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1

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats of Blended Learning: Students’ Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background: Blended learning (BL) in a cell biology course of the premedical program at the Kasturba Medical College International Centre, Manipal, India, commenced in 2006. The program provides training in basic sciences to students, especially from the United States and Canada. The approach to the study was phenomenographic, with a qualitative study design using an open-ended questionnaire, focused interviews and empirical observations. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of BL in a premedical class. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Ninety six students in a premedical cell biology class participated in the study. SWOT analysis of students’ perceptions was conducted manually. Statistical analysis included content analysis of qualitative data to classify data and aligning them into the SWOT analysis matrix. Results: The outcomes of the study revealed student perceptions in terms of SWOT of BL and the potential uses of this strategy. Conclusions: The study provides background for educators and curriculum experts to plan their modules while incorporating a BL approach. PMID:24971204

Hande, S

2014-01-01

2

Department of Horticultural Sciences Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and ThreatsSWOT Analysis  

E-print Network

1 Department of Horticultural Sciences Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, the Department of Horticultural Sciences is generally viewed as having good potential and being strategically important to the future of COALS. This is primarily because Horticulture is viewed as relevant to a large

3

Special Education and Rehabilitation in Georgia: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats in a Newly-Independent State of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine Georgian professionals from the fields of health, education, and rehabilitation were brought together for a week-long workshop to discuss issues related to disability, rehabilitation, and special education. Workshop activities included a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of special education in Georgia.…

Hobbs, Tim; Szydlowski, Steven; West, Daniel, Jr.; Germava, Otar

2002-01-01

4

The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting  

PubMed Central

Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of funding of personnel to coordinate the assessment process is the most important threat. Conclusion The BelRAI-software allows standardized transmural information transfer and the centralization of medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. It is strictly secured and follows strict privacy regulations, allowing hospitals to optimize (transmural) communication and interaction. However, weaknesses and threats exist and must be tackled in order to promote large scale implementation. PMID:24007312

2013-01-01

5

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment  

E-print Network

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment Chris Johnson, Dept the strengths and weaknesses of night vision systems. It is argued that there is an urgent need to review their operational benefits. Good vision is essential for many military operations, such as driving over broken

Johnson, Chris

6

Cultural Capital: Strengths, Weaknesses and Two Advancements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu's work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly between the work on social mobility and on…

van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

2010-01-01

7

Did Our Strengths Lead Us to this Point of Weakness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reckless is an understatement. Barrelling forward with our greatest strength—growth at any cost—may have led to our greatest weakness as the US economy nose-dives. In our haste to deliver bottom line results, organisations have adopted a vetting process for leadership based on mining pre-existing strengths of individuals. This often succeeds with amazing short-term gains but just as often crashes in

Randall P. White

8

Minority threat and police strength: an examination of the Golden State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross?sectional study examined the relationships between indicators of law enforcement spending, police strength, and minority threat in California in 2004. Controlling for economic conditions, crime, and indicators of social disruption we find that counties with higher populations of American Indians, Asians, or blacks and non?English speakers employ a greater number of sworn officers, or have increased spending on law

Rick Ruddell; Matthew O. Thomas

2010-01-01

9

[Management models in clinical nutrition: weaknesses and strengths].  

PubMed

At the 6th Abbott-SENPE Debate Forum a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional discussion was established in order to seek for the model or the models of clinical management most appropriate for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units (CNAD) in Spain. The weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for the current systems were assessed concluding that a certain degree of disparity was observed not only due to regional differences but also to different hospital types. It was proposed, from SENPE, the creation of a working group helping to standardize the models and promote the culture of Integral Control and Change Management. PMID:19593481

García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Burgos, R; Cabrerizo, L; Farrer, K; García Almeida, J M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; Llano, J Del; Planas, M; Piñeiro, G

2009-01-01

10

The thermal index: its strengths, weaknesses, and proposed improvements.  

PubMed

The thermal index (TI) has been used as a relative indicator of thermal risk during diagnostic ultrasound examinations for many years. It is useful in providing feedback to the clinician or sonographer, allowing assessment of relative, potential risks to the patient of an adverse effect due to a thermal mechanism. Recently, several shortcomings of the TI formulations in quantifying the risk to the patient have been identified by members of the basic scientific community, and possible improvements to address these shortcomings have been proposed. For this reason, the Output Standards Subcommittee of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine convened a subcommittee to review the strengths of the TI formulations as well as their weaknesses and proposed improvements. This article summarizes the findings of this subcommittee. After a careful review of the literature and an assessment of the cost of updating the TI formulations while maximizing the quality of patient care, the Output Standards Subcommittee makes the following recommendations: (1) some inconsistencies in the current TI formulations should be resolved, and the break point distance should be redefined to take focusing into consideration; (2) an entirely new indicator of thermal risk that incorporates the time dependence not be implemented at this time but be included in continuing efforts toward standards or consensus documents; (3) the exponential dependence of risk on temperature not be incorporated into a new definition of the TI formulations at this time but be included in continuing efforts toward standards or consensus documents; (4) the TI formulations not be altered to include nonlinear propagation at this time but be included in continuing efforts toward standards or consensus documents; and (5) a new indicator for risk from thermal mechanisms should be developed, distinct from the traditional TI formulations, for new imaging modalities such as acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, which have more complicated pulsing sequences than traditional imaging. PMID:21527623

Bigelow, Timothy A; Church, Charles C; Sandstrom, Kurt; Abbott, John G; Ziskin, Marvin C; Edmonds, Peter D; Herman, Bruce; Thomenius, Kai E; Teo, Tat Jin

2011-05-01

11

Strengths and Weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of NNESTs in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) are always compared with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) on linguistic grounds, their strengths and weaknesses as English teachers are worthy of investigation. This paper reports on a mixed methods study which examines the strengths and weaknesses of NNESTs and NESTs through the…

Ma, Lai Ping Florence

2012-01-01

12

On the Strength of Weak Ties in Mobile Social Networks Stratis Ioannidis  

E-print Network

On the Strength of Weak Ties in Mobile Social Networks Stratis Ioannidis Thomson, Paris stratis.ioannidis@thomson.net Augustin Chaintreau Thomson, Paris augustin.chaintreau@thomson.net ABSTRACT Weak ties, introduced their social cirle (i.e., acquaintances with which they interact infrequently). We show that weak ties play

13

On the Strength of Weak Ties in Mobile Social Networks Stratis Ioannidis Augustin Chaintreau  

E-print Network

On the Strength of Weak Ties in Mobile Social Networks Stratis Ioannidis Augustin Chaintreau Thomson, Paris email: firstname.lastname@thomson.net ABSTRACT We study the importance of weak ties a mobile social network. Our results show that weak ties can be used to design strategies for limiting

Chaintreau, Augustin

14

Renewable Energy Development Incentives: Strengths, Weaknesses and the Interplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing mechanisms cannot be relied on to achieve long-term growth of renewable energy, either because of their own weaknesses or because of unpredictable variables. If there is widespread support for pursuing the benefits of renewable energy, then its growth should be ensured through ambitious, long-term, and widespread mandatory objectives, rather than by relying on voluntary choices or competitive forces.

Gunnar Birgisson; Erik Petersen

2006-01-01

15

Critical length derived from weak layer shear strength spatial variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary process required for dry-snow slab avalanche release is failure initiation in a weak snow layer underlying a cohesive snow slab. The initiation is assumed to occur by damage accumulation followed by failure localization in a very weak zone of the weak layer so that a crack forms. If the crack further grows and reaches a certain (critical) size, it suddenly becomes self-propagating which may lead to catastrophic failure, i.e. avalanche release. For a 2-D snow cover on a slope, using the finite element method, we compute this critical length as a function of the properties of the snow slab and the spatially varying properties of the underlying weak layer. The simulation results suggest that the critical length increases with increasing slab stiffness and with increasing spatial variability (coefficient of variation and correlation length). Finally, we compare our results with field data of critical lengths obtained with either propagation saw tests (PSTs) or derived from snow micro-penetrometer (SMP) measurements.

Gaume, Johan; Schweizer, Jürg; van Herwijnen, Alec; Reuter, Benjamin; Chambon, Guillaume

2014-05-01

16

Rotator cuff strength weakness in recurrent anterior shoulder instability physiopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough rotator cuff contractions play an important role in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint, little is known about the role of these muscles in physiopathological recurrent anterior instability.ObjectiveTo analyze the association between isokinetic internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscle strength and glenohumeral joint instability in patients with nonoperated recurrent anterior instability.DesignCase-control study.SettingDepartment of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Laboratory setting.Participants48

P Edouard; L Beguin; F Farizon; P Calmels

2011-01-01

17

Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

2013-01-01

18

The strength-of-weak-ties perspective on creativity: a comprehensive examination and extension.  

PubMed

Disentangling the effects of weak ties on creativity, the present study separated, both theoretically and empirically, the effects of the size and strength of actors' idea networks and examined their joint impact while simultaneously considering the separate, moderating role of network diversity. I hypothesized that idea networks of optimal size and weak strength were more likely to boost creativity when they afforded actors access to a wide range of different social circles. In addition, I examined whether the joint effects of network size, strength, and diversity on creativity were further qualified by the openness to experience personality dimension. As expected, results indicated that actors were most creative when they maintained idea networks of optimal size, weak strength, and high diversity and when they scored high on the openness dimension. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:20476837

Baer, Markus

2010-05-01

19

The strengths and weaknesses of the electronic nose.  

PubMed

Arrays of electronic sensors, capable of detecting and differentiating complex mixtures of volatile compounds, have been utilized to differentiate aromas of food and related materials. These sensor arrays have been dubbed "Electronic Noses" and have been commercially available in the USA for the past 4-5 years. Electronic nose technology is still in its development phase, both in respect to hardware and software development. The instruments contain an array of from one to 32 sensors, using a variety of different sensor technologies--from organic polymers to metal oxides to micro-balances. Electronic noses are being widely used by some companies as a quality control instrument. Strengths include high sensitivity and correlation to human sensory panels for many applications. Limitations to their full potential includes loss of sensitivity in the presence of water vapor or high concentrations of a single component like alcohol; sensor drift and the inability to provide absolute calibration: relatively short life of some sensors; necessity to do considerable method development work for each specific application; and lack of being able to obtain quantitative data for aroma differences. They do have a high sensitivity (ppt to ppm) and are often more sensitive than the human nose. There is some evidence that sensors differentiate aromas on the basis of relatively few compounds and in the future a relationship between specific chemicals and a single flavor attribute may be achievable. Also, the possibility exists to differentiate between "top" and "middle" notes of aroma. PMID:11548160

Harper, W J

2001-01-01

20

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of Wal-Mart in the United States  

E-print Network

of foreign countries, and receives lightning quick responses (Cleeland, 4-5). While low pricing is one aspect of competition, Wal-Mart is also requiring technology from its suppliers. Wal-Mart is pushing towards RFID technology ? radio frequency... of conduct (Cleeland, 7) (Freeman, 5). Another quality issue is the store environment. The stores are almost clinical in their sterility. The white and cream metallic environment is not conducive to a warm and 16 fuz ing ers. In short, the pay a sales...

Nester, Michelle

2006-05-19

21

PISA Results and School Mathematics in Finland: strengths, weaknesses and future  

E-print Network

420 PISA Results and School Mathematics in Finland: strengths, weaknesses and future George Malaty University of Joensuu, Finland, george.malaty@joensuu.fi Abstract The success of Finland in PISA is related of surprising can be related to the results of Finland in the International Mathematical Olympiads (IMO). Since

Spagnolo, Filippo

22

K-12 Distance Education in the United States: Technology Strengths, Weaknesses, and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly identifies seven distance education case study projects completed for the Office of Technology Assessment as part of their November 1989 report, "Linking for Learning: A New Course for Education" (ED 310 765). The paper focuses on strengths and weaknesses associated with telecommunicated distance education delivery systems and…

Barker, Bruce O.

23

Local strength and global weakness: A maritime network perspective on South Korea as Northeast Asia's  

E-print Network

1 Local strength and global weakness: A maritime network perspective on South Korea as Northeast: Port development in South Korea has taken advantage of the countrys remarkable situation and economic substitution strategy between 1953 and 1961, the Republic of Korea (ROK, hereafter South Korea

Boyer, Edmond

24

Vocabulary Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Relation to Visuospatial Construction Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Method: Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of…

Mervis, Carolyn B.; John, Angela E.

2008-01-01

25

Building a Performance-Based Assessment System To Diagnose Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief description of the development of the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTTS) program by F. G. Roswell and J. S. Chall. It also describes the editorial and statistical procedures that were used to validate the program for determining students' strengths and weaknesses in important areas…

Hennings, Sara S.; Hughes, Kay E.

26

Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

2009-01-01

27

[GP practice in Belgium: strengths and weaknesses. Potential improvement by electronic patient record].  

PubMed

In July 2012, NIHDI (National Institute for Health and Disease Insurance) has published a GP's performance report under the umbrella of the quality promotion Council, addressed to policymakers, stake holders and general practitioners (GP). This article is summarizing the performance measurement, strengths and weaknesses. Main findings are a pretty high level of population satisfaction, a good accessibility and the central role of GP's within the health organization. The report points out weaknesses in quality variation and sustainability. Electronic medical file could be helpful to improve quality. PMID:23091949

Meeus, P; Van Aubel, X; Daubie, M

2012-09-01

28

The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

Andrekus, N.J.

1989-01-01

29

Targeting cancer's weaknesses (not its strengths): Therapeutic strategies suggested by the atavistic model.  

PubMed

In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target-the-weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed tumor environments is an irreversible weakness of cancer that can be exploited by creating a challenge that only the presence of adaptive immunity can meet. This leaves tumor cells more vulnerable than healthy tissue to pathogenic attack. Such a target-the-weakness therapeutic strategy has broad applications, and contrasts with current therapies that target the main strength of cancer: cell proliferation. PMID:25043755

Lineweaver, Charles H; Davies, Paul C W; Vincent, Mark D

2014-09-01

30

Retail pharmacy staff perceptions of design strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper explored pharmacy staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) design in retail pharmacies using the sociotechnical systems framework. This study examined how adoption of e-prescribing technology is affecting clinical practice and patient care. Materials and methods Direct observations and think aloud protocols were used to collect data from seven retail pharmacies. Results Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians reported strengths of e-prescribing design that facilitated pharmacy work which included: legibility, ease of archiving, quick access to prescriptions and consistency in the format of electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions). Design weaknesses and potential hazards to patient care associated with e-prescribing systems were due to differences between pharmacy and prescriber computer systems which resulted in the selection of wrong patient or drug (name, directions, dose, strength, formulation, package sizes). There were unique strengths and weaknesses in the design of e-prescriptions peculiar to the three pharmacy computer systems examined in this study. Discussion Findings from this study can help inform policy on creating e-prescribing design standards for pharmacy. e-Prescribing system developers can use the results of this study to identify and apply the most usable features of the three main pharmacy computer systems to design systems that support dispensing efficiency and safety. Conclusions This is the first study to highlight design flaws with e-prescribing in retail pharmacies. The sociotechnical systems framework was useful in providing an indepth understanding of the pharmacist and pharmacy technician's interface with e-prescribing technology. This information can be used by policy makers to create e-prescribing standards for pharmacies. PMID:22753809

Chui, Michelle A

2012-01-01

31

Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in East Azerbaijan Earthquake: Strengths and Weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Background: A Surveillance System was established for 19 diseases/syndromes in order to prevent and control communicable diseases after 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes. This study was conducted to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the established SS. Methods: This study was carried out on an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis in 2012. Data was collected by semi-structured deep interviews and surveillance data. Fifteen interviews were conducted with experts and health system managers who were engaged in implementing the communicable disease surveillance system in the affected areas. The selection of participants was purposeful. Data saturation supported the sample size. The collected data was analyzed using the principles suggested by Strauss and Corbin. Results: Establishment of the disease surveillance system was rapid and inexpensive. It collected the required data fast. It also increased confidence in health authorities that the diseases would be under control in earthquake-stricken regions. Non estimated denominator for calculating the rates (incidence & prevalence), non-participation of the private sector and hospitals, rapid turnover of health staff and unfamiliarity with the definitions of the diseases were the weak points of the established disease SS. Conclusion: During the time when surveillance system was active, no significant outbreak of communicable diseases was reported. However, the surveillance system had some weaknesses. Thus, considering Iran’s susceptibility to various natural hazards, repeated exercises should be conducted in the preparedness phase to decrease the weaknesses. In addition, other types of surveillance system such as web-based or mobile-based systems should be piloted in disaster situations for future.

Babaie, Javad; Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Soroush, Mahmood

2014-01-01

32

Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

2014-01-01

33

Strengths and weaknesses of multimodal processing in a group of adults with gliomas.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to analyze the multimodal skills that would be spared, altered, or impaired by gliomas that slowly infiltrate various and diversely localized areas in the cerebral hemispheres. Ten patients and 60 healthy controls were evaluated using four multimodal processing paradigms across 11 tasks. Our objectives were as follows: (a) to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the glioma patients' multimodal processing performance after accounting for task specificity and their individual performances compared to those of the control group; (b) to determine the correlation between lesion localization and impairments; and (c) to identify the tasks that were most sensitive to tumor infiltration and plasticity limits. Our results show that patients as a whole were efficient at most tasks; however, the patients exhibited difficulties in the productive picture-naming task, the receptive verbal judgment task, and the visual/graphic portion of the dual-attention task. The individual case reports show that the difficulties were distributed across the patients and did not correlate with lesion localization and tumor type. PMID:22554225

Plaza, Monique; Capelle, Laurent; Maigret, Géraldine; Chaby, Laurence

2013-01-01

34

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports  

SciTech Connect

Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

Schott, J. [Entergy Corp., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

35

The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

2014-01-01

36

The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

2014-01-01

37

Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

2013-01-01

38

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Using Social Software in Higher and Further Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social software is increasingly being used in higher and further education to support teaching and learning processes. These applications provide students with social and cognitive stimulation and also add to the interaction between students and educators. However, in addition to the benefits the introduction of social software into a course…

Schroeder, A.; Minocha, S.; Schneider, C.

2010-01-01

39

The Strength of Weak Identities: Social Structural Sources of Self, Situation and Emotional Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern societies are highly differentiated, with relatively uncorrelated socially salient dimensions and a preponderance of weak, unidimensional (as opposed to strong, multiplex) ties. What are the implications of a society with fewer strong ties and more weak ties for the self? What do these changes mean for our emotional experience in everyday…

Smith-Lovin, Lynn

2007-01-01

40

Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo explore the attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese towards the strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine.DESIGNQualitative study of subjects' opinions using semi-structured focus group interviews.SETTINGSouthern district of Hong Kong Island where many of the residents have a fisherman background.PARTICIPANTSTwenty nine participants took part in eight focus group interviews.Measurements and main results—Participants' attitudes towards TCM and

T P Lam

2001-01-01

41

Preoperative muscle weakness as defined by handgrip strength and postoperative outcomes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced muscle strength- commonly characterized by decreased handgrip strength compared to population norms- is associated with numerous untoward outcomes. Preoperative handgrip strength is a potentially attractive real-time, non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-perform "bedside" assessment tool. Using systematic review procedure, we investigated whether preoperative handgrip strength was associated with postoperative outcomes in adults undergoing surgery. Methods PRISMA and MOOSE consensus guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (1980-2010) were systematically searched by two independent reviewers. The selection criteria were limited to include studies of preoperative handgrip strength in human adults undergoing non-emergency, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Study procedural quality was analysed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment score. The outcomes assessed were postoperative morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. Results Nineteen clinical studies (17 prospective; 4 in urgent surgery) comprising 2194 patients were identified between1980-2010. Impaired handgrip strength and postoperative morbidity were defined inconsistently between studies. Only 2 studies explicitly ensured investigators collecting postoperative outcomes data were blinded to preoperative handgrip strength test results. The heterogeneity of study design used and the diversity of surgical procedures precluded formal meta-analysis. Despite the moderate quality of these observational studies, lower handgrip strength was associated with increased morbidity (n = 10 studies), mortality (n = 2/5 studies) and length of hospital stay (n = 3/7 studies). Conclusions Impaired preoperative handgrip strength may be associated with poorer postoperative outcomes, but further work exploring its predictive power is warranted using prospectively acquired, objectively defined measures of postoperative morbidity. PMID:22251661

2012-01-01

42

Home-Network Threats and Access Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes major risks, threats and attacks on home networks in general, and UPnPTM home networks in particular. Also considered are the strengths and weaknesses of technologies used to protect home-network\\u000a and personal devices. The authors describe the effort to address these issues with a new security service for UPnP Device\\u000a Control Protocols, called “UPnP Device Protection,” which features

Mark Baugher; Victor Lortz

43

Strength of iron to over 200 GPa: Earth's weak inner core (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength, elasticity and plasticity of iron at extreme conditions is fundamental information for materials science and condensed matter physics, and is crucial for interpreting seismological observations of Earth's core. In particular, mechanical strength at high pressure is challenging to measure and accurately predict. The strength of iron relates to creep mechanisms of the inner core, and ultimately deformation schemes producing texture and the observed seismic anisotropy. Here we present new shear strength measurements of iron to pressures of Earth's core combined with the latest numerical modeling of rheologic behavior under pressure to give insight on the deformation schemes of the inner core. Hydrostatic x-ray spectroscopy measurements and non-hydrostatic radial x-ray diffraction measurements of the deviatoric strain in hexagonally close packed iron uniquely determine its shear strength to above 200 GPa at room temperature. Extrapolating to Earth's inner core pressures we find the bulk shear strength of hcp-iron is only 8 +/- 2 GPa at 364 GPa, the pressure at the center of the planet, which supports dislocation creep being the dominant creep mechanism.

Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

2013-12-01

44

A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

2012-01-01

45

Lessons from dwarf8 on the strengths and weaknesses of structured association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The strengths of association mapping lie in its resolution and allelic richness, but spurious associations arising from historical relationships and selection patterns need to be accounted for in statistical analyses. Here we reanalyze one of the first generation structured association mapping studi...

46

Lessons from Dwarf8 on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Structured Association Mapping  

PubMed Central

The strengths of association mapping lie in its resolution and allelic richness, but spurious associations arising from historical relationships and selection patterns need to be accounted for in statistical analyses. Here we reanalyze one of the first generation structured association mapping studies of the Dwarf8 (d8) locus with flowering time in maize using the full range of new mapping populations, statistical approaches, and haplotype maps. Because this trait was highly correlated with population structure, we found that basic structured association methods overestimate phenotypic effects in the region, while mixed model approaches perform substantially better. Combined with analysis of the maize nested association mapping population (a multi-family crossing design), it is concluded that most, if not all, of the QTL effects at the general location of the d8 locus are from rare extended haplotypes that include other linked QTLs and that d8 is unlikely to be involved in controlling flowering time in maize. Previous independent studies have shown evidence for selection at the d8 locus. Based on the evidence of population bottleneck, selection patterns, and haplotype structure observed in the region, we suggest that multiple traits may be strongly correlated with population structure and that selection on these traits has influenced segregation patterns in the region. Overall, this study provides insight into how modern association and linkage mapping, combined with haplotype analysis, can produce results that are more robust. PMID:23437002

Larsson, Sara J.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Buckler, Edward S.

2013-01-01

47

Biological Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ... will not filter chemical agents During During a Biological Threat The first evidence of an attack may ...

48

Chemical Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... indicate a chemical agent release. Before Before a Chemical Threat What you should do to prepare for ... and on the highest level. During During a Chemical Threat What you should do in a chemical ...

49

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and  

E-print Network

Health disparities Where are we making the most impact? Although much of the work has been "behind the health impact of green renovations in urban apartment houses. SOM/Cleveland is the third site joining San Medicine(re: sealant program)School of Nursing (re: CMSD) MSASS (re:poverty center) Shale Gas Center

Rollins, Andrew M.

50

A longitudinal study on the Ghislenghien disaster in Belgium: strengths and weaknesses of the study design and influence on response rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (Belgium) on physical, mental and social health, and to evaluate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the affected population. Objectives To describe the set up of the study, to report on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology employed and its influence

Versporten APR; Zech E

51

Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different fire regimes and incidence) have been selected to investigate, by questionnaire and meetings, stakeholders perception on present strength and weakness in the adopted plans. The results of the answers analysis show some main deficit aspects covering prevalently carthographic and procedural implementations: • Plans shall include a risk and vulnerability map; dangerous seasons are to be determined and have to be updated with current weather conditions. • Standardization of terminology and classifications in the plans. • Plans shall include a specific section for firefighting in RUI, socially being the most important areas to protect and where most complications during firefighting are found. • Protocols shall be adapted to the real on site situation. A single control center in the event of fire should be identified. This is particularly important if third-party resources are involved in the operations. • Use of new technologies, i.e. fire simulators, LIDAR, for fuel amount and availability determination, wind simulation, CO2 emissions, vegetation structure. In the same time some active proposals are supplyed by the operators, directly derived and linked with the wekness above mentioned: • Use of new technological tools for analysis (simulators, etc.) and for driving the operative aspects during the suppression. • Standardization of communication protocols in the plans and during the field operations. • Increase use of fire for landscape management in certain areas. • Investments shall be made in land resources rather than in air means, generally already sufficient. This analysis represents a first effort to collect and schematize the effective applicability level of the indications included in the Plans. It is the base for possible tuning of the research and policy lines and also to tuning the present documents; the indications supplied prove that the efforts done in research are been acquired by the operative sectors and that the active involvement of stakeholder is the future challenge to enhance the plans efficacy.

Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

2014-05-01

52

AERONET-OC: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Network for the Validation of Satellite Coastal Radiometric Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been implemented to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site consistent and accurate measurements collected by autonomous radiometer systems deployed on offshore fixed platforms. The ultimate purpose of AERONET-OC is the production of standardized measurements performed at different sites with identical measuring systems and protocols, calibrated using a single reference source and method, and processed with the same code. The AERONET-OC primary data product is the normalized water leaving radiance determined at center-wavelengths of interest for satellite ocean color applications, with an uncertainty lower than 5% in the blue-green spectral regions and higher than 8% in the red. Measurements collected at 6 sites counting the northern Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, the Persian Gulf, and, the northern and southern margins of the Middle Atlantic Bay, have shown the capability of producing quality assured data over a wide range of bio-optical conditions including Case-2 yellow substance- and sedimentdominated waters. This work briefly introduces network elements like: deployment sites, measurement method, instrument calibration, processing scheme, quality-assurance, uncertainties, data archive and products accessibility. Emphases is given to those elements which underline the network strengths (i.e., mostly standardization of any network element) and its weaknesses (i.e., the use of consolidated, but old-fashioned technology). The work also addresses the application of AERONET-OC data to the validation of primary satellite radiometric products over a variety of complex coastal waters and finally provides elements for the identification of new deployment sites most suitable to support satellite ocean color missions.

Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; D'Alimonte, Davide; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Schuster, Gregory; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Kaitala, Seppo; Seppala, Jukka

2008-01-01

53

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.  

PubMed

A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training. PMID:21069487

Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2010-12-01

54

A Qualitative Examination of the History of E-Extension (eXtension), Implementation of Moodle (A Course Management System) and Associated Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats  

E-print Network

for over 40 years. The National E-Extension (eXtension) Initiative is being adopted at a rapid pace, and the history of this impact requires documentation in order to assist others in similar adoption and diffusion processes. The purpose of this historical...

Hightower, Tayla Elise

2011-08-08

55

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

Guo, Ting

56

When Students Make Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat

Kanan, Linda M.

2010-01-01

57

Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors questionnaire (SWAN) when compared with DISC-IV  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN) questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined. Method A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN. Results Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Conclusion SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. PMID:25187717

Chan, Grace Fong-Chun; Lai, Kelly Yee-Ching; Luk, Ernest Siu-Luen; Hung, Se-Fong; Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung

2014-01-01

58

Cyber threat metrics.  

SciTech Connect

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

2012-03-01

59

Strengths and weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers and semi-structured interviews for capturing fine-scale human mobility: findings from Iquitos, Peru.  

PubMed

Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80-100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50-80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n=101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility. PMID:24922530

Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Stoddard, Steven T; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

2014-06-01

60

Muscle strength and BMI as predictors of major mobility disability in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. T...

61

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

62

Laser threat warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military lasers against which threat warning systems are most urgently required are comparatively low in energy and primarily employed in association with a conventional weapon system for rangefinding and fire control. The detection of laser illumination will therefore indicate the imminent arrival of a shell or missile. Attention is presently given to imaging, nonimaging, interferometric, and scatter detector devices that can be used in this role and integrated with other threat warning devices for input to data coprocessing systems yielding threat characterizations.

Coleman, C. I.

63

Threat, Group Identification, and Children's Ethnic Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT, Nesdale, 1999), that children's tendency to show out-group prejudice depends on the strength of their in-group identification and/or their perception of threat from the out-group. Anglo-Australian children (N = 480) aged 6, 7, or 9 years were assigned to a…

Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Griffiths, Judith

2005-01-01

64

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?  

E-print Network

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat: Motivation and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: The Hoax Caller: The most frequent goal of the threat to minimize personal injuries or property damage. The caller may be the person placing the bomb

Fernandez, Eduardo

65

Cyber Threat Trees for Large System Threat Cataloging and Analysis*  

E-print Network

Cyber Threat Trees for Large System Threat Cataloging and Analysis* P. Ongsakorn, K. Turney, M, kturney, mitch, nair, szygenda, manikas}@lyle.smu.edu Abstract--The implementation of cyber threat representing them as a Cyber Threat Tree implemented as a directed graph known as a Multiple-Valued Decision

Thornton, Mitchell

66

Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats  

E-print Network

v Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats: 1. Specific Information/location will be given you have received a "SPecific BOmB threat". If possible recall exact wording of threat. 2. Non-Specific No information given other than e.g. "There is a Bomb in the Building". If possible ask and record answers to

Hickman, Mark

67

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?  

E-print Network

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat · The Hoax Caller and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: · The Credible Caller: The caller be the person placing the bomb or someone who has become aware of information they believe to be credible. What

Fernandez, Eduardo

68

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?  

E-print Network

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat: Motivation and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: The Hoax Caller: The most frequent goal placing the bomb or someone who has become aware of information they believe to be credible. What

Fernandez, Eduardo

69

Insider Threat Specification as a Threat Mitigation Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insider threats come in many facets and nuances. This results in two major problems: mining big amounts of data for evidence of an insider attack, and keeping track of different aspects of threats is very cumbersome. To enable techniques that support detection of insider threats as early as possible, one needs mechanisms to automate significant parts of the detection process, and that allow to specify what is meant by insider threat. This chapter describes the Insider Threat Prediction Specification Language (ITPSL), a research effort to address the description of threat factors as a mechanism to mitigate insider threats.

Magklaras, George; Furnell, Steven

70

The Bioterrorism Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those interested in keeping up with latest news as well as past reports on bioterrorism in America should visit PBS' Online NewsHour page entitled The Bioterrorism Threat. Accessible here are audio and video segments as well as text and transcripts from NewsHour broadcasts on Anthrax (the majority of the content), Smallpox, and bioterrorism in general.

2001-01-01

71

Environmental Threats at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

Green, Twhanna

2005-01-01

72

Social Influence via Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influence via threats was investigated in correspondent relationships (characterized by commonality of interest) and in noncorrespondent relationships (characterized by conflict of interest). The results of this research point to the existence of two qualitatively different processes of influence. (Editor/RK)

Friedland, Nehemia

1976-01-01

73

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31

74

Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Injection Safety Share Compartir A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Important Information! Please read this ... References Information for Patients FAQs for Patients A Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse Preventing Unsafe Injection Practices Safe ...

75

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Telephone Procedures  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Telephone Procedures DATE: / / TIME RECEIVED: : AM/PM CONCLUDED: : AM - GIVE NOTE SAYING "CALL UC POLICE - BOMB THREAT" 9-911 IF YOUR PHONE HAS CALLER ID DISPLAY, RECORD OF BOMB IS IT?_______________________________________________________________________________ 5. WHAT

Derisi, Joseph

76

Pollution: a global threat.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

McCrink-Goode, Melissa

2014-07-01

77

Not All Threats Are Equal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

Surface, Jeanne L.

2011-01-01

78

Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantum Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a great deal of attention has focused on quantum computation following a sequence of results suggesting that quantum computers are more powerful than classical probabilistic computers. Following Shor's result that factoring and the extraction of discrete logarithms are both solvable in quantum polynomial time, it is natural to ask whether all of NP can be efficiently solved in quantum

Charles H. Bennett; Ethan Bernstein; Gilles Brassard; Umesh V. Vazirani

1997-01-01

79

[Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].  

PubMed

The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world. PMID:17286014

Barbereau, S

2006-12-01

80

Lesson Plan: Iceberg Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will learn about the potential threat posed by icebergs, particularly the enormous icebergs that have broken away from Antarctica's Ronne Ice Shelf. They will research a news article and various web sites (links are provided) to collect information about icebergs, discuss what icebergs are and where they are found, and brainstorm a list of potential problems that could occur. Groups of students will address the potential problems, develop solutions in written form, and present their proposals to the class.

2010-09-07

81

Threats to international science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

Kisslinger, Carl

82

Proliferation: Threat and response  

SciTech Connect

The May 1997 Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) concluded that the threat or use of nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) weapons is a likely condition of future warfare and could occur in the early stages of war to disrupt US operations and logistics. These weapons may be delivered by ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, aircraft, special operations forces, or other means. In many of the world`s regions where the United States is likely to deploy forces--including Northeast Asia and the Middle East--potential adversaries have chemical and/or biological weapons and the missile systems to deliver them, and actively seek nuclear weapons. Potential adversaries may seek to counter American conventional military superiority using less expensive and more attainable, asymmetrical means, including NBC weapons. To meet this challenge, as well as the possibility that NBC weapons might also be used in some smaller-scale contingencies, US forces must be properly trained and equipped to operate effectively and decisively in the face of NBC attacks. The first section of this report details the proliferation of NBC weapons and the threat it poses to US interests and forces.

NONE

1997-11-01

83

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-01-01

84

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-05-01

85

Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claude Steele’s stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory—that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance—using real?time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or low stereotype threat conditions involving a challenging mathematics task while physiological measures of

Jason W. Osborne

2007-01-01

86

Threats, protests greet conference.  

PubMed

In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate. PMID:12288304

Struck, D

1994-09-01

87

Herpesviruses - a zoonotic threat?  

PubMed Central

Herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. Only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. Among the zoonotic herpesviruses, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the most significant and can be transmitted from macaques to human. Conversely, Human herpesvirus 1 is capable of causing severe disease in primates. Besides those two examples, there are several herpesviruses with a certainly limited or only suspected ability to cross species barriers. Those include Saimiriine herpesvirus 2, Phocid herpesvirus 2, Equid herpesvirus 1, Epstein-Barr Virus, Marek’s disease virus, and pseudorabies virus. Concerning xenotransplantations, porcine gammaherpesviruses must be considered as a zoonotic threat. PMID:19616388

Tischer, B. Karsten; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

2009-01-01

88

Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent  

E-print Network

Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent Caller's Voice Calm Crying Deep Angry Normal Ragged is bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. Where are you? 9. What

89

Threat Assessment in College Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

Cornell, Dewey

2010-01-01

90

Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

Osborne, Jason W.

2007-01-01

91

Bio-threat microparticle simulants  

DOEpatents

A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

2014-09-16

92

Bio-threat microparticle simulants  

DOEpatents

A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

2012-10-23

93

Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

Tunkel, Ronald F.

2010-01-01

94

Threat expert system technology advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

1987-01-01

95

Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat  

SciTech Connect

{ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

1988-01-01

96

Managing biosecurity threats in China.  

PubMed

Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks. PMID:21361794

Huang, Yanzhong

2011-03-01

97

Shear Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. John Atkinson, of the University of the West of England, developed a site for undergraduate students wanting to learn more about soil classification. His site addresses issues such as: shear strength, peak strength, and residual strength testing. Filled with charts, diagrams, statistics, the information is pertinent and easily understood by almost any audience.

Atkinson, John

2008-10-07

98

Threat Insight Quarterly Regulatory Compliance  

E-print Network

the importance of integrating regulatory compliance into an organization's overall strategic IT security planning....................................................................................12 About Internet Security Systems ................................................14 Contents Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Quarterly > October 2006 ©2006 Internet Security Systems

99

Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

Gastaldo, Evann

1999-01-01

100

Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries

Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

2010-01-01

101

Weak superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

This Proceedings consist of invited papers and contributions presented at the Fifth Czechoslovak Symposium on Weak Superconductivity (5CSSWS) held at Smolenice Castle from May 29 to June 2, 1989. This five-days meeting was organized by the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Electro-Physical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, in cooperation with the Institute of Measurement and Measuring Techniques, EPRC, SAS, Bratislava and the Institute of Physics, CSAS, in Prague. From the beginning the Czechoslovak activities in weak superconductivity were concerned with preparation and study of properties of weak links based on superconducting thin films of Pb, Nb, and Nb{sub 3}Sn, as well as bulk point contacts and rf SQUIDs for magnetometry. The possibility of application of superconducting weak links with tunnel and bridge junctions in measuring techniques, magnetometry, medicine, metrology, radiometry, etc., were studied. Some of these activities are still in progress. These Proceedings include contributions on the properties of tunnel junctions, electrodynamics of SQUIDs, computer simulation of interferometers, multi-channel magnetometry for biomagnetic applications, etc. The discovery of high T{sub c} superconductivity influenced strongly the topics of 5CSSWS. Most contributions of this volume are devoted to the preparation of high T{sub c} superconductor thin films by vacuum deposition techniques because of their dominant role in technology of cryoelectronic microcircuits. Further, results in the study of physical properties of high T{sub c} superconducting thin films by means of both dc and rf methods, tunnel and microcontact spectroscopy, are documented. Other contributions deal with preparation of rf SQUIDs, radiation detectors, etc.

Benacka, S.; Kedro, M.

1990-01-01

102

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

103

Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

1994-01-01

104

Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.  

PubMed

The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments. PMID:22616115

Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

2012-01-01

105

Strength Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

Londeree, Ben R.

1981-01-01

106

Computer-assisted threat evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

2006-05-01

107

Potential threats to offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly spectacular acts of terrorism have led to growing concern that terrorists will move beyond the symbols of society and directly attack its technological and industrial vulnerabilities. Offshore platforms have been frequently mentioned among the potential targets terrorists might attack. This concern, however, has not resulted in extensive research like that devoted to possible threats to nuclear facilities, which have

1988-01-01

108

PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

POLLUTANTS UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER FOR HEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS AND COMMUNITIES PITTSBURGH, PA. | AUGUST 2013 #12;PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 32 PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (HAPs)/AIR TOXICS PREPARED BY AUTHORS

Jiang, Huiqiang

109

Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

110

BOMB THREAT Questions to Ask  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Questions to Ask: 1. Where is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? Sex of caller: Age: Race

Ravikumar, B.

111

Understanding conditional promises and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional promises and threats are speech acts that are used to manipulate other people's behaviour. Studies on human reasoning typically use propositional logic to analyse what people infer from such inducements. While this approach is sufficient to uncover conceptual features of inducements, it fails to explain them. To overcome this limitation, we propose a multilevel analysis integrating motivational, linguistic, deontic,

Sieghard Beller; Andrea Bender; Gregory Kuhnmünch

2005-01-01

112

Numerical test of weak turbulence theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytic theory of weak Langmuir turbulence is well known, but very little has previously been done to compare its predictions with numerical solutions of the basic dynamical evolution equations. In this paper, numerical solutions of the statistical weak turbulence theory are compared with numerical solutions of the Zakharov model of Langmuir turbulence, and good agreement in certain regimes of very weak field strength is found.

Payne, G. L.; Nicholson, D. R.; Shen, Mei-Mei

1989-01-01

113

Rethinking the Cyber Threat A Framework and Path Forward  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Cyber Threat A Framework and Path Forward SCOTT CHARNEY Corporate Vice President ..................................................................................................................................................5 Understanding the Cyber Threat .................................................................................................................5 Rethinking the Cyber Threat

Bernstein, Phil

114

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

115

Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

Stover, Del

2005-01-01

116

Weak interactions, omnivory and emergent food-web properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies have shown that, in real ecosystems, species-interaction strengths are generally skewed in their distribution towards weak interactions. Some theoretical work also suggests that weak interactions, especially in omnivorous links, are important for the local stability of a community at equilibrium. How- ever, the majority of theoretical studies use uniform distributions of interaction strengths to generate artificial communities for

Mark Emmerson; Jon M. Yearsley

2004-01-01

117

Weak Nuclear Forces cause the Strong Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the lattices.

Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

2008-05-29

118

Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act  

E-print Network

Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain information with the checklist on this card. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURE If a bomb threat is received by phone: Remain calm. Keep the caller on the line for as long

Slatton, Clint

119

The role of threats in animal cooperation  

PubMed Central

In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors—impact, accuracy and perception—that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation. PMID:20798110

Cant, Michael A.

2011-01-01

120

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-print Network

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11

121

Networked Learning, a Relational Approach Weak and Strong Ties  

E-print Network

Networked Learning, a Relational Approach ­ Weak and Strong Ties Jones, C. 1 , Ferreday, D.2.ferreday@lancaster.ac.uk, v.hodgson@lancaster.ac.uk ABSTRACT In this paper, we explore the idea of weak ties in networked learning. We go back to the original conception of the strength of weak ties (Granovetter 1973) and relate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

2015-02-01

123

Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system  

DOEpatents

A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

2012-12-25

124

Terrorism, Security, and the Threat of Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In America, Britain and Australia the threat of terrorism has been used to justify radical new legislation that gives police and intelligence agencies unprecedented powers to detain and question people believed to have information connected to terrorism. In this paper I explore the nature of the threat of non-state terrorism—threat to national security and the well-being of citizens. I argue

Jessica Wolfendale

2006-01-01

125

Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant psychological consequences. The greatest impact of a small release would probably be economic, associated with cleanup and restoration of the contaminated area. Another category of threat is the attack on a facility, either a power reactor or sabotage of a large radiation source. In general these facilities are hard targets (structurally), and damage and contamination are localized. The final category of threat is the use of radioactive materials to deliver a radiation dose to individuals. This type of attack is again localized and does not readily fall into the category of a weapon of mass destruction.

Vantine, H C

2002-10-04

126

Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

2004-01-01

127

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2009-09-01

128

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2008-05-29

129

DOE site-specific threat assessment  

SciTech Connect

A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

1985-07-12

130

Calculating the Threat of Tsunami  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Australian Academy of Science, Calculating the Threat of Tsunami is a recent feature of NOVA: Science in the News (described in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report describes recent "advances towards predicting tsunami by combining mathematics, geology, and physics." The importance of being able to predict tsunami was made clear when, on July 17, 1998, the north coast of Papua New Guinea and villages near the Sissano lagoon were destroyed by a massive tsunami. In addition to the general text, the special feature includes a Glossary, Activities, Further Reading, and a solid selection of Useful Sites. Anyone interested in tsunami will find a plethora of information for all levels at this site.

Sarre, Alastair.

1998-01-01

131

Herpesviruses--a zoonotic threat?  

PubMed

Herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. Only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. Among the zoonotic herpesviruses, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the most significant and can be transmitted from macaques to human. Conversely, Human herpesvirus 1 is capable of causing severe disease in primates. Besides those two examples, there are several herpesviruses with a certainly limited or only suspected ability to cross species barriers. Those include Saimiriine herpesvirus 2, Phocid herpesvirus 2, Equid herpesvirus 1, Epstein-Barr Virus, Marek's disease virus, and Pseudorabies virus. Concerning xenotransplantations, porcine gammaherpesviruses must be considered as a zoonotic threat. PMID:19616388

Tischer, B Karsten; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

2010-01-27

132

Real threat of nuclear smuggling  

SciTech Connect

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a `flying squad` with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs.

Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-01-01

133

Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.  

PubMed

Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of information into a common rigorous framework. Ultimately, our framework may greatly assist conservation organizations in documenting threatening processes and planning species recovery. Inferencia la Naturaleza de las Amenazas Antropogénicas para los Registros de Abundancia a Largo Plazo. PMID:25065712

Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

2015-02-01

134

On Weakly Coherent Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we define weakly coherent rings, and examine the transfer of these rings to homomorphic image, trivial ring extension, localization, and direct product. These results provide examples of weakly coherent rings that are not coherent rings. We show that the class of weakly coherent rings is not stable by localization. Also, we show that the class of weakly

Chahrazade Bakkari; Najib Mahdou

2010-01-01

135

Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be 'extracted' not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui

2014-12-01

136

RFID Security and Privacy: Threats and Countermeasures  

E-print Network

RFID Security and Privacy: Threats and Countermeasures Marco Spruit Wouter Wester Technical Report Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;RFID SECURITY AND PRIVACY: THREATS of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and the objection of consumers to buy products that include non

Utrecht, Universiteit

137

Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

138

Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

1977-01-01

139

Personality Correlates of Nuclear War Threat Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and the threat of nuclear war among 192 introductory psychology students at a small college in the Pacific Northwest. One measure of nuclear threat perception was spontaneous concern, which was assessed using five presentations each of the incomplete sentences,…

Mayton, Daniel M., II

140

Keeping Schools Safe through Threat Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates how effective a threat assessment program like the Mid-Valley Student Threat Assessment (STAT) program can be in dealing with violent and threatening students. STAT is a a regional system that draws together resources from schools, mental health agencies, law enforcement bureaus, and other youth-serving organizations in…

Barton, Rhonda

2008-01-01

141

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net October 2007 Honeypots and Honeynets: From darknets to things that go bump in the dark . . . . . . . . . 2 The State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly

142

The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat  

SciTech Connect

This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

Regens, J. L.

2003-02-25

143

Imparting strength and toughness to brittle composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Appropriate intermittent coatings of fibers can produce areas of low and high toughness in brittle composites. Experiments using silicon vacuum grease (SVG) and polyurethane varnish (PUV) coatings that achieve weakly and strongly bonded interfaces are described. Tensile strength and edge-crack fracture toughness for both SVG and PUV coatings were plotted against the percentage coating (C). Both coating materials maintain tensile strengths in the order of the rule of mixture strength values up to a large C. It is suggested that both materials produce similar coated interfacial shear strengths while producing different effects on toughness.

Atkins, A. G.

1974-01-01

144

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2014-10-01

145

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2014-10-01

146

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2010-10-01

147

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2013-10-01

148

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2012-10-01

149

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2011-10-01

150

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2013-10-01

151

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2010-10-01

152

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2011-10-01

153

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2012-10-01

154

Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.  

PubMed

Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message. PMID:24393019

Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

2014-01-01

155

In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

Showstack, Randy

2008-12-01

156

Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions  

PubMed Central

To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

2013-01-01

157

PROHIBITED USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THREATS, HARASSMENT, AND PORNOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

Page 1 PROHIBITED USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THREATS, HARASSMENT, AND PORNOGRAPHY Policy, and prohibits the use of University Electronic Resources for threats, harassment, and pornography. Reason threats, engaging in harassing behavior, and viewing, downloading, or communicating pornography. Table

Shahriar, Selim

158

Vibrational spectroscopy standoff detection of threat chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy based standoff detection systems: Raman and FTIR have been tested for detection of threat chemicals, including highly energetic materials, homemade explosives, explosives formulations and high explosives mixtures. Other threat chemicals studied included toxic industrial compounds (TIC) and chemical agent simulants. Microorganisms and biological threat agent simulants have also been detected at standoff distances. Open Path FTIR has been used to detect vapors and chemicals deposited on metal surfaces at ?g/cm2 levels at distances as far as 30 m in active mode and 60 m in passive mode. In the case of Raman telescope, standoff distances for acetonitrile and ammonium nitrate were 140 m.

Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Felix-Rivera, Hilsamar; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

2011-06-01

159

THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

J. F. PILAT

2000-03-01

160

Engineering to counter the EMP threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the techniques and processes used to protect or 'harden' electronic equipment against the effects of the Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). Working from an engineering viewpoint, it not only considers how the threat operates and why it is a threat, but also it considers the measures that can be used to counter the threat and what these measures are attempting to achieve. Throughout it is stressed that once the decision to harden a new piece of equipment is taken, the effects of EMP must be considered during all stages of its development. The paper is then concluded with a list of the typical activities that this might entail.

Miller, P. R.

1983-12-01

161

Investigating the Implementation of Whole Language: Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Whole Language/Phonics debate has been raging in California since the 1980s. However, there has been no real determination about which method is best for teaching reading to our students. Yet the Whole Language method has lost the recognition and respect of the educational community because the program was not implemented by all teachers the…

LeDoux, Amanda

2007-01-01

162

Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses Associated with Prader-Willi Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and nine age- and IQ-matched adults with PWS completed standardized tests of long-term and short-term memory, visual and auditory processing, and reading and mathematics achievement. Contrary to previous findings, long-term memory in PWS subjects was strong relative to IQ and there was no evidence that…

Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Atwell, Julie A.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

2000-01-01

163

Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting

Catherine Mathe ´; Marie-France Sagot; Thomas Schiex; Pierre Rouze

2002-01-01

164

On Weakly Coherent Rings  

E-print Network

In this paper, we define weakly coherent rings, and examine the transfer of these rings to homomorphic image, trivial ring extension, localization, and direct product. These results provide examples of weakly coherent rings that are not coherent rings. We show that the class of weakly coherent rings is not stable by localization. Also, we show that the class of weakly coherent rings and the class of strongly 2-coherent rings are not comparable.

Bakkari, Chahrazade

2010-01-01

165

Weakly sufficient quantum statistics  

E-print Network

Some aspects of weak sufficiency of quantum statistics are investigated. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a weakly sufficient statistic for a given family of vector states, investigate the problem of its minimality, and find the relation between weak sufficiency and other notions of sufficiency employed so far.

Katarzyna Lubnauer; Andrzej ?uczak; Hanna Pods?dkowska

2009-11-23

166

Synesthesia: Strong and Weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we distinguish strong and weak forms of synesthesia. Strong synesthesia is characterized by a vivid image in one sensory modality in response to stimulation in another one. Weak synesthesia is characterized by cross-sensory correspondences expressed through language, perceptual similarity, and perceptual interactions during information processing. Despite important phenomenological dissimilarities between strong and weak synesthesia, we maintain that

Gail Martino; Lawrence E. Marks

2001-01-01

167

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat...

2012-10-01

168

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat...

2013-10-01

169

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat...

2013-10-01

170

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat...

2010-10-01

171

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat...

2014-10-01

172

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat...

2011-10-01

173

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat...

2014-10-01

174

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat...

2012-10-01

175

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat...

2010-10-01

176

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat...

2011-10-01

177

Cyber threats in social networking websites  

E-print Network

A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sites are not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websi...

Gharibi, Wajeb

2012-01-01

178

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2010-01-08

179

JiTT - Threats to Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How is climate change a threat to biodiversity? 2) What are the impacts of pesticides on animals (including insects) and humans? 3) Can human population growth really impact biodiversity? Explain your viewpoint.

Laura Guertin

180

Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

Zmud, Mia

1992-01-01

181

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2008-05-29

182

Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model adaptation (learning). The increasingly complex demands facing analysts evaluating activity threatening to the security of the United States make the family of agent-based data collection (fusion) a promising area. This paper will discuss a system to support the collection and evaluation of potential threat activity as well as an approach fro presentation of the information.

Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

2004-09-01

183

Organised crime threat assessments: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of the 21st century, several national and international government agencies have initiated organised crime\\u000a threat assessments. Additionally, a few scholars have published methods to assess the risks and threats of organised crime.\\u000a These governmental bodies and scholars claim that their reports and methods can demonstrate that certain forms of organised\\u000a crime are more threatening than others and

Andries Johannes Zoutendijk

2010-01-01

184

Blog Data Mining for Cyber Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blog data mining is a growing research area that addresses the domain-specific problem of extracting information from blog\\u000a data. In our work, we analyzed blogs for various categories of cyber threats related to the detection of security threats\\u000a and cyber crime. We have extended the Author-Topic model based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation for identify patterns of similarities\\u000a in keywords and

Flora S. Tsai; Kap Luk Chan

185

The persistence of socially instructed threat: two threat-of-shock studies.  

PubMed

Learning to anticipate threat is crucial in guiding protective behavior. In classical conditioning, single trial learning can result in long-lasting fear associations. To examine whether threat learned through social communication is equally stable, an instructed fear paradigm was used with two repeated sessions on 1 day (Study 1; N?=?43) and with separate sessions on 3 consecutive days (Study 2; N?=?30). Startle EMG, skin conductance level (SCL), and self-report data were recorded during alternating periods of instructed threat and safety. Within 1 day, threat-potentiated startle was present across sessions but threat-enhanced SCL decreased (Study 1). Across days, threat effects subsided with different timing for startle EMG, SCL, and self-report (Study 2). The present findings are a laboratory analog for the persistence of socially transmitted fear, which can be amazingly resistant to extinction (e.g., in specific phobias) even in the absence of aversive experiences. PMID:24942368

Bublatzky, Florian; Gerdes, Antje B M; Alpers, Georg W

2014-10-01

186

Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

Kuliasha, Michael

2012-03-01

187

An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

2009-01-01

188

Peripheral Muscle Weakness in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral muscle weakness is commonly found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary dis- ease (COPD) and may play a role in reducing exercise capacity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate, in patients with COPD: ( 1 ) the relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), ( 2 ) the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness, and ( 3

SARAH BERNARD; PIERRE L E BLANC; FRANÇOIS WHITTOM; GUY CARRIER; JEAN JOBIN; ROGER BELLEAU; FRANÇOIS MALTAIS

1998-01-01

189

Threat inoculation: experienced and imagined intergenerational contact prevents stereotype threat effects on older people's math performance.  

PubMed

The authors hypothesized that experienced and imagined intergenerational contact should improve older people's math test performance under stereotype threat. In Experiment 1 (N=51, mean age=69 years), positive prior contact with grandchildren eliminated stereotype threat, which was mediated partially by reduced test-related anxiety. In Experiment 2 (N=84, mean age=72 years), the effect of threat on performance was significantly improved when participants merely imagined intergenerational contact, a situation again mediated by reduced anxiety. Previous research established that intergroup contact improves intergroup attitudes. The findings show that intergroup (intergenerational) contact also provides a defense against stereotype threat. PMID:19140662

Abrams, Dominic; Crisp, Richard J; Marques, Sibila; Fagg, Emily; Bedford, Lauren; Provias, Dimitri

2008-12-01

190

Mechanisms Undlerlying Quadriceps Weakness in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify determinants of quadriceps weakness among persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods One-hundred twenty-three individuals (mean age 64.9 ± 8.5 yr) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade IV knee OA participated. Quadriceps strength (MVIC) and volitional muscle activation (CAR) were measured using a burst superimposition test. Muscle composition (lean muscle cross-sectional area (LMCSA) and fat CSA (FCSA)) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Specific strength (MVIC/LMCSA) was computed. Interlimb differences were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. Regression analysis was applied to identify determinants of MVIC. An alpha level of 0.05 was adopted. Results The OA limb was significantly weaker, had lower CAR, and had smaller LMCSA than the contralateral limb. CAR explained 17% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 40% in the OA limb. LMCSA explained 41% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 27% in the OA limb. Conclusion Both reduced CAR and LMCSA contribute to muscle weakness in persons with knee OA. Similar to healthy elders, the best predictor of strength in the contralateral, nondiseased limb was largely determined by LMCSA, whereas CAR was found to be the primary determinant of strength in the OA limb. Deficits in CAR may undermine the effectiveness of volitional strengthening programs in targeting quadriceps weakness in the OA population. PMID:18379202

PETTERSON, STEPHANIE C.; BARRANCE, PETER; BUCHANAN, THOMAS; BINDER-MACLEOD, STUART; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

2013-01-01

191

Superconducting weak links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers experimental results and theoretical ideas on the properties of superconducting weak links, i.e., weak electrical contacts between superconducting electrodes which exhibit direct (non-tunnel-type) conductivity. When the dimensions of such weak links are sufficiently small, the Josephson effect is observed in them, in other words, a single-valued and 2pi -periodic relationship exists between the supercurrent Is and the

K. K. Likharev

1979-01-01

192

Weak Gravitational Lensing  

E-print Network

This review forms the Weak Lensing part of the Saas-Fee Advanced Course on Gravitational Lensing. It describes the basicsm applications and results of weak lensing. Contents: (1) Introduction (2) The principles of weak gravitational lensing (3) Observational issues and challenges (4) Clusters of galaxies: Introduction, and strong lensing (5) Mass reconstructions from weak lensing (6) Cosmic shear -- lensing by the LSS (7) Large-scale structure lensing: results (8) The mass of, and associated with galaxies (9) Additional issues in cosmic shear (10) Concluding remarks.

Peter Schneider

2005-09-09

193

Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School  

PubMed Central

Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60 000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the “threat-sensitive hypothesis”. PMID:24489778

Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M.; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Handegard, Nils Olav

2014-01-01

194

Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.  

PubMed

Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis". PMID:24489778

Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

2014-01-01

195

Combined tracking and threat typing algorithm for boosting missiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ballistic missile defense, knowledge of the threat type during the boost phase is important for accurate prediction, especially in the presence of threat-specific variations (e.g. staging). A combined boost phase tracking/threat-typing algorithm based on multiple tracking filters is presented. Each filter employs a threat-specific thrust-acceleration profile used for state compensation, and model probabilities calculated using Bayes rule for threat typing.

Petruzzo, Joseph J., III; Foster, George J.

2003-12-01

196

Combined tracking and threat typing algorithm for boosting missiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ballistic missile defense, knowledge of the threat type during the boost phase is important for accurate prediction, especially in the presence of threat-specific variations (e.g. staging). A combined boost phase tracking/threat-typing algorithm based on multiple tracking filters is presented. Each filter employs a threat-specific thrust-acceleration profile used for state compensation, and model probabilities calculated using Bayes rule for threat typing.

Petruzzo, Joseph J., III; Foster, George J.

2004-01-01

197

Combined tracking and threat typing algorithm for boosting missiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ballistic missile defense, knowledge of the threat type during the boost phase is important for accurate prediction, especially in the presence of threat-specific variations (e.g. staging). A combined boost phase tracking\\/threat-typing algorithm based on multiple tracking filters is presented. Each filter employs a threat-specific thrust-acceleration profile used for state compensation, and model probabilities calculated using Bayes rule for threat

Joseph J. Petruzzo III; George J. Foster

2003-01-01

198

Combined tracking and threat typing algorithm for boosting missiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ballistic missile defense, knowledge of the threat type during the boost phase is important for accurate prediction, especially in the presence of threat-specific variations (e.g. staging). A combined boost phase tracking\\/threat-typing algorithm based on multiple tracking filters is presented. Each filter employs a threat-specific thrust-acceleration profile used for state compensation, and model probabilities calculated using Bayes rule for threat

Joseph J. Petruzzo III; George J. Foster

2004-01-01

199

Test of weak measurement on a two- or three-qubit computer  

E-print Network

Current quantum computer technology is sufficient to realize weak measurements and the corresponding concept of weak values. We demonstrate how the weak value anomaly can be tested, along with consistency and simultaneity of weak values, using only discrete degrees of freedom. All you need is a quantum computer with two--or better, three--qubits. We also give an interpretation of the weak value as an effective field strength in a postselected spin measurement.

Todd A. Brun; Lajos Diosi; Walter T. Strunz

2007-11-26

200

Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

201

Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat  

SciTech Connect

Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

Karl A. Seger

2001-04-30

202

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

203

Strength Reduction via SSAPRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present techniques that allow strength reduction to be performed concurrently with partial redundancy elimination in the SSAPRE framework. By sharing the characteristics inherent to SSAPRE, the resulting strength reduction algorithm exhibits many interesting attributes. We compare various aspects of the new strength reduction algorithm with previous strength reduction algorithms. We also outline and discuss our implementation of the closely

Robert Kennedy; Fred C. Chow; Peter Dahl; Shin-ming Liu; Raymond Lo; Mark Streich

1998-01-01

204

Weak measurement of cotunneling time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics allows the existence of "virtual states" that have no classical analog. Such virtual states defy direct observation through strong measurement, which would destroy the volatile virtual state. Here, we show how a virtual state of an interacting many-body system can be detected employing a weak measurement protocol with post-selection. We employ this protocol for the measurement of the time it takes an electron to tunnel through a virtual state of a quantum dot (cotunneling). Contrary to classical intuition, this cotunneling time is independent of the strength of the dot-lead coupling and may deviate from that predicted by time-energy uncertainty relation. Our approach, amenable to experimental verification, may elucidate an important facet of quantum mechanics which hitherto was not accessible by direct measurements.

Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

2014-08-01

205

Weak measurement of cotunneling time  

E-print Network

Quantum mechanics allows the existence of "virtual states" that have no classical analogue. Such virtual states defy direct observation through strong measurement, which would destroy the volatile virtual state. Here we show how a virtual state of an interacting many-body system can be detected employing a weak measurement protocol with postselection. We employ this protocol for the measurement of the time it takes an electron to tunnel through a virtual state of a quantum dot (cotunneling). Contrary to classical intuition, this cotunneling time is independent of the strength of the dot-lead coupling and may deviate from that predicted by time-energy uncertainty relation. Our approach, amenable to experimental verification, may elucidate an important facet of quantum mechanics which hitherto was not accessible by direct measurements.

Alessandro Romito; Yuval Gefen

2014-10-24

206

Using the threat probability task to assess anxiety and fear during uncertain and certain threat.  

PubMed

Fear of certain threat and anxiety about uncertain threat are distinct emotions with unique behavioral, cognitive-attentional, and neuroanatomical components. Both anxiety and fear can be studied in the laboratory by measuring the potentiation of the startle reflex. The startle reflex is a defensive reflex that is potentiated when an organism is threatened and the need for defense is high. The startle reflex is assessed via electromyography (EMG) in the orbicularis oculi muscle elicited by brief, intense, bursts of acoustic white noise (i.e., "startle probes"). Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). In the Threat Probability Task, fear is measured via startle potentiation to high probability (100% cue-contingent shock; certain) threat cues whereas anxiety is measured via startle potentiation to low probability (20% cue-contingent shock; uncertain) threat cues. Measurement of startle potentiation during the Threat Probability Task provides an objective and easily implemented alternative to assessment of negative affect via self-report or other methods (e.g., neuroimaging) that may be inappropriate or impractical for some researchers. Startle potentiation has been studied rigorously in both animals (e.g., rodents, non-human primates) and humans which facilitates animal-to-human translational research. Startle potentiation during certain and uncertain threat provides an objective measure of negative affective and distinct emotional states (fear, anxiety) to use in research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse and broadly in affective science. As such, it has been used extensively by clinical scientists interested in psychopathology etiology and by affective scientists interested in individual differences in emotion. PMID:25285398

Bradford, Daniel E; Magruder, Katherine P; Korhumel, Rachel A; Curtin, John J

2014-01-01

207

Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance  

E-print Network

GM-6 Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance Gypsy moths are insects with a big appetite for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything

Ginzel, Matthew

208

Influenza: current threat from avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is an infectious respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and infrequent pandemics, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and burdens on the delivery of health care. The geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 among poultry and wild bird populations is unprecedented. Growing numbers of sporadic avian influenza infections are occurring in humans, increasing the threat of the next

Iain Stephenson; Jane Democratis

209

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*  

E-print Network

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ºC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ºC - Likely Extinctions

Hansen, James E.

210

Stereotype Threat Reinterpreted as a Regulatory Mismatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. The authors combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows them to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. The authors draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce

Lisa R. Grimm; Arthur B. Markman; W. Todd Maddox; Grant C. Baldwin

2009-01-01

211

The Real Threat of Nuclear Smuggling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest

Phil Williams; Paul N. Woessner

1996-01-01

212

Garlic: Nature's Protection Against Physiological Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements

Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Mehmood S. Butt; Javaid Iqbal

2009-01-01

213

Threats to Academic Freedom in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the meaning of academic freedom and threats to that freedom in recent conflicts and legal rulings. The introduction calls academic freedom confusing and widely misunderstood and offers an historical and legal explanation of the concept as well as discussion of the traditional areas of conflict in instruction, research,…

Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

214

Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

215

Threats and countermeasures for network security  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

Denning, Peter J.

1991-01-01

216

Impact! - The Threat of Comets and Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Impact , Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at the catastrophic collisions of comets and asteroids with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this frightening possibility. Every day something

Gerrit L. Verschuur

1997-01-01

217

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK: 1. When is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? CALLER'S VOICE: ___Calm

Cui, Yan

218

The Threat Index: An Additive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of actualization and integration on death anxiety in 120 students who completed the Threat Index, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, and Templer Death Anxiety Scale. Results provided clear evidence that actualization and integration have an additive effect on death fear and anxiety. (JAC)

Robinson, Paul J.; Wood, Keith

1985-01-01

219

Amphibian commerce and the threat of pathogen  

E-print Network

7/16/2011 1 Amphibian commerce and the threat of pathogen pollution Angela Picco, PhD United% for commercial purposes, mostly for pet trade (Smith et al., 2009) W.B. Karesh #12;7/16/2011 2 Amphibian trade · Pet trade · Food trade · Research, biomedical, education · Bait trade · 5 million live amphibians per

Gray, Matthew

220

Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

Stader, David L.

2000-01-01

221

Disgust, politics, and responses to threat.  

PubMed

We address two questions regarding the relationship between political ideology and responses to threatening or aversive stimuli. The first concerns the reason for the connection between disgust and specific political and moral attitudes; the second concerns the observation that some responses to threat (i.e., neuroticism/anxiety) are associated with a more left-wing political orientation. PMID:24970437

Inbar, Yoel; Pizarro, David

2014-06-01

222

Biosecurity Reconsidered: Calibrating Biological Threats and Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Advances in science and technology, the rise of globalization, the emergence of new diseases, and the changing nature of conflict have increased the risks posed by naturally occurring and man-made biological threats. A growing acceptance of a broader definition of security since the end of the Cold War has facilitated the rise of biosecurity issues on the international security agenda.

Gregory D. Koblentz

2010-01-01

223

Biosecurity Reconsidered: Calibrating Biological Threats and Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in science and technology, the rise of globalization, the emergence of new diseases, and the changing nature of conflict have increased the risks posed by naturally occurring and man-made biological threats. A growing acceptance of a broader definition of security since the end of the Cold War has facilitated the rise of biosecurity issues on the international security agenda.

Gregory D. Koblentz

2010-01-01

224

Bioterrorism: responding to an emerging threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few years ago bioterrorism was considered a remote concern but few today are complacent about the possibility of biological agents being intentionally used to cause widespread panic, disruption, disease and death. By its very nature, the biological weapons threat – with its close links to naturally occurring infectious agents and disease – requires a different paradigm than that

Margaret A Hamburg

2002-01-01

225

Quantifying Variation in the Strengths of Species Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how the strengths of species interactions are distributed among species is critical for developing predictive models of natural food webs as well as for developing management and conservation strategies. Recently a number of ecologists have attempted to clarify the concepts of ''strong-'' and ''weak-interactors'' in a community, and to derive techniques for quantifying interaction strengths in the field, using

Eric L. Berlow; Sergio A. Navarrete; Cheryl J. Briggs; Mary E. Power; Bruce A. Menge

1999-01-01

226

An Apparatus and Protocol to Measure Shoulder Girdle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Muscles actuating the shoulder girdle are important for stabilizing the scapula and coordinating phased kinematics of the shoulder complex. If these muscles become weak or imbalanced, joint instability and injury may result. Reliable measurement of shoulder strength is thus important for prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation of shoulder problems. To date, studies quantifying the strength of the shoulder girdle

Brian A. Garner; Jaeho Shim; Scott Wilson

2007-01-01

227

Measurements of magnetic field strength on T Tauri stars ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the magnetic field strength of one weak-line and four classical T Tauri stars. The magnetic field strength is derived from the differential change of the equivalent width of photospheric Fei lines in the presence of a magnetic field, calculated using a full radiative transfer code. The method was successfully tested by applying it to a non- magnetic

Eike W. Guenther; Holger Lehmann; James P. Emerson

228

Measurements of magnetic field strength on T Tauri stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the magnetic field strength of one weak-line and four classical T Tauri stars. The magnetic field strength is derived from the differential change of the equivalent width of photospheric Fe I lines in the presence of a magnetic field, calculated using a full radiative transfer code. The method was successfully tested by applying it to a non-magnetic

Eike W. Guenther; Holger Lehmann; James P. Emerson; Jürgen Staude

1999-01-01

229

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

230

Alcohol Dose Effects on Stress Response to Cued Threat Vary by Threat Intensity  

PubMed Central

Rationale Clarification of alcohol’s effect on stress response during threat is critical to understand motivation for alcohol use and related alcohol-use disorders. Evaluation of stress response dampening (SRD) effects of alcohol has been limited by nonsystematic use of varied experimental methods and measures. Objectives This experiment parametrically varied alcohol dose and shock threat intensity among social drinkers to examine their effects on startle potentiation, a physiological measure of the affective component of the stress response. Methods 96 participants were assigned to one of four beverage groups: placebo and target blood alcohol concentration (BAC) groups of 0.04, 0.075, and 0.11%. Participants viewed colored cues presented in shock and no-shock blocks. Distinct colored cues predicted imminent low, moderate, or high intensity electric shock administration. Startle potentiation during shock threat relative to no-shock cues indexed affective response. Results High threat increased startle potentiation relative to moderate/low intensity threat. Startle potentiation decreased as BAC increased. Threat intensity moderated this BAC effect with the strongest BAC effect observed during high threat. Analysis of individual difference moderators revealed reduced effect of BAC among heavier, more problematic drinkers. Conclusions Clear alcohol SRD effects were observed. These SRD effects were greatest at higher BACs and during more potent threat. Failure to account for these factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in past laboratory SRD research. Furthermore, they suggest greater reinforcement from alcohol at higher doses and among individuals with greater stress. Moderation of SRD effects by alcohol consumption and problems point to possible important risk factors. PMID:21503605

Moberg, Christine A; Weber, Stefanie M; Curtin, John J

2012-01-01

231

Flexibility and Muscular Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

Liemohn, Wendell

1988-01-01

232

Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect

This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

2012-09-01

233

Effective Teaching Strategies for Gifted/Learning-Disabled Students with Spatial Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine effective teaching strategies for use with high-ability students who have spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses. Gifted students with spatial strengths and weak verbal skills often struggle in the traditional classroom. Their learning style enables them to grasp complex systems and excel at higher levels of…

Mann, Rebecca L.

2006-01-01

234

Strength Training for Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

2001-01-01

235

Strength of Human Pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length, breaking strength, and tensile strength of each of the annular fibro-osseous pulleys of digital flexor sheath in ten fresh human cadaver specimens were measured. The first annular pulley and the fourth annular pulley were found to be the strongest, while the second annular pulley was the weakest. The design of artificial pulleys should reproduce the strength of the

PAUL R. MANSKE; PEGGY A. LESKER

1977-01-01

236

Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

1985-01-01

237

Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.  

PubMed

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PMID:18254857

Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

2008-02-01

238

Threat Modelling for Web Services Based Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threat analysis of a web application can lead to a wide variety of identified threats. Some of these threats will be very\\u000a specific to the application; others will be more related to the underlying infrastructural software, such as the web or application\\u000a servers, the database, the directory server and so forth. This paper analyzes the threats that can be related

Lieven Desmet; Bart Jacobs; Frank Piessens; Wouter Joosen

239

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

Feeley, Terry

2010-04-01

240

Current nuclear threats and possible responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

Lamb, Frederick K.

2005-04-01

241

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

242

In Brief: Threats to species continue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Showstack, Randy

2009-11-01

243

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

244

Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

2009-03-20

245

Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect

Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

2012-07-12

246

CAXSS: an intelligent threat-detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Array Systems Computing Inc. (ASC) is developing a prototype Computer Assisted X-ray Screening System (CAXSS) which uses state-of-the-art image processing and computer vision technology to detect threats seen in x-ray images of passenger carry-on luggage at national and international airports. This system is successful in detecting weapons including guns, knives, grenades, aerosol cans, etc. Currently, bomb detection is also being

Thomas Feather; Ling Guan; Adrian Lee-Kwen; Raman B. Paranjape

1993-01-01

247

Reassessing the earthquake threat to San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. New research suggests that authorities may need to reassess the threat posed by the Hayward fault, the fault responsible for San Francisco's highly destructive 1868 earthquake. The authors used a large shaking vehicle to send vibrations into the ground along a 1.6 kilometer portion of the Hayward fault and used the recorded vibrations reflected back from the fault to develop a profile of its shape and location. Findings are described.

Al., Williams E.; Agu

248

Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level

Omar Defeo; Anton McLachlan; David S. Schoeman; Thomas A. Schlacher; Jenifer Dugan; Alan Jones; Mariano Lastra; Felicita Scapini

2009-01-01

249

Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes  

SciTech Connect

Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-03-10

250

Identifying Keystone Threats to Biological Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human beings have become the dominant force for environmental change and the task of conservation planning is to counter those\\u000a changes most threatening biodiversity by identifying key areas providing resiliency and refuge. Landscape-scale conservation\\u000a planners need to dissect those ‘threats’ (human activities that have driven ecological processes beyond the range of natural\\u000a variability) to understand exactly what anthropogenic activities are

Robert F. Baldwin

251

Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

Osborne, Jason W.

2006-01-01

252

Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

253

Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

254

Global Health Threats: Global Warming in Perspective  

E-print Network

Some authorities have claimed that global warming is one of the most—if not the most—important public health threat of this century. They do not, however, support this assertion by comparative analysis of the relative magnitude and severity of various health threats. Such an analysis, presented here, shows that other global health threats outrank global warming at present, and are likely to continue to do so through the foreseeable future, even under the warmest scenario developed by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Exaggerated and unsupported claims about the importance of global warming risk skewing the world’s public health priorities away from real, urgent health problems. Policies curbing global warming would, moreover, increase energy prices and reduce its usage, retarding both economic development and advances in human wellbeing. That would slow advances in society’s adaptive capacity to deal not only with the effects of global warming, but all other sources of adversity. Through the foreseeable future, global health would be advanced farther, faster, more surely, and more economically if efforts are focused not on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but on reducing vulnerability to today’s urgent health problems that may be exacerbated by global warming, while increasing adaptive capacity, particularly of developing countries, through economic development.

Indur M. Goklany, Ph.D.

255

Bot armies as threats to network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2007-04-01

256

SARS: an emerging global microbial threat.  

PubMed

In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance, the development of rapid diagnostics, new therapies, and vaccines, implementation of aggressive evidence-based infection control strategies, and effective communication. PMID:17060979

Hughes, James M

2004-01-01

257

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

...grouped under the following four categories: (1) Time dependent threats such as internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such as fabrication or construction...

2014-10-01

258

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2012-10-01

259

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

260

Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.  

PubMed

We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

2013-07-01

261

Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups  

PubMed Central

We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

2014-01-01

262

Making Mountains of Morality From Molehills of Virtue: Threat Causes People to Overestimate Their Moral Credentials.  

PubMed

Seven studies demonstrate that threats to moral identity can increase how definitively people think they have previously proven their morality. When White participants were made to worry that their future behavior could seem racist, they overestimated how much a prior decision of theirs would convince an observer of their non-prejudiced character (Studies 1a-3). Ironically, such overestimation made participants appear more prejudiced to observers (Study 4). Studies 5 to 6 demonstrated a similar effect of threat in the domain of charitable giving-an effect driven by individuals for whom maintaining a moral identity is particularly important. Threatened participants only enhanced their beliefs that they had proven their morality when there was at least some supporting evidence, but these beliefs were insensitive to whether the evidence was weak or strong (Study 2). Discussion considers the role of motivated reasoning, and implications for ethical decision making and moral licensing. PMID:24793359

Effron, Daniel A

2014-05-01

263

Strength Modeling Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

1985-01-01

264

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.

Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.

1989-01-01

265

The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

Juhnke, Gerald A.

2010-01-01

266

Using SWOT Analysis for Promoting the Accounting Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can be used by business educators to find the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal departmental capabilities (strengths and weaknesses). An example from accounting education is provided. (JOW)

Sawyer, Joe E.

2001-01-01

267

Weak coupling limits in a stochastic model of heat conduction  

E-print Network

We study the Brownian momentum process, a model of heat conduction, weakly coupled to heat baths. In two different settings of weak coupling to the heat baths, we study the non-equilibrium steady state and its proximity to the local equilibrium measure in terms of the strength of coupling. For three and four site systems, we obtain the two-point correlation function and show it is generically not multilinear.

Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi

2011-01-14

268

Weak Finsler structures and the Funk weak metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss general notions of metrics and of Finsler structures which we call weak metrics and weak Finsler structures. Any convex domain carries a canonical weak Finsler structure, which we call its tautological weak Finsler structure. We compute distances in the tautological weak Finsler structure of a domain and we show that these are given by the so-called Funk weak metric. We conclude the paper with a discussion of geodesics, of metric balls and of convexity properties of the Funk weak metric.

Papadopoulos, Athanase; Troyanov, Marc

2009-04-01

269

On the Ultimate Strength of Condensed Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This and an accompanying paper track a range of thresholds for the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient state to the point at which the material bond strength is overcome and it becomes warm dense matter. The threshold considered here is the weak shock limit that differentiates weak- from strong shock dynamic loading. This work examines this threshold and shows a correlation with the theoretical strength of the material. The structure of the shock that evolves has steady and unsteady phases that sweep different regions in a target in differing manners. This is put in context with scale to show it as a transit to a hydrodynamic regime. Limits on the applicability of solid mechanics are discussed in relation to the mechanisms observed.

Bourne, Neil K.

2014-07-01

270

Characteristics of Weak 2175 a Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to observe a number of lines of sight which appear to exhibit unusually weak 2175 A feature strengths as determined from ANS extinction excesses, Recent work has indicated that the width of the feature (fwhm; gamma) varies while the central position (lambda 0) appears to stay relatively fixed. These results suggest that if the feature is caused by graphite grains, they are very small (a < 50 A). In general, the broadest observed features appear to be associated with dense, quiescent regions and are also largely represented by relative feature strengths that are weaker than average. We therefore feel that examining lines of sight with extremely weak feature strengths may lead to more extreme limits on y and lambda 0. Such results would certainly lead to tighter restrictions on the origin of the feature and seriously test the recent theoretical promise that the feature is the result of extinction by hydrogen-free carbon grains of the order a < 50 A. These studies may reveal lines of sight having extreme physical conditions which are ideally suited for studying dust-gas phase interactions and interstellar molecular processes. Such processes are fundamental to both the evolution of the interstellar medium and star formation.

Cardelli, Jason A.

271

Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

2014-01-01

272

The Weak Mixing Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Weak Mixing Matrix, ( *20c Uud & Uus & Uub Ucd & Ucs & Ucb Utd & Uts & Utb ) , is not equal to the product of rotations, and in particular, it is not equal to the KM, or the PDG Matrices. At most, we may find an approximating matrix for the Weak Mixing Matrix that is based on the rotation matrices. We show that one such approximating matrix for the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix is ( *20c ?C?C^3 & ?C?C^3 & ^3 ?C?C^2 - ?C?C^2 & ?C?C^2 & ^2 ?C - ?C^3 ?C & - ?C?C^3 ^2 ?C & ?C^2 ?C^3 ), where ?C is the Cabbibo angle. The approximating matrix depends on ?C alone, and predicts the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix to a high degree of accuracy. We establish, with a Chi-Squared Goodness-of- Fitness-Test, that our approximating matrix can be used with extremely high level of statistical confidence.

Dannon, Vic; Levine, Robert

2009-10-01

273

Generic weak isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak isolated horizon boundary conditions have been relaxed supposedly to their weakest form so that both zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics hold. This makes the formulation more amenable for applications in both analytic and numerical relativities. It also unifies the phase spaces of non-extremal and extremal black holes.

Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Amit

2006-12-01

274

Quantum weak turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The present manuscript dealing with large occupation of states of a quantum system, extends the study to the case of quantum weak turbulence. The quasiparticle spectrum, calculated for such a system, using a Green's function approach, establishes the dissipative and inertial regimes, hence a Kolmogorov type of picture.

Sanyal, Devashish [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700032 (India)]. E-mail: tpds@mahendra.iacs.res.in; Sen, Siddhartha [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)]. E-mail: sen@maths.tcd.ie

2006-06-15

275

Weak Radial Artery Pulse  

PubMed Central

We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

2012-01-01

276

Social Identity Threat Motivates Science-Discrediting Online Comments  

PubMed Central

Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as “gamers”) were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

2015-01-01

277

Technical approaches to reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of a nuclear attack on the United States by terrorists using a smuggled weapon is now considered more likely than an attack by a nuclear-armed ballistic missle. Consequently it is important to understand what can be done to detect and intercept a nuclear weapon being smuggled into the United States. A significant quantity of smuggled nuclear material has been intercepted already, but science and technology have so far contributed little to its interception. The critical special nuclear materials, plutonium and highly enriched uranium, are only weakly radioactive and detection of their radioactivity is limited both by atmospheric attenuation and by competition with natural backgrounds. Although many schemes for long-range detection of radioactivity have been proposed, none so far appears feasible. Detection of nuclear radiation can be improved using new technologies and sensing systems, but it will still be possible only at relatively small distances. Consequently the best approach to containing dangerous nuclear materials is at their sources; containment within lengthy borders and large areas is extremely difficult.

Priedhorsky, William C.

2005-04-01

278

Social identity threat motivates science-discrediting online comments.  

PubMed

Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as "gamers") were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

2015-01-01

279

The Strength of the Metal. Aluminum Oxide Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strength of the interface between metals and aluminum oxide is an important factor in the successful operation of devices found throughout modern technology. One finds the interface in machine tools, jet engines, and microelectronic integrated circuits. The strength of the interface, however, should be strong or weak depending on the application. The diverse technological demands have led to some general ideas concerning the origin of the interfacial strength, and have stimulated fundamental research on the problem. Present status of our understanding of the source of the strength of the metal - aluminum oxide interface in terms of interatomic bonds are reviewed. Some future directions for research are suggested.

Pepper, S. V.

1984-01-01

280

Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

1991-01-01

281

Alcohol dose effects on stress response to cued threat vary by threat intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Clarification of alcohol’s effect on stress response during threat is critical to understand motivation for alcohol use and\\u000a related alcohol-use disorders. Evaluation of stress response dampening (SRD) effects of alcohol has been limited by nonsystematic\\u000a use of varied experimental methods and measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This experiment parametrically varied alcohol dose and shock threat intensity among social drinkers to examine their effects\\u000a on

Christine A. Moberg; Stefanie M. Weber; John J. Curtin

282

Acoustic and optical multi-sensor threat detection system for border patrol against aerial threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia has borders covering over 4,300 km that are shared with seven countries. Such large borders pose many challenges for security and patrol. Thermal imagers are considered the most reliable means of threat detection, however, they are quite costly, which can prevent using them over large areas. This work discusses a multi-sensor acoustic and optical implementation for threat detection as an effort to reduce system cost. The acoustic sensor provides position and direction recognition by using a four microphone setup. The data analysis of field tests will be discussed in this work.

Alsawadi, Motasem S.; Ismail, Ahmad; Al-Azem, Badeea F.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Alghamdi, Sultan; Alghamdi, Mansour

2012-10-01

283

Alumina fiber strength improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

1982-01-01

284

Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

2012-05-01

285

Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat  

PubMed Central

The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

286

Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:24216222

Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

2014-01-01

287

Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety' in performance for a given type of CGF and allows us to organize and build vastly different CgFs within the same architecture. This approach allows us to provide a range of threat skill levels for each threat modeled within the DMTITE system and we can readily expand the system to accommodate peer-to-peer communication and group tactics. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the DMTITE requirements and a component-wise decomposition of the system. We also describe the structure of the major components of the DMT threat systems' decision mechanism. The progress of the initial prototype will also be discussed.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

1998-08-01

288

Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet - network security threats and vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer networks and computer systems are experiencing attacks and threats from many areas. Threats are also extended to include the individual user's computer assets and resources. Information will be presented on the categories of security and privacy threats, integrity threats, vulnerabilities, delay and denial threats, and intellectual property threats that are being directed towards corporate, educational, governmental, and individual assets.

Robert C. Newman

2006-01-01

289

Noninvasiveness and time symmetry of weak measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements in classical and quantum physics are described in fundamentally different ways. Nevertheless, one can formally define similar measurement procedures with respect to the disturbance they cause. Obviously, strong measurements, both classical and quantum, are invasive—they disturb the measured system. We show that it is possible to define general weak measurements, which are noninvasive: the disturbance becomes negligible as the measurement strength goes to zero. Classical intuition suggests that noninvasive measurements should be time symmetric (if the system dynamics is reversible) and we confirm that correlations are time-reversal symmetric in the classical case. However, quantum weak measurements—defined analogously to their classical counterparts—can be noninvasive but not time symmetric. We present a simple example of measurements on a two-level system which violates time symmetry and propose an experiment with quantum dots to measure the time-symmetry violation in a third-order current correlation function.

Bednorz, Adam; Franke, Kurt; Belzig, Wolfgang

2013-02-01

290

Toughening mechanisms in weak matrix ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

Tough behavior of ceramic matrix composites is closely related to the weak interface between fiber and matrix. The weak interfaces in composites were produced by reducing the chemical bonding and the residual thermal stresses between constituents. A new way to introduce the weak interface by induced porosity or damaged zones, porosity toughening or damage toughening respectively, was proposed to provide the rationale for guiding the development of oxide/oxide composites. The existence of porosity toughening was examined by qualitative theoretical consideration and experiments. Porous oxide/oxide composites were fabricated using alumino-silcate fibers (Nextel 440) and magnesium alumino-silicate matrix (1:1 mixture of kaolinite and talc), and sintered at 1100 and 1200 C. Both types of composites failed non-catastrophically in bending and tensile tests. The porous matrix composites showed the low ultimate strength of 12.7 +/- 3.4 MPa, but showed high work of fracture of 630 +/- 206 J/sq m for the specimens fired at 1100 C when tested in tension. Damaged zones or porous phases were introduced into the interface region of model composites and effects were determined using a single fiber pullout specimen or a single rod pullout specimen. Single fiber pullout specimens with a damaged zone (by the oxidation of SiC fiber in situ) produced higher frictional stress than debonding strength. Frictional stresses increased up to 6.4 +/- 3.4 MPa as pullout of the damaged fiber proceeded. The porous phase was produced by coating alumina rods with zirconia or alumino-silicates fired at various temperatures. Distinct changes in pullout behavior were observed in data for the specimens with an alumino-silicate coating fired at 1450 C. Magnitudes of frictional stress and debonding strength of the interface were both less than 2 MPa. Both coatings produced a gradual change of the pullout load during the pullout tests.

Ha, Jowoong.

1991-01-01

291

Weak Polarized Electron Scattering  

E-print Network

Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

Jens Erler; Charles J. Horowitz; Sonny Mantry; Paul A. Souder

2014-04-07

292

Strong Mobility in Weakly Disordered Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle ? grows superdiffusively with time t, ?˜(?t)2/3, where ? is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, ?˜t1/4, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2009-05-01

293

Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

2008-06-30

294

Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.  

PubMed

Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects. PMID:25181298

MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

2014-10-01

295

Initial perspectives on process threat management.  

PubMed

Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this "inside the gate" response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study. PMID:15518979

Whiteley, James R Rob; Mannan, M Sam

2004-11-11

296

The many faces of stereotype threat: Group and self-threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contending with negative intellectual stereotypes has been shown to depress the academic performance of targets of the stereotypes [Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629]. The present paper examines whether women’s mathematics performance is differentially affected by the concern of confirming that a negative stereotype is true

Daryl Wout; Henry Danso; James Jackson; Steve Spencer

2008-01-01

297

Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.  

PubMed

This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18284782

Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

2008-12-01

298

Attentional bias toward personally relevant health-threat words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting findings have emerged regarding the presence of attentional biases (ABs) in health anxiety, probably due to methodological limitations in the stimuli used in cognitive tasks and the assessment of health anxiety-relevant factors. The current study sought to examine ABs toward health-related threats using idiographically chosen health-threat words in a non-clinical sample. A modified dot-probe task using idiographically selected health-threat

Hanjoo Lee; Jennifer E. Turkel; Stuart P. Cotter; Jennifer M. Milliken; Jesse Cougle; Amy R. Goetz; Alexandra M. Lesnick

2012-01-01

299

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION...

2012-10-01

300

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security...

2012-10-01

301

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security...

2010-10-01

302

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security...

2014-10-01

303

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security...

2013-10-01

304

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security...

2011-10-01

305

Weak Lensing and Cosmology  

E-print Network

We explore the dependence of weak lensing phenomena on the background cosmology. We first generalise the relation between $P_\\psi(\\omega)$, the angular power spectrum of the distortion, and the power spectrum of density fluctuations to non-flat cosmologies. We then compute $P_\\psi$ for various illustrative models. A useful cosmological discriminator is the growth of $P_\\psi$ with source redshift which is much stronger in low matter density models, and especially in $\\Lambda$-dominated models. With even crude redshift information (say from broad band colours) it should be possible to constrain the cosmological world model. The amplitude of $P_\\psi(\\omega)$ is also quite sensitive to the cosmology, but requires a reliable external normalisation for the mass fluctuations. If one normalises to galaxy clustering, with $M/L$ fixed by small-scale galaxy dynamics, then low density models predict a much stronger distortion. If, however, one normalises to large-scale bulk-flows, the predicted distortion for sources at redshifts $Z_s \\sim 1-3$ is rather insensitive to the background cosmology. The signals predicted here can be detected at a very high level of significance with a photometric survey covering say 10 square degrees, but sparse sampling is needed to avoid large sampling variance and we discuss the factors influencing the design of an optimum survey. Turning to weak lensing by clusters we find that for high lens redshifts ($Z_l\\simeq1$) the critical density is substantially reduced in $\\Lambda$ models, but that the ratio of the shear or convergence to the velocity dispersions or X-ray temperature of clusters is only very weakly dependent on the cosmology.

Nick Kaiser

1996-10-16

306

The limits of strength in materials in the condensed phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a range of thresholds in loading for the response of condensed phase matter, starting with inelastic deformation at the yield stress. Beyond this point compression continues until the material bond strength is overcome and becomes so-called warm dense matter. In this regime formulations of solid mechanics derived in the ambient state no longer apply. Between these two limits lies a boundary that differentiates weak- from strong-shock dynamic loading. This work examines these thresholds and shows a correlation between the theoretical strength of the material and this weak shock limit for a range of metals.

Bourne, N. K.

2014-05-01

307

Weak Isolated Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) is the most general definition of a black hole horizon so far i.e. WIH is defined through the weakest possible set of boundary conditions imposed on a generic null surface. We will also show that the laws of black hole mechanics can be derived for these horizons. In addition, the definition enables us to put the extremal and non-extremal black holes on the same phase-space so that one can make sense of extremal limit.

Chatterjee, Ayan [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2007-10-03

308

A Universe Without Weak Interactions  

E-print Network

Universe” 1 has big-bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation,Universe without weak interactions that undergoes BBN, matter domination, structure formation,universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and

Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

2006-01-01

309

Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains.  

PubMed

The death rate for neurologic melioidosis is high. Whether certain Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are more likely than other strains to cause central nervous system infection and whether route of infection influences the neurotropic threat remain unclear. Therefore, we compared the virulence and dissemination of Australian clinical isolates collected during October 1989-October 2012 from patients with neurologic and nonneurologic melioidosis after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of mice in an experimental model. We did not observe neurotropism as a unique characteristic of isolates from patients with neurologic melioidosis. Rather, a distinct subset of B. pseudomallei strains appear to have heightened pathogenic potential for rapid dissemination to multiple tissues, including the central nervous system, irrespective of the infection route. This finding has valuable public health ramifications for initiating appropriate and timely therapy after exposure to systemically invasive B. pseudomallei strains. Increasing understanding of B. pseudomallei pathology and its influencing factors will further reduce illness and death from this disease. PMID:25530166

Morris, Jodie; Fane, Anne; Rush, Catherine; Govan, Brenda; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J; Ketheesan, Natkunam

2015-01-01

310

Threats from space: 20 years of progress  

E-print Network

It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

Remo, J L

2014-01-01

311

Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains  

PubMed Central

The death rate for neurologic melioidosis is high. Whether certain Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are more likely than other strains to cause central nervous system infection and whether route of infection influences the neurotropic threat remain unclear. Therefore, we compared the virulence and dissemination of Australian clinical isolates collected during October 1989–October 2012 from patients with neurologic and nonneurologic melioidosis after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of mice in an experimental model. We did not observe neurotropism as a unique characteristic of isolates from patients with neurologic melioidosis. Rather, a distinct subset of B. pseudomallei strains appear to have heightened pathogenic potential for rapid dissemination to multiple tissues, including the central nervous system, irrespective of the infection route. This finding has valuable public health ramifications for initiating appropriate and timely therapy after exposure to systemically invasive B. pseudomallei strains. Increasing understanding of B. pseudomallei pathology and its influencing factors will further reduce illness and death from this disease. PMID:25530166

Fane, Anne; Rush, Catherine; Govan, Brenda; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J.; Ketheesan, Natkunam

2015-01-01

312

The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation  

PubMed Central

Background Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N=243) were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation. PMID:24363835

McDonald, Pamela; Bryant, Richard A.; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C.

2013-01-01

313

Females that experience threat are better teachers.  

PubMed

Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

2014-05-01

314

Diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies indicate that mechanically ventilated patients develop significant diaphragm muscle weakness, but the etiology of weakness and its clinical impact remain incompletely understood. We assessed diaphragm strength in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients, correlated the development of diaphragm weakness with multiple clinical parameters, and examined the relationship between the level of diaphragm weakness and patient outcomes. Methods Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (PdiTw) in response to bilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves was measured. Diaphragm weakness was correlated with the presence of infection, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, and glucose levels. The relationship of diaphragm strength to patient outcomes, including mortality and the duration of mechanical ventilation for successfully weaned patients, was also assessed. Results We found that infection is a major risk factor for diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients. Outcomes for patients with severe diaphragm weakness (PdiTw <10 cmH2O) were poor, with a markedly increased mortality (49%) compared to patients with PdiTw ?10 cmH2O (7% mortality, P = 0.022). In addition, survivors with PdiTw <10 cmH2O required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.3 ± 1.7 days) than those with PdiTw ?10 cmH2O (5.5 ± 2.0 days, P = 0.016). Conclusions Infection is a major cause of severe diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, diaphragm weakness is an important determinant of poor outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23786764

2013-01-01

315

Weak lensing and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

316

On Weakly Finite Conductor Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a weakly finite conductor rings with zero divisors, and examine the transfer of these rings to the trivial ring extensions. These results provide examples of a weakly finite conductor rings that are not finite conductor rings (and so not coherent rings). The last section show that the class of weakly finite conductor rings and the class of 2-coherent

Najib Mahdou

2004-01-01

317

?-? stacking, spin density and magnetic coupling strength.  

PubMed

The ?-? stacking interaction, one of the main intermolecular forces, sometimes leads to amazing magnetic properties. Although the concept has been raised that spin density is one of the main factors that contribute to the magnetic coupling strength in intermolecular magnetic coupling systems, it has not been confirmed either experimentally or theoretically to date. Herein we present a study on the magnetostructural data of seven unpublished Cu(II) complexes and ten reported radicals. It is confirmed for the first time that the spin density on short contact atoms is a major factor that contributes to the ?-? stacking magnetic coupling strength. Based on the reported data to date, when the short contact distance is larger than the default contact radius, medium or relatively strong magnetic coupling strength could be obtained only if the spin density on the short contact atoms is greater than 0.1350; when the C···C short contact is less than the default contact radius of 3.4 Å, but not less than 3.351 Å, and the spin density is less than 0.1, neither medium nor strong magnetic coupling strength could be observed. Further, when the short contact distance decreases with a temperature drop, the spin densities on the relevant short contact atoms increase. In the complexes reported the small spin densities on the relevant short contact atoms are the major factors that result in the weak ?-? magnetic coupling strength. PMID:24005474

Chi, Yan-Hui; Shi, Jing-Min; Li, Hong-Nan; Wei, Wei; Cottrill, Ethan; Pan, Ning; Chen, Hu; Liang, Yuan; Yu, Li; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Hou, Chao

2013-11-28

318

Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience besides others play a role. An attempt to quantify this variable under high uncertainty is also presented. Quantifying ET is based on a GIS modelling using a Cost Weighted Distance approach. Basic principle is to define the best evacuation path from a given point to the next safe area (shelter location). Here the fastest path from that point to the shelter location has to be found. Thereby the impact of land cover, slope, population density, population age and gender distribution are taken into account as literature studies prove these factors as highly important. Knowing the fastest path and the distance to the next safe area together with a spatially distributed pattern of evacuation speed delivers the time needed from each location to a safe area. By considering now the obtained time value for RsT the coverage area of an evacuation target point (safe area) can be assigned. Incorporating knowledge on people capacity of an evacuation target point the respective coverage area is refined. Hence areas with weak, moderate and good human response capabilities can be detected. This allows calculation of potential amount of people affected (dead or injured) and amount of people dislocated. First results for Kuta (Bali) for a worst case tsunami event deliver people affected of approx. 25 000 when RT = 0 minutes (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning to 120 000 when RT > ETA (no evacuation action until tsunami hits the land). Additionally fastest evacuation routes to the evacuation target points can be assigned. Areas with weak response capabilities can be assigned as priority areas to install e.g. additional evacuation target points or to increase tsunami knowledge and awareness to promote a faster reaction time. Especially in analyzing underlying socio-economic properties causing deficiencies in responding to a tsunami threat can lead to valuable information and direct planning of adaptation measures. Keywords: Community level, Risk and vulnerability assessment, Early warning, Disaster management, Tsunami, Indonesia

Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

2009-04-01

319

Masculine voices signal men's threat potential in forager and industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Humans and many non-human primates exhibit large sexual dimorphisms in vocalizations and vocal anatomy. In humans, same-sex competitors and potential mates attend to acoustic features of male vocalizations, but vocal masculinity especially increases perceptions of physical prowess. Yet, the information content of male vocalizations remains obscure. We therefore examined relationships between sexually dimorphic acoustic properties and men's threat potential. We first introduce a new measure of the structure of vocal formant frequencies, ‘formant position’ (Pf), which we show is more sexually dimorphic and more strongly related to height than is the most widely used measure of formant structure, ‘formant dispersion’, in both a US sample and a sample of Hadza foragers from Tanzania. We also show large sexual dimorphisms in the mean fundamental frequency (F0) and the within-utterance standard deviation in F0 (F0 ? s.d.) in both samples. We then explore relationships between these acoustic parameters and men's body size, strength, testosterone and physical aggressiveness. Each acoustic parameter was related to at least one measure of male threat potential. The most dimorphic parameters, F0 and Pf, were most strongly related to body size in both samples. In the US sample, F0 predicted testosterone levels, Pf predicted upper body strength and F0 ? s.d. predicted physical aggressiveness. PMID:21752821

Puts, David A.; Apicella, Coren L.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.

2012-01-01

320

Emerging viral diseases: confronting threats with new technologies.  

PubMed

Emerging viral diseases pose ongoing health threats, particularly in an era of globalization; however, new biomedical research technologies such as genome sequencing and structure-based vaccine and drug design have improved our ability to respond to viral threats. PMID:25210060

Marston, Hilary D; Folkers, Gregory K; Morens, David M; Fauci, Anthony S

2014-09-10

321

Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.  

PubMed

Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

2014-01-01

322

Vision-based threat detection in dynamic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A prevailing threat is the covert placement of bombs inside crowded public facilities. Although video-surveillance systems are increasingly common, current systems cannot detect the placement of bombs. It is also unlikely that security personnel could detect a bomb or its

Jeffrey J

2007-01-01

323

Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

Simmons, Cecil Max

2010-01-01

324

Are we safe yet? [nuclear and biological terrorism threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political machinations notwithstanding, nuclear and biological terrorism still pose very real threats. This article is an abridged version of an interview with Richard L. Garwin. A longtime advisor to the US government on national security, and a respected public critic of technology policy, including, most recently, efforts to contain biological and nuclear terrorism. He outlines three types of nuclear threat

J. Kumagai

2003-01-01

325

A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

2013-01-01

326

Investigating Hypervigilance for Social Threat of Lonely Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…

Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

327

Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)

Reifel, Stuart

1984-01-01

328

Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems  

E-print Network

Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro1,2 , Michel of security threat mitigation mecha- nisms in RFID systems, specially in low-cost RFID tags, are gaining great against low-cost RFID systems, are surveyed. Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Electronic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Australia’s Unauthorized Arrivals: Security Threat or Moral Responsibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which unauthorized immigration into Australia, especially from its arc of instability, is a security threat is a contentious issue. Indeed, the unauthorized arrival of people in Australia has dominated political discourse in the latter years of the 20th century and continues to attract extensive dialog in the new millennium. Whilst previously security threats were perceived to represent

Trudy Hoad

330

University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure  

E-print Network

University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure Updated August 2004 Individual receiving call will take the following steps: Remain calm and complete the attached Bomb Threat Report. Keep by the person. If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation, ask

Li, X. Rong

331

The Chikungunya threat: an ecological and evolutionary perspective  

E-print Network

The Chikungunya threat: an ecological and evolutionary perspective Christine Chevillon1 , Laurence), Institut de Biologie, 4 Boulevard Henri IV, F-34905 Montpellier CEDEX 2, France Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are likely to help delineate the potential of further CHIKV (re-)emergence. Chikungunya: an overlooked threat

332

Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system

HEATHER TALLIS; ZACH FERDAÑA; ELIZABETH GRAY

2008-01-01

333

AVALANCHE THREATS AND MITIGATION MEASURES IN CANADA Cam Campbell1,*  

E-print Network

AVALANCHE THREATS AND MITIGATION MEASURES IN CANADA Cam Campbell1,* , Laura Bakermans2 , Bruce Jamieson2 , Chris Stethem3 1 Canadian Avalanche Centre 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University commissioned report to inventory current and predict future trends in avalanche threats and mitigation programs

Jamieson, Bruce

334

Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities  

PubMed Central

Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

2014-01-01

335

Gender Identification Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on Women's Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender

Toni Schmader

2002-01-01

336

National security panics : overestimating threats to national security  

E-print Network

Three times in this century the US public has panicked with fear because of exaggerations of external threats to the nation. These panics peaked in 1950,1960, and 1980. Why did the U.S. markedly exaggerate the Soviet threat ...

Cramer, Jane Kellett, 1964-

2002-01-01

337

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

2002

338

Threats to information system security: an organizational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management's concern with information system security ranks among the ten most important topics in information management. The traditional concerns range from threat by forced entry into computer and storage rooms to destruction fire, earthquake, and hurricane. A more recent concern is the protection of the information system from accidental or intentional threats that might cause the unauthorized modification, disclosure, or

Karen D. Loch; Houston H. Carr

1991-01-01

339

Bio-threat preparedness: Need for a paradigm shift.  

PubMed

India of late has been vulnerable to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threat, on account of its unique geographic position. Biological threat is an imminent threat in the hands of a terrorist. The public health system of our country is overburdened due to its present role and bio-attack response is not a priority area. This paper suggests that as the prime focus is on the CR and N threats in the integrated CBRN preparedness strategy and that specialized and technical forces are needed to deal with a bio-threat; hence there is a need for a paradigm shift in policy. The emerging field of bio-threat needs to be delinked from the joint family of 'CBRN', with consequent structural and functional changes. A separate specialized cadre needs to be formed for dealing with bio-threat, created from the pool of doctors and non-medical scientists from the AFMS and the DRDO. Structural changes are needed in the organization, to bring in the resources of NCDC, New Delhi for enhanced disease surveillance capacity and creation of a bio-threat mitigation node in the AFMC, Pune. PMID:24843207

Jindal, A K; Roy, Kaushik

2014-04-01

340

Biological Threat Detection via Host Gene Expression Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased threat posed by biological weapons, detection techniques for biothreat pathogens are criti- cally needed to monitor and assess the severity of the illness once exposure has occurred. Current approaches for detecting biological threats are either time-consum- ing or highly specific but provide little information regarding pathogenicity. Genotyping of pathogens by PCR provides a fast and definitive means

Baochuan Lin; Maryanne T. Vahey; Dzung Thach; David A. Stenger; Joseph J. Pancrazio

2003-01-01

341

University of Texas countermeasures to biological and chemical threats program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the continental US and the international scene have alerted the defense community to the threat of biological and chemical agents on civilian and military populations. The objective of the program will lead to the protection of US and allied forces from biological\\/chemical threats. The following focus areas are being developed and integrated in our program: (1) scientific validation;

Steve E. Kornguth

2002-01-01

342

Supervised Learning for Insider Threat Detection Using Stream Mining  

E-print Network

in contexts where evolving behaviors tend to mask such anomalies. This paper proposes and tests an ensemble infrastructures [40]. Reliable detection of insider threats is particularly challenging because insiders mask to detecting these threats is supervised learning, which builds models from training data. However, supervised

Hamlen, Kevin W.

343

Identifying and Visualizing the Malicious Insider Threat Using Bipartite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies and organizations are just beginning to harness the powerful capabilities of visualization to aid in the prevention, detection, and mitigation of security threats. Most advances in this area have focused on protecting an agency or organization from malicious outsiders. While not a new threat, the malicious insider has recently earned increased focus. This paper investigates methods of classifying

Kara Nance; Raffael Marty

2011-01-01

344

Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

345

Analyzing technological threats and opportunities in wireless data services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to assess the threat and opportunity that technological innovations pose to an organisation's profitability, growth and survival has become one of the key elements in the development of offensive and defensive innovation strategies. Central to this process of assessing technological threats and opportunities is the need to analyze various aspects of identified technological developments. A range of analysis

Gert T du Preez; Carl W. I Pistorius

2003-01-01

346

Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.

Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Petitjean, Cyril [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France) [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Laboratoire de Physique, CNRS UMR5672, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d'Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Wellens, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schlagheck, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Schlagheck@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

2012-08-15

347

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

348

Complex Contagion and The Weakness of Long Ties in Social Networks  

E-print Network

Complex Contagion and The Weakness of Long Ties in Social Networks: Revisited Jie Gao Stony Brook University 1 #12;Social Ties and Tie Strength · Strong ties ­ Family members, close friends, colleagues ­ People who regularly spend time together ­ Typically a small number · Weak ties ­ People you know

Gao, Jie

349

On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings new  

E-print Network

On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak Abstract The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings of weak ties theory proposed by Mark Granovetter. Some authors recently investigated whether Granovetter to predict tie strength. Those approaches require to handle user-generated data that are often not publicly

Ferrara, Emilio

350

From threat to safety: Instructed reversal of defensive reactions.  

PubMed

Cues that signal the possibility of receiving an electric shock reliably induce defensive activation. To determine whether cues can also easily reverse defensive reactions, a threat reversal paradigm was developed in which a cue signaling threat of shock reversed its meaning across the course of the study. This allowed us to contrast defensive reactions to threat cues that became safe cues, with responses to cues that continued to signal threat or safety. Results showed that, when participants were instructed that a previously threatening cue now signaled safety, there was an immediate and complete attenuation of defensive reactions compared to threat cues that maintained their meaning. These findings highlight the role that language can play both in instantiating and attenuating defensive reactions, with implications for understanding emotion regulation, social communication, and clinical phenomena. PMID:25250656

Costa, Vincent D; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

2015-03-01

351

Unhealthy Interactions: The Role of Stereotype Threat in Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors. PMID:23153125

Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M.; Juarez, Lindsay

2013-01-01

352

A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats.  

PubMed

To attain and maintain social acceptance, people may attend to cues of possible social rejection or exclusion. Attention to such cues can be influenced by social anxiety. Two competing theories address social anxiety and attention: hypervigilance to versus avoidance of negative social cues. We propose a synthesis of these models such that, in the absence of social exclusion, socially anxious people may be hypervigilant to negative social cues. However, after experiencing social exclusion, they may avoid negative cues in favor of cues signaling social acceptance. Eyetracking was used to examine attention to negative, happy, and neutral faces after social exclusion threat or a non-exclusion threat (N = 27, 69.2% female). Fear of negative evaluation, a core component of social anxiety, was assessed using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale (Leary 1983). Among individuals with high BFNE, non-exclusion threat elicited greater attention toward negative faces than did social exclusion threat. However, social exclusion threat relative to non-exclusion threat was related to greater attention to positive faces among those with high BFNE. These effects were not observed among those with low BFNE. Thus, data provide preliminary support for a synthesized model. PMID:20877581

Buckner, Julia D; Dewall, C Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B; Maner, Jon K

2010-10-01

353

Experimental investigation of the connection between weak measurements and violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By weakly measuring the polarization of a photon between two strong polarization measurements, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) as was recently predicted by Williams and Jordan [N. S. Williams, and A. N. Jordan 100, 026804 (2008)]. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of measurement strength on the magnitude of the anomalous weak values and the extent of the LGI violation.

Goggin, Michael; Almeida, Marcelo; Barbieri, Marco; Lanyon, Benjamin; O'Brien, Jeremy; White, Andrew; Pryde, Geoff

2009-05-01

354

How robust is human gait to muscle weakness? Marjolein M. van der Krogt a,b,  

E-print Network

. Disuse, aging, and disease can lead to a loss of muscle strength, which may limit the performance movements requiring agility, timing, and strength. Disuse, aging, and disease can lead to a loss of muscleHow robust is human gait to muscle weakness?§ Marjolein M. van der Krogt a,b, *, Scott L. Delp c

Delp, Scott

355

How much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait?  

PubMed Central

Muscle weakness is commonly cited as a cause of crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy; however, outcomes after strength training are variable and mechanisms by which muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait are unclear. Understanding how much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait compared to an unimpaired gait may provide insight into how muscle weakness contributes to crouch gait and assist in the design of strength training programs. The goal of this study was to examine how much muscle groups could be weakened before crouch gait becomes impossible. To investigate this question, we first created muscle-driven simulations of gait for three typically-developing children and six children with cerebral palsy who walked with varying degrees of crouch severity. We then simulated muscle weakness by systematically reducing the maximum isometric force of each muscle group until the simulation could no longer reproduce each subject’s gait. This analysis indicated that moderate crouch gait required significantly more knee extensor strength than unimpaired gait. In contrast, moderate crouch gait required significantly less hip abductor strength than unimpaired gait, and mild crouch gait required significantly less ankle plantarflexor strength than unimpaired gait. The reduced strength required from the hip abductors and ankle plantarflexors during crouch gait suggests that weakness of these muscle groups may contribute to crouch gait and that these muscle groups are potential targets for strength training. PMID:22959837

Steele, Katherine M.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

2012-01-01

356

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. An overview of significant MMOD impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the RCC regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it s role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Kerr, J. H.

2008-01-01

357

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

2007-01-01

358

[Chikungunya fever - A new global threat.  

PubMed

The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

Montero, Antonio

2014-07-30

359

A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

360

POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive to the academic, research and operational functions of  

E-print Network

POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive. Policy Any bomb threat or incident of a suspected explosive device shall be considered as valid by all the lives and safety of all concerned. II. Procedures A. Any person who receives a bomb threat or has

Collins, Gary S.

361

Ankle Strength and Stiffness Predict Range of Motion During  

E-print Network

Ankle Strength and Stiffness Predict Range of Motion During Walking in Older Adults Erica D Persons, 2001) · Studies focusing on lower extremity vulnerability show weakness in the ankle dorsiflexors and lack of flexibility of ankle plantarflexors increase risk of falling. (Hylton, 2003) · Ankle stiffness

New Hampshire, University of

362

Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks  

E-print Network

Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks J.-P. Onnela* , J. Sarama¨ki*, J. Hyvo consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process

Iamnitchi, Adriana

363

Elasticity and Strength of Biomacromolecular Crystals: Lysozyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static Young modulus, E = 0.1 to 0.5 GPa, the crystal critical strength (sigma(sub c)) and its ratio to E,sigma(sub c)/E is approximately 10(exp 3), were measured for the first time for non cross-linked lysozyme crystals in solution. By using a triple point bending apparatus, we also demonstrated that the crystals were purely elastic. Softness of protein crystals built of hard macromolecules (26 GPa for lysozyme) is explained by the large size of the macromolecules as compared to the range of intermolecular forces and by the weakness of intermolecular bonds as compared to the peptide bond strength. The relatively large reported dynamic elastic moduli (approximately 8 GPa) from resonance light scattering should come from averaging over the moduli of intracrystalline water and intra- and intermolecular bonding.

Holmes, A. M.; Witherow, W. K.; Chen, L. Q.; Chernov, A. A.

2003-01-01

364

Numerical Investigation of Weak Grains in Granular Shear Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of frictionally weak particles is central in understanding various types of shear zones including faults, landslides and deformation in glacial till. All of these deformation zones contain a mixture of mineral phases and can include significant proportions of frictionally weak particles such as clay minerals and phyllosilicates. This observation was used, for example, to explain the weak frictional behavior of the San Andreas Fault. Understanding the role of these phases on overall fault strength and localization of shear is necessary to understand the generation of shear and earthquakes. Here, we use a 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) numerical approach to investigate the role of weak particles on the overall frictional strength of a deforming shear zone. The DEM allows us to investigate the micromechanics of the shear zone by directly visualizing force chain formation, connectivity and destruction and also the distributed or localized nature of shear in the numerical experiment. The shear zone of our models is compared to standard laboratory friction experiments in which non-cohesive grains (fault gouge) are sandwiched between stiff walls and sheared. The gouge particles in our models range from 100 to 200 ?m in diameter with the normal stress held constant at 15 MPa. We vary the coefficient of friction between particles and mix frictionally strong and weak particles in different ratios. Additionally we investigate the shape of phyllosilicates and their role in localization of shear into plane by varying the shape of grains from spheres to platy grains. Our study provides some quantitative information on the proportion of weak particles necessary to significantly reduce the strength of a shear zone.

Rathbun, A. P.; Renard, F.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

365

The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

2013-01-01

366

Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

2009-03-23

367

Weak measurements in quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The article recapitulates the concept of weak measurement in its broader sense encapsulating the trade between asymptotically weak measurement precision and asymptotically large measurement statistics. Essential applications in time-continuous measurement and in postselected measurement are presented both in classical and in quantum contexts. We discuss the anomalous quantum weak value in postselected measurement. We concentrate on the general mathematical and physical aspects of weak measurements and we do not expand on their interpretation. Particular applications, even most familiar ones, are not subject of the article which was written for Elsevier's Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics.

Lajos Diosi

2005-05-10

368

Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing reduces working memory interference  

PubMed Central

Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM) task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modeling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesized that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat-related interference. PMID:23750133

Clarke, Robert; Johnstone, Tom

2013-01-01

369

The Strength of Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many aspects of our work with at-risk children are spiritual by nature. A whole generation of at-risk children are crying out and asking hard questions. Although we certainly will not have all the answers, a shared experience of the very vulnerability of our human condition can turn this into a strength for us and our children. The authors propose…

Gilliam, Bobby; Franklin, John Travis

2004-01-01

370

Emergent Soft Monopole Modes in Weakly-Bound Deformed Nuclei  

E-print Network

Based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solutions in large deformed coordinate spaces, the finite amplitude method for quasiparticle random phase approximation (FAM-QRPA) has been implemented, providing a suitable approach to probe collective excitations of weakly-bound nuclei embedded in the continuum. The monopole excitation modes in Magnesium isotopes up to the neutron drip line have been studied with the FAM-QRPA framework on both the coordinate-space and harmonic oscillator basis methods. Enhanced soft monopole strengths and collectivity as a result of weak-binding effects have been unambiguously demonstrated.

J. C. Pei; M. Kortelainen; Y. N. Zhang; F. R. Xu

2014-11-13

371

Erasing fear for an imagined threat event.  

PubMed

Although memory for emotionally arousing and stressful experiences is strong and resistant to change, recent years have witnessed rapidly emerging evidence for the plasticity of fear memories. Upon retrieval a memory may be rendered labile and vulnerable to the disruptive effects of amnestic agents. This process is referred to as "disrupting reconsolidation" and may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, the fear-reducing effects are thus far only demonstrated for freezing reactions in rodents and autonomic fear responding in humans. If disrupting reconsolidation will be of value for clinical practice, it should also target the subjective feelings of anxiety. Using an instructed fear-learning paradigm in humans, we here tested whether disrupting reconsolidation would diminish the subjective feelings of anxiety for a noxious event that was anticipated but never actually experienced. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade during reconsolidation strongly diminished the behavioral expression of the instructed fear memory (i.e., startle responding) as well as the subjective feelings of anxiety 24h later, yet without affecting both the physiological and cognitive component of the anticipation of threat (i.e., skin conductance responding, expectancy ratings). Together, the present findings suggest that the various memory traces of a learned fear association do not necessarily undergo reconsolidation in harmony. Considering that patients with anxiety disorders (1) often fear objects and situations that they have never actually experienced, and (2) primarily suffer from the subjective feelings of anxiety, the present findings may have important ramifications for psychotherapy. PMID:22503387

Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

2012-11-01

372

Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

2007-01-01

373

Spin freezing in geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets with weak disorder.  

PubMed

We investigate the consequences for geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets of weak disorder in the strength of exchange interactions. Taking as a model the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet with nearest neighbor exchange on the pyrochlore lattice, we examine low-temperature behavior. We show that spatial modulation of exchange generates long-range effective interactions within the extensively degenerate ground states of the clean system. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find a spin glass transition at a temperature set by the disorder strength. Disorder of this type, which is generated by random strains in the presence of magnetoelastic coupling, may account for the spin freezing observed in many geometrically frustrated magnets. PMID:17501375

Saunders, T E; Chalker, J T

2007-04-13

374

78 FR 13367 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Threat Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity...and biographic information for TSA's security threat assessment...technology. Information Collection Requirement Title: Security Threat...

2013-02-27

375

76 FR 36560 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Threat Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity...and biographic information for TSA's security threat assessment...technology. Information Collection Requirement Title: Security Threat...

2011-06-22

376

Game Theoretic Approach to Threat Prediction and Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategy of data fusion has been applied in threat prediction and situation awareness. The terminology has been standardized by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) in the form of a so- called \\

GENSHE CHEN; DAN SHEN; CHIMAN KWAN; JOSE B. CRUZ; MARTIN KRUGER; ERIK BLASCH

2007-01-01

377

Death Threats and a Sit-In Divide Penn State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how death threats against black students at Penn State prompted an extended sit-in and a debate over whether the university was doing enough to protect black students and promote diversity. (EV)

Hoover, Eric

2001-01-01

378

Coping with stereotype threat: Denial as an impression management strategy  

E-print Network

Four experiments tested the hypothesis that people who are concerned with impression management cope with stereotype threat through denial. Consistent with this hypothesis, temporary employees threatened by a stereotype ...

Von Hippel, W.; Von Hippel, C.; Conway, Leanne; Preacher, K. J.; Schooler, J. W.; Radvansky, G. A.

2005-01-01

379

Ebola Threat Diminishing in West Africa, Officials Say  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ebola Threat Diminishing in West Africa, Officials Say But ... Steele Tuesday, January 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Ebola TUESDAY, Jan. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- West Africa's ...

380

Impaired threat prioritisation after selective bilateral amygdala lesions.  

PubMed

The amygdala is proposed to process threat-related information in non-human animals. In humans, empirical evidence from lesion studies has provided the strongest evidence for a role in emotional face recognition and social judgement. Here we use a face-in-the-crowd (FITC) task which in healthy control individuals reveals prioritised threat processing, evident in faster serial search for angry compared to happy target faces. We investigate AM and BG, two individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome, and 16 control individuals. In lesion patients we show a reversal of a threat detection advantage indicating a profound impairment in prioritising threat information. This is the first direct demonstration that human amygdala lesions impair prioritisation of threatening faces, providing evidence that this structure has a causal role in responding to imminent danger. PMID:25282058

Bach, Dominik R; Hurlemann, Rene; Dolan, Raymond J

2015-02-01

381

A Study on Biological Threats to Texas Freshwater Resources  

E-print Network

was beneficial to P. parvum in some way. Aquatic vegetation is an important component of most freshwater systems and provides numerous valuable ecosystem services, providing food, habitat and refuge for a variety of organisms. A significant threat to beneficial...

Neisch, Michael

2014-01-15

382

77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCY: Department of Defense...expansion of sanctions relating to the energy sector of Iran and sanctions with respect to Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained...

2012-12-10

383

78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense...expansion of sanctions relating to the energy sector of Iran and sanctions with respect to Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained...

2013-08-01

384

The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

2014-07-01

385

Is Your School Sick? Five Threats to Healthy Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the five major threats to healthy school buildings: sick building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and general indoor air quality. Discusses ways to assess and address them. (SR)

Grubb, Deborah; Diamantes, Thomas

1998-01-01

386

Opportunism, Threats, and the Evolution of Systematic Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

. Polarizing kinds of conservation science and discounting the real-world contributions of technicalComment Opportunism, Threats, and the Evolution of Systematic Conservation Planning ROBERT L 4072, Australia Introduction Systematic conservation planning (Margules & Pressey 2000) is approaching

Queensland, University of

387

Impaired threat prioritisation after selective bilateral amygdala lesions  

PubMed Central

The amygdala is proposed to process threat-related information in non-human animals. In humans, empirical evidence from lesion studies has provided the strongest evidence for a role in emotional face recognition and social judgement. Here we use a face-in-the-crowd (FITC) task which in healthy control individuals reveals prioritised threat processing, evident in faster serial search for angry compared to happy target faces. We investigate AM and BG, two individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach–Wiethe syndrome, and 16 control individuals. In lesion patients we show a reversal of a threat detection advantage indicating a profound impairment in prioritising threat information. This is the first direct demonstration that human amygdala lesions impair prioritisation of threatening faces, providing evidence that this structure has a causal role in responding to imminent danger. PMID:25282058

Bach, Dominik R.; Hurlemann, Rene; Dolan, Raymond J.

2015-01-01

388

RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

389

College Leaders Wrestle with How to Prepare for Unknown Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how colleges are seeking the best ways to respond to dangerous incidents like the shootings that occurred at Virginia Tech, and how best to alert people on their campuses to various threats to public safety and emergencies.

Selingo, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

390

75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Contact: Mr. Eric Wright, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/AST...of Meeting To obtain, review and evaluate classified information...of mass destruction (WMD), chemical and biological defense, the future of the...

2010-09-30

391

The health information system security threat lifecycle: An informatics theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians’ health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context.

Juanita I. Fernando; Linda L. Dawson

2009-01-01

392

Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

Smith, R

1992-07-01

393

Crew Strength Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will train to develop upper and lower body strength in their muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups. Learners perform the exercises over time (week or month) and record and graph their observations. This activity simulates how astronauts must participate in strength training prior to missions in order to compensate for the weakening of muscles and bones in the reduced gravity environment of space. An embedded video on this page showcases the activity. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

394

Cardiovascular Disease And Global Health: Threat And Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The transition in global health from infectious to chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease, poses a threat to the economies of the less developed world. As a more sophisticated workforce becomes,a highly valued and harder-to-replace economic,in- vestment, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a threat to eco- nomic,development. The next two decades,offer a critical period for intervention to

Henry Greenberg; Susan U. Raymond; Stephen R. Leeder

2005-01-01

395

I Am Us: Negative Stereotypes as Collective Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective threat is the fear that an ingroup member's behavior might reinforce a negative stereotype of one's group. In a field study, self-reported collective threat was higher in stereotyped minorities than in Whites and was linked to lower self-esteem in both groups. In 3 experimental studies, a potentially poor performance by an ingroup member on a stereotype-relevant task proved threatening,

Geoffrey L. Cohen; Julio Garcia

2005-01-01

396

Advanced technologies for undersea surveillance of modern threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of seaborne threats to coastal states has evolved, with modern threats represented by coastal or mini-submarines, small high-speed attack or infiltration craft, and even jet-skis, and by dramatic increases in the capabilities of conventional submarines fitted with air-independent propulsion. In recognition of these changes, a team of world class companies has joined together to develop sensor, processing, installation

D. J. Meggitt; D. K. Roderick; K. P. Cooke

1999-01-01

397

The Threat of Climate Change: Psychological Response, Adaptation, and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the existing social and health science literature addressing the psychological impacts of the threat\\u000a of climate change. The exercise reflects a convergent environmental, social, and health psychology perspective, informed by\\u000a those interdisciplinary bodies of work relating to the social construction and representation of environmental threat; psychosocial\\u000a environmental impact assessment and monitoring; public and mental health; risk communication

Joseph P. Reser; Shirley A. Morrissey; Michelle Ellul

398

The bio-terrorism threat and casualty prevention.  

SciTech Connect

The bio-terrorism threat has become the 'poor man's' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

Noel, William P.

1999-10-01

399

Handgrip strength in autism spectrum disorder compared with controls.  

PubMed

The study examined handgrip strength in participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared with neurotypical children. Thirty-three children, aged 2-17 years, with an ASD and 33 gender-, race-, and age-matched neurotypical controls were tested using a handgrip dynamometer. The handgrip strength in participants with an ASD was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than the neurotypical controls. The mean handgrip strength was 39.4 ± 17.7 kPa in children with ASD and 65.1 ± 26.7 kPa in controls. The results support the hypothesis that children with an ASD have significantly poorer handgrip strength as compared with neurotypical children. Because the handheld dynamometer has been shown to be a valid tool for measuring overall muscle strength, the results suggest that children with ASD have muscle weakness. Future studies are needed to determine the extent of muscle weakness in ASD, its ramifications, and the possible benefits of muscle strengthening. The present study provides support for the use of handgrip strength as a tool for the assessment of targeted treatment in ASD. PMID:23880656

Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Adams, James B; Troutman, Melissa R; Davis, Georgia A; King, Paul G; Geier, Mark R

2013-08-01

400

A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

Muller, Richard

2009-05-01

401

Weak amenability and 2-weak amenability of Beurling algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let be a Beurling algebra on a locally compact abelian group G. We look for general conditions on the weight which allows the vanishing of continuous derivations of . This leads us to introducing vector-valued Beurling algebras and considering the translation of operators on them. This is then used to connect the augmentation ideal to the behavior of the derivation space. We apply these results to give examples of various classes of Beurling algebras which are weakly amenable, 2-weakly amenable or fail to be even 2-weakly amenable.

Samei, Ebrahim

2008-10-01

402

Managing Threats against Control in Old Age: A Narrative Inquiry  

PubMed Central

Background The desire to retain personal control over self and life circumstances continues into old age; it exists in tension with late-life vulnerabilities. Objectives This article investigates how elders respond to threats against control in light of changes surrounding health and identity. Methods Community-dwelling African-American (n = 10) and European-American elders (n = 10), aged 70 years and older, with varied self-reported health statuses were qualitatively interviewed. Open-ended interviews explored elders’ perceptions of control and threats to control in older age. Results Three themes linked elders’ responses to threats to control. Elders: (a) proactively monitored physical and mental health; (b) maintained roles that shaped important aspects of identity, and (c) fostered personal growth and development by generative practices. Responses of participants who had difficulty countering threats to control are also offered. Discussion This study shows that the construct of control is not abstract; it is interpreted and applied by elders in the contexts of everyday life. Respondents used personal resources honed throughout the life course to respond to threats to control. Elders viewed control as a cultural construct with nuanced meanings that recalled past roles and current changes that occur with age. Suggestions are offered for how health professionals can assist elders with the cognitive and emotional tasks required to deal with threats to personal control surrounding health and identity. PMID:24165219

Black, Helen K.; Santanello, Holly R.; Caruso, Christa J.

2014-01-01

403

Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal.  

PubMed

The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by "policing" selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common. PMID:24367092

Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J; Johnstone, Rufus A; Hodge, Sarah J

2014-01-01

404

A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations  

SciTech Connect

Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

2010-01-01

405

Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.  

PubMed

Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

2013-11-15

406

Threat-protection mechanics of an armored fish.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that predatory threats are a critical factor in the protective functional design of biological exoskeletons or "natural armor", having arisen through evolutionary processes. Here, the mechanical interaction between the ganoid armor of the predatory fish Polypterus senegalus and one of its current most aggressive threats, a toothed biting attack by a member of its own species (conspecific), is simulated and studied. Finite element analysis models of the quad-layered mineralized scale and representative teeth are constructed and virtual penetrating biting events simulated. Parametric studies reveal the effects of tooth geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties on its ability to effectively penetrate into the scale or to be defeated by the scale, in particular the deformation of the tooth versus that of the scale during a biting attack. Simultaneously, the role of the microstructure of the scale in defeating threats as well as providing avenues of energy dissipation to withstand biting attacks is identified. Microstructural length scale and material property length scale matching between the threat and armor is observed. Based on these results, a summary of advantageous and disadvantageous design strategies for the offensive threat and defensive protection is formulated. Studies of predator-prey threat-protection interactions may lead to insights into adaptive phenotypic plasticity of the tooth and scale microstructure and geometry, "adaptive stalemates" and the so-called evolutionary "arms race". PMID:21565718

Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C

2011-07-01

407

Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal  

PubMed Central

The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by “policing” selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common. PMID:24367092

Cant, Michael A.; Nichols, Hazel J.; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Hodge, Sarah J.

2014-01-01

408

Weak Energy: Form and Function  

E-print Network

The equation of motion for a time-independent weak value of a quantum mechanical observable contains a complex valued energy factor - the weak energy of evolution. This quantity is defined by the dynamics of the pre-selected and post-selected states which specify the observable's weak value. It is shown that this energy: (i) is manifested as dynamical and geometric phases that govern the evolution of the weak value during the measurement process; (ii) satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations when expressed in terms of Pancharatnam (P) phase and Fubini-Study (FS) metric distance; (iii) provides for a PFS stationary action principle for quantum state evolution; (iv) time translates correlation amplitudes; (v) generalizes the temporal persistence of state normalization; and (vi) obeys a time-energy uncertainty relation. A similar complex valued quantity - the pointed weak energy of an evolving state - is also defined and several of its properties in PFS-coordinates are discussed. It is shown that the imaginary part of the pointed weak energy governs the state's survival probability and its real part is - to within a sign - the Mukunda-Simon geometric phase for arbitrary evolutions or the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) phase for cyclic evolutions. Pointed weak energy gauge transformations and the PFS 1-form are discussed and the relationship between the PFS 1-form and the AA connection 1-form is established.

Allen D. Parks

2013-04-09

409

Weak-shock reflection factors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-09-07

410

Geometry of Weak Stability Boundaries  

E-print Network

The notion of a weak stability boundary has been successfully used to design low energy trajectories from the Earth to the Moon. The structure of this boundary has been investigated in a number of studies, where partial results have been obtained. We propose a generalization of the weak stability boundary. We prove analytically that, in the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, under certain conditions on the mass ratio of the primaries and on the energy, the weak stability boundary about the heavier primary coincides with a branch of the global stable manifold of the Lyapunov orbit about one of the Lagrange points.

Edward Belbruno; Marian Gidea; Francesco Topputo

2012-04-06

411

Microscopic scattering theory for interacting bosons in weak random potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a diagrammatic scattering theory for interacting bosons in a three-dimensional, weakly disordered potential. Based on a microscopic N-body scattering theory, we identify the relevant diagrams including elastic and inelastic collision processes that are sufficient to describe diffusive quantum transport. By taking advantage of the statistical properties of the weak disorder potential, we demonstrate how the N-body dynamics can be reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of Boltzmann type for the single-particle diffusive flux. Our theory reduces to the Gross-Pitaevskii mean field description in the limit where only elastic collisions are taken into account. However, even at weak interaction strength, inelastic collisions lead to energy redistribution between the bosons—initially prepared all at the same single-particle energy—and thereby induce thermalization of the single-particle current. In addition, we include also weak localization effects and determine the coherent corrections to the incoherent transport in terms of the coherent backscattering signal. We find that inelastic collisions lead to an enhancement of the backscattered cone in a narrow spectral window for increasing interaction strength.

Geiger, Tobias; Buchleitner, Andreas; Wellens, Thomas

2013-11-01

412

Alcohol Stress Response Dampening during imminent vs. distal, uncertain threat  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Predictable vs. unpredictable shock administration has been used to elicit fear vs. anxiety, respectively. Recent research has demonstrated that alcohol may reduce anxiety but not fear. However, previous manipulations of predictability have varied both probability and temporal uncertainty of shock threat, leaving unresolved questions regarding which stimulus characteristics elicit anxiety and are sensitive to alcohol stress response dampening (SRD). We developed a novel paradigm to closely parallel basic research in animals that systematically varied temporal uncertainty of threat while holding threat probability constant. Intoxicated (0.08% target BAC), placebo, and no-alcohol control participants viewed a series of visual threat cues. Certain cue duration (5 seconds) blocks were equivalent to predictable shock blocks eliciting fear in earlier research. Uncertain cue duration (5, 20, 50 or 80 second, intermixed) blocks introduced temporal uncertainty regarding impending shock to elicit anxiety. Startle potentiation relative to matched cue periods in no-shock blocks provided the primary measure of affective response. All threat cues produced robust startle potentiation. Alcohol reduced startle potentiation during the first 5 seconds of threat cue presentation in uncertain but not certain duration blocks. Alcohol also reduced startle potentiation at later times among longer uncertain duration cues, suggesting that alcohol SRD persisted. Trait negative emotionality and binge drinking status moderated alcohol SRD magnitude during uncertain threat. These translational findings corroborate previous reports regarding distinct substrates of fear vs. anxiety, and have implications for both alcoholism etiology and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. PMID:24016014

Hefner, Kathryn R.; Moberg, Christine A.; Hachiya, Laura Y.; Curtin, John J.

2014-01-01

413

Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Detection in Cargo  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Radiography is widely understood to provide information complimentary to passive detection: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions which may mask a passive radiological signal. We present a method for combining radiographic and passive data which uses the radiograph to provide an estimate of scatter and attenuation for possible sources. This approach allows quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present first results for this method for a simple modeled test case of a cargo container driving through a PVT portal. With this inversion approach, we address criteria for an integrated passive and radiographic screening system and how detection of SNM threats might be improved in such a system.

Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Scherrer, Charles; Wittman, Richard S.

2012-12-01

414

Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

1987-01-01

415

Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

2007-03-01

416

The Scope and Treatment of Threats in Endangered Species Recovery Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of threatened and endangered species is complicated by the number, severity, and tractability of the threats facing each species. We investigated the nature and the treatment of threats in recovery plans for 181 threatened and endangered species. We examined the types of threats facing species, as well as the degree to which threats were understood and addressed. We

Joshua J. Lawler; Steven P. Campbell; Anne D. Guerry; Mary Beth Kolozsvary; Raymond J. O'Connor; Lindsay C. N. Seward

2002-01-01

417

Strength Training and Children's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.

2001-01-01

418

Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

1982-01-01

419

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-print Network

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10

420

Threat and error management for anesthesiologists: a predictive risk taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Patient care in the operating room is a dynamic interaction that requires cooperation among team members and reliance upon sophisticated technology. Most human factors research in medicine has been focused on analyzing errors and implementing system-wide changes to prevent them from recurring. We describe a set of techniques that has been used successfully by the aviation industry to analyze errors and adverse events and explain how these techniques can be applied to patient care. Recent findings Threat and error management (TEM) describes adverse events in terms of risks or challenges that are present in an operational environment (threats) and the actions of specific personnel that potentiate or exacerbate those threats (errors). TEM is a technique widely used in aviation, and can be adapted for the use in a medical setting to predict high-risk situations and prevent errors in the perioperative period. A threat taxonomy is a novel way of classifying and predicting the hazards that can occur in the operating room. TEM can be used to identify error-producing situations, analyze adverse events, and design training scenarios. Summary TEM offers a multifaceted strategy for identifying hazards, reducing errors, and training physicians. A threat taxonomy may improve analysis of critical events with subsequent development of specific interventions, and may also serve as a framework for training programs in risk mitigation. PMID:24113268

Ruskin, Keith J.; Stiegler, Marjorie P.; Park, Kellie; Guffey, Patrick; Kurup, Viji; Chidester, Thomas

2015-01-01

421

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

422

Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.  

PubMed

Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches. PMID:25362843

Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

2014-10-31

423

If it bleeds, it leads: separating threat from mere negativity.  

PubMed

Most theories of emotion hold that negative stimuli are threatening and aversive. Yet in everyday experiences some negative sights (e.g. car wrecks) attract curiosity, whereas others repel (e.g. a weapon pointed in our face). To examine the diversity in negative stimuli, we employed four classes of visual images (Direct Threat, Indirect Threat, Merely Negative and Neutral) in a set of behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Participants reliably discriminated between the images, evaluating Direct Threat stimuli most quickly, and Merely Negative images most slowly. Threat images evoked greater and earlier blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activations in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray, structures implicated in representing and responding to the motivational salience of stimuli. Conversely, the Merely Negative images evoked larger BOLD signal in the parahippocampal, retrosplenial, and medial prefrontal cortices, regions which have been implicated in contextual association processing. Ventrolateral as well as medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices were activated by both threatening and Merely Negative images. In conclusion, negative visual stimuli can repel or attract scrutiny depending on their current threat potential, which is assessed by dynamic shifts in large-scale brain network activity. PMID:24493851

Kveraga, Kestutis; Boshyan, Jasmine; Adams, Reginald B; Mote, Jasmine; Betz, Nicole; Ward, Noreen; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bar, Moshe; Barrett, Lisa F

2015-01-01

424

Suffering and Generativity: Repairing Threats to Self in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Suffering is a powerful experience that can be difficult to articulate. Suffering differs from pain alone and includes an individual’s awareness of a threat to self through death, loss of identity, or uncertaintly of the meaningfulness of one’s life. In response to this threat, generative acts, especially creative expressions imbued with the self, may act as a means to repair the self in crisis. The case of Mr. A., an 85-year old man in good health, illustrates how various artistic pieces he created – a wooden dog and several poems -- helps him to restore a “fading” self. For Mr. A, the idea of “fading away” or becoming weaker and less useful until eventually disappearing is a major source of personal suffering. Through his art, he creates unique, interactive and tangible entities that can outlive his physical body and help him reclaim or repair threats to selfhood. PMID:20161268

de Medeiros, Kate

2009-01-01

425

EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

426

[The strength of fragile].  

PubMed

Chronic disorder not only modifies the patient's health status; it affects the body relationship and its potential; it decreases its power to act, changes its relation to time, to its relatives, in shortcut it affects all dimensions of the relationship with oneself, with others, and the world. However, if we assume that a patient cannot be reduced to his/her illness but must always be treated with the respect of a person, we also understand how chronic and debilitating disease affects both freedom (or autonomy) and perfectibility (or creativity). By analyzing the different forms of freedom of the patient, this paper intends to rehabilitate the fragile own strength which is fortitude. It manifests itself in attitudes and virtues such as gentleness, patience, attention to the present, hope, power of thought. It also intends to show that it is supporting fragile and allowing them to develop their own way of acting and living as humanity became intelligent and creative. PMID:24721121

Lagrée, J

2015-02-01

427

Effects of weak ties on epidemic predictability on community networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of the degree of bridge nodes on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find out that the bridge node with a small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, the variability of the prevalence will display a complete opposite trend to that of the arrival time, as the distance from the initial seed to the bridge node or the degree of the initial seed increases. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of the arrival time and the worse predictability of the prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the number of weak ties on the epidemic variability. As the community strength becomes very strong, which is caused by the decrease of the number of weak ties, the epidemic variability will change dramatically. Compared with the case of the hub seed and the random seed, the bridge seed can result in the worst predictability of the arrival time and the best predictability of the prevalence.

Shu, Panpan; Tang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

2012-12-01

428

Verbal worry facilitates attention to threat in high-worriers?  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Worry is predominantly a verbal-linguistic process with relatively little imagery. This study investigated whether the verbal nature of worry contributes to the maintenance of worry by enhancing attention to threat. It was hypothesised that verbal worry would lead to greater attentional bias to threat than imagery-based worry. Methods Fifty high-worriers were randomly assigned to one of two groups, one in which they were instructed to worry in a verbal way and one in which they worried in an imagery-based way, before completing a dot probe task as a measure of attention to threat-related words. Results Those who worried in verbal form demonstrated greater attentional bias to threat than did those who worried in imagery-based form. These findings could not be accounted for by group differences in personal relevance of or distress associated with worry topics, state mood following worry, levels of the relatedness of participants' worries to stimuli on the dot probe task, trait anxiety, general propensity to worry, nor adherence to the worry training. Limitations The present study only included word stimuli in the dot probe task; inclusion of images would allow for firmly rejecting the hypothesis that the attention effects observed following verbal worry were merely a result of priming verbal threat representations. Also, future studies could include a further control group that does not engage in any form of worry to ascertain that verbal worry increased attentional bias rather than imagery decreasing pre-existing attentional bias. Conclusions Possible mechanisms underlying this effect of verbal worry on attention to threat are discussed, together with clinical implications of the current findings. PMID:23906509

Williams, Marc O.; Mathews, Andrew; Hirsch, Colette R.

2014-01-01

429

Altered Neural Processing of Threat in Alcohol-Dependent Men  

PubMed Central

Background Stress-response biological systems are altered in alcohol-dependent individuals and are reported to predict future relapse. This study was designed to assess neural disruptions in alcohol-dependent participants when exposed to a conditioned stimulus (CS) warning of the impending onset of a universal, nonpersonalized stressor. Methods Fifteen alcohol-dependent men abstinent for 3 to 5 weeks and 15 age- and race-similar healthy controls were studied. Anticipatory anxiety was induced by a CS paired with an uncertain, physically painful unconditioned stressor. Neural response was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups experienced significant, similar levels of anticipatory anxiety in response to the high-threat relative to the low-threat CS. Whereas control participants markedly increased the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) amplitude in cortical–limbic–striatal regions during the high-threat, relative to low-threat, stimulus, alcohol-dependent participants decreased BOLD amplitude in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), medial orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral parietal/occipital cortex, and right hippocampus. Alcohol-dependent participants significantly deactivated pgACC/mPFC and PCC clusters, relative to controls, during the high- versus low-threat stimulus. This difference was due to a decrease in %BOLD amplitude during the high-threat stimulus in the alcohol-dependent, but not the control, participants. Conclusions Alcohol-dependent men show cortical–limbic–striatal deactivation during anticipatory anxiety, particularly in regions associated with emotional regulation. These findings suggest a lack of engagement of affective regulatory mechanisms during high-stress situations in alcohol-dependent men. PMID:23888999

Yang, Hongyu; Devous, Michael D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Xiao, Hong; Kreyling, Nicholas; Adinoff, Bryon

2014-01-01

430

An Optimal Dynamic Threat Evaluation and Weapon Scheduling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time scheduling problems demand high level of flexibility and robustness under complex dynamic scenarios. Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA), together TEWA is one such complex dynamic system having optimal or near optimal utilization of scarce defensive resources of supreme priority. Several static solutions of TEWA have been proposed. This paper discusses an optimal dynamic multi-air threat evaluation and weapon allocation algorithm using a variant of Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA). WA uses a new dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution. Testing part of this paper shows feasibility of this approach for a range of scenarios.

Naeem, H.; Masood, A.

431

Meteoroids and Meteor Storms: A Threat to Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust system design is the best protection against meteoroid damage. Impacts by small meteoroids are common on satellite surfaces, but impacts by meteoroids large enough to damage well designed systems are very rare. Estimating the threat from the normal meteoroid environment is difficult. Estimates for the occasional "storm" are even more uncertain. Common sense precautions are in order for the 1999 Leonids, but wide-spread catastrophic damage is highly unlikely. Strong Leonid showers are also expected in 2000 and 2001, but these pose much less threat than 1999.

Anderson, B. Jeffrey

1999-01-01

432

Cosmology and the weak interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

Schramm, David N.

1989-01-01

433

Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

2012-01-01

434

How Feelings of Stereotype Threat Influence Older Adults' Memory Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than

Alison L. Chasteen; Sudipa Bhattacharyya; Michelle Horhota; Raymond Tam; Lynn Hasher

2005-01-01

435

Introduced Species: The Threat to Biodiversity & What Can Be Done  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how invasive species are a major threat to our environment because they can change an entire habitat, placing ecosystems at risk, crowd out or replace native species that are beneficial to a habitat, and damage human enterprise, such as fisheries, costing the economy millions of dollars.

Daniel Simberloff (University of Tennessee; )

2000-12-01

436

Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second  

SciTech Connect

In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

Chang, J T

2005-11-08

437

A Conceptualization of Threat Communications and Preventive Health Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making others especially fearful of what can happen if they ignore the advice given in a health-threat warning (fear appeal) encourages their acceptance of the message most of the time, though occasionally this strategy backfires. Current formulations of fear appeals are unable to reconcile these findings satisfactorily. The drive model notion…

Beck, Kenneth H.; Frankel, Arthur

438

Human Threat Management Systems: Self-Protection and Disease Avoidance  

PubMed Central

Humans likely evolved precautionary systems designed to minimize the threats to reproductive fitness posed by highly interdependent ultrasociality. A review of research on the self-protection and disease avoidance systems reveals that each system is functionally distinct and domain-specific: Each is attuned to different cues; engages different emotions, inferences, and behavioral inclinations; and is rooted in somewhat different neurobiological substrates. These systems share important features, however. Each system is functionally coherent, in that perceptual, affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes work in concert to reduce fitness costs of potential threats. Each system is biased in a risk-averse manner, erring toward precautionary responses even when available cues only heuristically imply threat. And each system is functionally flexible, being highly sensitive to specific ecological and dispositional cues that signal greater vulnerability to the relevant threat. These features characterize a general template useful for understanding not only the self-protection and disease avoidance systems, but also a broader set of evolved, domain-specific precautionary systems. PMID:20833199

Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Schaller, Mark

2010-01-01

439

PERSPECTIVE Modeling ships' ballast water as invasion threats  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Modeling ships' ballast water as invasion threats to the Great Lakes1 Hugh J. Mac of contaminated ballast water by ships inbound to the Great Lakes. Based on current knowledge of shipping traffic of individual ships that enter the Great Lakes loaded with cargo and that declare "no ballast on board" (NOBOB

Lewis, Mark

440

Collective Threat, Trust, and the Sense of Personal Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A threatening and dangerous neighborhood may produce distressing emotions of anxiety, anger, and depression among the individuals who live there because residents find these neighborhoods subjectively alienating. The author introduces the idea that neighborhood disorder indicates collective threat, which is alienating--shaping perceptions of…

Ross, Catherine E.

2011-01-01

441

Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

2013-01-01

442

Response of School Personnel to Student Threat Assessment Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School safety has become an important area of concern for school improvement. This study examined the effects of staff training as means of improving school responses to student threats of violence. A multidisciplinary sample of 351 staff from 2 school divisions completed pre-post training surveys as part of a 1-day training program using the…

Allen, Korrie; Cornell, Dewey; Lorek, Edward; Sheras, Peter

2008-01-01

443

Regulation in a Brave New World: Safeguarding against Subversive Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biotechnology is a rapidly advancing science that has the potential to revolutionize medicine and transform human abilities. Accompanying these positives are an underdiscussed category of threats to principles of human rights and equality. Although any technology might be used to inegalitarian ends, biotechnology has the capacity to beget…

Hornosty, Jason

2011-01-01

444

REDUCING THE THREAT OF A SERIOUS 137 Cs DIRTY BOMB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, one of the gravest anticipated terrorist threats to the United States, the United Kingdom and European Union countries involves a class of weapons known as radiation dispersal devices (RDDs) or dirty bombs. Dirty bombs use a conventional bomb, such as a car bomb, to disperse radioactive materials in a populated area to cause great economic and social disruption disproportionate

James L. Conca; Jacob R. Wischnewsky; Michael D. Johnson

445

Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

446

Antimicrobial resistance: the threat to health and health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses antimicrobial resistance and the threat it poses to an individual’s health and the health care system. Diseases, such as pneumococcus have gained an overabundance of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown diseases are surging and sounding alarm bells worldwide. The history and causes of this surge are examined globally. One such cause is the overuse of antibiotics

Kathleen Granitto

1998-01-01

447

Stereotype Threat and Working Memory: Mechanisms, Alleviation, and Spillover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat (ST) occurs when the awareness of a negative stereotype about a social group in a particular domain produces suboptimal performance by members of that group. Although ST has been repeatedly demonstrated, far less is known about how its effects are realized. Using mathematical problem solving as a test bed, the authors demonstrate in 5 experiments that ST harms

Sian L. Beilock; Robert J. Rydell; Allen R. McConnell

2007-01-01

448

Stereotype Threat in Men on a Test of Social Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides evidence of stereotype threat in men on a test of a feminine ability called social sensitivity, that is, the ability to decode nonverbal cues. Men who were told that the test assessed social sensitivity and produced better scores for women than men performed worse on the test than did men who were told that the test assessed

Anne M. Koenig; Alice H. Eagly

2005-01-01

449

Suitable Enemies? Governmentality of Youth: Youth as a Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a contribution to the discourse of politics towards (for) youth, which the author defines as the "cultural politics of risk". The article begins with scientific representations of youth as a threat, as a group inclined to engage in risky behaviours. It then focuses on theoretical approaches called the "risk paradigm", providing a…

Ostrowicka, Helena

2012-01-01

450

Connecting the Dots: Threat Assessment, Depression and the Troubled Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the numerous responses to the mass shooting at Virginia Tech in April 2007 has been the call for higher education institutions in the United States to take an increased role in identifying troubled students. This has had widely felt effects, with educational institutions across the United States developing mechanisms such as Threat

Harwood, Valerie

2011-01-01

451

Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characte ristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a diffi- cult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype

Claude M. Steele; Joshua Aronson

1995-01-01

452

Prejudice and Minority Proportion: Contact Instead of Threat Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the relationship between the percentage of an ethnic minority population in a geographically defined area and majority members' prejudice typically reveals a positive covariation. This result supports threat theory. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated significant exceptions. Based on intergroup contact theory, the present study…

Wagner, Ulrich; Christ, Oliver; Pettigrew, Thomas F.; Stellmacher, Jost; Wolf, Carina

2006-01-01

453

An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance  

PubMed Central

Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on stress arousal, vigilance, working memory, and self-regulation to develop a process model of how negative stereotypes impair performance on cognitive and social tasks that require controlled processing, as well as sensorimotor tasks that require automatic processing. The authors argue that stereotype threat disrupts performance via 3 distinct, yet interrelated, mechanisms: (a) a physiological stress response that directly impairs prefrontal processing, (b) a tendency to actively monitor performance, and (c) efforts to suppress negative thoughts and emotions in the service of self-regulation. These mechanisms combine to consume executive resources needed to perform well on cognitive and social tasks. The active monitoring mechanism disrupts performance on sensorimotor tasks directly. Empirical evidence for these assertions is reviewed, and implications for interventions designed to alleviate stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:18426293

Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

2008-01-01

454

Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into

1977-01-01

455

Technical approaches to reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of a nuclear attack on the United States by terrorists using a smuggled weapon is now considered more likely than an attack by a nuclear-armed ballistic missle. Consequently it is important to understand what can be done to detect and intercept a nuclear weapon being smuggled into the United States. A significant quantity of smuggled nuclear material has

William C. Priedhorsky

2005-01-01

456

Threats to survival in a nuclear environment. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the primary threats to survival during and after a nuclear attack, focusing on the weapons effects of blast, thermal and short- and long-term radiation. Simple rules are discussed for self-protection from fallout. Myths, facts, and some philosophy on how to survive a nuclear attack are presented.

Pasini

1987-01-01

457

Fearful faces heighten the cortical representation of contextual threat  

PubMed Central

Perception of facial expressions is typically investigated by presenting isolated face stimuli. In everyday life, however, faces are rarely seen without a surrounding visual context that affects perception and interpretation of the facial expression. Conversely, fearful faces may act as a cue, heightening the sensitivity of the visual system to effectively detect potential threat in the environment. In the present study, we used steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs) to examine the mutual effects of facial expressions (fearful, neutral, happy) and affective visual context (pleasant, neutral, threat). By assigning two different flicker frequencies (12 vs. 15 Hz) to the face and the visual context scene, cortical activity to the concurrent stimuli was separated, which represents a novel approach to independently tracking the cortical processes associated with the face and the context. Twenty healthy students viewed flickering faces overlaid on flickering visual scenes, while performing a simple change-detection task at fixation, and high-density EEG was recorded. Arousing background scenes generally drove larger ssVEP amplitudes than neutral scenes. Importantly, background and expression interacted: When viewing fearful facial expressions, the ssVEP in response to threat context was amplified compared to other backgrounds. Together, these findings suggest that fearful faces elicit vigilance for potential threat in the visual periphery. PMID:24125792

Wieser, Matthias J.; Keil, Andreas

2015-01-01

458

Forest Research Growing Threat Posed by Phytophthora kernoviae  

E-print Network

Forest Research Growing Threat Posed by Phytophthora kernoviae to Native Heathland Ecosystems , Sandra Denman1 and Ben Jones2 1 Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH, UK 2 baiting and direct isolation. Results Vaccinium is deciduous, so in winter (December/January) symptoms

459

AN ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR RATING HIGH-THREAT CROP PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of nonindigenous plant pathogens becoming established in the U.S. has increased over recent decades. Natural, accidental and deliberate introductions of crop pathogens have become increasingly recognized as threats to the US economy. Given the large number of pathogens that could be int...

460

As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

Schneider, Alison

1999-01-01

461

Stereotype Threat and Test Performance: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical guidelines require school psychologists to ensure that their assessment practices are nondiscriminatory, but typical discussions on this topic neglect the possible discriminatory effects of cultural stereotypes on assessment results. Recent research on "stereotype threat" shows that students' knowledge of stereotype-based negative…

Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

2007-01-01

462

Health expenditure growth : reassessing the threat of ageing Brigitte DORMONT  

E-print Network

Health expenditure growth : reassessing the threat of ageing Brigitte DORMONT , Michel GRIGNON in the proportion of the elderly entails an increase in per capita health care expenditure. This is undoubtly true, given that individual health care expenditure is an increasing function of age. But what

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Climate Threat to the Planet * Implications for Energy Policy  

E-print Network

. Shifting Climatic Zones 300-350 4. Alpine Water Supplies 300-350 5. Avoid Ocean Acidification 300Climate Threat to the Planet * Implications for Energy Policy Jim Hansen 3 June 2008 PACON. Planetary Emergency - Climate Feedbacks Climate is Sensitive - Climate Inertia Warming in Pipeline - CO2

Hansen, James E.

464

WATER: THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES Recommendations for the Next President  

E-print Network

WATER: THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES Recommendations for the Next President Dr. Peter H. Gleick1 October 9, 2008 Safe and adequate fresh water resources are central to the economy, foreign policy domestic and international challenges related to fresh water. These challenges will require unilateral

465

The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately

Marta Coll; Chiara Piroddi; Jeroen Steenbeek; Kristin Kaschner; Frida Ben Rais Lasram; Jacopo Aguzzi; Enric Ballesteros; Carlo Nike Bianchi; Jordi Corbera; Thanos Dailianis; Roberto Danovaro; Marta Estrada; Carlo Froglia; Bella S. Galil; Josep M. Gasol; Ruthy Gertwagen; João Gil; François Guilhaumon; Kathleen Kesner-Reyes; Miltiadis-Spyridon Kitsos; Athanasios Koukouras; Nikolaos Lampadariou; Elijah Laxamana; Carlos M. López-Fé de La Cuadra; Heike K. Lotze; Daniel Martin; David Mouillot; Daniel Oro; Sasa Raicevich; Josephine Rius-Barile; Jose Ignacio Saiz-Salinas; Carles San Vicente; Samuel Somot; José Templado; Xavier Turon; Dimitris Vafidis; Roger Villanueva; Eleni Voultsiadou; Steven J. Bograd

2010-01-01

466

Lead Exposure May Be Bigger Threat to Boys Than Girls  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Lead Exposure May Be Bigger Threat to Boys Than Girls Hormones may offer young females some protection from ... has a greater impact on thinking abilities in boys than in girls, according to Khanna. SOURCE: Creighton University, news release, ...

467

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

E-print Network

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

468

Chlorine gas: an evolving hazardous material threat and unconventional weapon.  

PubMed

Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

2010-05-01

469

Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon  

PubMed Central

Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

2010-01-01

470

Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

2012-01-01

471

Prioritizing Threats to Patient Safety in Rural Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rural primary care is a complex environment in which multiple patient safety challenges can arise. To make progress in improving safety with limited resources, each practice needs to identify those safety problems that pose the greatest threat to patients and focus efforts on these. Purpose: To describe and field-test a novel approach to…

Singh, Ranjit; Singh, Ashok; Servoss, Timothy J.; Singh, Gurdev

2007-01-01

472

Threats on Building Models from CVS and Bugzilla Repositories  

E-print Network

Threats on Building Models from CVS and Bugzilla Repositories: the Mozilla Case Study K. Ayari1 , P ­ and versioning systems ­ such as Concurrent Version System (CVS) ­ is widely used in quality assessment information extracted from Mozilla CVS and bug repositories. Indeed, the hetero- geneity of Mozilla bug

Di Penta, Massimiliano

473

Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

Skidmore, Susan

2008-01-01

474

Assessing Threats of School Violence: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes important considerations when assessing students' threats made at schools. In a recent article, M. Reddy et al. (2001) presented 4 approaches to assessing the risk of school violence. They submitted important issues and problems with 3 commonly used approaches and suggested a 4th approach as an alternative. Implications for…

Daniels, Jeffrey A.

2002-01-01

475

Voice over IP: Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities Angelos D. Keromytis  

E-print Network

Europe Sophia-Antipolis, France Abstract-- Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem (IMS Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), refers to a class of products that enable advanced communication services overVoice over IP: Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities Angelos D. Keromytis Symantec Research Labs

Yang, Junfeng

476

3. THREATS TO CORAL SPECIES 3.1 Human Population  

E-print Network

of threats or stressors that affect coral populations and contribute varying degrees of extinction risk) specifically attributed variation in condition of several reef guilds, including coral mortality, to adjacent development indices (Oliver et al., 2011). Coral reefs, along with other natural systems, are continuing

477

Computer Viruses and Related Threats: A Management Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidance for managing the threats of computer viruses, Trojan horses, network worms, etc. and related software along with unauthorized use. It is geared towards managers of end-user groups, managers dealing with multi-user systems, personal computers, and networks. The guidance is general and addresses the vulnerabilities…

Wack, John P.; Carnahan, Lisa J.

478

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking  

E-print Network

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking R. D structured materials, termed metamaterials (MM), has dramati- cally expanded our view of electromagnetic with metamaterials provides a promising approach--from a device perspective--towards fill- ing this gap

479

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (;)

2005-02-01

480

Coordinating counterterrorism: A strategic approach to a changing threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing global power structures affect the nature and direction of the international terrorist threat. Existing terrorist organizations are adapting to changed circumstances, and new terrorist causes are emerging. At the national level, crime prevention and law enforcement agencies face new challenges, not only in responding to change but also in maximizing their effectiveness against increasingly difficult targets. This article argues

Allan J. Behm; Michael J. Palmer

1991-01-01

481

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

482

Climate Threat to the Planet* Implications for Energy Policy  

E-print Network

. Long-Term Change from Paleoclimate Data 2. Ice Sheet Response Time Regional Climate Disruptions 1Climate Threat to the Planet* Implications for Energy Policy Jim Hansen 4 July 2008 United Nations Emergency - Climate Inertia Warming in Pipeline - Tipping Points Could Lose Control 3. Good News & Bad News

Hansen, James E.

483

Department of public SafetyNovember 23, 2010 BOMB THREAT  

E-print Network

Department of public SafetyNovember 23, 2010 BOMB THREAT cca08-001 (Per U.S. Department at the Knight Library reported having found a threatening message on a chalkboard indicating that bombs were, both buildings will be closed this evening starting at 6:30 p.m., so that bomb dogs can sweep the area

Oregon, University of

484

Bomb Threat Dial 2 for Blue 472-2222  

E-print Network

Bomb Threat Check List Dial 2 for Blue 472-2222 Time Call Received: Exact Words of Caller: Questions to Ask Caller When is the bomb going to explode? Where is the bomb? What kind of bomb is it? What does it look like? What will cause it to explode? Did you place the bomb? Why? Where are you calling

Logan, David

485

BOMB THREAT PLACE THIS CARD UNDER YOUR TELEPHONE  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT PLACE THIS CARD UNDER YOUR TELEPHONE QUESTIONS TO ASK: 1. When is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name

Slatton, Clint

486

How To Handle Bomb Threats and Suspicious Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways schools can handle bomb threats and suspicious devices and describes risk reduction steps in preparation for these events. Suggests security risk reduction can be accomplished through proper use of policies and procedures, conducting staff training, establishing security agreements, and creating crisis preparedness guidelines. (GR)

Trump, Kenneth S.

1999-01-01

487

Climate Tipping Points* The Threat to the Planet  

E-print Network

Climate Tipping Points* The Threat to the Planet Jim Hansen 19 February 2008 Illinois Wesleyan/policymakers) 2. A Planetary Emergency - Climate Inertia Pipeline Effect - Positive Feedbacks Predominate 3. Good. Great Inertia of Systems - Climate: >½ Warming Still `in Pipeline' - Energy Infrastructure: Decades

Hansen, James E.

488

Guidelines for responding to student threats of violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of highly publicized school shootings in the USA generated the misperception of an epidemic of school violence. Fears of school violence stimulated an ill-advised expansion of zero tolerance school discipline policies and the widespread dissemination of profiles or warning signs of potentially dangerous students for use by school administrators. This article presents the rationale for student threat assessment

Dewey G. Cornell

2003-01-01

489

Threat and decline in fishes: an indicator of marine biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policy commitments aim to reduce biodiversity loss and integrate environmental concerns into fisheries management. However, there are few operational indicators for reporting biodiversity trends and judging progress in relation to management objectives. Here we develop a threat indicator based on the population status of a suite of 23 North Sea fishes from 1982 to 2001 estimated using World Conservation

Nicholas K. Dulvy; Simon Jennings; Stuart I. Rogers; David L. Maxwell

2006-01-01

490

Immunity to Popular Stereotypes of Aging? Seniors and Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that seniors' short-term performance is affected by stereotype threat--defined as a situation in which an individual is at risk of confirming a negative characterization about one's group. The current study attempted to replicate and extend these findings to areas of cognitive and physical functioning considered…

Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph; Pearce, William; Deakin, Janice M.

2010-01-01

491

Assessment of Malingering with Simulation Designs: Threats to External Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive forensic evaluations are predicated on the accurate appraisal of response styles that may affect evaluatees' clinical presentation and experts' conclusions associated with psycholegal issues. In the assessment of malingering, forensic experts often rely heavily on standardized measures that have been validated exclusively via analogue research. While such research augments internal validity, the threats to external validity are readily apparent.

Richard Rogers; Keith R. Cruise

1998-01-01

492

Crop Residue Burning: A Threat to South Asian Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 2 decades, crop residues in Punjab, a region spanning northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, have been burned during October and November to ready fields for the next year's planting. This practice poses a serious threat to air quality in South Asia.

Singh, Ramesh P.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.

2014-09-01

493

The Threat of Security: Hindering Technology Integration in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the last year the authors have been gathering examples of how perceived "threats of security" are hampering the integration of technology in teaching and learning. They hope that educators will examine both the challenges of increased security demands and ways in which security might enhance, rather than detract from, the use of technology for…

Robinson, LeAnne K.; Brown, Abbie; Green, Tim

2007-01-01

494

Strategic thoughts about reemphasizing defense against chemical and biological threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countering the threat of chemical and biological weapons brings together a combination of complex and complicated factors, ranging from insufficiently understood proliferation dynamics to political repugnance to science and technology. Because of the complexity, the high stakes involved often fail to be recognized. The country in general and the political process in particular continue to fail to appreciate adequately that

Amoretta Hoeber

2000-01-01

495

Salience of the Nuclear Threat: Operationalization through Spontaneous Concern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An indirect/nonreactive technique of assessing spontaneous concern should be used to examine the salience of the threat of nuclear war. Direct/reactive techniques may produce inconsistent results and inadvertently enhance a false consensus. The procedures for the administration, scoring, and interpretation of a spontaneous concern measure along…

Mayton, Daniel M., II

496

Incident Weekdays After Hours Suicide--Imminent threat or attempt  

E-print Network

Incident Weekdays After Hours Death Suicide--Imminent threat or attempt Walk-In Counseling at UHS form. For more information, please contact Tonya Schmidt, Assistant Dean of Students (tschmidt@studentlife.wisc.edu Acute Emotional Distress Suicide--Suicidal thoughts Sexual Assault*** 911 911 Classroom Emergency

497

Attentional Interference Effects of Emotional Pictures: Threat, Negativity, or Arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional interference arising from emotional pictures was examined. Participants had to ignore emotional pictures while solving math problems (Study 1, N = 126) or detecting the location of a line (Study 2, N = 60). Data analyses tested predictions of 3 theories. Evolutionary threat theory predicts interference by snake pictures. Categorical negativity theory predicts interference by negative pictures regardless of

Ulrich Schimmack

2005-01-01

498

THREAT-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF SECURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

THREAT-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF SECURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Joshua Pauli College of Business approach to the architectural design and analysis of secure information systems. In this approach, we model the traceability of security concerns in high assurance information systems. We demonstrate our approach through

499

The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats  

E-print Network

Review The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats Marta Coll1, University of Thessaly, Nea Ionia, Greece The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, Scientific Spanish Council (IMEDEA-CSIC), Esporles, Spain, 20

Myers, Ransom A.

500

Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

2011-01-01