonically trapped Rb-87 atoms. The behavior of the specific heat of three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillators with respect tothe statistics parameters is studied in the temperature domain including the BEC-like phase-transition point.

Rovenchak, Andrij

2014-05-01

196

Quantum weak turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The present manuscript dealing with large occupation of states of a quantum system, extends the study to the case of quantum weak turbulence. The quasiparticle spectrum, calculated for such a system, using a Green's function approach, establishes the dissipative and inertial regimes, hence a Kolmogorov type of picture.

Sanyal, Devashish [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700032 (India)]. E-mail: tpds@mahendra.iacs.res.in; Sen, Siddhartha [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)]. E-mail: sen@maths.tcd.ie

2006-06-15

197

Weak decays at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on four aspects of weak decays. The MARK II measurement of the tau lifetime, the MARK II measurement of the D/sup 0/ lifetime, the measurement from several experiments of the semi-leptonic branching fractions of hadrons constraining b and c quarks, and lastly the MAC measurement of the B lifetime. 30 references.

Yelton, J.M.

1984-04-01

198

The Weak Mixing Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Weak Mixing Matrix, ( *20c Uud & Uus & Uub Ucd & Ucs & Ucb Utd & Uts & Utb ) , is not equal to the product of rotations, and in particular, it is not equal to the KM, or the PDG Matrices. At most, we may find an approximating matrix for the Weak Mixing Matrix that is based on the rotation matrices. We show that one such approximating matrix for the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix is ( *20c ?C?C^3 & ?C?C^3 & ^3 ?C?C^2 - ?C?C^2 & ?C?C^2 & ^2 ?C - ?C^3 ?C & - ?C?C^3 ^2 ?C & ?C^2 ?C^3 ), where ?C is the Cabbibo angle. The approximating matrix depends on ?C alone, and predicts the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix to a high degree of accuracy. We establish, with a Chi-Squared Goodness-of- Fitness-Test, that our approximating matrix can be used with extremely high level of statistical confidence.

Dannon, Vic; Levine, Robert

2009-10-01

199

N-? weak transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-?(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

2011-11-01

200

QM02 Strength Measurement  

SciTech Connect

In late April, Paul Emma reported that his orbit fitting program could find a reasonably good fit only if the strength of QM02 was changed from design value of -5.83 kG to -6.25 kG - a strength change of 7.3%. In late May, we made a focal length measurement of QM02 by turning off all focusing optics between YC07 and BPMS1 (in the spectrometer line) except for QM02 and adjusted the strength of QM02 so that vertical kicks by YC07 did not produce any displacements at BPMS1 (see Figure 1). The result was quoted in the LCLS elog was that QM02 appeared to 6% too weak, and approximately agreed with Paul's observation. The analysis used for the entry in the log book was based on the thin lens approximation and used the following numbers: Distance YC07 to QM02 - 5.128 m; Distance QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.778 m; and Energy - 135 MeV. These distances were computed from the X,Z coordinates given the on the large plot of the Injector on the wall of the control room. On review of the MAD output file coordinates, it seems that the distance used for QM02 to BPMS1 is not 1.778 m. The correct value is Distance, center of QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.845 m. There may be a typo on the wall chart values for the coordinates of BPMS1, or perhaps there was a misinterpretation of edge versus center of QM02. In any case, the effect of this change is that the thin lens estimate changes from 6% too weak to 9% too weak. At John Galayda's suggestion, we looked into the thin lens versus thick lens approximation. A Mathematica program was written to solve for the K value of the QM02, in the thick lens approximation, that provides point to point focusing from YC07 to BPMS1, and to compare this number with the value obtained using the thin lens approximation. The length of QM02 used in the thick lens calculation is the effective length determined by magnetic measurements of 0.108 m. The result of the Mathematica calculation is that the thin lens approximation predicts less magnet strength is required to produce the same focusing by about 1.3%. When both the distance correction and the thick lens approximation are taken into account, the result is: K{sub thick} - K{sub mm}/K{sub thick} = -7.6% where K{sub mm} is the value obtained from magnetic measurements and K{sub thick} is the value of K obtained from the focal length measurement in the thick lens approximation. That is, QM02 acts weaker than it was measured by magnetic measurements by 7.6%. This is remarkably close to Paul's original estimate. The unexpected weakness could in principle be due to several things: shorted turns, a current calibration error, magnetic measurement error; it could even be due to the presence of an gradient from QM01, which is of opposite sign and right next to QM02, despite it being set to zero current (although it was not DAC-zeroed). Plans have been implemented to remove and replace QM02 at the earliest ROD.

Welch, J; Wu, J.; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-24

201

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

202

Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions  

PubMed Central

Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital.

Holdstock, Douglas

2008-01-01

203

Decision program on asteroid threat mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Association of Space Explorers Committee on Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and its Panel on Asteroid Threat Mitigation have prepared a decision program to aid the international community in organizing a coordinated response to asteroid impact threats. The program is described in the ASE's report, Asteroid Threats: A Call for Global Response, which will be considered by the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in its 2009 sessions. The findings and recommendations of this report are presented here as well as some of the major implications of the complex decision-making involved in developing a coordinated international response to the challenge of protecting the Earth from NEO impacts.

Schweickart, Russell L.

2009-11-01

204

Weak Observables in MV Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

A notion of a weak observable is defined and aconstruction of a weak observable is examined. With thehelp of the construction, the sum of weak observables isrealized as well as the upper and lower limits of a sequence of weak observables.

Beloslav Riecan

1998-01-01

205

Hysteresis in weak ferromagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic hysteresis is studied in the orthoferrites ErFeO3 and TmFeO3 using the single crystal samples of millimeter dimensions. It is shown that in both materials one observes a temperature transition manifesting itself through the temperature hysteresis of the magnetic moment and a peculiar temperature evolution of the field hysteresis loop shapes near this transition. Experiments rule out the hypothesis that the ordering of the orthoferrite's rare earth magnetic moments plays an important role in these phenomena. The hysteresis curves can be explained by a few-domain magnetic state of the samples that results from the weak ferromagnetism of the orthoferrites. The phenomenon is generic for weak ferromagnets with temperature dependent magnetization. A large characteristic magnetic length makes the behavior of the relatively big samples analogous to that observed in the nano-size samples of strong ferromagnets.

Bazaliy, Ya. B.; Tsymbal, L. T.; Kakazei, G. N.; Vasiliev, S. V.

2011-03-01

206

Weak Gravitational Lensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy, which affects the evolution of structures. Gravitational lensing is the process by which light from distant galaxies is bent by the gravity of intervening mass in the Universe as it travels toward us. This bending causes the images of background galaxies to appear slightly distorted, and can be used to extract important cosmological information. In the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Einstein predicted that massive bodies could be seen as gravitational lenses that bend the path of light rays by creating a local curvature in space time. One of the first confirmations of Einstein's new theory was the observation during the 1919 solar eclipse of the deflection of light from distant stars by the sun. Since then, a wide range of lensing phenomena have been detected. The gravitational deflection of light by mass concentrations along light paths produces magnification, multiplication, and distortion of images. These lensing effects are illustrated by Figure 14.2, which shows one of the strongest lenses observed: Abell 2218, a very massive and distant cluster of galaxies in the constellation Draco. The observed gravitational arcs are actually the magnified and strongly distorted images of galaxies that are about 10 times more distant than the cluster itself. These strong gravitational lensing effects are very impressive but they are very rare. Far more prevalent are weak gravitational lensing effects, which we consider in this chapter, and in which the induced distortion in galaxy images is much weaker. These gravitational lensing effects are now widely used, but the amplitude of the weak lensing signal is so weak that its detection relies on the accuracy of the techniques used to analyze the data. Future weak lensing surveys are already planned in order to cover a large fraction of the sky with high accuracy, such as Euclid [68]. However, improving accuracy also places greater demands on the methods used to extract the available information.

Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

2012-03-01

207

[Assessing adolescents with school massacre threats].  

PubMed

School massacres have increased pressure on health-care authorities for assessing risk for severe violence. In acute situations, threat analysis focuses at thought processes and actions of adolescents presenting threat of violence, in order to assess to which extent the adolescent has progressed from thoughts to actions. Because of great variability in aggressive behavior, separate interventions for individual, family and other developmental surroundings are often needed. Structured risk-assessment in special health care is aimed for conducting decision making towards risk reduction and adequate help for adolescents at risk. PMID:24069639

Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2013-01-01

208

Hardening against a combined electromagnetic threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardening against the electromagnetic environment is usually done by considering each threat separately. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in methods for unifying electromagnetic standards and procedures to simplify the design and testing of hardening techniques. This approach is appealing as it could reduce the cost of system design as well as the cost of testing. The objective of this paper is twofold: firstly, to assess the feasibility of combining the various electromagnetic threats to simplify the design of electromagnetic protection; and secondly, to assess the feasibility of using a single test, or at least a minimum number of tests, to verify the electromagnetic hardness of a system.

Dion, M.; Gardner, C.; Kashyap, S.

1995-03-01

209

Composite weak bosons  

SciTech Connect

Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

Suzuki, M.

1988-04-01

210

Ferroelectrically induced weak ferromagnetism.  

SciTech Connect

We present a strategy to design structures for which a polar lattice distortion induces weak ferromagnetism. We identify a large class of multiferroic oxides as potential realizations and use density-functional theory to screen several promising candidates. By elucidating the interplay between the polarization and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector, we show how the direction of the magnetization can be switched between 180{sup o} symmetry equivalent states with an applied electric field.

Fennie, C. J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

2008-01-01

211

The Asteroid Impact Threat: Decisions Upcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asteroid impact threat has likely been constant for the past three billion years. What has accelerated is our knowledge of the impact hazard, and in particular the population of near- Earth objects (NEOs), those asteroids and near-Earth comets whose orbits approach or cross that of the Earth. In the next 10-15 years we will know the orbits of over

Russell L. Schweickart

2008-01-01

212

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2005. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2005-01-01

213

Gulf Cooperation Council Threat Perceptions Deterrence Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights existing threat perceptions in the Arab world, with a special emphasis on the Gulf region in order to determine who the oil-rich states are attempting to deter through their steady buildup of arms since the mid eighties. Based on interviews with Middle Eastern policy makers and experts, this article concludes that GCC States have their own distinct

RIAD KAHWAJI

2003-01-01

214

The Asteroid Impact Threat: Decisions Upcoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid impact threat has likely been constant for the past three billion years. What has accelerated is our knowledge of the impact hazard, and in particular the population of near- Earth objects (NEOs), those asteroids and near-Earth comets whose orbits approach or cross that of the Earth. In the next 10-15 years we will know the orbits of over 300,000 NEOs of a size capable of destroying a major city on impact. Based on current data 97 Given that a NEO deflection campaign can be initiated using existing space technology the international community will shortly be confronted with the decision of whether action should be taken, when it should be taken and who should take such action. The Association of Space Explorers (ASE)* and its Panel on Asteroid Threat Mitigation is currently concluding a two year process leading to a recommended decision program on asteroid threat mitigation that will be submitted to the United Nations in 2009. UN member states will soon be looking to the scientific community for their inputs on this matter. This presentation is intended to provide basic information on the NEO threat and our ability to take preventive action, anticipating an increasing demand for scientific opinion on this issue from international political institutions. (*) The Association of Space Explorers is the profession international organization of astronauts and cosmonauts. See www.space-explorers.org.

Schweickart, Russell L.

215

U.S. Money Laundering Threat Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 Money Laundering Threat Assessment (MLTA) is the first government-wide analysis of money laundering in the United States. The report is the product of an interagency working group composed of experts from the spectrum of U.S. Government agencies,...

2005-01-01

216

Disgust, politics, and responses to threat.  

PubMed

We address two questions regarding the relationship between political ideology and responses to threatening or aversive stimuli. The first concerns the reason for the connection between disgust and specific political and moral attitudes; the second concerns the observation that some responses to threat (i.e., neuroticism/anxiety) are associated with a more left-wing political orientation. PMID:24970437

Inbar, Yoel; Pizarro, David

2014-06-01

217

INTERNET WORMS AS INTERNET-WIDE THREAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer worm is a program that propagates itself over a network, reproducing itself as it goes. Because of the recursive structure of this propagation, the spread rate of worms is very fast and poses a big threat on the Internet infrastructure as a whole. Modern worms are capable of gaining control over a substantial portion of the Internet hosts

Nikolai Joukov; Tzi-cker Chiueh

2003-01-01

218

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2005. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2005-01-01

219

The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity. The smallpox virus is highly specific for humans and non-pathogenic in animals. There is no antiviral treatment and a vaccine is active only if administered in the

Patrick Berche

2001-01-01

220

Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics

D. A. Henderson

1998-01-01

221

Learning to Adapt to Asymmetric Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the changes that might be called for in the Department of Defense (DoD) learning environment to meet the challenges facing the United States as it responds to the asymmetric threats of the 21st century. In DoD planning terms, the conce...

J. C. Tillson W. D. Freeman W. R. Burns J. E. Michel J. A. LeCuyer

2005-01-01

222

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats

Danny H Powell; Robert H Elwood Jr; Charles T Roche

2011-01-01

223

Proliferation: Threat and response (November 1997)  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; South Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus; The Transnational Threat; Department of Defense Response; Prevention; Protection; Acquisition; DOD Capabilities to Respond to NBC Terrorism; Conclusion; Technical Annex; Further Reading; and Glossary.

NONE

1997-11-01

224

Threats and countermeasures for network security  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

Denning, Peter J.

1991-01-01

225

Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

Stader, David L.

2000-01-01

226

Maritime Threats Workshop. Volume 09-04.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States and Republic of the Philippines strengthened their strategic partnership when representatives of the two countries co-hosted the Maritime Threats Workshop, held in Cebu, Republic of the Philippines on 26-30 July 2004. The workshop focuse...

R. Wohlschlegel C. W. Turner K. Butts

2004-01-01

227

Influenza: current threat from avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is an infectious respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and infrequent pandemics, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and burdens on the delivery of health care. The geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 among poultry and wild bird populations is unprecedented. Growing numbers of sporadic avian influenza infections are occurring in humans, increasing the threat of the next

Iain Stephenson; Jane Democratis

228

Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

229

Garlic: Nature's Protection Against Physiological Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements

Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Mehmood S. Butt; Javaid Iqbal

2009-01-01

230

Understanding influenza transmission, immunity and pandemic threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current pandemic threat can be best understood within an ecological framework that takes account of the history of past pandemics caused by influenza A, the relationships between pandemic and seasonal spread of influenza viruses, and the importance of immunity and behavioural responses in human populations. Isolated populations without recent exposure to seasonal influenza seem more susceptible to new pandemic

John D. Mathews; Joanne M. Chesson; James M. McCaw; Jodie McVernon

2009-01-01

231

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational

John F. Gilmore; Michael A. Pagels; Justin Palk

2001-01-01

232

25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any...

2011-04-01

233

Application of Strength Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength

Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

2002-01-01

234

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

235

Pre-emptive Threat Mitigation: Neutralizing the Boko Haram Threat to U.S. Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

West Africa presents unique and complex challenges to the security of the United States (US) and critical US interests abroad. Nigeria, the largest and most diplomatically, militarily and economically progressive nation in West Africa, faces severe threat...

R. W. Robertson

2012-01-01

236

Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to validate a threat detection skills trainer developed in previous research (Zimmerman, Mueller, Daniels, & Vowels, 2012; Zimmerman, Mueller, Grover, & Vowels, in preparation). The trainer consists of exercises intended t...

B. Pearlman D. A. Leins J. Marcon J. T. Singer L. A. Zimmerman

2013-01-01

237

Noninvasiveness and time symmetry of weak measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements in classical and quantum physics are described in fundamentally different ways. Nevertheless, one can formally define similar measurement procedures with respect to the disturbance they cause. Obviously, strong measurements, both classical and quantum, are invasive—they disturb the measured system. We show that it is possible to define general weak measurements, which are noninvasive: the disturbance becomes negligible as the measurement strength goes to zero. Classical intuition suggests that noninvasive measurements should be time symmetric (if the system dynamics is reversible) and we confirm that correlations are time-reversal symmetric in the classical case. However, quantum weak measurements—defined analogously to their classical counterparts—can be noninvasive but not time symmetric. We present a simple example of measurements on a two-level system which violates time symmetry and propose an experiment with quantum dots to measure the time-symmetry violation in a third-order current correlation function.

Bednorz, Adam; Franke, Kurt; Belzig, Wolfgang

2013-02-01

238

Apparatus Impregnates Weak Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost apparatus developed for use in conventional drum winding machine to impregnate fibrous materials having very low tensile strengths. Fiber fitted onto freely-spinning unwinding creel. Unwinds from creel between two tension bars onto guide spools, aligns fiber so properly enters sealed reservoir of resin. Stainless-steel metering die at entrance to reservoir aligns fiber and seals reservoir. Beneficial results obtained by use of reservoir made of polyethylene. Composite material made from resin matrices reinforced by fibers have great potential for solving challenging and often critical problems in design of spacecraft, space structures, and terrestrial structures.

Stanfield, Clarence E.; Wilson, Maywood L.

1989-01-01

239

Strength loss in kraft pulping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

Iribarne, Jose

240

Weak values and entanglement concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak measurements are a special class of indirect measurements where the signal system is both pre and post-selected in particular quantum states. The accompanying probe system records information about the associated weak value of the interaction between the pre and post-selection and is modified by it. We provide a review of the operational application of weak measurement formalism to entanglement

David Menzies; Natalia Korolkova

2009-01-01

241

Weak lensing and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

242

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

243

Southwest Hispanic Community -- The Absence of Homeland Security Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Threats of terrorism and insurgency along the Southwest border are typically supported by anecdotal evidence rather than objective assessments of such threats, which limits government's ability to appropriately address issues related to homeland security,...

A. G. Moore

2012-01-01

244

Development of a Viral Biological-Threat Bioinformatics Resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the potential use of viruses as biological weapons, we have established the Viral Biological-threat Bioinformatics Resource (VBBR) that collects, catalogs, annotates, and analyzes genetic information related to potential viral threats. This...

E. J. Lefkowitz

2003-01-01

245

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

Feeley, Terry

2010-04-01

246

EPR Severe Accident Threats and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Despite the extremely low EPR core melt frequency, an improved defence-in-depth approach is applied in order to comply with the EPR safety target: no stringent countermeasures should be necessary outside the immediate plant vicinity like evacuation, relocation or food control other than the first harvest in case of a severe accident. Design provisions eliminate energetic events and maintain the containment integrity and leak-tightness during the entire course of the accident. Based on scenarios that cover a broad range of physical phenomena and which provide a sound envelope of boundary conditions associated with each containment challenge, a selection of representative loads has been done, for which mitigation measures have to cope with. This paper presents the main critical threats and the approach used to mitigate those threats. (authors)

Azarian, G. [Framatome ANP SAS, Tour Areva, Place de la Coupole 92084 Paris la Defense (France); Kursawe, H.M.; Nie, M.; Fischer, M.; Eyink, J. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Freyeslebenstrasse, 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Stoudt, R.H. [Framatome ANP Inc. - 3315 Old Forest Rd, Lynchburgh, VA 24501 (United States)

2004-07-01

247

Negative transfer: a threat to flying safety.  

PubMed

Negative transfer is defined in the context of this paper as the transfer from one cockpit to another--of different design or configuration--of habits or responses which were appropriate in the former but are inappropriate in the latter, thereby posing a threat to flying safety. This danger has been demonstrated not only experimentally but also in a number of aircraft accident investigation reports. As new aircraft become available to the commercial, military, and private sectors and pilots consequently must transition from older to newer models, the phenomenon of negative transfer becomes increasingly significant. To illustrate the concept of negative transfer and aviation, the author compares the cockpits of two USAF aircraft and how their differences could adversely affect pilot performance. Recommendations are then made on ways organizational flight surgeons can minimize the negative transfer threat to aviation. PMID:7159345

Rayman, R B

1982-12-01

248

Doping is a threat to sporting excellence.  

PubMed

Savulescu et al have argued that the risk to athletes' welfare provides the only legitimate ground for restricting the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport. In this paper, it is argued that the idea of `sport', properly understood, provides further reason to impose such restrictions. A `balance of excellences' argument is proposed whereby doping is considered objectionable on account of its disrupting the relation between the excellences around which sporting competition is organised. We have reason to restrict the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport not only because of the threat they pose to athletes' health but also because of the threat they pose to athletes' displaying the relevant types of sporting excellence. PMID:20542968

Devine, John William

2011-06-01

249

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified.

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

250

In Brief: Threats to species continue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Showstack, Randy

2009-11-01

251

Countering laser pointer threats to road safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The market demand for bright laser pointers has led to the development of readily available devices that can pose a threat to road safety. Laser pointers can be involved in accidents caused by laser users who do not realise the dangers involved, but laser pointers can also enable deliberate criminal activity. There are technologies available that can counter the threat in different ways. A number of protective principles are outlined below. Some technologies built upon Liquid Crystal Devices are described in greater detail. Without any knowledge of what laser pointers a potential aggressor has access to, a frequency agile filter seems to be the most promising way to avoid the most severe consequences of dazzle from laser pointers. Protective systems incorporating suitable glasses or visors holding frequency agile filters of this kind however, are not commercially available today.

Svensson, Sören; Björkert, Stefan; Kariis, Hans; Lopes, Cesar

2006-10-01

252

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

253

Lightning threat extent of a small thunderstorm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concern for safety of the personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has caused NASA to promulgate strict safety procedures requiring either termination or substantial curtailment when ground lightning threat is believed to exist within 9.3 km of a covered operation. In cases where the threat is overestimated, in either space or time, an opportunity cost is accrued. This paper describes a small thunderstorm initiated over the KSC by terrain effects, that serves to exemplify the impact such an event may have on ground operations at the Center. Data from the Air Force Lightning Location and Protection System, the AF/NASA Launch Pad Lightning Warning System field mill network, radar, and satellite imagery are used to describe the thunderstorm and to discuss its impact.

Nicholson, James R.; Maier, Launa M.; Weems, John

1988-01-01

254

Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat.  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium parvum, a leading cause of persistent diarrhea in developing countries, is a major threat to the U.S. water supply. Able to infect with as few as 30 microscopic oocysts, Cryptosporidium is found in untreated surface water, as well as in swimming and wade pools, day-care centers, and hospitals. The organism can cause illnesses lasting longer than 1 to 2 weeks in previously healthy persons or indefinitely in immunocompromised patients; furthermore, in young children in developing countries, cryptosporidiosis predisposes to substantially increased diarrheal illnesses. Recent increased awareness of the threat of cryptosporidiosis should improve detection in patients with diarrhea. New methods such as those using polymerase chain reaction may help with detection of Cryptosporidium in water supplies or in asymptomatic carriers. Although treatment is very limited, new approaches that may reduce secretion or enhance repair of the damaged intestinal mucosa are under study.

Guerrant, R. L.

1997-01-01

255

Aerial Threat Perception Architecture Using Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a design framework based on a centralized scalable architecture for effective simulated aerial threat\\u000a perception. In this framework data mining and pattern classification techniques are incorporated. This paper focuses on effective\\u000a prediction by relying on the knowledge base and finding patterns for building the decision trees. This framework is flexibly\\u000a designed to seamlessly integrate with other applications.

M. Anwar-ul-Haq; Asad Waqar Malik; Shoab A. Khan

2010-01-01

256

Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes  

SciTech Connect

Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-03-10

257

Threat modernization in the near term  

SciTech Connect

The continuing effectiveness of space-based interceptors (SBIs) depends critically on the threat modernization rate. Fast-burn missiles could degrade their effectiveness by {approx}50%; early deployment of weapons and decoys could degrade it by a like factor, as could reducing the launch area or mobile missile. Together, these factors would reduce SBI availability a factor of {approx}20 and degrade effectiveness. The result could be a SBI defense that cost as much as the offense. 17 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

258

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion\\u000a and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions\\u000a and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security\\u000a management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus

Lizzie Coles-Kemp; Marianthi Theoharidou

2010-01-01

259

Brain activation during anticipation of interoceptive threat.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the neural networks activated during the anticipation of potentially threatening body symptoms evoked by a guided hyperventilation task in a group of participants reporting either high or low fear of unexplained somatic sensations. 15 subjects reporting high and 14 subjects reporting low fear of somatic symptoms first learned that one of two cues predicted the occurrence of a hyperventilation task reliably producing body symptoms in all participants that were rated as more intense and unpleasant in the high fear group. During anticipation of unpleasant symptoms, high fear participants reported more intense body symptoms and showed potentiation of the startle reflex. After this learning session, participants were taken into the fMRI where the same cues either predicted the occurrence of hyperventilation or normoventilation, although the task was never performed in the scanner. During anticipation of hyperventilation all participants showed an increased activation of anterior insula/orbitofrontal cortex and rostral parts of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dACC/dmPFC). Brain activation of high compared to low fear participants differed in two ways. First, high fear participants showed an overall stronger activation of this network during threat and safe conditions indexing stronger anxious apprehension during the entire context. Second, while low fear participants no longer responded with stronger activation to the threat cue after experiencing that the hyperventilation challenge did not follow this cue, high fear participants continued to show stronger activation of the network to this cue. Activation of the rostral dACC/dmPFC was significantly correlated with reported fear of somatic symptoms. These data demonstrate that anticipation of interoceptive threat activates the same network that has been found to be active during anticipation of exteroceptive threat cues. Thus, the current paradigm might provide an innovative method to study anxious apprehension and treatment effects in patients with panic disorder. PMID:22440646

Holtz, Katharina; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O

2012-07-16

260

Bullying: a hidden threat to patient safety.  

PubMed

Patient safety is a crucial element for quality care in hemodialysis facilities. When evaluating possible threats to safety, an important factor to consider is the behavior of the healthcare staff. Inappropriate behaviors, such as bullying, have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In addressing inappropriate behaviors, it is necessary to consider the role of the work environment. Healthy work environment initiatives provide a possible strategy to prevent and/or address the behaviors. PMID:24818452

Longo, Joy; Hain, Debra

2014-01-01

261

Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect

Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

2012-07-12

262

The Eyes Are Sufficient to Produce a Threat Superiority Effect  

PubMed Central

The research described in this article used a visual search task and demonstrated that the eye region alone can produce a threat superiority effect. Indeed, the magnitude of the threat superiority effect did not increase with whole-face, relative to eye-region-only, stimuli. The authors conclude that the configuration of the eyes provides a key signal of threat, which can mediate the search advantage for threat-related facial expressions.

Fox, Elaine; Damjanovic, Ljubica

2007-01-01

263

Postural control is scaled to level of postural threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated control of posture when standing at different surface heights above ground level. Alterations in surface height were used to modify threat to postural control. Sixty-two healthy adults (mean±S.D.=20.3±1.3 years) stood quietly on a force plate 40 cm (LOW threat), 100 cm (MEDIUM threat) or 160 cm (HIGH threat) above ground level. Each standing trial was performed with

Allan L Adkin; James S Frank; Mark G Carpenter; Gerhard W Peysar

2000-01-01

264

Bot armies as threats to network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2007-04-01

265

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

266

Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups  

PubMed Central

We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

2014-01-01

267

Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.  

PubMed

We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

2013-07-01

268

Fundamental freedoms and the psychology of threat, bargaining, and inequality.  

PubMed

Van de Vliert's findings may be explained by the psychology of threat and bargaining. Poor people facing extreme threats must cope by surrendering individual freedom in service of shared group needs. Wealthier people are more able to flee from threats and/or resist authoritarianism, so their leaders must concede greater freedom. Incorporating these factors (plus inequality) can sharpen researchers' predictions. PMID:23985171

Sparks, Adam; Mishra, Sandeep; Barclay, Pat

2013-10-01

269

Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and efficient judgments about the significance of social threat are important for species survival and may recruit specialized neurocognitive systems, consistent with biological models of threat processing [1]. We review cognitive, psychophysiological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence in support of specialized neural networks subserving the processing of facial displays of threat. Cognitive research suggests that faces depicting anger are detected

Melissa J Green; Mary L Phillips

2004-01-01

270

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546...Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may...United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane,...

2009-10-01

271

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546...Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may...United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane,...

2010-10-01

272

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2012-01-01

273

Psychobiological Responses to Social Self Threat: Functional or Detrimental?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research suggests that threats to the social self, or threats to one's social esteem, acceptance, or status, can elicit a coordinated response, including increases in self-conscious emotion, cortisol, and proinflammatory cytokine activity. These psychobiological changes may have important benefits under certain acute contexts, including providing a signaling function for detecting social threat, initiating biological processes to

Sally S. Dickerson; Tara L. Gruenewald; Margaret E. Kemeny

2009-01-01

274

Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

275

Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

276

Why Strength Training?  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity Physical Activity Share Compartir Why strength training? Research has shown that strengthening exercises are both ... person's mental and emotional health. Benefits of Strength Training There are numerous benefits to strength training regularly, ...

277

MOBILITY OF GASEOUS IONS IN WEAK ELECTRIC FIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kihara's extension of the Chapman-Enskog theory of transport phenomena ; is used to obtain the second order and third order approximations to the mobility ; of gaseous ions in a weak electric field as a function of temperature and field ; strength. In this method it is assumed that there is no charge exchange between ; ions and molecules, there

E. A. Mason; H. W. Jr. Schamp

1958-01-01

278

Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

2014-01-01

279

Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

2002-09-01

280

Technical approaches to reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of a nuclear attack on the United States by terrorists using a smuggled weapon is now considered more likely than an attack by a nuclear-armed ballistic missle. Consequently it is important to understand what can be done to detect and intercept a nuclear weapon being smuggled into the United States. A significant quantity of smuggled nuclear material has been intercepted already, but science and technology have so far contributed little to its interception. The critical special nuclear materials, plutonium and highly enriched uranium, are only weakly radioactive and detection of their radioactivity is limited both by atmospheric attenuation and by competition with natural backgrounds. Although many schemes for long-range detection of radioactivity have been proposed, none so far appears feasible. Detection of nuclear radiation can be improved using new technologies and sensing systems, but it will still be possible only at relatively small distances. Consequently the best approach to containing dangerous nuclear materials is at their sources; containment within lengthy borders and large areas is extremely difficult.

Priedhorsky, William C.

2005-04-01

281

Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization  

PubMed Central

Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape.

Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

2012-01-01

282

Representation of weakly harmonizable processes  

PubMed Central

Weakly harmonizable processes are represented by a family of positive definite contractive linear operators in a Hilbert space. This generalizes the known result on weakly stationary processes involving a unitary family. A characterization of the vector Fourier integral of a measure on R ? [unk], a reflexive space, is given, and this yields another characterization of weakly harmonizable processes when [unk] is a Hilbert space. Also these processes are shown to have associated spectra, yielding a positive solution to a problem of Rozanov.

Rao, M. M.

1981-01-01

283

Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:24216222

Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

2014-01-01

284

Weak decay of /?-hypernuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we discuss the present status of strange nuclear physics, with special attention to the weak decay of ?-hypernuclei. The models proposed for the evaluation of the ? decay widths are summarized and their results are compared with the data. The rates ? NM=? n+? p (+? 2) , ??0 and ??- are well explained by several calculations. Despite the intensive investigations of the last years, the main open problem remains a sound theoretical interpretation of the large experimental values of the ratio ?n/ ?p. However, the large uncertainties involved in the experimental determination of the ratio do not allow to reach any definitive conclusion. The ?n/ ?p puzzle is strongly related to the so-called ? I=1/2 rule on the isospin change in the non-mesonic decay, whose possible violation cannot be established at present, again due to the insufficient precision of the data. Although recent works offer a step forward in the solution of the puzzle, further efforts (especially on the experimental side) must be invested in order to understand the detailed dynamics of the non-mesonic decay. Even if, by means of single nucleon spectra measurements, the error bars on ?n/ ?p have been considerably reduced very recently at KEK (however, with central data compatible with older experiments), a clean extraction of ?n/ ?p is needed. What is missing at present, but planned for the next future, are measurements of (1) nucleon energy spectra in double coincidence and (2) nucleon angular correlations: such observations allow to disentangle the nucleons produced in one- and two-body induced decays and lead to a direct determination of ?n/ ?p. Notably, the two-body component of the non-mesonic decay rates has not been measured yet, due to the too low counting rates expected for a coincidence experiment. For the asymmetric non-mesonic decay of polarized hypernuclei the situation is even more puzzling. Indeed, strong inconsistencies appear already among data. A recent experiment obtained a positive intrinsic ? asymmetry parameter, a?, for ?5H?e. This is in complete disagreement with a previous measurement, which obtained a large and negative a? for p-shell hypernuclei, and with theory, which predicts a negative value moderately dependent on nuclear structure effects. Also in this case, improved experiment establishing with certainty the sign and magnitude of a? for s- and p-shell hypernuclei will provide a guidance for a deeper understanding of hypernuclear dynamics and decay mechanisms.

Alberico, W. M.; Garbarino, G.

2002-10-01

285

Celebrate Strengths, Nurture Affinities: A Conversation with Mel Levine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this interview with "Educational Leadership," pediatrician Dr. Mel Levine, cofounder of "All Kinds of Minds," explains why students and educators should learn about eight neurodevelopmental functions that undergird our strengths and weaknesses. For the most part, he notes, adults who lead successful lives mobilize their strengths and compensate…

Scherer, Marge

2006-01-01

286

When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.  

PubMed

The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N?=?588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice. PMID:23390970

Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

2013-01-01

287

Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety' in performance for a given type of CGF and allows us to organize and build vastly different CgFs within the same architecture. This approach allows us to provide a range of threat skill levels for each threat modeled within the DMTITE system and we can readily expand the system to accommodate peer-to-peer communication and group tactics. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the DMTITE requirements and a component-wise decomposition of the system. We also describe the structure of the major components of the DMT threat systems' decision mechanism. The progress of the initial prototype will also be discussed.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

1998-08-01

288

Initial perspectives on process threat management.  

PubMed

Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this "inside the gate" response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study. PMID:15518979

Whiteley, James R Rob; Mannan, M Sam

2004-11-11

289

Prefrontal control of attention to threat  

PubMed Central

Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

Peers, Polly V.; Simons, Jon S.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

290

Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation  

SciTech Connect

The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation: the first is the five states with declared weapons and doctrine-the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China; the second includes a less visible group that developed a covert capability, without testing weapons or declaring a doctrine of deterrence-for example, Israel, India, and probably Pakistan; and, a third wave of would-be proliferators includes radical states like Iraq, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. Spector's political approach is based on the common interest of wave one and two states to prevent further proliferation. Political-economic incentives have already worked in the cases of Brazil, Argentina, Taiwan, and South Africa-states which appear to have abandoned their nuclear weapons programs. Spector does not rule out the option of military force. Force, especially under international sanctions, can be a powerful tool to back diplomatic efforts. Use of force, however, remains a last resort.

Spector, L.S.

1992-03-12

291

Passive acoustic threat detection in estuarine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) at Stevens Institute of Technology supports research in a range of areas relevant to harbor security, including passive acoustic detection of underwater threats. The difficulties in using passive detection in an urban estuarine environment include intensive and highly irregular ambient noise and the complexity of sound propagation in shallow water. MSL conducted a set of tests in the Hudson River near Manhattan in order to measure the main parameters defining the detection distance of a threat: source level of a scuba diver, transmission loss of acoustic signals, and ambient noise. The source level of the diver was measured by comparing the diver's sound with a reference signal from a calibrated emitter placed on his path. Transmission loss was measured by comparing noise levels of passing ships at various points along their routes, where their distance from the hydrophone was calculated with the help of cameras and custom software. The ambient noise in the Hudson River was recorded under varying environmental conditions and amounts of water traffic. The passive sonar equation was then applied to estimate the range of detection. Estimations were done for a subset of the recorded noise levels, and we demonstrated how variations in the noise level, attenuation, and the diver's source level influence the effective range of detection. Finally, we provided analytic estimates of how an array improves upon the detection distance calculated by a single hydrophone.

Borowski, Brian; Sutin, Alexander; Roh, Heui-Seol; Bunin, Barry

2008-05-01

292

A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

2013-01-01

293

Recognizing Threat: A Simple Geometric Shape Activates Neural Circuitry for Threat Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urgent need to recognize danger quickly has been shown to rely on preferential processing in dedicated neural circuitry. In previous behavioral studies examining the pattern of the face when displaying anger, we found evidence that simple noncontextual geometric shapes containing downward-pointing V-shaped angles activate the perception of threat. We here report that the neural circuitry known to be mobilized

Christine L. Larson; Joel Aronoff; Issidoros C. Sarinopoulos; David C. Zhu

2009-01-01

294

A concise colorimetric and fluorimetric probe for sarin related threats designed via the "covalent-assembly" approach.  

PubMed

A turn-on signal from zero background allows sensitive detection of a weak signal and is highly desired. The "covalent-assembly" probe design principle is powerful in this regard. Herein, we report an embodiment of this principle (NA570) for detection of Sarin related threats, based on a phenylogous Vilsmeier-Haack reaction. NA570 bears a concise molecular construct, exhibits a colorimetric and a fluorimetric signal, and has potential for real applications. PMID:24766398

Lei, Zuhai; Yang, Youjun

2014-05-01

295

Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet - network security threats and vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer networks and computer systems are experiencing attacks and threats from many areas. Threats are also extended to include the individual user's computer assets and resources. Information will be presented on the categories of security and privacy threats, integrity threats, vulnerabilities, delay and denial threats, and intellectual property threats that are being directed towards corporate, educational, governmental, and individual assets.

Robert C. Newman

2006-01-01

296

Using SWOT Analysis for Promoting the Accounting Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can be used by business educators to find the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal departmental capabilities (strengths and weaknesses). An example from accounting education is provided. (JOW)

Sawyer, Joe E.

2001-01-01

297

Highly Damped, High-Strength, Puncture-Resistant Fabric for Multi- Threat Protective Uniforms. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phase I project was very successful in demonstrating the feasibility of using a superelastic Nitinol shape memory alloy to improve cut, tear, and puncture resistance of military Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) fabric. The Nitinol reinforcement increased cu...

J. S. Paine I. V. Tretiakova

1999-01-01

298

Environment-Driven Threats Elicitation for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The popularity and complexity of web application present challenges to the security implementation for web engineering. Threat\\u000a elicitation is an indispensable step for developers to identify the possible threats to the web applications in the early\\u000a phase of software development. In this context, a novel approach is proposed to ease the threats elicitation for web application\\u000a by using a defined

Hui Guan; Weiru Chen; Lin Liu; Hongji Yang

299

Emerging and Future Cyber Threats to Critical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper discusses the emerging and future cyber threats to critical systems identified during the EU\\/FP7 project ICT-FORWARD.\\u000a Threats were identified after extensive discussions with both domain experts and IT security professionals from academia,\\u000a industry, and government organizations. The ultimate goal of the work was to identify the areas in which cyber threats could\\u000a occur and cause serious and undesirable

Edita Djambazova; Magnus Almgren; Kiril Dimitrov; Erland Jonsson

2010-01-01

300

Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

1998-01-01

301

Bioterrorism as a public health threat.  

PubMed Central

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern--smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use.

Henderson, D. A.

1998-01-01

302

MCNPX improvements for threat reduction applications  

SciTech Connect

The DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) is funding a multiyear program of improvements for the MCNPX{sup TM} Monte Carlo radiation-transport code. Additional work is underway for the DTRA Active Interrogation programs. Enhancements contained in the current MCNPX 2.6.0 RSICC release will be presented, including stopped-muon physics, delayed neutron and photon generation and automatic generation of source photons. Preliminary benchmarking comparisons with data taken with a PSI muon beam will be discussed. We will also describe current improvements now underway, including Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, pulsed sources, and others. We will also describe very new work begun on a Threat-Reduction user inferface, designed to simplify the setup of TR-related calculations, and introduce standards into geometry, sources and backgrounds.

Waters, Laurie S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durkee, Joe W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elson, Jay S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holloway, Shannon T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johns, Russell C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, M William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mckinney, Gregg W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pelowitz, Denise B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

303

The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation  

PubMed Central

Background Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N=243) were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation.

McDonald, Pamela; Bryant, Richard A.; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C.

2013-01-01

304

Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings  

PubMed Central

The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure.

Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

2012-01-01

305

Females that experience threat are better teachers.  

PubMed

Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

2014-01-01

306

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases  

PubMed Central

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis.

Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2013-01-01

307

Numerical Investigation of Weak Grains in Granular Shear Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of frictionally weak particles is central in understanding various types of shear zones including faults, landslides and deformation in glacial till. All of these deformation zones contain a mixture of mineral phases and can include significant proportions of frictionally weak particles such as clay minerals and phyllosilicates. This observation was used, for example, to explain the weak frictional behavior of the San Andreas Fault. Understanding the role of these phases on overall fault strength and localization of shear is necessary to understand the generation of shear and earthquakes. Here, we use a 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) numerical approach to investigate the role of weak particles on the overall frictional strength of a deforming shear zone. The DEM allows us to investigate the micromechanics of the shear zone by directly visualizing force chain formation, connectivity and destruction and also the distributed or localized nature of shear in the numerical experiment. The shear zone of our models is compared to standard laboratory friction experiments in which non-cohesive grains (fault gouge) are sandwiched between stiff walls and sheared. The gouge particles in our models range from 100 to 200 ?m in diameter with the normal stress held constant at 15 MPa. We vary the coefficient of friction between particles and mix frictionally strong and weak particles in different ratios. Additionally we investigate the shape of phyllosilicates and their role in localization of shear into plane by varying the shape of grains from spheres to platy grains. Our study provides some quantitative information on the proportion of weak particles necessary to significantly reduce the strength of a shear zone.

Rathbun, A. P.; Renard, F.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

308

Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in drug-DNA complexes: A statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of strong and weak hydrogen bonds in the minor groove of DNA was carried out for a set of 70 drug-DNA\\u000a complexes. The terms ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ pertain to the inherent strengths and weakness of the donor and acceptor fragments\\u000a rather than to any energy considerations. The dataset was extracted from the protein data bank (PDB). The

Sunil K. Panigrahi; Gautam R. Desiraju

2007-01-01

309

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION...

2013-10-01

310

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Procedures for security threat assessment. 1540.205 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL...

2013-10-01

311

Muscle Strength and BMI as Predictors of Major Mobility Disability in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P)  

PubMed Central

Background. Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. Methods. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which sedentary functionally limited participants (70–89 years, Short Physical Performance Battery ? 9) who were able to complete a 400-m walk test at baseline were randomized to a physical activity or health education intervention and reassessed for major mobility disability every 6 months for up to 18 months. We evaluated whether baseline grip strength and BMI predicted failure to complete the 400-m walk test in 15 minutes or less (major mobility disability). Results. Among N = 406 participants with baseline measures, lower grip strength was associated with an increased risk for developing major mobility disability, with and without covariate adjustment (p < .01): The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus high sex-specific quartile of grip strength was 6.11 (2.24–16.66). We observed a U-shaped relationship between baseline BMI and the risk of developing major mobility disability, such that the risk for participants with a BMI of 25–29 kg/m2 was approximately half that of participants with BMI less than 25 or 30 kg/m2 or more (p = .04 in fully adjusted analyses). Conclusions. Our data highlight the importance of muscle weakness, low BMI, and obesity as risk factors for major mobility disability in older adults. Being overweight may be protective for major mobility disability.

Rejeski, W. Jack; Espeland, Mark A.; Miller, Michael E.; Church, Timothy S.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

2011-01-01

312

Resisting Weakness of the Will  

PubMed Central

I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

Levy, Neil

2012-01-01

313

Weak-shock reflection factors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-09-07

314

Nuclear Weak Processes and Astrophysical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear weak processes are investigated based on new shell model Hamiltonians, which give successful description of spin responses in nuclei, and applied to astrophysical problems. Neutrino-induced reactions on 12C and synthesis of light elements by supernova neutrinos, and effects of contamination of 13C, whose natural isotopic abundance is 1.1%, on inclusive ?-12C reactions are discussed. Spin-dipole transitions and ?-induced reactions on 16O are studied by using a new Hamiltonian with proper tensor components, and compared with conventional calculations and previous CRPA results. Gamow-Teller transition strength in 40Ar and ?-induced reactions on 40Ar by solar neutrinos are studied based on monopole-based-universal interaction (VMU). We finally discuss electron capture reactions on Ni isotopes in stellar environments.

Suzuki, Toshio; Honma, Michio

2012-09-01

315

Mixed electrolytes producing very weak electroacoustic signal.  

PubMed

The electrokinetic potential of powders dispersed in concentrated solutions of salts can be determined by electroacoustic methods when the ESA (electrokinetic sonic amplitude) signal of electrolyte is properly corrected for. We propose an alternative solution to the problem of electroacoustic measurements at high ionic strengths; that is, the composition of mixed electrolytes with common ions can be adjusted to minimize the ESA signal of the electrolyte. The measurement of electrokinetic potential of powders dispersed in such mixed electrolytes does not require electrolyte background correction. Mixed electrolytes, which produce very weak ESA signals, were prepared from the following salts with common ions: Li+ (LiNO3 + LiCl), Na+ (NaNO3 + NaBr), K+ (KBr + KNO3), and NO(-)3 (LiNO3 + KNO3). Proportions of the components in these mixed electrolytes are concentration dependent. The electrokinetic potentials of alumina in these mixed electrolytes determined with and without background correction were only marginally different. PMID:17686486

Kosmulski, Marek; Rosenholm, Jarl B

2007-11-15

316

Enhancing weak signal transmission through a feedforward network.  

PubMed

The ability to transmit and amplify weak signals is fundamental to signal processing of artificial devices in engineering. Using a multilayer feedforward network of coupled double-well oscillators as well as Fitzhugh-Nagumo oscillators, we here investigate the conditions under which a weak signal received by the first layer can be transmitted through the network with or without amplitude attenuation. We find that the coupling strength and the nodes' states of the first layer act as two-state switches, which determine whether the transmission is significantly enhanced or exponentially decreased. We hope this finding is useful for designing artificial signal amplifiers. PMID:24807933

Xiaoming Liang; Liang Zhao; Zonghua Liu

2012-09-01

317

Strength Coefficient of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

South Dakota's, previously conducted, Flexible Pavement Study indicated a relationship between Strength and Effective Thickness. It was apparent that a simple slope formula used for any two points on the curve produced strength coefficients. The slope of ...

R. A. Crawford

1971-01-01

318

Report Commission Assess Threat United States Electromagnetic Pulse (IEMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures. Washington DUC.: Commission Assess Threat United States Electromagnetic Pulse (IEMP) Attack 2008  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Report Commission Assess Threat United States Electromagnetic Pulse (IEMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures. Washington DUC.: Commission Assess Threat United States Electromagnetic Pulse (IEMP) Attack 2008 ?

319

Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

2007-03-01

320

Induced tolerance expressed as relaxed behavioural threat response in millimetre-sized aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals responded with immediate downward swimming to UVR exposure, but when released from the threat they rapidly returned to the surface. Large individuals swam faster and generally travelled longer distances than small individuals. Interestingly, individuals previously exposed to UVR (during several generations) showed a more relaxed response to UVR and travelled shorter total distances than those that were naive to UVR, suggesting induced tolerance to the threat. In addition, animals previously exposed to UVR also had smaller eyes than the naive ones, whereas UVR-protective melanin pigmentation of the animals was similar between populations. Finally, we show that smaller individuals have lower capacity to avoid UVR which could explain patterns in natural systems of lower migration amplitudes in small individuals. The ability to change behavioural patterns in response to a threat, in this case UVR, adds to our understanding of how organisms navigate in the 'landscape of fear', and this has important implications for individual fitness and for interaction strengths in biotic interactions. PMID:24966309

Hylander, Samuel; Ekvall, Mikael T; Bianco, Giuseppe; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders

2014-08-01

321

Gender Identification Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on Women's Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender

Toni Schmader

2002-01-01

322

Lack of Stereotype Threat at a Liberal Arts College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat has been demonstrated to reduce the performance of stereotyped individuals in the threatened domain (Steele & Aronson, 1995). This study attempted to replicate the finding that stereotype threat instruction can erase the performance deficit women experience in math performance (Johns, Schmader, & Martens, 2005) and to further…

Rivardo, Mark G.; Rhodes, Michael E.; Klein, Brandi

2008-01-01

323

Emerging threats: financial crime in the virtual world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight emerging threats in cyberspace, with particular reference to financial crime in the virtual world, which have real life implications, as well as to recommend ways in which the threat may be mitigated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology adopted consisted of an extensive literature review on topics to include cyber crime, virtual

Shima D. Keene

2012-01-01

324

The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

2012-01-01

325

Attention Bias toward Threat in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention bias towards threat faces is examined for a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using visual probe task. The results showed that anxious individuals showed a selective bias towards threat due to perturbation in neural mechanisms that control vigilance.

Roy, Amy Krain; Vasa, Roma A.; Bruck, Maggie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sweeney, Michael; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Pine, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

326

Small threat and contraband detection with TNA-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of small threats, such as explosives, drugs, and chemical weapons, concealed or encased in surrounding material, is a major concern in areas from security checkpoints to UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance. Techniques such as X-ray and trace detection are often ineffectual in these applications. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) provides an effective method for detecting concealed threats. This paper shows

T. J. Shaw; D. Brown; J. D’Arcy; F. Liu; P. Shea; M. Sivakumar; T. Gozani

2005-01-01

327

Assessing Attack Threat by the Probability of Following Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a novel approach to assessing the threat of network intrusions is proposed. Unlike the present approaches which assess the attack threat either from a backward perspective (how probable a security state can be reached) or from the perspective of the attacks themselves (how much an attack would cause damage to the network), this approach assesses the attack

Zhi-tang Li; Jie Lei; Li Wang; Dong Li

2007-01-01

328

A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

2013-01-01

329

Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

Simmons, Cecil Max

2010-01-01

330

North Korean Special Purpose Forces an Assessment of the Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess the threat that the North Korean Special Forces pose, and to explore how this threat might be deterred or countered. This thesis will answer three questions. First, in the event of a second Korean War, what will the...

M. S. Durtschi

1995-01-01

331

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

332

Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

333

Information Security Threats Analysis for E-Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and define the information security threats in e-learning environment. A threat analysis has been conducted for each application in Managed Learning Environment (MLE) system used in e-learning. The threats analysis was conducted according to the approach adapted from Microsoft. This study produce a list of information security threats per application used in e-learning and a matrix of threats' risk for e-learning. This study focused on vulnerabilities in application system and do not cover the vulnerabilities in host and network in e-learning. Thus, this study has revealed the information security threats specifically for applications in e-learning environment. The results of the threats analysis can be used as guidance to e-learning provider in implementing e-learning security strategy. The results can also be a guide for the e-learning users to increase their awareness on the potential threats in e-learning environment.

Mohd Alwi, Najwa Hayaati; Fan, Ip-Shing

334

Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

French, Donald P.

2005-01-01

335

Optimization of Fighter Aircraft Evasive Trajectories for Radar Threats Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal evasive trajectories of fighter aircraft for radar threats avoidance is studied. At the core of the function is the tactical level trajectory planner that is highly integrated with the mission level planning system. The trajectory planner is described that can find an optimal or sub-optimal trajectory to penetrate through hostile enemy radar threats with a high

Shi Xiaoli; Wang Xinmin; Liu Yongcai; Wang Changqing; Xu Cheng

2007-01-01

336

Integration of threat information into the route (re-) planning task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Route planning through a hostile environment requires the user to translate information on threats into constraints that influence the location of the planned waypoints. During the execution of the plan, new information on threats requires the user to generate guidance that keeps the trajectory within safe separation from the terrain and obstacles, while minimizing the additional risk posed by the

E. Theunissen; F. Bolderheij; G. J. M. Koeners

2005-01-01

337

The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

Kenneth Geers

2009-01-01

338

The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

339

IPMatrix: An Effective Visualization Framework for Cyber Threat Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective Internet cyber threat monitoring system detects cyber threats using network sensors deployed at particular points on the Internet, statistically analyses the time of attack, source of attack, and type of attack, and then visualizes the result of this analysis. Existing systems, however, simply visualize country-by-country statistics of attacks or hourly changes of attacks. Using these systems, it is

Kazuhiro Ohno; Hideki Koikef; Kanba Koizumi

2005-01-01

340

Managing Threats to Web Databases and Cyber Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of some of the cyber threats information systems as well as data management systems and then discusses potential solutions and challenges. The threats include access control violations, unauthorized intrusions and inference and aggregation. Solutions include role-based access control, data mining techniques and security constraint processing.

Bhavani Thuraisingham

341

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

2002

342

Convergent Validity, Situational Stability and Meaningfulness of the Threat Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pair of related experiments examined the psychometric properties on the Threat Index (TI), a theoretically based scale for the assessment of threat of death. The high reliability of the TI suggested its functioning as an index of stable conceptual orientation toward death. (Author)

Neimeyer, Robert A.; And Others

1977-01-01

343

Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

2009-01-01

344

Strength Modeling Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

1985-01-01

345

Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength  

PubMed Central

Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles during intrinsic foot muscle strength testing.

2012-01-01

346

Unhealthy Interactions: The Role of Stereotype Threat in Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M.; Juarez, Lindsay

2014-01-01

347

Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper reviews empirical investigations across 4 common assessment tasks: the Stroop (masked and unmasked), dot probe, visual search, and the Posner tasks. Although the review finds inconsistencies both within and between assessment tasks, the evidence suggests that attentional biases towards threat are comprised of each of the phenomenological characteristics addressed in this paper. Contemporary theoretical models of attentional biases in anxiety are summarized and critically reviewed in light of the current evidence. Suggestions for future research are addressed, including a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the assessment tasks, to utilize consistent theoretically driven operationalizations of attentional biases, and to provide a temporal description of the characteristics of attentional biases towards threat.

Cisler, Josh M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Williams, Nathan L.

2010-01-01

348

Respiratory weakness in patients with chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

Respiratory muscle strength is one parameter that is currently proposed to be affected in patients with chronic neck pain. This study was aimed at examining whether patients with chronic neck pain have reduced respiratory strength and with which neck pain problems their respiratory strength is associated. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 45 patients with chronic neck pain and 45 healthy well-matched controls were recruited. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed through maximal mouth pressures. The subjects were additionally assessed for their pain intensity and disability, neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, neck range of movement, forward head posture and psychological states. Paired t-tests showed that patients with chronic neck pain have reduced Maximal Inspiratory (MIP) (r = 0.35) and Maximal Expiratory Pressures (MEP) (r = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength (r > 0.5), kinesiophobia (r < -0.3) and catastrophizing (r < -0.3) were significantly associated with maximal mouth pressures (P < 0.05), whereas MEP was additionally negatively correlated with neck pain and disability (r < -0.3, P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength was the only predictor that remained as significant into the prediction models of MIP and MEP. It can be concluded that patients with chronic neck pain present weakness of their respiratory muscles. This weakness seems to be a result of the impaired global and local muscle system of neck pain patients, and psychological states also appear to have an additional contribution. Clinicians are advised to consider the respiratory system of patients with chronic neck pain during their usual assessment and appropriately address their treatment. PMID:23199797

Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

2013-06-01

349

Proliferation in Europe: Sizing up the threat  

SciTech Connect

Since the dawn of the atomic age, the world has lived with the ominous threat that unstable and even diabolical forces could steal fissile materials or technology and build a nuclear bomb. That possibility has always evoked a visceral though somewhat abstract fear in the mind of the public. However, recent developments have thrust those fears into glaring reality. Keeping track of plutonium and other fissile materials is a monumental job. By the end of 1992 spent oxide fuel with more than 17,000 tonnes of heavy metal had been shipped from European nuclear power plants to European reprocessing plants. Of this spent fuel, considerable amounts of plutonium had been recovered and shipped to fuel fabrication facilities in Belgium, France and Germany, where they had been manufactured into plutonium-bearing fuel [fast breeder fuel or MOX fuel for thermal recycling]. Thus, plutonium has been transported in various forms via road, rail, sea and even in Europe and overseas. This article examines proliferation in Europe and its effect so far on the nuclear industry.

Not Available

1993-09-01

350

The concept of leakage in threat assessment.  

PubMed

Leakage in the context of threat assessment is the communication to a third party of an intent to do harm to a target. Third parties are usually other people, but the means of communication vary, and include letters, diaries, journals, blogs, videos on the internet, emails, voice mails, and other social media forms of transmission. Leakage is a type of warning behavior that typically infers a preoccupation with the target, and may signal the research, planning, and implementation of an attack. Nomothetic data suggest that leakage occurs in a majority of cases of attacks on and assassinations of public figures, adult mass murders, adolescent mass murders, and school or campus shootings: very low-frequency, but catastrophic acts of intended and targeted violence. Idiographic or case data illustrate the various permutations of leakage. We discuss the operational importance of the concept, place it in the context of other warning behaviors, emphasize the need for further research, and outline risk management strategies for the mitigation of such acts of violence in both law enforcement and clinical mental health settings. PMID:21710573

Meloy, J Reid; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

2011-01-01

351

Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.  

PubMed Central

Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Wenzel, Richard P.

2002-01-01

352

Integrated optic chip for laser threat identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this conference last year, we proposed free-space gratings, Fizeau interferometers and wavefront estimation for detecting the different lasers deployed in the battlefield for range finding, target designation, communications, dazzle, location of targets, munitions guidance, and destruction. Since last year, advanced laser weapons of the electron cyclotron type, are in development, such as the free-electron laser, that are tunable and can, unlike conventional bound-electron state lasers, be used at any wavelength from microwaves to soft X-rays. We list the characteristics of the nine dominant laser weapons because we assume that the free-electron lasers will initially use one of the current threat wavelengths because of availability of components and instrumentation. In this paper we replace the free-space grating with a higher performing array waveguide grating integrated optic chip, similar to that used in telecommunications, because integrated circuits are more robust and less expensive. It consists of a star coupler that fans out amongst waveguides of different length followed by a star coupler that focuses different wavelengths to different outputs in order to separate them. Design equations are derived to cover a range of frequencies at specific frequency spacing relevant to this application.

McAulay, Alastair D.

2010-04-01

353

Threat modulates perception of looming visual stimuli.  

PubMed

Among the most critical of visual functions is the detection of potentially hazardous or threatening aspects of the environment. For example, objects on a collision course with an observer must be quickly identified to allow sufficient time to prepare appropriate defensive or avoidant responses. Directly approaching objects produce a specific accelerating pattern of optical expansion, known as 'looming, which in theory exactly specifies time-to-collision independent of object size or distance. Such looming stimuli have been shown to trigger stereotyped defensive responses in both monkeys [1] and human infants [2]. Psychophysical results in adult participants have similarly suggested sensitivity to looming at early stages of visual processing [3]. Such findings indicate specialization of the visual system to detect and react to such 'looming' stimuli, and have contributed to the traditional view of looming as a purely optical cue to imminent collision [1]. Here, we investigated whether the semantic content of a looming visual stimulus affects perceived time-to-collision by manipulating its threat value. We show that time-to-collision is underestimated for threatening (snakes and spiders) compared to non-threatening (butterflies and rabbits) stimuli. Further, the magnitude of this effect is correlated with self-reported fear. Our results demonstrate affective modulation of the perception of looming stimuli, and suggest that emotion shapes basic aspects of visual perception. PMID:23058796

Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F; Longo, Matthew R

2012-10-01

354

Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to ? Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. ? Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, ? Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, ? Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

2008-05-01

355

Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from ? Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to ? Carinae, which resides in our own Galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. ? Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given that its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a gamma-ray burst oriented toward Earth, ? Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We have found that, given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovaeendocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered dangerous for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, ? Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

Thomas, Brian C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Field, Brian D.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

2008-02-01

356

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

2007-10-01

357

Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

1991-01-01

358

Masculine voices signal men's threat potential in forager and industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Humans and many non-human primates exhibit large sexual dimorphisms in vocalizations and vocal anatomy. In humans, same-sex competitors and potential mates attend to acoustic features of male vocalizations, but vocal masculinity especially increases perceptions of physical prowess. Yet, the information content of male vocalizations remains obscure. We therefore examined relationships between sexually dimorphic acoustic properties and men's threat potential. We first introduce a new measure of the structure of vocal formant frequencies, ‘formant position’ (Pf), which we show is more sexually dimorphic and more strongly related to height than is the most widely used measure of formant structure, ‘formant dispersion’, in both a US sample and a sample of Hadza foragers from Tanzania. We also show large sexual dimorphisms in the mean fundamental frequency (F0) and the within-utterance standard deviation in F0 (F0 ? s.d.) in both samples. We then explore relationships between these acoustic parameters and men's body size, strength, testosterone and physical aggressiveness. Each acoustic parameter was related to at least one measure of male threat potential. The most dimorphic parameters, F0 and Pf, were most strongly related to body size in both samples. In the US sample, F0 predicted testosterone levels, Pf predicted upper body strength and F0 ? s.d. predicted physical aggressiveness.

Puts, David A.; Apicella, Coren L.; Cardenas, Rodrigo A.

2012-01-01

359

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

360

Weak Selection and Protein Evolution  

PubMed Central

The “nearly neutral” theory of molecular evolution proposes that many features of genomes arise from the interaction of three weak evolutionary forces: mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection acting at its limit of efficacy. Such forces generally have little impact on allele frequencies within populations from generation to generation but can have substantial effects on long-term evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of weakly selected mutations are highly sensitive to population size, and near neutrality was initially proposed as an adjustment to the neutral theory to account for general patterns in available protein and DNA variation data. Here, we review the motivation for the nearly neutral theory, discuss the structure of the model and its predictions, and evaluate current empirical support for interactions among weak evolutionary forces in protein evolution. Near neutrality may be a prevalent mode of evolution across a range of functional categories of mutations and taxa. However, multiple evolutionary mechanisms (including adaptive evolution, linked selection, changes in fitness-effect distributions, and weak selection) can often explain the same patterns of genome variation. Strong parameter sensitivity remains a limitation of the nearly neutral model, and we discuss concave fitness functions as a plausible underlying basis for weak selection.

Akashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Naoki; Ohta, Tomoko

2012-01-01

361

Volitional assessment of respiratory muscle strength.  

PubMed

Respiratory muscle weakness may induce dyspnoea, secretion retention and respiratory failure. Assessing respiratory muscle strength is mandatory in neuromuscular diseases and in case of unexplained dyspnoea. A step by step approach is recommended, starting with simple volitional tests. Using spirometry, respiratory muscle weakness may be suspected on the basis of an abnormal flow-volume loop or a fall of supine vital capacity. When normal, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures against a near complete occlusion exclude significant muscle weakness, but low values are more difficult to interpret. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure is a useful alternative because it is easy and it eliminates the problem of air leaks around the mouthpiece in patients with neuromuscular disorders. The strength available for coughing is easily assessed by measuring peak cough flow. In most cases, these simple non invasive tests are sufficient to confirm or to eliminate significant respiratory muscle weakness and help the timely introduction of ventilatory support or assisted cough techniques. In a minority of patients, a more complete evaluation is necessary using non volitional tests like cervical magnetic stimulation of phrenic nerves. PMID:22662641

Fitting, J W

2012-03-01

362

A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

363

Microscopic scattering theory for interacting bosons in weak random potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a diagrammatic scattering theory for interacting bosons in a three-dimensional, weakly disordered potential. Based on a microscopic N-body scattering theory, we identify the relevant diagrams including elastic and inelastic collision processes that are sufficient to describe diffusive quantum transport. By taking advantage of the statistical properties of the weak disorder potential, we demonstrate how the N-body dynamics can be reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of Boltzmann type for the single-particle diffusive flux. Our theory reduces to the Gross-Pitaevskii mean field description in the limit where only elastic collisions are taken into account. However, even at weak interaction strength, inelastic collisions lead to energy redistribution between the bosons—initially prepared all at the same single-particle energy—and thereby induce thermalization of the single-particle current. In addition, we include also weak localization effects and determine the coherent corrections to the incoherent transport in terms of the coherent backscattering signal. We find that inelastic collisions lead to an enhancement of the backscattered cone in a narrow spectral window for increasing interaction strength.

Geiger, Tobias; Buchleitner, Andreas; Wellens, Thomas

2013-11-01

364

Cosmology and the weak interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

Schramm, David N.

1989-01-01

365

The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

2013-01-01

366

Alcohol Stress Response Dampening during imminent vs. distal, uncertain threat  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Predictable vs. unpredictable shock administration has been used to elicit fear vs. anxiety, respectively. Recent research has demonstrated that alcohol may reduce anxiety but not fear. However, previous manipulations of predictability have varied both probability and temporal uncertainty of shock threat, leaving unresolved questions regarding which stimulus characteristics elicit anxiety and are sensitive to alcohol stress response dampening (SRD). We developed a novel paradigm to closely parallel basic research in animals that systematically varied temporal uncertainty of threat while holding threat probability constant. Intoxicated (0.08% target BAC), placebo, and no-alcohol control participants viewed a series of visual threat cues. Certain cue duration (5 seconds) blocks were equivalent to predictable shock blocks eliciting fear in earlier research. Uncertain cue duration (5, 20, 50 or 80 second, intermixed) blocks introduced temporal uncertainty regarding impending shock to elicit anxiety. Startle potentiation relative to matched cue periods in no-shock blocks provided the primary measure of affective response. All threat cues produced robust startle potentiation. Alcohol reduced startle potentiation during the first 5 seconds of threat cue presentation in uncertain but not certain duration blocks. Alcohol also reduced startle potentiation at later times among longer uncertain duration cues, suggesting that alcohol SRD persisted. Trait negative emotionality and binge drinking status moderated alcohol SRD magnitude during uncertain threat. These translational findings corroborate previous reports regarding distinct substrates of fear vs. anxiety, and have implications for both alcoholism etiology and comorbidity with anxiety disorders.

Hefner, Kathryn R.; Moberg, Christine A.; Hachiya, Laura Y.; Curtin, John J.

2014-01-01

367

The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.  

PubMed

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

2012-10-01

368

Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

2009-03-23

369

Erasing fear for an imagined threat event.  

PubMed

Although memory for emotionally arousing and stressful experiences is strong and resistant to change, recent years have witnessed rapidly emerging evidence for the plasticity of fear memories. Upon retrieval a memory may be rendered labile and vulnerable to the disruptive effects of amnestic agents. This process is referred to as "disrupting reconsolidation" and may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, the fear-reducing effects are thus far only demonstrated for freezing reactions in rodents and autonomic fear responding in humans. If disrupting reconsolidation will be of value for clinical practice, it should also target the subjective feelings of anxiety. Using an instructed fear-learning paradigm in humans, we here tested whether disrupting reconsolidation would diminish the subjective feelings of anxiety for a noxious event that was anticipated but never actually experienced. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade during reconsolidation strongly diminished the behavioral expression of the instructed fear memory (i.e., startle responding) as well as the subjective feelings of anxiety 24h later, yet without affecting both the physiological and cognitive component of the anticipation of threat (i.e., skin conductance responding, expectancy ratings). Together, the present findings suggest that the various memory traces of a learned fear association do not necessarily undergo reconsolidation in harmony. Considering that patients with anxiety disorders (1) often fear objects and situations that they have never actually experienced, and (2) primarily suffer from the subjective feelings of anxiety, the present findings may have important ramifications for psychotherapy. PMID:22503387

Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

2012-11-01

370

Babesiosis and heartwater: threats without boundaries.  

PubMed

Suppose one of your clients from southern Florida starts talking about cattle egrets while you are vaccinating her cat. It seems she found a nearly dead egret near the cattle pen a few days ago, picked it up, and noticed a number of what looked like small ticks on the legs. Or, suppose you are called out to a small dairy in central Texas to look at some cows that are feverish and anemic. The first animal you examine has a few brown ticks attached just under the tail. Finally, perhaps you are looking at a lame tortoise for a reptile fancier, a new client, and find a large, colorful tick on a hind leg, well up under the shell. Ring any bells? Egrets are great hosts for the immature stages of Amblyomma ticks and have been captured and marked in the eastern Caribbean, then recaptured in the Florida Keys. Those cattle ticks in Texas might be acaricide-resistant Boophilus ticks that originated in Mexico. The Amblyomma tick on the tortoise could well have "hitch-hiked" all the way from South Africa. By now you remember that both Amblyomma and Boophilus ticks are efficient vectors of two tickborne diseases in this hemisphere, heartwater (in the case of Amblyomma) and babesiosis (transmitted by Boophilus ticks). Both of these diseases are exotic to the United States, and because our livestock are considered to be totally susceptible, an introduced infection could result in high initial death losses (approximately 70%); thus, both the ticks and the diseases pose immediate threats to the health and economic security of United States animal industries. Most importantly, you, whether as a small animal or large animal practitioner, are the first line of defense against such exotic diseases and their vectors. PMID:12442575

Wagner, G Gale; Holman, Patricia; Waghela, Surya

2002-11-01

371

Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing reduces working memory interference  

PubMed Central

Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM) task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modeling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesized that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat-related interference.

Clarke, Robert; Johnstone, Tom

2013-01-01

372

Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Most teenage fears subside with age, a change that may reflect brain maturation in the service of refined fear learning. Whereas adults clearly demarcate safe situations from real dangers, attenuating fear to the former but not the latter, adolescents’ immaturity in prefrontal cortex function may limit their ability to form clear-cut threat categories, allowing pervasive fears to manifest. Here we developed a discrimination learning paradigm that assesses the ability to categorize threat from safety cues to test these hypotheses on age differences in neurodevelopment. In experiment 1, we first demonstrated the capacity of this paradigm to generate threat/safety discrimination learning in both adolescents and adults. Next, in experiment 2, we used this paradigm to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of threat/safety discrimination learning in adolescents and adults using functional MRI. This second experiment yielded three sets of findings. First, when labeling threats online, adolescents reported less discrimination between threat and safety cues than adults. Second, adolescents were more likely than adults to engage early-maturing subcortical structures during threat/safety discrimination learning. Third, adults’ but not adolescents’ engagement of late-maturing prefrontal cortex regions correlated positively with fear ratings during threat/safety discrimination learning. These data are consistent with the role of dorsolateral regions during category learning, particularly when differences between stimuli are subtle [Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167–202]. These findings suggest that maturational differences in subcortical and prefrontal regions between adolescent and adult brains may relate to age-related differences in threat/safety discrimination.

Lau, Jennifer Y.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Nelson, Eric E.; Angold, Adrian; Ernst, Monique; Goldwin, Michelle; Grillon, Christian; Leibenluft, Ellen; Lissek, Shmuel; Norcross, Maxine; Shiffrin, Nina; Pine, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

373

PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Crutcher, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hull, Charles L. H., E-mail: mkrumhol@ucsc.edu [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2013-04-10

374

Small threat and contraband detection with TNA-based systems.  

PubMed

The detection of small threats, such as explosives, drugs, and chemical weapons, concealed or encased in surrounding material, is a major concern in areas from security checkpoints to UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance. Techniques such as X-ray and trace detection are often ineffectual in these applications. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) provides an effective method for detecting concealed threats. This paper shows the effectiveness of Ancore's SPEDS, based on TNA, in detecting concealed liquid threats and differentiating live from inert mortar shells. PMID:16026994

Shaw, T J; Brown, D; D'Arcy, J; Liu, F; Shea, P; Sivakumar, M; Gozani, T

2005-01-01

375

Strong Representation of Weak Convergence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well known that there is a big difference between the concepts of weak and strong convergence of random variables. In the area of limilting theory, it is of interest to study the difference as well as the link between the two concepts of convergence...

Z. D. Bai W. Q. Liang

1985-01-01

376

N-{Delta} weak transition  

SciTech Connect

A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

Graczyk, Krzysztof M. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204, Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-11-23

377

Indicators of implicit and explicit social anxiety influence threat-related interpretive bias as a function of working memory capacity  

PubMed Central

Interpretive biases play a crucial role in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine factors that determine the relative strength of threat-related interpretive biases that are characteristic of individuals high in social anxiety. Different (dual process) models argue that both implicit and explicit processes determine information processing biases and behavior, and that their impact is moderated by the availability of executive resources such as working memory capacity (WMC). Based on these models, we expected indicators of implicit social anxiety to predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals low, but not high in WMC. Indicators of explicit social anxiety should predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals high, but not low in WMC. As expected, WMC moderated the impact of implicit social anxiety on threat-related interpretive bias, although the simple slope for individuals low in WMC was not statistically significant. The hypotheses regarding explicit social anxiety (with fear of negative evaluation used as an indicator) were fully supported. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

Salemink, Elske; Friese, Malte; Drake, Emily; Mackintosh, Bundy; Hoppitt, Laura

2013-01-01

378

The strong, weak and anomalous sides of weak topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disorder and topology can be thought of as two counter-driving forces. While the former pushes electron wave functions to localize in space, the latter requires them to remain coherent over the entire system. We study the interplay between these two on the surface of a ``weakly'' topological phase- the Weak Topological Insulator. Using arguments based on flux-insertions and locality, we show that such surfaces cannot undergo a localization transition even when the surface is strongly disordered. We also present a numerical study which further quantifies this result. We then reformulate the same notions, in field theory language, using a novel Z2-charge-anomaly. This anomaly generalizes the Z-charge-anomaly associated with edges of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect. Besides unifying various aspects of Topological Insulators, the anomaly allows us to calculate new topological properties of TIs in the presence of electric fields.

Ringel, Zohar

2013-03-01

379

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. PMID:23198980

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

2013-01-01

380

Character Strengths Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred and fiftynine students from 20 different high school classrooms in Michigan participated in focus group discussions about the character strengths included in the Values in Action Classifi- cation. Students were interested in the subject of good character and able to discuss with candor and sophistication instances of each strength. They were especially drawn to the positive traits of

Tracy A. Steen; Lauren V. Kachorek; Christopher Peterson

2003-01-01

381

Recognizing Neglected Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify diverse student strengths and to learn how teachers can build instruction on those strengths, the author and his colleagues have conducted multiple studies among students in Alaska, the mainland United States, Kenya, and other countries. In a series of studies in Alaska and Kenya, the researchers measured the adaptive cultural…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2006-01-01

382

High strength, superplastic superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High strength superplastic superalloys are produced by extruding a pre-alloyed powder. The cast nickel base superalloy was remelted and converted to pre-alloyed powder by inert gas atomization. The superalloy shows high tensile strength and superplasticity and finds use in hot working and casting.

Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.

1969-01-01

383

The limits of strength in materials in the condensed phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a range of thresholds in loading for the response of condensed phase matter, starting with inelastic deformation at the yield stress. Beyond this point compression continues until the material bond strength is overcome and becomes so-called warm dense matter. In this regime formulations of solid mechanics derived in the ambient state no longer apply. Between these two limits lies a boundary that differentiates weak- from strong-shock dynamic loading. This work examines these thresholds and shows a correlation between the theoretical strength of the material and this weak shock limit for a range of metals.

Bourne, N. K.

2014-05-01

384

A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

Muller, Richard

2009-05-01

385

Asymmetrical Threats: A Vital Relevancy for Information Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end of the Cold War resulted in significant realignments of alliances and an increase in regional instabilities. The former Soviet Union, once the predominant threat to American security, has been supplanted by rogue and failed states and nonstate net...

K. T. Campbell

2007-01-01

386

Portable Integrated Wireless Device Threat Assessment to Aircraft Radio Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment was conducted on multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices using the three wireless standards for spurious radiated emissions to determine their threat to aircraft radio navigation systems. The measurement process, data and analysi...

M. T. P. Salud R. A. Williams

2004-01-01

387

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Ensure that the in-flight security coordinator notifies all crewmembers of the threat, any evaluation thereof, and any measures to be applied; and (3) Immediately notify the appropriate airport operator. (b) Flight:...

2010-10-01

388

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Ensure that the in-flight security coordinator notifies all crewmembers of the threat, any evaluation thereof, and any measures to be applied; and (3) Immediately notify the appropriate airport operator. (b) Flight:...

2009-10-01

389

Common Sense Guide to Mitigating Insider Threats 4th Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fourth edition of the Common Sense Guide to Mitigating Insider Threats provides the most current recommendations of the CERT Program (part of Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute), based on an expanded database of more than 700...

A. Moore D. Cappelli G. Silowash R. Trzeciak T. J. Shimeall

2012-01-01

390

Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

Smith, R

1992-07-01

391

Transnational Organized Crime: Principal Threats and U.S. Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the growing threat of transnational organized crime to U.S. national security and global stability. The end of the Cold War -- along with increasing globalization beginning in the 1990s -- has helped criminal organizations expand thei...

J. R. Wagley

2006-01-01

392

Champ or chump? Challenge and threat states during pressurized competition.  

PubMed

The present research examined the immediate impact of challenge and threat states on golf performance in both real competition and a laboratory-based task. In Study 1, 199 experienced golfers reported their evaluations of competition demands and personal coping resources before a golf competition. Evaluating the competition as a challenge (i.e., sufficient resources to cope with demands) was associated with superior performance. In Study 2, 60 experienced golfers randomly received challenge or threat manipulation instructions and then performed a competitive golf-putting task. Challenge and threat states were successfully manipulated and the challenge group outperformed the threat group. Furthermore, the challenge group reported less anxiety, more facilitative interpretations of anxiety, less conscious processing, and displayed longer quiet eye durations. However, these variables failed to mediate the group-performance relationship. These studies demonstrate the importance of considering preperformance psychophysiological states when examining the influence of competitive pressure on motor performance. PMID:24334317

Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Coussens, Adam H; Freeman, Paul

2013-12-01

393

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL...

2013-10-01

394

77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCY: Department of Defense...expansion of sanctions relating to the energy sector of Iran and sanctions with respect to Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained...

2012-12-10

395

78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense...expansion of sanctions relating to the energy sector of Iran and sanctions with respect to Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained...

2013-08-01

396

Is Your School Sick? Five Threats to Healthy Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the five major threats to healthy school buildings: sick building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and general indoor air quality. Discusses ways to assess and address them. (SR)

Grubb, Deborah; Diamantes, Thomas

1998-01-01

397

Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity.  

PubMed

Protecting the world's freshwater resources requires diagnosing threats over a broad range of scales, from global to local. Here we present the first worldwide synthesis to jointly consider human and biodiversity perspectives on water security using a spatial framework that quantifies multiple stressors and accounts for downstream impacts. We find that nearly 80% of the world's population is exposed to high levels of threat to water security. Massive investment in water technology enables rich nations to offset high stressor levels without remedying their underlying causes, whereas less wealthy nations remain vulnerable. A similar lack of precautionary investment jeopardizes biodiversity, with habitats associated with 65% of continental discharge classified as moderately to highly threatened. The cumulative threat framework offers a tool for prioritizing policy and management responses to this crisis, and underscores the necessity of limiting threats at their source instead of through costly remediation of symptoms in order to assure global water security for both humans and freshwater biodiversity. PMID:20882010

Vörösmarty, C J; McIntyre, P B; Gessner, M O; Dudgeon, D; Prusevich, A; Green, P; Glidden, S; Bunn, S E; Sullivan, C A; Liermann, C Reidy; Davies, P M

2010-09-30

398

College Leaders Wrestle with How to Prepare for Unknown Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how colleges are seeking the best ways to respond to dangerous incidents like the shootings that occurred at Virginia Tech, and how best to alert people on their campuses to various threats to public safety and emergencies.

Selingo, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

399

Cybersecurity: The Nation's Greatest Threat to Critical Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade, the cyber threat to critical infrastructure has grown to potentially catastrophic dimensions. Critical Infrastructure protection has become a matter of national security, public safety, and economic stability. It is imperative the U....

N. L. Olive

2013-01-01

400

Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a weak measurement, the average output of a probe that measures an observable Aˆ of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ? and a postselection in a state E is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value Aw=Tr[EAˆ?]/Tr[E?], a complex number. For a fixed coupling ?, when the overlap Tr[E?] is very small, Aw diverges, but stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of Aw and ?, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification cannot exceed the initial uncertainty ?o in the observable oˆ, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain ??o.

Di Lorenzo, Antonio

2014-06-01

401

The Threat of Climate Change: Psychological Response, Adaptation, and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the existing social and health science literature addressing the psychological impacts of the threat\\u000a of climate change. The exercise reflects a convergent environmental, social, and health psychology perspective, informed by\\u000a those interdisciplinary bodies of work relating to the social construction and representation of environmental threat; psychosocial\\u000a environmental impact assessment and monitoring; public and mental health; risk communication

Joseph P. Reser; Shirley A. Morrissey; Michelle Ellul

402

I Am Us: Negative Stereotypes as Collective Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective threat is the fear that an ingroup member's behavior might reinforce a negative stereotype of one's group. In a field study, self-reported collective threat was higher in stereotyped minorities than in Whites and was linked to lower self-esteem in both groups. In 3 experimental studies, a potentially poor performance by an ingroup member on a stereotype-relevant task proved threatening,

Geoffrey L. Cohen; Julio Garcia

2005-01-01

403

A threat taxonomy for mHealth privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked mobile devices have great potential to enable individuals (and their physicians) to better monitor their health and to manage medical conditions. In this paper, we examine the privacy-related threats to these so-called mHealth technologies. We develop a taxonomy of the privacy-related threats, and discuss some of the technologies that could support privacy-sensitive mHealth systems. We conclude with a brief

David Kotz

2011-01-01

404

Conflict and creativity: Threat-rigidity or motivated focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus account that better fits existing evidence. The authors report experimental results inconsistent with a threat-rigidity account,

Dreu de C. K. W; B. A. Nijstad

2008-01-01

405

Advanced technologies for undersea surveillance of modern threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of seaborne threats to coastal states has evolved, with modern threats represented by coastal or mini-submarines, small high-speed attack or infiltration craft, and even jet-skis, and by dramatic increases in the capabilities of conventional submarines fitted with air-independent propulsion. In recognition of these changes, a team of world class companies has joined together to develop sensor, processing, installation

D. J. Meggitt; D. K. Roderick; K. P. Cooke

1999-01-01

406

Physician office readiness for managing Internet security threats.  

PubMed

Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks.Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. Physicians who use Internet in their practice are at risk for being invaded. We studied 16 physician practices in Southern Ontario for their readiness to manage internet security threats. Overall, physicians have an over-inflated sense of preparedness. Security practices such as maintaining a firewall and conducting regular virus checks were not consistently done. PMID:17238600

Keshavjee, K; Pairaudeau, N; Bhanji, A

2006-01-01

407

Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.  

PubMed

Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

2013-11-15

408

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

2012-01-01

409

A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

2010-04-01

410

A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations  

SciTech Connect

Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

2010-01-01

411

Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal  

PubMed Central

The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by “policing” selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common.

Cant, Michael A.; Nichols, Hazel J.; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Hodge, Sarah J.

2014-01-01

412

Weak Coupling in 143Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-spin states of 143Nd have been studied in the 130Te(18O, 5n)143Nd reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV using techniques of in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of ? - ? - t coincidences, ?-ray angular distributions, and ?-ray linear polarizations were performed. A level scheme of 143Nd with spin and parity assignments up to 53/2+ is proposed. While a weak coupling model can explain the level structure up to the J?=39/2- state, this model can not reproduce the higher-lying states. Additionally, a new low-lying non-yrast level sequence in 143Nd was observed in the present work, which can be well described by the weak coupling of an i13/2 neutron to the 142Nd core nucleus.

Zhou, Xiao-Hong; E, Ideguchi; T, Kishida; M, Ishihara; H, Tsuchida; Y, Gono; T, Morikawa; M, Shibata; H, Watanabe; M, Miyake; T, Tsutsumi; S, Motomura; S, Mitarai

2000-04-01

413

Explosive shielding by weak layers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a series of computations which were carried out to determine the effect that a layer of extremely weak rock embedded in an otherwise strong rock matrix would have on the displacements and velocities which result from the detonation of a nearby explosive source. The motivation for the study was the apparently different measurements obtained on the Mission Cyber Nuclear Event when compared to results obtained from other events of equal yield in similar geologic media.

Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D.; Weaver, T.A.

1993-01-01

414

Explosive shielding by weak layers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a series of computations which were carried out to determine the effect that a layer of extremely weak rock embedded in an otherwise strong rock matrix would have on the displacements and velocities which result from the detonation of a nearby explosive source. The motivation for the study was the apparently different measurements obtained on the Mission Cyber Nuclear Event when compared to results obtained from other events of equal yield in similar geologic media.

Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D.; Weaver, T.A.

1993-02-01

415

Quark mixing in weak interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the quark mixing in weak interaction is reviewed. The 3×3 quark mixing matrix for the three left-handed doublet model is analyzed using various experimental information involving strange, charmed, and b-flavored particles. Its interplay with nonleptonic decays, implication on neutral particle-antiparticle mixing and CP violation in heavy quark systems, and the possible origin of the quark mixing from

Ling-Lie Chau

1983-01-01

416

Weak Faults, Yet Strong Middle Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global compilation of stress magnitude from mylonites developed along major fault zones suggests that maximum differential stresses between 140 and 200 MPa are reached at temperatures between 300 and 350°C on normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. These differential stresses are consistent with brittle rock strengths estimated based on Coulomb fracture (e.g., Byerlee's law), and with in-situ measurements of crustal stress measured in boreholes. This confirms previous suggestions that many parts of the continental crust are stressed close to failure down to the brittle-ductile transition. Many major active faults in all tectonic regimes are considered to be relatively weak, however, based on various lines of evidence, including their unfavorable orientation with respect to regional stresses, the absence of heat flow anomalies, the mechanical properties of fault gouge, and evidence for high fluid pressures along subduction zone megathrusts. Peak differential stresses estimated by a variety of techniques lie mostly in the range 1 - 20 MPa. The sharp contrast between differential stresses estimated on the seismogenic parts of major faults and those estimated from ductile rocks immediately below the brittle-ductile transition has the following implications: 1. The lower limit of seismicity in major fault zones is not controlled by the intersection of brittle fracture laws such as Byerlee's law with ductile creep laws. Rather, it represents an abrupt downward termination, probably controlled by temperature, of the weakening processes that govern fault behavior in the upper crust. 2. The seismogenic parts of major fault zones contribute little to lithospheric strength, and are unlikely to have much influence on either the slip rate or the location of the faults. Conversely, the high strength segments of ductile shear zones immediately below the brittle-ductile transition constitute a major load-bearing element within the lithosphere. Displacement rates are governed by the width and rheology of these high-stress ductile shear zones, and the processes by which they form are likely to influence fault initiation and hence location.

Platt, J. P.; Behr, W. M.

2013-12-01

417

Improvement of hip abductor muscle weakness after lumbar decompressive surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Degenerative lumbar spinal disorder is common in Japan, and the L5 nerve root is commonly involved in this disorder. The symptoms of L5 radiculopathy are irradiating lateral leg pain, and numbness and weakness of tibialis anterior and the hip abductor muscle. There has been only one report on the results of surgery for hip abductor muscle weakness caused by degenerative lumbar spinal disorder. Patients and methods. In this study, we analyzed the strength of the hip abductor muscle before and after decompressive surgery in 26 cases and the relationship between the lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) groups. Results. Of the total 26 cases, muscle strength improved in 23 cases (88%), with complete recovery in 17 cases (65%). In the LDH group, the improvement rate was 92%. In the LSCS group, the improvement rate was 68%. Although the improvement rate for the LDH group was higher than that for the LSCS group, the difference was not significant (P = 0.054). Discussion. Decompressive surgery may be an effective method to improve hip abductor muscle weakness in degenerative lumbar spinal disorder.

Horaguchi, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Noboru; Iwai, Kazuo

2012-01-01

418

Strength Coefficient of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the relationship of strength to thickness and type of material for six different construction materials; two bituminous paving materials, the same two aggregates without asphalt and two gravels typical of those normally used for bas...

R. A. Crawford D. W. Anderson

1973-01-01

419

Crew Strength Training  

NASA Video Gallery

Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

420

Strength Distribution in Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensile strength distributions are studied in four papers samples that exhibit a variety of brittle-to-ductile properties. 1005 tensile specimens were measured in each case. The standard Gumbel and Weibull distributions, and a recently proposed double exp...

M. J. Korteoja L. I. Salminen K. J. Niskanen M. Alava

1997-01-01

421

Learning to attend to threat accelerates and enhances memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N = 90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control. These results provide a novel demonstration of how attention to threat can accelerate and enhance memory consolidation effects associated with skill acquisition. PMID:23638100

Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

2013-01-01

422

A simple strategy to reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents  

PubMed Central

Background Stereotype threat, defined as the predicament felt by people in either positive or negative learning experiences where they could conform to negative stereotypes associated with their own group membership, can interfere with learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple orientation session could reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents. Methods The intervention group received an orientation on 2 occasions focusing on their possible responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds and the operating room (OR). Participants completed a survey with 7 questions typical for stereotype threat evaluating responses to their experiences. The questions had 7 response options with a maximum total score of 49, where higher scores indicated greater degree of experiences typical of stereotype threat. Results Of the 84 eligible residents, 49 participated: 22 in the nonintervention and 27 in the intervention group. The overall scores were 29 and 29.4, and 26.2 and 25.8 in the nonintervention and intervention groups for their survey responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds (p = 0.85) and the OR (p = 0.84), respectively. Overall, responses typical of stereotype threat were greater for perceived poor performance at teaching rounds than in the OR (p = 0.001). Conclusion Residents experience low self-esteem following perceived poor performance, particularly at rounds. A simple orientation designed to reduce stereotype threat was unsuccessful in reducing this threat overall. Future research will need to consider longer-term intervention as possible strategies to reduce perceived poor performance at teaching rounds and in the OR.

Gomez, Everlyne; Wright, James G.

2014-01-01

423

Learning to Attend to Threat Accelerates and Enhances Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N?=?90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control. These results provide a novel demonstration of how attention to threat can accelerate and enhance memory consolidation effects associated with skill acquisition.

Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

2013-01-01

424

Alcohol stress response dampening during imminent versus distal, uncertain threat.  

PubMed

Research indicates that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Predictable versus unpredictable shock administration has been used to elicit fear versus anxiety, respectively. Recent research has demonstrated that alcohol may reduce anxiety but not fear. However, previous manipulations of predictability have varied both probability and temporal uncertainty of shock threat, leaving unresolved questions regarding which stimulus characteristics elicit anxiety and are sensitive to alcohol stress-response dampening (SRD). We developed a novel paradigm to closely parallel basic research in animals that systematically varied temporal uncertainty of threat while holding threat probability constant. Intoxicated (0.08% target blood alcohol concentration), placebo, and no-alcohol control participants viewed a series of visual threat cues. Certain cue duration (5 s) blocks were equivalent to predictable shock blocks eliciting fear in earlier research. Uncertain cue duration (5, 20, 50, or 80 s, intermixed) blocks introduced temporal uncertainty regarding impending shock to elicit anxiety. Startle potentiation relative to matched cue periods in no-shock blocks provided the primary measure of affective response. All threat cues produced robust startle potentiation. Alcohol reduced startle potentiation during the first 5 s of threat cue presentation in uncertain but not certain duration blocks. Alcohol also reduced startle potentiation at later times among longer uncertain duration cues, suggesting that alcohol SRD persisted. Trait negative emotionality and binge drinking status moderated alcohol SRD magnitude during uncertain threat. These translational findings corroborate previous reports regarding distinct substrates of fear versus anxiety and have implications for both alcoholism etiology and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. PMID:24016014

Hefner, Kathryn R; Moberg, Christine A; Hachiya, Laura Y; Curtin, John J

2013-08-01

425

How much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait?  

PubMed

Muscle weakness is commonly cited as a cause of crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy; however, outcomes after strength training are variable and mechanisms by which muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait are unclear. Understanding how much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait compared to an unimpaired gait may provide insight into how muscle weakness contributes to crouch gait and assist in the design of strength training programs. The goal of this study was to examine how much muscle groups could be weakened before crouch gait becomes impossible. To investigate this question, we first created muscle-driven simulations of gait for three typically developing children and six children with cerebral palsy who walked with varying degrees of crouch severity. We then simulated muscle weakness by systematically reducing the maximum isometric force of each muscle group until the simulation could no longer reproduce each subject's gait. This analysis indicated that moderate crouch gait required significantly more knee extensor strength than unimpaired gait. In contrast, moderate crouch gait required significantly less hip abductor strength than unimpaired gait, and mild crouch gait required significantly less ankle plantarflexor strength than unimpaired gait. The reduced strength required from the hip abductors and ankle plantarflexors during crouch gait suggests that weakness of these muscle groups may contribute to crouch gait and that these muscle groups are potential targets for strength training. PMID:22959837

Steele, Katherine M; van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Schwartz, Michael H; Delp, Scott L

2012-10-11

426

How much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait?  

PubMed Central

Muscle weakness is commonly cited as a cause of crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy; however, outcomes after strength training are variable and mechanisms by which muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait are unclear. Understanding how much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait compared to an unimpaired gait may provide insight into how muscle weakness contributes to crouch gait and assist in the design of strength training programs. The goal of this study was to examine how much muscle groups could be weakened before crouch gait becomes impossible. To investigate this question, we first created muscle-driven simulations of gait for three typically-developing children and six children with cerebral palsy who walked with varying degrees of crouch severity. We then simulated muscle weakness by systematically reducing the maximum isometric force of each muscle group until the simulation could no longer reproduce each subject’s gait. This analysis indicated that moderate crouch gait required significantly more knee extensor strength than unimpaired gait. In contrast, moderate crouch gait required significantly less hip abductor strength than unimpaired gait, and mild crouch gait required significantly less ankle plantarflexor strength than unimpaired gait. The reduced strength required from the hip abductors and ankle plantarflexors during crouch gait suggests that weakness of these muscle groups may contribute to crouch gait and that these muscle groups are potential targets for strength training.

Steele, Katherine M.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

2012-01-01

427

Detecting weak phase locking in chaotic system with dual attractors and ill-defined phase structure.  

PubMed

A quantitative approach was constructed for detecting phase locking in a chaotic system with complex attractor structure via stroboscopic method. We study the route to weak phase locking by analyzing the stroboscopic points. The onset of weak phase locking detected by using this statistical approach and the critical coupling strength calculated by Lyapunov exponent are matched well. Detailed structure of phase locking intensity is described by the Arnold tongue diagram. PMID:19658630

Jan, Hengtai; Ho, Ming-Chung; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Jiang, I-Min

2009-06-01

428

Staggered weak matrix element miscellany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I report on work, done with Rajan Gupta and Greg Kilcup, using staggered fermions to study weak matrix elements in quenched QCD. I give an update on the ?I = {1}/{2} rule and on matrix elements and relevant for ?'. I show results of a study of the dependence of BK on non-leading terms in the chiral expansion. I present our first results for BK from a quenched calculation at ß = 6.4 on 32 3 × 48 lattices, based o n an ensemble of 12 configurations.

Sharpe, Stephen R.

1991-05-01

429

Severe Weather and Weak Waterspout Checklist in MIDDS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this task was to migrate the functionality of the AMU web-based Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and the 45 WS Weak Waterspout Checklist to MIDDS, the operational data ingest and display system of the 45 WS. Forecasting the occurrence and timing of warm season severe weather and weak waterspouts is challenging for 45 WS operational personnel. These interactive tools assist forecasters in determining the probability of issuing severe weather watches and warnings for the day. MIDDS is able retrieve many of the needed parameter values for the worksheet automatically. The AMU was able to develop user-friendly tools in MIDDS for both of these tools using McBASI coded programs. The tools retrieve needed values from MIDDS automatically, and require the forecaster to answer a few subjective questions. Both tools were tested and previewed to the 45 WS on MIDDS. In their previous forms, the forecasters enter values into both tools manually to output a threat index. Making these tools more automatic will reduce the possibility of human error and increase efficiency.

Wheeler, Mark M.

2009-01-01

430

The Scope and Treatment of Threats in Endangered Species Recovery Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of threatened and endangered species is complicated by the number, severity, and tractability of the threats facing each species. We investigated the nature and the treatment of threats in recovery plans for 181 threatened and endangered species. We examined the types of threats facing species, as well as the degree to which threats were understood and addressed. We

Joshua J. Lawler; Steven P. Campbell; Anne D. Guerry; Mary Beth Kolozsvary; Raymond J. O'Connor; Lindsay C. N. Seward

2002-01-01

431

The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000) states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from

Katja Valli; Antti Revonsuo; Outi Pälkäs; Kamaran Hassan Ismail; Karzan Jalal Ali; Raija-Leena Punamäki

2005-01-01

432

Skin conductance responses to masked conditioned stimuli: Phylogenetic\\/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionarily old threat stimuli are likely to require less conscious information processing than threat stimuli of a more recent date. To test this proposal two differential conditioning experiments, with biological threat stimuli (e.g. snakes) in half the groups and cultural threat stimuli (e.g. guns) in the other half, were conducted. The conditioned (CS+) and the control (CS?) stimuli were backward

Anders Flykt; Francisco Esteves; Arne Öhman

2007-01-01

433

Interactions between reward and threat during visual processing.  

PubMed

Appetitive stimuli such as monetary incentives often improve performance whereas aversive stimuli such as task-irrelevant negative stimuli frequently impair performance. But our understanding of how appetitive and aversive processes simultaneously contribute to brain and behavior is rudimentary. In the current fMRI study, we investigated interactions between reward and threat by investigating the effects of monetary reward on the processing of task-irrelevant threat stimuli during a visual discrimination task. Reward was manipulated by linking fast and accurate responses to foreground stimuli with monetary reward; threat was manipulated by pairing the background context with mild aversive shock. The behavioral results in terms of both accuracy and reaction time revealed that monetary reward eliminated the influence of threat-related stimuli. Paralleling the behavioral results, during trials involving both reward and threat, the imaging data revealed increased engagement of the ventral caudate and anterior mid-cingulate cortex, which were accompanied by increased task-relevant processing in the visual cortex. Overall, our study illustrates how the simultaneous processing of appetitive and aversive information shapes both behavior and brain responses. PMID:23770538

Hu, Kesong; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

2013-08-01

434

Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review.  

PubMed

Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper reviews empirical investigations across 4 common assessment tasks: the Stroop (masked and unmasked), dot probe, visual search, and the Posner tasks. Although the review finds inconsistencies both within and between assessment tasks, the evidence suggests that attentional biases towards threat are comprised of each of the phenomenological characteristics addressed in this paper. Contemporary theoretical models of attentional biases in anxiety are summarized and critically reviewed in light of the current evidence. Suggestions for future research are addressed, including a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the assessment tasks, to utilize consistent theoretically driven operationalizations of attentional biases, and to provide a temporal description of the characteristics of attentional biases towards threat. PMID:20622985

Cisler, Josh M; Bacon, Amy K; Williams, Nathan L

2009-04-01

435

Attention Bias Toward Threat in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine attention bias towards threat faces in a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using a well-established visual probe task. Method Study participants included 101 children and adolescents (ages 7- 18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and/or separation anxiety disorder enrolled in a multi-site anxiety treatment study. Non-anxious youths (n = 51; ages 9 - 18 years) were recruited separately. Participants were administered a computerized visual probe task that presents pairs of faces portraying threat (angry), positive (happy) and neutral expressions. They pressed a response-key to indicate the spatial location of a probe that replaced one of the faces on each trial. Attention bias scores were calculated from response times to probes for each emotional face type. Results Compared to healthy youths, anxious participants demonstrated a greater attention bias towards threat faces. This threat bias in anxious patients did not significantly vary across the anxiety disorders. There was no group difference in attention bias towards happy faces. Conclusions These results suggest that pediatric anxiety disorders are associated with an attention bias towards threat. Future research might examine the manner in which cognitive bias in anxious youth changes with treatment.

Roy, Amy Krain; Vasa, Roma A.; Bruck, Maggie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sweeney, Michael; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Pine, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

436

Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Detection in Cargo  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Radiography is widely understood to provide information complimentary to passive detection: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions which may mask a passive radiological signal. We present a method for combining radiographic and passive data which uses the radiograph to provide an estimate of scatter and attenuation for possible sources. This approach allows quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present first results for this method for a simple modeled test case of a cargo container driving through a PVT portal. With this inversion approach, we address criteria for an integrated passive and radiographic screening system and how detection of SNM threats might be improved in such a system.

Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Scherrer, Charles; Wittman, Richard S.

2012-12-01

437

Corticospinal Tract Integrity Correlates With Knee Extensor Weakness in Chronic Stroke Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective Muscle weakness develops rapidly after stroke, adversely affecting motor performance, and contributing to reduced functional ability. While the contributions of structural and functional alterations in skeletal muscle to post-stroke weakness have been well described, the relationship between motor pathway integrity, measured using both radiological and electrophysiological techniques, and post-stroke muscle weakness is not clear. This study sought to determine the role of corticospinal tract (CST) integrity on knee extensor weakness in chronic stroke survivors. Methods Knee extensor strength and activation testing were performed at 90° of knee flexion using an interpolated triplet technique. CST integrity was evaluated using data obtained from diffusion tensor imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results Recordings in nine stroke subjects indicated substantial knee extensor weakness and activation deficits in the paretic legs of the stroke survivors. Regression analysis revealed that asymmetry in CST integrity was strongly related to between-leg differences in knee strength. Conclusion The results of this study suggest a strong link between CST integrity and lower extremity strength, and add to the growing evidence of substantial knee extensor weakness and activation impairments in stroke survivors. Significance The findings from this study further our understanding of the anatomical and neurophysiological contributions to motor impairments after stroke, which may benefit clinicians and researchers in the field of stroke rehabilitation.

Madhavan, Sangeetha; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Jayaraman, Arun; Rymer, William Z.; Stinear, James W.

2011-01-01

438

Central Bank Financial Strength and Policy Performance: An Econometric Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial health of central banks and its relation to policy outcomes has recently been recognized as an important policy issue. While case study evidence clearly indicates that weak central bank finances can hamper effective policy implementation, the question of whether central bank financial strength influences policy performance remains controversial. This is due, in part, to a lack of econometric

Ulrich H. Klueh; Peter Stella

2008-01-01

439

Compressive strength of an unsaturated granular material during cementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cohesive behavior of unsaturated granular materials is due to the presence of cohesive bonds between grains. These bonds can have various physico-chemical characteristics and may evolve with environmental conditions. We study the case of a granular material partially saturated by an aqueous solution. The bonds are thus initially of capillary type and the mechanical strength is weak. At low

J.-Y. Delenne; F. Soulié; M. S. El Youssoufi; F. Radjai

2011-01-01

440

The Distribution of Silicate Strength of AGNs and ULIRGs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 196 AGNs and ULIRGs observed by the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on Spitzer is analyzed to study the distribution of the strength of the 9.7 micron silicate feature. Average spectra are derived for quasars, Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 AGNs, and ULIRGs. We find that quasars, Seyfert 2s and ULIRGs are characterized by silicate features in emission, weak

L. Hao; D. W. Weedman; H. W. W. Spoon; J. A. Marshall; N. A. Levenson; M. Elitzur; J. R. Houck

2007-01-01

441

Weak lensing and cosmological investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.

Acquaviva, Viviana

2005-03-01

442

Weak Lensing with Galaxy Kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak lensing is weak because the shear signal is much smaller than the noise set by the broad distribution of intrinsic galaxy shapes. We describe a technique that can reduce shape noise by an order of magnitude using spatially-resolved spectroscopy to derive kinematic maps of source galaxies. Shear oriented along the principle axes of a rotating disk induces an offset from the Tully-Fisher relation after inclination corrections, while shear applied at an angle to the disk skews the kinematic axes relative to the photometric axes. Existing multi-object optical spectrographs and IFUs have the spatial and spectral resolution to measure this effect at high signal-to-noise. We discuss science applications ranging from high resolution cluster mass mapping to cosmic shear, including the statistical and systematic uncertainties which can be competitive with and complementary to traditional shear surveys. Notably, the need for photometric redshifts is eliminated, while biases due to shear calibration and intrinsic alignments can be significantly reduced.

George, Matthew R.; Huff, E. M.; Schlegel, D. J.

2014-01-01

443

Weakly Circadian Cells Improve Resynchrony  

PubMed Central

The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population.

Thoroughman, Kurt A.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.

2012-01-01

444

Weak Radiative Decay of Baryons.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this thesis is to do a quark-level calculation of weak radiative decay of baryons which is complete and also consistent with quantum field-theoretic principles. First, the problem of weak radiative decay of baryons is formulated within the rigorous Bethe-Salpeter formalism. With suitable choice of interpolating fields for the initial and final baryons B and B^ ', a reduction formula for the transition amplitude B to B^ 'gamma is derived in a manner parallel to the standard LSZ reduction procedure. One discovers that the Feynman rules for bound quarks are very different from those for free quarks. In this fashion, one recovers the methodology of analyzing composite particle reactions pioneered by Nishijima and Mandelstam in a way which is easily amenable to generalizations. A suitable parameterization for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of a {1over2 }^+ baryon is suggested for calculational purposes. Various subtleties associated with the normalization of this amplitude are discussed. Second, specializing this reduction formula to the case of Sigma^+to pgamma, a detailed analysis of this decay is carried out. Its asymmetry parameter is calculated. Differences with usual quark-model calculations are highlighted and commented upon.

Asthana, Praveer

1988-06-01

445

Solar Intranetwork Magnetic Elements: Intrinsically Weak or Strong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high spatial resolution observation of a quiet region taken with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter aboard the Hinode spacecraft is analyzed. Based on the Milne-Eddington atmospheric model, the vector magnetic field of the quiet region is derived by fitting the full Stokes profiles of the Fe i 630 nm line pair. We extract intranetwork (IN) region from the quiet region and identify 5058 IN magnetic elements, and study their magnetic properties. As a comparison, the magnetic properties of network (NT) region are also analyzed. The main results are as follows. i) The IN area displays a predominance of weak (hecto-gauss) field concentration, i.e., 99.8 % of IN area shows the weak field. Moreover, the vector magnetic field exhibits concentration toward horizontal direction. However, for the NT region, we discover the coexistence of weak field and strong (kilo-gauss, kG) field. In the IN and NT regions, the filling factor shows almost the same probability distribution function with the peak at about 0.28. ii) All IN magnetic elements show field strength less than 1 kG. However, some NT elements display the coexistence of weak field and strong field. Regardless of NT or IN elements, about 20 % of elements lies in the Doppler blue-shift region. Our results imply that not all magnetic elements lie in the down-draft sites.

Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X.; Xie, Z. X.

2012-09-01

446

Detection of weak third harmonic backscatter from nonlinear metal targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will discuss how one can obtain the third-order characteristics of a metallic target even when the strength of the third-harmonic frequency component is far below that of the external noise or intentional jamming signal. The key idea lies in the fact that the digital third-order cross-trispectrum used to detect the third harmonic is primarily sensitive to the phase coherence between the transmitted fundamental and relatively weak backscattered third harmonic, rather than on the amplitude of the third harmonic. The feasibility of using digital crosstrispectral analysis to detect weak (S/N ratios of about -20 db) third harmonics will be demonstrated with the aid of simulation experiments.

Hong, J. Y.; Powers, E. J.

447

Efficacy of weak measurement reversal for stochastic amplitude damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment demonstrated the restoration of entanglement in a photonic system using weak measurement reversal [S. Kim et al., Nature Physics 8, 117 (2012)]. Here, we analyze the statistical properties of entanglement for pairs and triples of entangled qubits subject to stochastic amplitude damping followed by restoration. After the random disturbance, the state is restored by applying a static weak measurement reversal. We then show that the fidelity of the restored state, and therefore its entanglement, can be restored with high success, despite the statistical fluctuations of the disturbance. In particular, we show that the variance of the entanglement of the restored states is substantially reduced, independent of the strength of the disturbance. We conclude with a proposed experimental implementation.

Starling, David; Williams, Nathan

2013-03-01

448

Suffering and Generativity: Repairing Threats to Self in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Suffering is a powerful experience that can be difficult to articulate. Suffering differs from pain alone and includes an individual’s awareness of a threat to self through death, loss of identity, or uncertaintly of the meaningfulness of one’s life. In response to this threat, generative acts, especially creative expressions imbued with the self, may act as a means to repair the self in crisis. The case of Mr. A., an 85-year old man in good health, illustrates how various artistic pieces he created – a wooden dog and several poems -- helps him to restore a “fading” self. For Mr. A, the idea of “fading away” or becoming weaker and less useful until eventually disappearing is a major source of personal suffering. Through his art, he creates unique, interactive and tangible entities that can outlive his physical body and help him reclaim or repair threats to selfhood.

de Medeiros, Kate

2009-01-01

449

Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but not negative words in an Emotional Stroop task. In Study 2, RS predicted attentional avoidance of threatening but not pleasant faces in a Visual Probe task. Threat-avoidant attention was also associated with features of borderline personality disorder. This research extends understanding of processes by which RS contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of interpersonal problems and distress. PMID:20160869

Berenson, Kathy R; Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Ozlem; Downey, Geraldine; Garner, Matthew J; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Pine, Daniel S

2009-12-01

450

Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues  

PubMed Central

Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but not negative words in an Emotional Stroop task. In Study 2, RS predicted attentional avoidance of threatening but not pleasant faces in a Visual Probe task. Threat-avoidant attention was also associated with features of borderline personality disorder. This research extends understanding of processes by which RS contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of interpersonal problems and distress.

Berenson, Kathy R.; Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Ozlem; Downey, Geraldine; Garner, Matthew J.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Pine, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

451

Psychological Effects of the Threat of Nuclear War  

PubMed Central

Systematic studies are emerging on the prevailing harmful psychological effect of the threat of nuclear war. The most recent surveys have identified populations which are particularly vulnerable. Anxiety was found to be a factor in criminal behavior, and threat of nuclear war to be a factor in anxiety. Psychiatric morbidity has been correlated with work deprivation and threat of annihilation. Many studies have focused on children, finding that anxiety about social issues is high, but that cynicism and apathy set in rapidly. Conclusions from such studies show that denial and avoidance are some of the worst results, since they are a barrier to meaningful reaction. The most vulnerable groups are children, adolescents, the unemployed, and those responsible for the welfare of others. Appropriate action is seen to be acknowledgement of fear and disillusionment as valid feelings, education towards a stronger sense of reality, and mobilization of goal-directed activity.

Kiraly, S. J.

1986-01-01

452

Improvements of solder ball shear strength of a wafer-level CSP using a novel Cu stud technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solder ball shear test has been widely adopted in the electronics industry to estimate the strength of solder ball attachment of advanced electronic packages. A solder ball with low shear strength is usually considered as a weak solder joint in package reliability testing. Consequently, demands for increasing the solder ball shear strength have risen in recent years. This work

Kuo-Chin Chang; Kuo-Ning Chiang

2004-01-01

453

Extinction during reconsolidation of threat memory diminishes prefrontal cortex involvement  

PubMed Central

Controlling learned defensive responses through extinction does not alter the threat memory itself, but rather regulates its expression via inhibitory influence of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) over amygdala. Individual differences in amygdala–PFC circuitry function have been linked to trait anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. This finding suggests that exposure-based techniques may actually be least effective in those who suffer from anxiety disorders. A theoretical advantage of techniques influencing reconsolidation of threat memories is that the threat representation is altered, potentially diminishing reliance on this PFC circuitry, resulting in a more persistent reduction of defensive reactions. We hypothesized that timing extinction to coincide with threat memory reconsolidation would prevent the return of defensive reactions and diminish PFC involvement. Two conditioned stimuli (CS) were paired with shock and the third was not. A day later, one stimulus (reminded CS+) but not the other (nonreminded CS+) was presented 10 min before extinction to reactivate the threat memory, followed by extinction training for all CSs. The recovery of the threat memory was tested 24 h later. Extinction of the nonreminded CS+ (i.e., standard extinction) engaged the PFC, as previously shown, but extinction of the reminded CS+ (i.e., extinction during reconsolidation) did not. Moreover, only the nonreminded CS+ memory recovered on day 3. These results suggest that extinction during reconsolidation prevents the return of defensive reactions and diminishes PFC involvement. Reducing the necessity of the PFC–amygdala circuitry to control defensive reactions may help overcome a primary obstacle in the long-term efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders.

Schiller, Daniela; Kanen, Jonathan W.; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Monfils, Marie-H.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

454

The threat of disease increases as species move toward extinction.  

PubMed

At local scales, infectious disease is a common driver of population declines, but globally it is an infrequent contributor to species extinction and endangerment. For species at risk of extinction from disease important questions remain unanswered, including when does disease become a threat to species and does it co-occur, predictably, with other threats? Using newly compiled data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, we examined the relative role and co-occurrence of threats associated with amphibians, birds, and mammals at 6 levels of extinction risk (i.e., Red List status categories: least concern, near threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, and extinct in the wild/extinct). We tested the null hypothesis that the proportion of species threatened by disease is the same in all 6 Red List status categories. Our approach revealed a new method for determining when disease most frequently threatens species at risk of extinction. The proportion of species threatened by disease varied significantly between IUCN status categories and linearly increased for amphibians, birds, and all species combined as these taxa move from move from least concern to critically endangered. Disease was infrequently the single contributing threat. However, when a species was negatively affected by a major threat other than disease (e.g., invasive species, land-use change) that species was more likely to be simultaneously threatened by disease than species that had no other threats. Potential drivers of these trends include ecological factors, clustering of phylogenetically related species in Red List status categories, discovery bias among species at greater risk of extinction, and availability of data. We echo earlier calls for baseline data on the presence of parasites and pathogens in species when they show the first signs of extinction risk and arguably before. La Amenaza de Enfermedades Incrementa a Medida que las Especies se Aproximan a la Extinción. PMID:24033873

Heard, Matthew J; Smith, Katherine F; Ripp, Kelsey J; Berger, Melanie; Chen, Jane; Dittmeier, Justin; Goter, Maggie; McGarvey, Stephen T; Ryan, Elizabeth

2013-12-01

455

Violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons  

PubMed Central

By weakly measuring the polarization of a photon between two strong polarization measurements, we experimentally investigate the correlation between the appearance of anomalous values in quantum weak measurements and the violation of realism and nonintrusiveness of measurements. A quantitative formulation of the latter concept is expressed in terms of a Leggett–Garg inequality for the outcomes of subsequent measurements of an individual quantum system. We experimentally violate the Leggett–Garg inequality for several measurement strengths. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett–Garg inequality.

Goggin, M. E.; Almeida, M. P.; Barbieri, M.; Lanyon, B. P.; O'Brien, J. L.; White, A. G.; Pryde, G. J.

2011-01-01

456

Stability in Real Food Webs: Weak Links in Long Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing evidence that the strengths of interactions among populations in biological communities form patterns that are crucial for system stability requires clarification of the precise form of these patterns, how they come about, and why they influence stability. We show that in real food webs, interaction strengths are organized in trophic loops in such a way that long loops contain relatively many weak links. We show and explain mathematically that this patterning enhances stability, because it reduces maximum ``loop weight'' and thus reduces the amount of intraspecific interaction needed for matrix stability. The patterns are brought about by biomass pyramids, a feature common to most ecosystems. Incorporation of biomass pyramids in 104 food-web descriptions reveals that the low weight of the long loops stabilizes complex food webs. Loop-weight analysis could be a useful tool for exploring the structure and organization of complex communities.

Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Heesterbeek, Johan A. P.; de Ruiter, Peter C.

2002-05-01

457

Weak Links as Stabilizers of Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the previous chapters we learned how weak links stabilize complex systems. The classical study of Granovetter (1973) demonstrated that weak links help the cohesion of society (see Chap. 1). Weak links are necessary for small-worldness, emerging in parallel with topological scale-freeness, and making a key contribution to the formation of nestedness (see Chap. 2). Weak links buffer noise, help relaxation, form barriers against cascading failures, and stabilize the coupled oscillators of bottom networks (see Chap. 3).

Csermely, Peter

458

Meteoroids and Meteor Storms: A Threat to Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust system design is the best protection against meteoroid damage. Impacts by small meteoroids are common on satellite surfaces, but impacts by meteoroids large enough to damage well designed systems are very rare. Estimating the threat from the normal meteoroid environment is difficult. Estimates for the occasional "storm" are even more uncertain. Common sense precautions are in order for the 1999 Leonids, but wide-spread catastrophic damage is highly unlikely. Strong Leonid showers are also expected in 2000 and 2001, but these pose much less threat than 1999.

Anderson, B. Jeffrey

1999-01-01

459

Pictures cueing threat: brain dynamics in viewing explicitly instructed danger cues  

PubMed Central

Recent event-related brain potential studies revealed the selective processing of emotional and threatening pictures. Integrating the picture viewing and threat-of-shock paradigm, the present study examined the processing of emotional pictures while they were explicitly instructed to cue threat of real world danger (i.e. electric shocks). Toward this end, 60 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant IAPS-pictures were presented (1?s) as a continuous random stream while high-density EEG and self-reported threat were assessed. In three experimental runs, each picture category was used once as a threat-cue, whereas in the other conditions the same category served as safety-cue. An additional passive viewing run served as a no-threat condition, thus, establishing a threat–safety continuum (threat-cue–safety-cue–no-threat) for each picture category. Threat-of-shock modulated P1, P2 and parieto-occipital LPP amplitudes. While the P1 component differentiated among threat- and no-threat conditions, the P2 and LPP effects were specific to pictures signaling threat-of-shock. Thus, stimulus processing progressively gained more accurate information about environmental threat conditions. Interestingly, the finding of increased EPN and centro-parietal LPP amplitudes to emotional pictures was independent from threat-of-shock manipulation. Accordingly, the results indicate distinct effects associated with the intrinsic significance of emotional pictures and explicitly instructed threat contingencies.

Schupp, Harald T.

2012-01-01

460

Weakness In Grand Rapids Housing Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak housing market has been one of the most important business stories of 2007. A weak housing market decreases the value of a house. As a result, the wealth of the individual consumer drops, decreasing their financial security. There are many ways to measure the weakness in the housing market such as the number of house sales, foreclosure rates,

Paul N Isely; Elvira Yaparova

2008-01-01

461

Superluminal tunnelling times as weak values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the tunnelling particle as a pre- and post-selected system and prove that the tunnelling time is the expectation value of the position of a ‘clock’ degree of freedom weakly coupled to it. Such a value, called a ‘weak value’, typically falls outside the eigenvalue spectrum of the operator. The appearance of unusual weak values has been associated with

Yakir Aharonov; Noam Erez; Benni Reznik

2003-01-01

462

Strength of inorganic glass  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

Kurkjian, C.R.

1985-01-01

463

High strength alloys  

DOEpatents

High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

2010-08-31

464

Progressive leg pain and weakness.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old man presented with progressive asymmetric leg pain and weakness. He had a history of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that was fully treated 2 years earlier. His leg symptoms progressed relentlessly during several months. Imaging studies demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina and leptomeninges of the lower spinal cord. Initial cerebrospinal fluid examination showed an elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis with no malignant cells on cytological analysis. There was short-term improvement in symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities with intravenous steroids. Two additional cerebrospinal fluid studies showed normal cytological findings, elevated IgG synthesis, and elevated antibody titers to varicella-zoster virus. Over time, the patient worsened, developed cranial neuropathies, and ultimately died. The pathological diagnosis and the approach to the clinical data are discussed. PMID:23440264

Navalkele, Digvijaya D; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Burns, Dennis K; Greenberg, Tasha; Vernino, Steven

2013-04-01

465

Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax-Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523-44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493-506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401-20).

Zavidovique, M.

2010-04-01

466

Anomalous diffusion and weak nonergodicity.  

PubMed

Ergodic behavior of the class of G processes G(t)=?(t(m))(t)du?K(t,u)?(u)-?(t(m))(0)du?K(0,u)?(u), (?(t))=0, (?(t)?(s))=?(|t-s|) is examined. Ergodicproperties are only G extensions of normal diffusion (K=1) and of Mandelbrot-Van Ness fractional diffusion [K(t,u)=K(t-u), t(m)?-?]. Any deviation from these two types results in weak ergodicity breaking which thus is neither exceptional nor limited to some specific events but is typical for much wider class of processes. G processes driven by ?(t) with nonvanishing correlations are important for describing transport in strongly nonequilibrium systems and may be responsible for peculiarities of diffusion found in biological, glassy, and nanoscale systems. PMID:21797335

Fuli?ski, A

2011-06-01

467

Anomalous diffusion and weak nonergodicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ergodic behavior of the class of G processes G(t)=?tmtduK(t,u)?(u)-?tm0duK(0,u)?(u), =0, =?(|t-s|) is examined. Ergodic properties are only G extensions of normal diffusion (K=1) and of Mandelbrot-Van Ness fractional diffusion [K(t,u)=K(t-u), tm?-?]. Any deviation from these two types results in weak ergodicity breaking which thus is neither exceptional nor limited to some specific events but is typical for much wider class of processes. G processes driven by ?(t) with nonvanishing correlations are important for describing transport in strongly nonequilibrium systems and may be responsible for peculiarities of diffusion found in biological, glassy, and nanoscale systems.

Fuli?ski, A.

2011-06-01

468

Getting a Job in Finance-The Strength of Collaboration Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seminal papers of Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job and ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, ithas been acknowledged that contacts are a valuable way of getting a job, and that weak ties aremore efficient than strong ties because the former convey more original information than thelatter. We would like to challenge this overemphasizing focus of network sociology oninformation. We

Olivier Godechot

2010-01-01