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1

Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

Sharma, Manoj

2005-01-01

2

OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS: STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (SWOT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging discipline, we propose a formal definition of OBIA, describe how OBIA came into existence, and as a road map to future research propose a fundamental objective. In order to provide potential strategies to meet this objective, we undertake a tentative SWOT Analysis to identify current Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats that OBIA faces, and discuss the results.

G. J. Hay; G. Castilla

3

Evidence-Based Practice and Speech-Language Pathology: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based practice poses. This paper reviews the literature to provide an

Barbara Dodd

2007-01-01

4

Programme coordinators' perceptions of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with school nutrition programmes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: As part of a larger evaluation of school nutrition programmes (SNP), the present study examined programme coordinators' perceptions of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) regarding their SNP and public health professionals' support. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews were conducted with twenty-two of eighty-one programme coordinators who had completed a programme evaluation survey. Interviews followed a SWOT framework to evaluate programmes and assessed coordinators' perceptions regarding current and future partnerships with public health professionals. SETTING: The study was conducted in a large, urban region within Ontario. SUBJECTS: The twenty-two coordinators who participated represented a cross-section of elementary, secondary, Public and Catholic schools. RESULTS: SNP varied enormously in foods/services offered, how they offered them and perceived needs. Major strengths included universality, the ability to reach needy students and the provision of social opportunities. Major weaknesses included challenges in forming funding partnerships, lack of volunteers, scheduling and timing issues, and coordinator workload. Common threats to effective SNP delivery included lack of sustainable funding, complexity in tracking programme use and food distribution, unreliable help from school staff, and conflicts with school administration. Opportunities for increased public health professionals' assistance included menu planning, nutrition education, expansion of programme food offerings, and help identifying community partners and sustainable funding. CONCLUSIONS: The present research identified opportunities for improving SNP and strategies for building on strengths. Since programmes were so diverse, tailored strategies are needed. Public health professionals can play a major role through supporting menu planning, food safety training, access to healthy foods, curriculum planning and by building community partnerships. PMID:23768442

Valaitis, Renata F; Hanning, Rhona M; Herrmann, Isabela S

2013-06-17

5

Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey.  

PubMed

Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food and environmental settings. We describe principles of current formats, applications, limitations and perspectives for quantitative monitoring. We illustrate the potentials and limitations of analysis with lateral flow (immuno)assays using a literature survey and a SWOT analysis (acronym for "strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats"). Articles referred to in this survey were searched for on MEDLINE, Scopus and in references of reviewed papers. Search terms included "immunochromatography", "sol particle immunoassay", "lateral flow immunoassay" and "dipstick assay". PMID:18696055

Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

2008-08-13

6

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2010-07-08

7

The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.  

PubMed

There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights. PMID:8912121

Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

1996-12-01

8

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

9

PERCEIVED STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS IMPACTING THE DIFFUSION OF DISTANCE EDUCATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with using distance education (DE) technologies in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Texas A&M University from the perspective of administrators, faculty, and professional support staff. Rogers ' Diffusion of Innovation (1995) served as the theoretical underpinnings for the study. Qualitative research (naturalistic

Theresa Pesl Murphrey; Kim E. Dooley

2000-01-01

10

Special Education and Rehabilitation in Georgia: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats in a Newly-Independent State of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-nine Georgian professionals from the fields of health, education, and rehabilitation were brought together for a week-long workshop to discuss issues related to disability, rehabilitation, and special education. Workshop activities included a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of special education in Georgia.…

Hobbs, Tim; Szydlowski, Steven; West, Daniel, Jr.; Germava, Otar

2002-01-01

11

An Examination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Associated with the Adoption of Moodle[TM] by eXtension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of technology to deliver programming across Extension has been addressed widely; however, little research has been conducted concerning the use of Moodle[TM] as a course management system for Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the use of…

Hightower, Tayla Elise; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Coppernoll, Susanna Mumm; Jahedkar, Jennifer; Dooley, Kim E.

2011-01-01

12

Focused SWOT: diagnosing critical strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the problems involved in its use, SWOT (strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats) analysis remains a major strategic tool for listing the strengths and weaknesses of an organisation, for recording the major strengths and translating them into value. This paper presents a straightforward methodology for making a structured analysis of strengths and weaknesses, based on an analysis of important value-creating events and the strengths

Alex Coman; Boaz Ronen

2009-01-01

13

Strategic analyses in nursing schools: attracting, educating, and graduating more nursing students: part I--strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.  

PubMed

The shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. This research uses familiar tools in strategic management: the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and stakeholder analysis as initial steps to draw more students to the profession of nursing. In a 2-round modified Delphi survey, chief administrators of schools of nursing identify the main SWOT of schools of nursing and the important internal and external stakeholders that influence nursing school success. The authors of the research suggest ways to use that knowledge to increase the enrollment level of nursing students. Part I of this research focuses on the SWOT analyses. PMID:18695403

Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J; Mahesh, Sathiadev; McLendon, Christy L; Henson, Steve W; Jacques, Paul

14

Application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis in the development of a health technology assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been recent interest in developing a health technology assessment (HTA) function in Estonia. A group of individuals knowledgeable about HTA in Canada, Germany, Romania and Spain, along with representatives of the University of Tartu, Estonia, was convened by the Institute of Health Economics in Edmonton, Canada, to consider options for such a function. In a one-day workshop strengths,

Bernhard Gibis; Justo Artiles; Paula Corabian; Kersti Meiesaar; Agris Koppel; Philip Jacobs; Pedro Serrano; Devidas Menon

2001-01-01

15

Strength and Weakness of Animal Vaccine Industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the introduction of the status of animal vaccine industry in China, the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of animal vaccine industry is analyzed by SWOT. Among them, strength is mainly reflected in the broad market, and the favorable industrial policy and development environment. Weakness is the irrational structure of product, the nonstandard production inspection, and the irregular market.

Hong-hai Xie; Geng-xin Wang

2010-01-01

16

The Strength of Weak Terrorist Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current age of technology, mass communication, and globalization makes networks analysis an especially useful tool for understanding cell-based terrorism. Some concepts from traditional networks analysis may be especially relevant. The Strength of Weak Ties hypothesis (SWT) is particularly promising and will be used here to demonstrate the usability of traditional networks analysis for studying modern terrorism. The findings suggest

Jonathan Kennedy; Gabriel Weimann

2011-01-01

17

Strengths and weaknesses of parallel tempering.  

PubMed

Parallel tempering, also known as replica exchange Monte Carlo, is studied in the context of two simple free-energy landscapes. The first is a double-well potential defined by two macrostates separated by a barrier. The second is a "golf course" potential defined by microstates having two possible energies with exponentially more high-energy states than low-energy states. The equilibration time for replica exchange is analyzed for both systems. For the double-well system, parallel tempering with a number of replicas that scales as the square root of the barrier height yields exponential speedup of the equilibration time. On the other hand, replica exchange yields only marginal speedup for the golf course system. For the double-well system, the free-energy difference between the two wells has a large effect on the equilibration time. Nearly degenerate wells equilibrate much more slowly than strongly asymmetric wells. It is proposed that this difference in equilibration time may lead to a bias in measuring overlaps in spin glasses. These examples illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of replica exchange and may serve as a guide for understanding and improving the method in various applications. PMID:20365095

Machta, J

2009-11-24

18

Weakness  

MedlinePLUS

Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... weak, but there is no real loss of strength. For example, you may feel weak if you ... flu . Objective means there is a loss of strength that can be noted during a physical exam.

19

Muscular weakness assessment: Use of normal isometric strength data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of muscle strength is vital to the management of patients with muscular weakness. Clinical interpretation of isometric strength data for individual patients has been limited because of the lack of a reference population for comparison. The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations to predict maximal isometric strength based on gender, age, height, and weight. Patients'

1996-01-01

20

Cultural Capital: Strengths, Weaknesses and Two Advancements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu's work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly between the work on social mobility and on…

van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

2010-01-01

21

The Strength of the Weak Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A career devoted to the study of weak interactions and fundamental symmetries is summarized. Subjects include the induced pseudoscalar coupling in muon capture, the hypothesis of a superweak interaction, the oscillation of neutrinos in matter, and a parameterization of the CKM matrix of particular importance for B physics. Also discussed are the origin of the Aspen Center for Physics and activities related to the dangers of nuclear weapons.

Wolfenstein, Lincoln

2004-12-01

22

The OR\\/MS Ecosystem: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is dedicated to Arthur Geoffrion, who serves as role model of a great researcher, educator, and practitioner. We believe that research, teaching, and practice are becoming increasingly disengaged from one another in the OR\\/MS ecosystem. This ecosystem comprises researchers, educators, and practitioners in its core along with end users, universities, and funding agencies. Continuing disengagement will result in

Manmohan S. Sodhi; Christopher S. Tang

2008-01-01

23

Strengths and Weaknesses of Family Business: The Indian Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper “Strengths and Weaknesses of Family Business: The Indian Context” was written and presented in CII, Family Business Meet at Jaipur. The paper examines the location and status of family businesses in the industrial context of India. Indian Family businesses shifted from trading and distribution to manufacturing. The shift demanded changes in leadership role, mindsets of people and the

Parikh Indira J

24

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N = 181, 56% female and…

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

25

Predicting and verifying transition strengths from weakly bound molecules  

SciTech Connect

We investigated transition strengths from ultracold weakly bound {sup 41}K{sup 87}Rb molecules produced via the photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms. An accurate potential energy curve of the excited state (3){sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} was constructed by carrying out direct potential fit analysis of rotational spectra obtained via depletion spectroscopy. Vibrational energies and rotational constants extracted from the depletion spectra of v{sup '}=41-50 levels were combined with the results of the previous spectroscopic study and they were used for modifying an ab initio potential. An accuracy of 0.14% in vibrational level spacing and 0.3% in rotational constants was sufficient to predict the large observed variation in transition strengths among the vibrational levels. Our results show that transition strengths from weakly bound molecules are a good measure of the accuracy of an excited state potential.

Aikawa, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Akamatsu, D.; Kobayashi, J. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, M. [JST, ERATO, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inouye, S. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2011-04-15

26

Flowchart-format emergency operating procedures-strengths and weaknesses  

SciTech Connect

An increasing number of nuclear power plant licensees are converting their text-format emergency operating procedures (EOPs) to flowcharts. Findings of a recent study of the flowchart-format EOPs indicate that the flowchart format appears to solve several significant usability problems associated with text-format EOPs, but also introduces other types of usability concerns. This paper discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of the flowchart format for presenting EOPs.

Barnes, V.E.; Bongarra, J.P. Jr.

1989-01-01

27

Strengths and Weaknesses of Grassroot Jihadist Networks: The Madrid Bombings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass-roots jihadist networks represent a launch-pad for the Global Jihad Movement, particularly in Europe and the United States. This article explores the concept of a grass-roots jihadist network, the profile of its members, and what influence the network may have on key elements within the Global Jihad Movement. The article will also analyze in detail the strengths and weaknesses of

Javier Jordan; Fernando M. Mañas; Nicola Horsburgh

2008-01-01

28

Protrusive tongue strength in people with severely weak tongues.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of the study was to quantify tongue protrusion force and compare its characteristics between participants with severely weak tongues and those with normal lingual strength. The sample consisted of 11 participants with severe lingual strength deficits and 11 age- and sex-matched participants with normal lingual strength. Tongue force was evaluated quantitatively using the Forling instrument, and the average force, maximum force, average force application rate, and area under the graphic curve were analysed. These parameters were compared between the groups. In the participants with severely weak tongues, the average and the maximum forces in N (Newton) were 2.03 ± 1.17 and 3.56 ± 1.77, respectively. The average force application rate in N/s (Newton per second) was 1.25 and the area under the graphic curve in Ns (Newton times second) was 18.6. The values of the participants with normal lingual strength were, respectively, 13.27 ± 6.15 N, 18.91 ± 7.95 N, 10.46 N/s, and 108.08 Ns. All parameters analysed differed significantly between the groups. The data collected could aid speech-language pathologists in diagnosing problems related to tongue force. PMID:23336828

Furlan, Renata M M M; Motta, Andréa R; Valentim, Amanda F; Barroso, Márcio F S; Costa, Cláudio G; Casas, Estevam B Las

2013-01-22

29

Minority threat and police strength: an examination of the Golden State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross?sectional study examined the relationships between indicators of law enforcement spending, police strength, and minority threat in California in 2004. Controlling for economic conditions, crime, and indicators of social disruption we find that counties with higher populations of American Indians, Asians, or blacks and non?English speakers employ a greater number of sworn officers, or have increased spending on law

Rick Ruddell; Matthew O. Thomas

2010-01-01

30

Phytochemicals for bacterial resistance--strengths, weaknesses and opportunities.  

PubMed

This review covers some of the opportunities which currently exist to exploit plants for their natural products as templates for new antibacterial substances. This is a timely exercise given the continuing and developing problems of bacterial resistance, and in particular multidrug-resistance (MDR). Some of the challenges which are evident with bacterial resistance will be described and the strengths and weaknesses of plant natural products are highlighted. Opportunities to characterise antibacterial compounds from several key taxa are described with activity against methicillin-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA), MDR variants of this species and MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (MTB). These pathogens continue to cause problems in terms of their eradication and spread and MTB strains which are extremely-drug resistant (XDR) promise to afford an additional challenge for clinicians. The review also covers plant natural products that modulate or modify bacterial resistance. Specific examples include plant-derived efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) which inhibit bacterial antibiotic efflux mechanisms that are problematic due to their broadness in substrate specificity. A summary on future trends and directions in this fruitful and interesting area is also given. PMID:18446673

Gibbons, Simon

2008-04-29

31

Strengths and Weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of NNESTs in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) are always compared with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) on linguistic grounds, their strengths and weaknesses as English teachers are worthy of investigation. This paper reports on a mixed methods study which examines the strengths and weaknesses of NNESTs and NESTs through the…

Ma, Lai Ping Florence

2012-01-01

32

Internalizing Strengths: An Overlooked Way of Overcoming Weaknesses in Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a process of development in which managers move beyond addressing shortcomings and are encouraged to recognize and internalize their strengths. The document begins with the idea that the failure to recognize one's strengths is at the root of many performance problems. It describes the difficulty in getting managers to…

Kaplan, Robert E.

33

Isometric strength measurement for muscle weakness in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to determine several indexes of reproducibility for strength measurements with a hand-held pull-gauge dynamometer (MFB50K) in cancer patients. Two independent testers performed repeated measurements of maximal isometric elbow and knee strength. The measurements were gathered in a convenience sample of 40 patients (27 men, age 20-72 years) with various types and stages of cancer. These patients were

Ruud H. Knols; Karel H. Stappaerts; Jaap Fransen; Daniel Uebelhart; Geert Aufdemkampe

2002-01-01

34

Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

2013-01-01

35

Reasons Reviewers Reject and Accept Manuscripts: The Strengths and Weaknesses in Medical Education Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored strengths and weaknesses of medical education reports by analyzing ratings and written comments by reviewers. Found that the main strengths noted in accepted manuscripts were importance or timeliness of problem studied, excellence of writing, and soundness of study design. Ignoring the literature, designing poor studies, choosing…

Bordage, Georges

2001-01-01

36

Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

2013-01-01

37

Written Communication Competencies: Strength and Weaknesses of Agricultural Education Graduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the written communication competency strengths and weaknesses of agricultural education graduate students. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze writing samples from 44 graduate students at three different universities. Using the overall writing strength rubric discussed above, three students (6.8%) demonstrated adequacy in competence to write an argument paper. Fifteen

James R. Lindner; Tim H. Murphy; Gary J. Wingenbach

38

Objective evaluation of muscle strength in infants with hypotonia and muscle weakness.  

PubMed

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17 infants with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) aged 24 months. The inter-rater reliability of the measurement method was good (ICC=.84) and the convergent validity was confirmed by high Pearson's correlations between muscle strength, age, height, and weight (r=.79-.85). A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict muscle strength based on age, height, and weight, explaining 73% of the variance in muscle strength. In infants with PWS, muscle strength was significantly decreased. Pearson's correlations showed that infants with PWS in which muscle strength was more severely affected also had a larger motor developmental delay (r=.75). PMID:23380578

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Staal, J Bart; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Otten, Barto J; Pelzer, Ben J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

2013-02-01

39

A weak pillar for American national security: The CIA's dismal performance against WMD threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

American preemptive or preventive military action against WMD-armed adversaries in the future will simply not be feasible without high-quality and timely intelligence. But is American intelligence up to this load-bearing task for the post-11 September national security? This article surveys the Central Intelligence Agency's record of gauging potential WMD threats for more than a decade and assesses its overall performance

Richard L. Russell

2005-01-01

40

The strengths and weaknesses of transitional support programs for newly registered nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The transition experiences of new graduate nurses from university to the workplace have not changed since the transfer of nurse education to the tertiary sector despite the implementation of transition support programs. This study aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of transition support programs for newly registered nurses. Design A qualitative descriptive design using face to face interviews

Jennifer Evans; Elaine Boxer; Shukri Sanber

41

The Strength of Weak Ties in Electronic Development of the Scholarly Communication System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three overlapping models of new technology diffusion are described in relation to the Internet: (1) individual threshold; (2) critical mass; and (3) strength of weak ties. The prospective role of academic libraries in the electronic development of the scholarly communication system is discussed, and further research is suggested. (55 references)…

Schwartz, Charles A.

1994-01-01

42

Library anxiety and characteristic strengths and weaknesses of graduate students’ study habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to identify graduate students’ predominant study habit strengths and weaknesses as well as to examine empirically the relationship between specific study habits and library anxiety. Participants were 133 graduate students in the field of education at a university in the southeast of the USA. These individuals were administered the study habits inventory (SHI) and the library

Qun G. Jiao; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2001-01-01

43

Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

2009-01-01

44

The voluntary community health movement in India: A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A

Manoj Sharma; Gayatri Bhatia

1996-01-01

45

Oscillator strength measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet. IV - Weak lines of neutral carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillator strengths of 20 lines of neutral carbon, belonging to 10 weak multiplets in the 1200-2000 A spectral range are measured in emission with a wall-stabilized arc. Through comparisons with a strong C I reference line, the absolute scale of oscillator strengths of the investigated weak lines is connected to that for strong multiplets by Goldbach and Nollez (1987). The uncertainty in the absolute gf-values is at the 20 percent level. The good agreement found for the strong lines with the theoretical absolute scale of Nussbaumer and Storey (1984) is confirmed for lines with gf-values smaller by a factor of ten, but fails for the weakest lines.

Goldbach, C.; Martin, M.; Nollez, G.

1989-08-01

46

Weak > strong: the ironic effect of argument strength on supportive advocacy.  

PubMed

When people seek support for a cause, they typically present the strongest case they can muster. The present research suggests that under some conditions, the opposite strategy may be superior-in particular, presenting weak rather than strong arguments might stimulate greater advocacy and action. Across four studies, we show that when individuals already agree with a cause (i.e., it is pro-attitudinal), receiving weak arguments in its favor can prompt them into advocating more on its behalf. Perceived argumentation efficacy mediates this effect such that people exposed to weak arguments are more likely to think they have something valuable to contribute. Moreover, consistent with the notion that it is driven by feelings of increased efficacy, the effect is more likely to emerge when initial argumentation efficacy and attitude certainty are moderate or low. Individuals with high argumentation efficacy and high certainty generally advocate more, regardless of the strength of arguments received. PMID:23798375

Akhtar, Omair; Paunesku, David; Tormala, Zakary L

2013-06-24

47

Strengths and weaknesses of McNamara's evolutionary psychological model of dreaming.  

PubMed

This article includes a brief overview of McNamara's (2004) evolutionary model of dreaming. The strengths and weaknesses of this model are then evaluated in terms of its consonance with measurable neurological and biological properties of dreaming, its fit within the tenets of evolutionary theories of dreams, and its alignment with evolutionary concepts of cooperation and spirituality. McNamara's model focuses primarily on dreaming that occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; therefore this article also focuses on REM dreaming. PMID:22947819

Olliges, Sandra

2010-10-07

48

Methods, strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of bioequivalence tests with special regard to immunosuppressive drugs.  

PubMed

Within the field of solid organ transplantation, the patents for a number of immunosuppressive drugs have expired in the last few years. Tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil are now available as generic drugs. In some countries, the market penetration of these generic formulations is as high as 70%, whereas in some other countries, this figure is below 10%. Several professional societies have published position papers on the risks and benefits of generic substitution of immunosuppressive drugs. It often appears that transplant professionals are not fully aware of the requirements for registration of generic drugs. This article describes the registration requirements with a focus on bioequivalence testing, the strengths and weaknesses in this process, and the differences between Europe and the US. PMID:23441971

van Gelder, Teun; Gabardi, Steven

2013-02-27

49

The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

Andrekus, N.J.

1989-01-01

50

Conventional 4-bar linkage knee mechanisms: a strength-weakness analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to inform clinicians of the relevant knowledge gained from research in the field of prosthetics. From a biomechanical point of view, clinicians need relevant knowledge in order to properly prescribe a lower limb prosthesis, including prosthetic components. In this context, and due to the lack of data regarding their utility, a strength-weakness analysis of 8 types of 4-bar linkage knee mechanisms has been carried out. Free-moving knees are intrinsically stable in the stance phase of walking when the O degrees center of rotation is behind the femur head to heel line. This was found in 5 of the 8 knees. Furthermore, bending the knee at toe-off requires force. The hip-flexion-torque required is smaller when the O degrees center of rotation is closer to the femur head to toe line and is dependent on the measure of axial load. Comparatively, however, much energy is usually still necessary. This can be improved. The maximal axial residual limb load, the maximal hip-moment, and the energy required are, on investigation of the knees, approximately the same in relation to the walking speed during the swing phase of gait. Friction influences the swing characteristics of the prosthetic lower limb considerably. In this context, little is yet known about swing phase knee control units. The present 4-bar linkage knees-with-lock are a derivation of the free-moving knees. Their movement characteristics, and often heavy construction, are of no relevance when walking with a fixed knee. In proportion, much energy is required. Therefore, there is a demand for a simple knee mechanism that moves freely during the swing phase, locks at the beginning of the stance phase, and unlocks at the end of it. PMID:7760266

de Vries, J

1995-02-01

51

Strength of chrysotile-serpentinite gouge under hydrothermal conditions: Can it explain a weak San Andreas fault?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chrysotile-bearing serpentinite is a constituent of the San Andreas fault zone in central and northern California. At room temperature, chrysotile gouge has a very low coefficient of friction (?? ??? 0.2), raising the possibility that under hydrothermal conditions ?? might be reduced sufficiently (to ???0.1) to explain the apparent weakness of the fault. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frictional strength of a pure chrysotile gouge at temperatures to 290??C and axial-shortening velocities as low as 0.001 ??m/s. As temperature increases to ???100??C, the strength of the chrysotile gouge decreases slightly at low velocities, but at temperatures ???200??C, it is substantially stronger and essentially independent of velocity at the lowest velocities tested. We estimate that pure chrysotile gouge at hydrostatic fluid pressure and appropriate temperatures would have shear strength averaged over a depth of 14 km of 50 MPa. Thus, on the sole basis of its strength, chrysotile cannot be the cause of a weak San Andreas fault. However, chrysotile may also contribute to low fault strength by forming mineral seals that promote the development of high fluid pressures.

Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.; Summers, R.; Shengli, M.; Byerlee, J. D.

1996-01-01

52

Strengths and weaknesses of parent-staff communication in the NICU: a survey assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) find themselves in a situation of emotional strain. Communication in the NICU presents special challenges due to parental stress and the complexity of the highly technologized environment. Parents’ need for communication may not always be met by the NICU staff. This study aimed to describe strengths and weaknesses of parent–nurse and parent–doctor communication in a large level III NICU in Sweden in order to improve our understanding of parents’ communication needs. Methods Parents were asked to complete a survey consisting of sixteen questions about their experiences of communication with nurses and doctors in the NICU. In each question the parents evaluated some aspect of communication on a five- or six-point Likert scale. They also had the opportunity on each question to comment on their experiences in their own words. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 and qualitative manifest content analysis. Results 270 parents (71.4%) completed the survey. Parents generally rated communication with the staff in the NICU positively and appreciated having received emotional support and regular information about their child´s care. Although a large majority of the parents were satisfied with their communication with doctors and nurses, only about half of the parents felt the nurses and doctors understood their emotional situation very well. Some parents would have desired easier access to conversations with doctors and wanted medical information to be given directly by doctors rather than by nurses. Parents’ communication with the staff was hampered when many different nurses were involved in caring for the infant or when the transfer of information in connection with shift changes or between the maternity ward and NICU was poor. Parents also desired to be present during doctors’ rounds on their infant. Conclusions Training both doctors and nurses in communication skills, especially in how to meet parents’ emotional needs better, could make communication at the NICU more effective and improve parental well-being. Creating a framework for the parents of what to expect from NICU communication might also be helpful. In addition, our results support the use of primary nurse teams to improve continuity of care and thereby promote successful communication.

2013-01-01

53

Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden.  

PubMed

Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed. PMID:19833498

Dahlén, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

2009-10-14

54

The Strength of Weak Cooperation:an Attempt to Understand the Meaning of Web 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some continuities and ruptures in the use of Web 2.0 such as blogs, social media, user-generated content services etc. vis-à-vis earlier web services. We hypothesize that one of the sociological characteristics of Web 2.0 services is that making personal production public creates a new articulation between individualism and solidarity, which reveals the strength of weak cooperation. Web

Dominique Cardon; Christophe Cardon

2007-01-01

55

Role of weak interface to retain high strength of fiber in monofilamentary SiC fiber\\/titanium-aluminide composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of monofilamentary weakly bonded SiC fiber\\/?-TiAl intermetallic compound matrix composite, prepared by the sputtering method, was measured and analysed using a fracture mechanical technique. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) The fracture of TiAl occurred prior to that of fiber, resulting in formation of circumferential cracks on the fiber. Interfacial debonding occurred during tensile test,

S. Ochiai; T. Inoue; M. Hojo; H.-J. Dudek; R. Leucht

1996-01-01

56

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Using Social Software in Higher and Further Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social software is increasingly being used in higher and further education to support teaching and learning processes. These applications provide students with social and cognitive stimulation and also add to the interaction between students and educators. However, in addition to the benefits the introduction of social software into a course…

Schroeder, A.; Minocha, S.; Schneider, C.

2010-01-01

57

The expression and interpretation of uncertain forensic science evidence: verbal equivalence, evidence strength, and the weak evidence effect.  

PubMed

Standards published by the Association of Forensic Science Providers (2009, Standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic science expert opinion, Science & Justice, Vol. 49, pp. 161-164) encourage forensic scientists to express their conclusions in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR), in which the value of the evidence is conveyed verbally or numerically. In this article, we report two experiments (using undergraduates and Mechanical Turk recruits) designed to investigate how much decision makers change their beliefs when presented with evidence in the form of verbal or numeric LRs. In Experiment 1 (N = 494), participants read a summary of a larceny trial containing inculpatory expert testimony in which evidence strength (low, moderate, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical) varied. In Experiment 2 (N = 411), participants read the same larceny trial, this time including either exculpatory or inculpatory expert evidence that varied in strength (low, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical). Both studies found a reasonable degree of correspondence in observed belief change resulting from verbal and numeric formats. However, belief change was considerably smaller than Bayesian calculations would predict. In addition, participants presented with evidence weakly supporting guilt tended to "invert" the evidence, thereby counterintuitively reducing their belief in the guilt of the accused. This "weak evidence effect" was most apparent in the verbal presentation conditions of both experiments, but only when the evidence was inculpatory. These findings raise questions about the interpretability of LRs by jurors and appear to support an expectancy-based account of the weak evidence effect. PMID:23750600

Martire, Kristy A; Kemp, Richard I; Watkins, Ian; Sayle, Malindi A; Newell, Ben R

2013-06-01

58

A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

2012-01-01

59

Nuclear Energy: Its Strengths, Weaknesses and Role in Finland (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear energy has, in principle, various strengths as an energy form. In spite of the drawbacks of nuclear power, the benefits exceed its cost. That is why power companies in Finland have decided to apply for the construction, of the fifth nuclear power ...

A. Ruuskanen

1991-01-01

60

Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To explore the attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese towards the strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine.?DESIGN—Qualitative study of subjects' opinions using semi-structured focus group interviews.?SETTING—Southern district of Hong Kong Island where many of the residents have a fisherman background.?PARTICIPANTS—Twenty nine participants took part in eight focus group interviews. Measurements and main results—Participants' attitudes towards TCM and Western medicine were explored in the interviews. Both TCM and Western medicine are used concurrently by many people in Hong Kong. Patients make decisions on which type of doctors they want to see for the specific illnesses that they are suffering from. They consider both types of medicines to have strengths and weaknesses: TCM being better in curing the root of the problem but quite slow in action while Western medicine is more powerful but sometimes too powerful with significant side effects.?CONCLUSIONS—It is important for medical practitioners to be aware of the health attitudes of their patients from different ethnic backgrounds. It will lead to a better patient-doctor relationship and better compliance of treatment.???Keywords: Chinese medicine

Lam, T

2001-01-01

61

Lessons from Dwarf8 on the strengths and weaknesses of structured association mapping.  

PubMed

The strengths of association mapping lie in its resolution and allelic richness, but spurious associations arising from historical relationships and selection patterns need to be accounted for in statistical analyses. Here we reanalyze one of the first generation structured association mapping studies of the Dwarf8 (d8) locus with flowering time in maize using the full range of new mapping populations, statistical approaches, and haplotype maps. Because this trait was highly correlated with population structure, we found that basic structured association methods overestimate phenotypic effects in the region, while mixed model approaches perform substantially better. Combined with analysis of the maize nested association mapping population (a multi-family crossing design), it is concluded that most, if not all, of the QTL effects at the general location of the d8 locus are from rare extended haplotypes that include other linked QTLs and that d8 is unlikely to be involved in controlling flowering time in maize. Previous independent studies have shown evidence for selection at the d8 locus. Based on the evidence of population bottleneck, selection patterns, and haplotype structure observed in the region, we suggest that multiple traits may be strongly correlated with population structure and that selection on these traits has influenced segregation patterns in the region. Overall, this study provides insight into how modern association and linkage mapping, combined with haplotype analysis, can produce results that are more robust. PMID:23437002

Larsson, Sara J; Lipka, Alexander E; Buckler, Edward S

2013-02-21

62

The Shear Behavior of Bedding Planes of Weakness Between Two Different Rock Types with High Strength Difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the shear behavior of discontinuities caused by bedding planes of weakness between two different rock types with high strength difference is investigated. The effect of roughness and compressive strength of joint wall in such discontinuities are studied. The designed profiles consist of two regular and three irregular artificial joints molded by three types of plaster mortars with different uniaxial compressive strengths. Firstly, it is demonstrated that the shear behavior of discontinuities with different joint wall compressive strengths (JCS) is different from rock joints with identical wall compressive strengths by showing that Barton’s empirical criterion is not appropriate for the former discontinuities. After that, some correlation equations are proposed between the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) parameter and some surface statistical/fractal parameters, and the normal stress range of Barton’s strength criterion is also modified to be used for such discontinuities. Then, a new empirical criterion is proposed for these discontinuities in such a way that a rational function is used instead of JRC log10(JCS/ ? n) as i 0( ? c/ ? n)a/[ b + ( ? c/ ? n) a ] by satisfying the peak dilation angle boundary conditions under zero and very high normal stress (physical infinite normal stress causing zero peak dilation angle). The proposed criterion has three surface parameters: i 0, a, and b. The reason for separation of i 0 from JRC is indicated and the method of its calculation is mentioned based on the literature. The two remaining coefficients ( a and b) are discussed in detail and it is shown that a shows a power-law relationship with b, introducing the coefficient c through b = c a . Then, it is expressed that a is directly related to discontinuity surface topography. Finally, it is shown that the coefficient c has higher values in irregular profiles in comparison with regular profiles and is dominated by intensity of peak dilation angle reduction (majorly related to the surface irregularity and minorly related to roughness). The coefficient c is to be determined by performing regression analysis on experimental data.

Ghazvinian, A. H.; Taghichian, A.; Hashemi, Mahmoud; Mar'ashi, S. A.

2010-02-01

63

Strengths and weaknesses of microarray approaches to detect Pseudo-nitzschia species in the field.  

PubMed

The planktonic diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia contains several genetically closely related species. Some of these can produce domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin. Thus, monitoring programs are needed to screen for the presence of these toxic species. Unfortunately, many are impossible to distinguish using light microscopy. Therefore, we assessed the applicability of microarray technology for detection of toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea). Here, 11 species have been detected, of which at least 5 are potentially toxic. A total of 49 genus- and species-specific DNA probes were designed in silico against the nuclear LSU and SSU rRNA of 19 species, and spotted on the microarray. The microarray was tested against total RNA of monoclonal cultures of eight species. Only three of the probes designed to be species-specific were indeed so within the limits of our experimental design. To assess the effectiveness of the microarray in detecting Pseudo-nitzschia species in environmental samples, we hybridized total RNA extracted from 11 seasonal plankton samples against microarray slides and compared the observed pattern with plankton counts in light microscopy and with expected hybridization patterns obtained with monoclonal cultures of the observed species. Presence of species in field samples generally resulted in signal patterns on the microarray as observed with RNA extracted from cultures of these species, but many a-specific signals appeared as well. Possible reasons for the numerous cross reactions are discussed. Calibration curves for Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata showed linear relationship between signal strength and cell number. PMID:24065245

Barra, Lucia; Ruggiero, Maria Valeria; Sarno, Diana; Montresor, Marina; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F

2012-11-28

64

The students' voice: Strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country, a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In medical education, feedback from students' is essential in course evaluation and development. Students at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka complete a five year medical curriculum comprising of five different streams. We aimed to evaluate the five year medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A qualitative research was conducted among recent graduates of the faculty. Students' opinions on strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum were collected via questionnaires, which were analysed and classified into common themes. A focus group discussion (FGD) based on these themes was conducted among two student groups, each comprising of a facilitator, two observers and nine students selected as a representative sample from questionnaire respondents. FGDs were conducted using a semi-structured set of open-ended questions to guide participants and maintain consistency between groups. The FGD evaluated the reasons behind students' perceptions, attitudes, emotions and perceived solution. Verbal and non-verbal responses were transcribed and analysed. Results Questionnaire response rate was 82% (153/186). Students highlighted 68 and 135 different responses on strengths and weaknesses respectively. After analysis of both questionnaire and FGD results the following themes emerged: a well organized module system, increased frequency of assessments, a good variety in clinical appointments, lack of specific objectives and assessments at clinical appointments, community and behavioural sciences streams beneficial but too much time allocation, lengthy duration of course, inadequate knowledge provided on pharmacology and pathology. Conclusion We demonstrate how a brief qualitative method could be efficiently used to evaluate a curriculum spanning a considerable length of time. This method provided an insight into the students' attitudes and perceptions of the present faculty curriculum. Qualitative feedback from students highlighted certain key areas that need attention and also possible solutions as perceived by the students'.

2011-01-01

65

Assessing the Skill of Hydrology Models at Simulating the Water Cycle in the HJ Andrews LTER: Assumptions, Strengths and Weaknesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulated impacts of climate on the timing, magnitude and duration of streamflow can vary greatly as a function of the scale of the input data, model assumptions, and model structure. Three models have been used recently to simulate streamflow in the Pacific Northwest US: the MC1 Dynamic Global Vegetation Model that simulates ecosystem processes and wildfires at regional to global scales, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model that simulates detailed physical processes in the hydrology cycle for regional hydrological assessments, and the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) model designed to link hydrology, plant carbon, and nitrogen cycling at the watershed scale. We compared results from the three models to observed long-term streamflow records from the HJ Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site to document differences in the models' assumptions about water dynamics at the watershed scale. We present monthly and annual results from our comparison, and discuss model strengths and weaknesses (at what scale are the models most relevant? can models inform each other?).

Osborne-gowey, J. D.; Mauger, G. S.; Garcia, E.; Tague, C.; Ferschweiler, K.; Bachelet, D. M.

2011-12-01

66

The Accelerated Reader: An Analysis of the Software's Strengths and Weaknesses and How It Can Be Used to Its Best Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Accelerated Reader (AR), a computer software program that promotes reading; discusses AR hardware requirements; explains how it is used for book selection and testing in schools; assesses the program's strengths and weaknesses; and describes how Grant and Madison Elementary Schools (Muscatine, Iowa) have used the program effectively.…

Poock, Melanie M.

1998-01-01

67

A longitudinal study on the Ghislenghien disaster in Belgium: strengths and weaknesses of the study design and influence on response rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (Belgium) on physical, mental and social health, and to evaluate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the affected population. Objectives To describe the set up of the study, to report on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology employed and its influence

Versporten APR; Zech E

68

Threat displays are not handicaps.  

PubMed

Within a general framework of handicap signalling it was proposed that threat displays are handicaps, they can work only if they put the signaller at a disadvantage, which is only acceptable to honest signallers. The aim of the present article is to investigate this proposal with the help of a simple game-theoretical model. It was found: (1) that the use of cost-free signals is an ESS against the invasion of handicapped signals even if cheating is played as part of a mixed strategy in the population; (2) that the use of handicaps may be an ESS against cost-free signals but only if we assume that the invading cost-free signal is not accepted by weak individuals as a signal of strength; (3) that the establishment of a handicapped signal in the first place is an unresolved problem, because both cost free signals and negative-handicaps are evolutionarily stable against the invasion of handicaps; (4) that in contrast to handicaps the use of negative-handicaps can invade a population using cost-free signals (a negative-handicap is a signal which may serve other functions as well); (5) that negative-handicaps are ESS against cost-free signals as well as against handicaps; and (6) thus, the most likely evolutionary end point is that the biggest negative-handicap would be used as a threat display. This is a posture, which prepares the animal most efficiently to fight; hence, most probably it is the initial position of the fighting technique of the given species. (7) Finally, the investigation of the threat displays of well-studied taxa (great tit, cats, dogs, and hoofed mammals) confirms that threat displays are indeed negative-handicaps. They do not put the user into a disadvantaged position, instead the initial position of the species specific fighting technique is used as a threat display as predicted by the present model. PMID:12642112

Számadó, Szabolcs

2003-04-01

69

Weak faults in a strong crust: Geodynamic constraints on fault strength, stress in the crust, and the vertical distribution of strength in the lithosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of steady-state dynamic finite element numerical models for the state of stress and strain rate in the crust and upper mantle in the vicinity of a transform fault. Model rheology is elastic-viscous-plastic where plastic mechanical behavior is used as a proxy for pressure-dependent friction of the seismogenic crust. Viscous flow is incorporated as temperature dependent, power-law creep. We assume that the crust outside the fault zone is at or near its frictional yield strength (i.e., `strong', e.g., Townend and Zoback, 2001) predicted by Byerlee's Law and aim to determine the acceptable range of fault strength and viscosity distributions that satisfy the observations that seismic faulting extends to typically 15 km and that the tectonic strain rate of fault-bounding blocks is small. Assuming the traditional `christmas-tree' strength distribution of the lithosphere (e.g., Brace and Kohlstedt, 1980), our primary results are the following. The upper limit of fault strength is approximately 30 MPa (averaged over 15 km), the majority (>50%) of the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere resides in the uppermost mantle, and the depth to which frictional deformation occurs in the crustal blocks depends on the strength of nearby faults and viscosity of the lower crust and should not exceed approximately 6-9 km, below which relatively low strain rate viscous creep is the dominant deformation mechanism. We also incorporate the thermal feedback effects of viscous and frictional shear heating and explore the controls on the distribution of shear strain in the lower crust and upper mantle.

Fay, N.; Humphreys, G.

2005-12-01

70

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular\\u000a motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength\\u000a in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular\\u000a musculature balance. A passive posterior

Giovanni Merolla; Elisa De Santis; Fabrizio Campi; Paolo Paladini; Giuseppe Porcellini

2010-01-01

71

Reconciling strong slab pull and weak plate bending: The plate motion constraint on the strength of mantle slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although subducting slabs undergo a bending deformation that resists tectonic plate motions, the magnitude of this resistance is not known because of poor constraints on slab strength. However, because slab bending slows the relatively rapid motions of oceanic plates, observed plate motions constrain the importance of bending. We estimated the slab pull force and the bending resistance globally for 207

Benjun Wu; Clinton P. Conrad; Arnauld Heuret; Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni; Serge Lallemand

2008-01-01

72

The effect of a weak W/SiC interface on the strength of sigma silicon carbide monofilament  

PubMed

Fractography studies have shown that the strength-determining flaws in silicon carbide monofilaments are generally at the core/silicon carbide interface or in the vicinity of the outside, carbon-based coating. In tungsten-cored monofilaments like DERA Sigma, the W/SiC flaws primarily determine the strength. Fracture is accompanied by brittle failure of the tungsten. The crack propagates simultaneously outwards through the silicon carbide, inwards through the tungsten and also around the W/SiC interface before being deflected into the tungsten or out through the silicon carbide. Experiments depositing boundary layers between the tungsten and silicon carbide have resulted in significantly different fracture behaviour. The tungsten fails in a ductile manner and the strength-determining flaws are located predominantly at the outside surface of the silicon carbide. This behaviour is discussed in terms of models proposed by E. Martin and W. Curtin. It is thought that the work will ultimately lead to a significantly stronger, tungsten-based monofilament. PMID:10540270

Dyos; Shatwell

1999-11-01

73

The Application of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis for Managing Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) Programmes for Improved Efficiency in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews the current status of vocational and technical education programmes (VTE) in Nigeria and the major innovations of the Nigerian Government in the recent times in the sector vis-a-vis the demands of the modern world for vocational and technological development. It therefore, proposes a paradigm shift in the operation of VTE…

Adepoju, T. L.; Famade, Olu Adesola

2010-01-01

74

Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats that Impact the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies for Colleges of Agriculture in Land Grant Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land grant institutions have traditionally sought to bring education to the people. Many Colleges of Agriculture have been dedicating resources to high-speed Internet connections and interactive videoconferencing to meet demand from individuals seeking non-traditional access. As these programs are implemented, understanding perceptions, concerns, and interests regarding distance education (DE) technologies can facilitate the diffusion of DE technologies throughout the institution

Theresa Pesl Murphrey; Kim E. Dooley

75

Strengths and weaknesses of working with the Global Trigger Tool method for retrospective record review: focus group interviews with team members  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm. Design A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis. Setting 5 Swedish hospitals in 2011. Participants 5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses. Intervention 5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Results 8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members’ knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics. Conclusions The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.

Schildmeijer, Kristina; Nilsson, Lena; Perk, Joep; Arestedt, Kristofer; Nilsson, Gunilla

2013-01-01

76

French Version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN-F) Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate internal and external consistency of a French adaptation of the SWAN (a 7-point rating strength-based scale, from far below to far above average) and its accuracy as a diagnostic test among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Parents of 88 children referred for ADHD were interviewed using the SWAN-F, a structured interview (DISC-4.0) and the Conners’ Rating Scale. Internal consistency and divergent and convergent validity of the SWAN-F were examined using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scales as reference standards for four dimensions: Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results The internal consistency of SWAN-F was within acceptable ranges for all dimensions (Cronbach’s alpha greater than 0.80). Scores of the SWAN-F subscales were strongly associated with the DISC-4.0 diagnostic assignments and Conners’ Rating Scales, following logical patterns of correspondence between diagnoses. Its accuracy as a diagnostic test was comparable to Conners’ Rating Scale, with a lower rate of false positives. Conclusions The information gathered with the SWAN-F is compatible with that obtained using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scale. Strength-based rating scales have the potential to evaluate the normal distribution of behaviors and to provide reliable cut-off defining abnormal behavior.

Robaey, Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Schachar, Russell; Simard, Louise

2007-01-01

77

Weak models for insider threat detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design for a content-based approach to detecting insider misuse by an analyst producing reports in an environment supported by a document control system. The approach makes use of Hidden Markov Models to represent stages in the Evidence-Based Intelligence Analysis Process Model (EBIAPM). This approach is seen as a potential application for the Process Query System / Tracking and Fusion Engine (PQS/TRAFEN). Actions taken by the insider are viewed as processes that can be detected in PQS/TRAFEN. Text categorization of the content of analyst's queries, documents accessed, and work product are used to disambiguate multiple EBIAPM processes.

Thompson, Paul

2004-09-01

78

Nuclear threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although significant nuclear disarmament is on the cards, the existence of nuclear weapons will continue to threaten national and international security. The main threats created by nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. Future nuclear arsenals will be much smaller than they were, but perceptions will still grow that an effective nuclear first?strike may be possible and perhaps even desirable. Such

Frank Barnaby

1992-01-01

79

A longitudinal study on the Ghislenghien disaster in Belgium: strengths and weaknesses of the study design and influence on response rate  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (Belgium) on physical, mental and social health, and to evaluate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the affected population. Objectives To describe the set up of the study, to report on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology employed and its influence on response rate. To clarify the importance of the study for the management of disasters. Methods/Design The study included adults (? 15 years) and children (8-14 years) at risk of developing adverse health effects related to the disaster. Subjects were connected to the disaster through their geographical or professional proximity as well as connections through relatives. Questionnaires were sent by regular mail 5 months and 14 months after the disaster. Pearson Chi square tests were used to investigate whether the response rate at 14 months depended on the exposure classification. Results The response rate at household level was respectively 18% (n = 607 families) and 56% (n = 338 families) 5 months and 14 months after the disaster. Response rate at the follow up period did not significantly differ by exposure classification. Discussion This paper discusses the difficulties and challenges encountered during the design of the study. It discusses the determinants of response in relation to disaster related characteristics. It further provides an overview of lessons learnt and the significance of the study for the management of large scale emergencies.

2009-01-01

80

Diaphragmatic weakness and paralysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaphragmatic weakness implies a decrease in the strength of the diaphragm. Diaphragmatic paralysis is an extreme form of\\u000a diaphragmatic weakness. Diaphragmatic paralysis is an uncommon clinical problem while diaphragmatic weakness, although uncommon,\\u000a is probably frequently unrecognized because appropriate tests to detect its presence are not performed. Weakness of the diaphragm\\u000a can result from abnormalities at any site along its neuromuscular

Pearce G. Wilcox; Richard L. Pardy

1989-01-01

81

Tips from the toolkit: 2--assessing organisational strengths.  

PubMed

'SWOT' is a familiar term used in the development of business strategy. It is based on the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as part of a strategic analysis approach. While there are a range of more sophisticated models for analysing and developing business strategy, it is a useful model for general practice as it is less time consuming than other approaches. The following article discusses some ways to apply this framework to assess organisational strengths (and weaknesses). It is based on The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' "General practice management toolkit". PMID:20369123

Steer, Neville

2010-03-01

82

TERRORISM THREAT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic adaptive nature of terrorism requires a systematic and methodical intelligent strategy for terrorism threat assessment and management. Unwitting weaknesses in approach and deficiencies in scope invite strategic surprise. Effective decision-making on managing terrorism risk benefits from insights available from quantitative thinking across the range of significant risk factors. This way of thinking about terrorism is presented in a

Gordon Woo

83

Composite electromagnetic pulse threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromagnetic pulse threat based on a composite ambient field defined by a combination of lightning, NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) and microwave threats is discussed. The composite electromagnetic pulse threat has been used to harden a military helicopter. The hardening to a composite threat resulted in the development of simplified hardening verification procedures. It also provided an economical advantage

A. S. Podgorski

1990-01-01

84

Composite electromagnetic pulse threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromagnetic pulse threat that is based on a composite ambient field defined by a combination of lightning, NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) and microwave threats is discussed. The composite electromagnetic pulse threat has been used to harden a military helicopter. The hardening to a composite threat resulted in the development of simplified hardening verification procedures. It also provided an

Andrew S. Podgorski

1990-01-01

85

Cyber threat metrics.  

SciTech Connect

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

2012-03-01

86

Muscle strength and BMI as predictors of major mobility disability in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. T...

87

Florida: Drug Threat Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a strategic assessment that addresses the status and outlook of the drug threat to Florida. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taking into account the most current quantitative and qualitative inf...

2003-01-01

88

Effect of the pH and the ionic strength on overloaded band profiles of weak bases onto neutral and charged surface hybrid stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

This work reports on the effects of the solution pH and its ionic strength on the overloaded band profiles and the parameters of the adsorption isotherms of nortriptylinium hydrochloride on the bridge ethylene hybrid (BEH) and the charged surface hybrid (CSH) C18-bonded columns. The mobile phases used were mixtures of acetonitrile and water buffered with hydrogenophosphate, formate, acetate, and dihydrogenophosphate buffers. The results show that the adsorption behavior of this protonated base onto the BEH-C18 column depends barely on the mobile phase pH and is slightly affected by its ionic strength. From both physical and statistical viewpoints, the Linear-Langmuir model is the most relevant adsorption isotherm. According to the inverse method of chromatography, this model is consistent with weak dispersive interactions taking place onto the C18-bonded chains and some strong ion-dipole interactions with residual silanols. In contrast, adsorption on the CSH-C18 column depends on the applied W(S)pH, e.g., on the degree of ionization of the amine groups tethered to the CSH surface. For W(S)pH<3, the electrostatically modified Langmuir model (EML) is acceptable because analyte molecules cannot access and interact with any active sites due to the electrostatic repulsion by the positively charged adsorbent surface. At W(S)pH>7.0, the Linear-bi-Langmuir model describes best the weak adsorption of the protonated base molecules onto the C18 chains and their strong adsorption onto the residual silanols and neutral amine groups. PMID:23415137

Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

2013-01-29

89

Threat, Group Identification, and Children's Ethnic Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT, Nesdale, 1999), that children's tendency to show out-group prejudice depends on the strength of their in-group identification and/or their perception of threat from the out-group. Anglo-Australian children (N = 480) aged 6, 7, or 9 years were assigned to a…

Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Griffiths, Judith

2005-01-01

90

The Effects of Threat Type and Duration on Public Relations Practitioner's Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Responses in Crisis Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contingency theory of public relations relies heavily on the concept of threat without fully developing the concept as well as its operationalization. This study addresses this weakness through the exposition of 2 key dimensions of threats in crises as threat type and duration, and empirically testing their effects on public relations practitioners' cognitive appraisal of threats, affective responses to

Yan Jin; Glen T. Cameron

2007-01-01

91

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

Wilkes, B. J.; McDowell, J.

1994-01-01

92

Fixing Employee Weaknesses: Addressing the Myth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that human resources development professionals need to change their performance improvement focus and philosophy to embrace the importance of building on strengths and managing weaknesses. Identifies five characteristics indicative of employees' strengths. Describes seven strategies to help employees minimize their weaknesses while…

Gilley, Jerry W.

2001-01-01

93

Combatting Insider Threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

Neumann, Peter G.

94

Cognitive appraisals of stereotype threat.  

PubMed

Using the cognitive appraisal conceptualisation of the transactional model of stress, the goal was to assess how victims of stereotype threat respond to this situation in terms of primary appraisals (threat/challenge) and to investigate whether those appraisals may mediate the relation between stereotype threat and performance. Results show that, while participants from North Africa living in France did appraise the situation more as a threat and less as a challenge, only challenge appraisal mediated between stereotype threat and performance. PMID:21675572

Berjot, S; Roland-Levy, C; Girault-Lidvan, N

2011-04-01

95

Threat radar system simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

Miller, L.

96

The Peace Movement Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of war, of human and material devastation, must be paired with moral judgment to guide action in the present toward the future. A threat emanating from the peace movement is forgetting the wrongs one's country has committed against other peoples. (CJ)

Broughton, John M.; Zahaykevich, Marta K.

1982-01-01

97

The Bioterrorism Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those interested in keeping up with latest news as well as past reports on bioterrorism in America should visit PBS' Online NewsHour page entitled The Bioterrorism Threat. Accessible here are audio and video segments as well as text and transcripts from NewsHour broadcasts on Anthrax (the majority of the content), Smallpox, and bioterrorism in general.

2001-01-01

98

Environmental Threats at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

Green, Twhanna

2005-01-01

99

The Threat of Harm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student threats of violence should be taken seriously. Although zero-tolerance policies are gaining popularity, mental-health experts urge a more deliberative approach that explores student motives and metes out punishment on a more individualized basis. Fostering strong staff-student relationships and communication can effectively deter violence.…

Rasicot, Julie

1999-01-01

100

Threat of Space Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the threat of space debris to spacecraft operations is presented for both low altitude spacecraft and geosynchronous operations. These two regimes are treated separately by addressing the following four questions. First, what is the magnitude of the current problem? This is assessed for three classes of debris; those which can be observed, small particles which cannot be

Norman H. Fischer; Robert C. Reynolds

1984-01-01

101

Environmental Threats at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

Green, Twhanna

2005-01-01

102

Insider threat - NRC's perspective  

SciTech Connect

A number of events have occurred in the commercial nuclear industry which may have involved intentional actions by insiders. What are these trends in insider activity, the characteristics of the insider, and finally, what activities have been undertaken by the NRC and some of our licensees to counter the insider threat.

Quinn, E.A.

1983-07-01

103

Greatest Threat: Spiritual Decay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the real threat to our national security--that we are no longer a 'Nation Under God' and are no longer led by those who understand the spiritual dimension of leadership envisioned and demonstrated by our founding fathers. Our founding ...

R. L. VanAntwerp

1992-01-01

104

PROOF TREES FOR WEAK ACHIEVEMENT GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proof number search and threat-space search are successful techniques for finding winning strategies in achievement games such as go-moku. A version of proof number search can be used e! ectively to analyze weak achievement games. In this version it is su\\

Nándor Sieben

2008-01-01

105

Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Important Information! Please read this ... References Information for Patients FAQs for Patients A Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse Preventing Unsafe Injection Practices Safe ...

106

A Mechanical Model of Borehole Stability for Weak Plane Formation Under Porous Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on influence of porous flow on weak plane model, the authors established a mechanical model of borehole stability for weak plane formation under porous flow and analyzed effect of weak plane on borehole stability under porous flow. The results indicated that porous flow decreased strength of weak plane, enlarged the affecting domains of weak plane for rock mass strength,

Y. H. Lu; M. Chen; Y. Jin; G. Q. Zhang

2012-01-01

107

Threat response management system (TRMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the motivations, concept of operation, and architecture of a threat response management system (TRMS): an information-integrated, dynamically reconfigurable, simulation-based decision support system that is deployable as (i) a dynamic planning and threat readiness training tool and (ii) an emergency response execution decision support tool. TRMS functions include (i) automated threat detection, (ii) collaborative (multinational and multiagency) plan development,

Perakath Benjamin; Satheesh Ramachandran

2003-01-01

108

Not All Threats Are Equal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

Surface, Jeanne L.

2011-01-01

109

Application of modified threat reduction assessments in Lebanon.  

PubMed

Worldwide efforts have concentrated on developing monitoring methods that would enhance the assessment of progress toward achieving the 2010 conservation objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Threat reduction assessment is one such method. It provides an indirect measure of the effects of a conservation project by evaluating changes in human-induced direct threats to protected areas. We applied modified threat reduction assessments and the 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature standardized lexicon for classification of threats to Horsh Ehden and Al-Shouf Cedar nature reserves in Lebanon. Our goal was in part to test the suitability of this tool for improving monitoring and management effectiveness of protected forests in Lebanon. In Horsh Ehden, composite threats decreased by 24% from 1997 to 2002, and then increased from 2002 to 2009 by 78% in the core area of the reserve and by 118% in the reserve's buffer zone (surrounds core area, conservation and recreational activities allowed). In Al-Shouf Cedar reserve threats decreased by 51% from 2006 to 2009. Management teams from both reserves have integrated the use of this method to prioritize actions for new management plans. We believe that in Lebanon and other countries with limited resources and weak monitoring programs or that are experiencing political instability threat reduction assessments could be used to improve the effectiveness of protected areas management. PMID:21182667

Matar, Diane A; Anthony, Brandon P

2010-10-01

110

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-05-01

111

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-01-01

112

Proliferation: Threat and response  

SciTech Connect

The May 1997 Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) concluded that the threat or use of nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) weapons is a likely condition of future warfare and could occur in the early stages of war to disrupt US operations and logistics. These weapons may be delivered by ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, aircraft, special operations forces, or other means. In many of the world`s regions where the United States is likely to deploy forces--including Northeast Asia and the Middle East--potential adversaries have chemical and/or biological weapons and the missile systems to deliver them, and actively seek nuclear weapons. Potential adversaries may seek to counter American conventional military superiority using less expensive and more attainable, asymmetrical means, including NBC weapons. To meet this challenge, as well as the possibility that NBC weapons might also be used in some smaller-scale contingencies, US forces must be properly trained and equipped to operate effectively and decisively in the face of NBC attacks. The first section of this report details the proliferation of NBC weapons and the threat it poses to US interests and forces.

NONE

1997-11-01

113

Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.  

PubMed Central

Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards.

Brandt, Y

2003-01-01

114

Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Weakness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skeletal muscle weakness is an important feature of numerous ­pathological conditions and it may also be a component in normal\\u000a ageing. Decreased muscular strength can be due to decreased muscle mass and\\/or intrinsic defects in the muscle cells. In this\\u000a chapter we will discuss decreased force production due to mechanisms intrinsic to skeletal muscle cells. We will mainly use\\u000a data

Håkan Westerblad; Takashi Yamada

115

The Psychology of Threat in Intergroup Conflict: Emotions, Rationality, and Opportunity in the Rwandan Genocide  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do security threats mobilize social groups against each other? The strength of such threats lies in the power of group emotions, notably the primary emotion of fear. Fear works by activating psychological processes at the group level that polarize attitudes between different groups. An analysis of survey data, radio broadcasts, and interviews from Rwanda's civil war and genocide of

Omar Shahabudin McDoom

2012-01-01

116

Threat Assessment in College Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

Cornell, Dewey

2010-01-01

117

Weak Nuclear Forces cause the Strong Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the lattices.

Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

2008-05-29

118

Fault zone fabric and fault weakness.  

PubMed

Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals, high fluid pressures within the fault core and dynamic processes such as normal stress reduction, acoustic fluidization or extreme weakening at high slip velocity. Dynamic weakening mechanisms can explain some observations; however, creep and aseismic slip are thought to occur on weak faults, and quasi-static weakening mechanisms are required to initiate frictional slip on mis-oriented faults, at high angles to the tectonic stress field. Moreover, the maintenance of high fluid pressures requires specialized conditions and weak mineral phases are not present in sufficient abundance to satisfy weak fault models, so weak faults remain largely unexplained. Here we provide laboratory evidence for a brittle, frictional weakening mechanism based on common fault zone fabrics. We report on the frictional strength of intact fault rocks sheared in their in situ geometry. Samples with well-developed foliation are extremely weak compared to their powdered equivalents. Micro- and nano-structural studies show that frictional sliding occurs along very fine-grained foliations composed of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). When the same rocks are powdered, frictional strength is high, consistent with cataclastic processes. Our data show that fault weakness can occur in cases where weak mineral phases constitute only a small percentage of the total fault rock and that low friction results from slip on a network of weak phyllosilicate-rich surfaces that define the rock fabric. The widespread documentation of foliated fault rocks along mature faults in different tectonic settings and from many different protoliths suggests that this mechanism could be a viable explanation for fault weakening in the brittle crust. PMID:20016599

Collettini, Cristiano; Niemeijer, André; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

2009-12-17

119

Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

2008-01-01

120

Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety…

Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

2008-01-01

121

Managing biosecurity threats in China.  

PubMed

Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks. PMID:21361794

Huang, Yanzhong

2011-03-01

122

Weakly ??-continuous functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a new class of generalizations of continuous functions via ??-open sets called weakly ??-continuous functions. Moreover, we study some of its fundamental properties and characterizations. The concept of weak ??-continuous is weaker than ??-continuous, weakly ?-continuous and weakly ?-continuous functions, are also discussed.

Aljarrah, Heyam Hussein; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2013-09-01

123

Threat interferes with response inhibition.  

PubMed

A potential threat, such as a spider, captures attention and engages executive functions to adjust ongoing behavior and avoid danger. We and many others have reported slowed responses to neutral targets in the context of emotional distractors. This behavioral slowing has been explained in the framework of attentional competition for limited resources with emotional stimuli prioritized. Alternatively, slowed performance could reflect the activation of avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors associated with threat. Although the interaction of attention and emotion has been widely studied, little is known on the interaction between emotion and executive functions. We studied how threat-related stimuli (spiders) interact with executive performance and whether the interaction profile fits with a resource competition model or avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors. Twenty-one young healthy individuals performed a Go-NoGo visual discrimination reaction time (RT) task engaging several executive functions with threat-related and emotionally neutral distractors. The threat-related distractors had no effect on the RT or the error rate in the Go trials. The NoGo error rate, reflecting failure in response inhibition, increased significantly because of threat-related distractors in contrast to neutral distractors, P less than 0.05. Thus, threat-related distractors temporarily impaired response inhibition. Threat-related distractors associated with increased commission errors and no effect on RT does not suggest engagement of avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors. The results fit in the framework of the resource competition model. A potential threat calls for evaluation of affective significance as well as inhibition of undue emotional reactivity. We suggest that these functions tax executive resources and may render other executive functions, such as response inhibition, temporarily compromised when the demands for resources exceed availability. PMID:22494999

Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Siiskonen, Anna R; Ogawa, Keith H

2012-05-01

124

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-03-01

125

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the provisions of the General Counterdrug Intelligence Plan, the National Drug Threat Assessment integrates foreign and domestic counterdrug intelligence and information on domestic drug consumption trends in a single report. This repor...

2001-01-01

126

National Methamphetamine Threat Assessment, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Methamphetamine Threat Assessment 2008 is a national-level strategic assessment of methamphetamine trafficking in the United States. This assessment addresses significant trends in methamphetamine production, transportation, distribution, and...

2007-01-01

127

Combating the Insider Cyber Threat  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

2008-01-02

128

Weak scale supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

Hall, L.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-11-12

129

Weak scale supersymmetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

L. J. Hall

1990-01-01

130

Shear Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. John Atkinson, of the University of the West of England, developed a site for undergraduate students wanting to learn more about soil classification. His site addresses issues such as: shear strength, peak strength, and residual strength testing. Filled with charts, diagrams, statistics, the information is pertinent and easily understood by almost any audience.

Atkinson, John

2008-10-07

131

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

132

Threats to and from Russia: An Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions of visibly deteriorating Russo-American and East-West relations it is necessary to outline clearly the threats perceived by Russia from Western and U.S. policies, and second, the threats that Russia may pose in return. An analysis of such threats reveals that the balance of threat perception is asymmetrically weighted to the Russian side which perceived threats everywhere, i.e., from

Stephen Blank

2008-01-01

133

Threat, Cohesion, and Group Effectiveness: Testing a Social Identity Maintenance Perspective on Groupthink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Janis's concept of groupthink is influential, experimental investigations have provided only weak support for the theory. Experiment 1 produced the poor decision quality associated with groupthink by manipulating group cohesion (using group labels) and threat to group members' self-esteem. Self-reports of some groupthink and defective decision-making symptoms were independently, but not interactively, affected by cohesion and threat. Experiment 2

Marlene E. Turner; Anthony R. Pratkanis; Preston Probasco; Craig Leve

1992-01-01

134

PEST-Analysis for Studying Weak Structured Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external environment analysis for developing a structure for further actions is a complex process, which requires a careful evaluation of factors and determining relations among them, identifying strong and weak points, opportunities and threats of the environment. With the help of the PEST-analysis, most of the important factors of the external environment could be identified. Thus, the application of

Iskra Arsenova

2006-01-01

135

Nonclassicality in weak measurements  

SciTech Connect

We examine weak measurements of arbitrary observables where the object is prepared in a mixed state and on which measurements with imperfect detectors are made. The weak value of an observable can be expressed as a conditional expectation value over an infinite class of different generalized Kirkwood quasiprobability distributions. 'Strange' weak values for which the real part exceeds the eigenvalue spectrum of the observable can only be found if the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill distribution is negative or, equivalently, if the real part of the weak value of the density operator is negative. We find that a classical model of a weak measurement exists whenever the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill representation of the observable equals the classical representation of the observable and the Terletsky-Margenau-Hill distribution is non-negative. Strange weak values alone are not sufficient to obtain a contradiction with classical models. We propose feasible weak measurements of photon number of the radiation field. Negative weak values of energy contradict all classical stochastic models, whereas negative weak values of photon number contradict all classical stochastic models where the energy is bounded from below by the zero-point energy. We examine coherent states in particular and find negative weak values with probabilities of 16% for kinetic energy (or squared field quadrature), 8% for harmonic oscillator energy, and 50% for photon number. These experiments are robust against detector inefficiency and thermal noise.

Johansen, Lars M. [Department of Technology, Buskerud University College, N-3601 Kongsberg (Norway); Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2004-11-01

136

Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

137

Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear\\/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are

Vantine

2002-01-01

138

Threat assessment without situation assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of an intelligent assistant to provide automatic situation and threat advice in the air defence ground environment (ADGE). The application is considered in terms of the required outputs, data inputs and domain knowledge. A combinatorial explosion in the number of possible relationships is seen as a problem for bottom up data fusion approaches. The approach,

Ian W Dall

1999-01-01

139

Nuclear threats from small states  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats

Jerome H. Kahan

1994-01-01

140

Intelligence as Threats and Reassurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence's activities provoked feelings of threat in the adversary, and its capabilities provided reassurance for its own side. Fear of espionage (and associated covert action) was common to both sides. Intrusive technical collection had a similar effect, principally through the scale of Western operations around Soviet territory, and in overflights up to May 1960. On the other hand intelligence's capabilities

Michael Herman

2011-01-01

141

Hostile intelligence threat: US technology  

SciTech Connect

This publication outlines the hostile intelligence threat to U.S. industry and Western technology, including the operational capabilities of hostile intelligence services and their scientific and technological (S T) targets. Current intelligence strategies used against the United States are described and sources of information providing countermeasures guidance are listed. Points of contact for security and counterintelligence assistance are also included.

Whitman, D.

1988-11-01

142

Crime Prevention: Promise or Threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Western countries, traditional criminal justice responses to crime are being questioned. Crime prevention has been endorsed as a policy objective by a range of governments including Australia's, with most States and Territories implementing programs. The paper summarises approaches to prevention and reviews promises and threats these developments pose. Promises include less divisive and ‘exclusionary’ modes of social control,

Adam Sutton

1994-01-01

143

Threat Displays are not Handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a general framework of handicap signalling it was proposed that threat displays are handicaps, they can work only if they put the signaller at a disadvantage, which is only acceptable to honest signallers. The aim of the present article is to investigate this proposal with the help of a simple game-theoretical model. It was found: (1) that the use

SZABOLCS SZÁMADÓ

2003-01-01

144

Superconducting weak links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers experimental results and theoretical ideas on the properties of superconducting weak links, i.e., weak electrical contacts between superconducting electrodes which exhibit direct (non-tunnel-type) conductivity. When the dimensions of such weak links are sufficiently small, the Josephson effect is observed in them, in other words, a single-valued and 2pi -periodic relationship exists between the supercurrent Is and the

K. K. Likharev

1979-01-01

145

Weak gravitational lensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review theory and applications of weak gravitational lensing. After summarising Friedmann–Lema??tre cosmological models, we present the formalism of gravitational lensing and light propagation in arbitrary space–times. We discuss how weak-lensing effects can be measured. The formalism is then applied to reconstructions of galaxy-cluster mass distributions, gravitational lensing by large-scale matter distributions, QSO–galaxy correlations induced by weak lensing, lensing of

Matthias Bartelmann; Peter Schneider

2001-01-01

146

Robust Weak Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new type of weak measurement which yields a quantum average of weak values that is robust, outside the range of eigenvalues, extends the valid regime for weak measurements, and for which the probability of obtaining the pre- and post-selected ensemble is not exponentially rare. This result extends the applicability of weak values, shifts the statistical interpretation previously attributed to weak values and suggests that the weak value is a property of every pre- and post-selected ensemble. We then apply this new weak measurement to Hardy's paradox. Usually the paradox is dismissed on grounds of counterfactuality, i.e., because the paradoxical effects appear only when one considers results of experiments which do not actually take place. We suggest a new set of measurements in connection with Hardy's scheme, and show that when they are actually performed, they yield strange and surprising outcomes. More generally, we claim that counterfactual paradoxes point to a deeper structure inherent to quantum mechanics characterized by weak values (Aharonov Y, Botero A, Popescu S, Reznik B, Tollaksen J, Physics Letters A, 301 (3-4): 130-138, 2002).

Tollaksen, Jeff; Aharonov, Yakir

2006-03-01

147

Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness  

PubMed Central

Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures.

MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

2012-01-01

148

28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others...individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public entity must...

2013-07-01

149

28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accommodations of that public accommodation when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others...individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation...

2013-07-01

150

Understanding Public Responses to Domestic Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this report is to improve understanding of public responses to domestic threats. Project 1 focuses on pandemic influenza and dirty bomb threats, aiming to understand the role of emotions in anticipated behavioral responses. Project 2 e...

B. Fischhoff E. Stone H. K. Florig J. S. Downs W. Bruine de Bruin

2007-01-01

151

National Gang Threat Assessment, 2011: Emerging Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) prepared the 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment (NGTA ) to examine emerging gang trends and threats posed by criminal gangs to communities throughout the United States. The 2011 NGTA enhances and builds on th...

2011-01-01

152

Terrorism And The Threat To Civil Aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study is presented of the threat of terrorism upon civil aviation and the response generated to that threat by governments, the air transport industry, and the general public. In addition to the impact of \\

William Alva Crenshaw

1987-01-01

153

Vulnerabilities and Threats & US Government Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This AFCEA briefing outlines information vulnerabilities and threats and the US Government response. The briefing discusses the trends in the information age, data protection over time, the evolving defense environment, threat awareness over the past, pre...

M. McConnell

1998-01-01

154

Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders.

Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2008-12-05

155

Threats to the president revisited.  

PubMed

Ten prisoners charged with "threatening the President of the United States" were evaluated in an effort to seek out psychiatric and sociological factors involved in this offence. Comparisons were made with known presidential assassins. A history of abandonment as a child, single or divorced state, and a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia were prominent in both the study group and the group of know assassins. Additionally, the apparent psychological need behind both the threats and the actual assassinations appeared remarkably similar in both groups. The primary differentiating variable related to lethality was "opportunity and happenstance". It is proposed that those threatening the President by letter are at high risk for carrying out their threat if intervention does not take place. PMID:863349

Bort, R F

156

Ecoterrorism and nontraditional military threats.  

PubMed

The menace facing U.S. service personnel from ecoterrorism and other nontraditional threats may increase as military deployments in war and peace increase, the availability of devastating biological, chemical, and radioactive agents increases, and adversaries or terrorist groups become more inclined to use them. A vital concern for field medical commanders is the requirement to understand the environmental issues associated with military deployment. More important is the need to recognize potential ecological threats to deployed military troops. The Gulf War was replete with numerous documented acts of ecoterrorism. The current world crisis from terrorism dictates that we be knowledgeable of the medical consequences of weapons of mass destruction and skilled in the management of casualties. The processes of human health risk assessment of deployed soldiers and ecological risk assessment are discussed as strategies to effectively prevent or reduce the health and medical consequences of ecoterrorism. PMID:10658419

Alexander, G A

2000-01-01

157

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

158

Asymmetrical Indian and Chinese threat perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

India tends to be deeply apprehensive of threats from China, while China appears comparatively unconcerned about threats from India, and finds it difficult to understand why India might perceive China as a threat. Two explanations of this asymmetry are (1) a deliberate and systematic understatement of Chinese concerns about India, resulting from the mobilization function of China's public media, and

John Garver

2002-01-01

159

Semantics-based threat structure mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's National and Interstate border control agencies are flooded with alerts generated from various monitoring devices. There is an urgent need to uncover potential threats to effectively respond to an event. In this paper, we propose a Semantic Threat Mining approach, to discover threats using the spatio-temporal and semantic relationships among events and data. We represent the potentially dangerous collusion

Nabil R. Adam; Vijayalakshmi Atluri; Vandana Pursnani Janeja; Aabhas V. Paliwal; Mahmoud Youssef; Soon Ae Chun; J. Cooper; J. Paczkowski; Christof Bornhövd; I. Nassi; Joachim Schaper

2006-01-01

160

Semantics-based Threat Structure Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's National and Interstate border control agencies are flooded with alerts generated from various monitoring devices. There is an urgent need to uncover potential threats to effectively respond to an event. In this paper, we propose a Semantic Threat Mining approach, to discover threats using the spatio-temporal and semantic relationships among events and data. We represent the potentially dangerous collusion

N. Adam; V. Atluri; V. P. Janeja; A. Paliwal; M. Youssef; S. Chun; J. Cooper; J. Paczkowski; C. Bornhoevd; I. Nassi; J. Schaper

161

Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

Stover, Del

2005-01-01

162

72 FR 12705 - Design Basis Threat  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AH60 Design Basis Threat AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...govern the requirements pertaining to the design basis threats (DBTs). This final rule...provided in Section B: 1. Definition of the Design Basis Threats 2. Applicability of...

2007-03-19

163

Drug Threat Assessment: New Hampshire. Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief update to the New Hampshire Drug Threat Assessment, which is a strategic assessment of the status and outlook of the drug threat to New Hampshire. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taking...

2002-01-01

164

Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat

Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

2006-01-01

165

A Review of the Theory and Research Underlying the StrengthsQuest Program for Students. The Quest for Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|StrengthsQuest is a student program that focuses on strengths rather than weaknesses. It is intended to lead students to discover their natural talents and gain unique and valuable insights into how to develop such talents into strengths--strengths that equip them to succeed and to make important decisions that enable them to balance the demands…

Hodges, Timothy D.; Harter, James K.

2005-01-01

166

Strange weak values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin-1/2 system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specify the pre-selected state, and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

Hosoya, Akio; Shikano, Yutaka

2010-09-01

167

? weak magnetic dipole moment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak magnetic dipole moment of the ?-lepton is reviewed. Standard Model predictions and the last experimental results are presented. These may result in a stringent test for both their point-like structure and also for new physics.

Gabriel Gonza´lez-Sprinberg

1998-01-01

168

The role of threats in animal cooperation  

PubMed Central

In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors—impact, accuracy and perception—that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation.

Cant, Michael A.

2011-01-01

169

Bioplastics and Petroleum-based Plastics: Strengths and Weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of biomass, such as starch, cellulose, wood, and sugar, used to substitute fossil resources for the production of plastics, is a widely accepted strategy towards sustainable development. In fact, this way a significant reduction of non renewable energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission is accomplished. In recent years, several typologies of bioplastics were introduced and the most important

F. Gironi; V. Piemonte

2011-01-01

170

The Strengths and Weaknesses of ISO 9000 in Vocational Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ISO 9000 is a set of quality standards that assists an organization to identify, correct and prevent errors, and to promote continual improvement. Educational institutions worldwide are implementing ISO 9000 as they face increasing external pressure to maintain accountability for funding. Similar to other countries, in the United States…

Bevans-Gonzales, Theresa L.; Nair, Ajay T.

2004-01-01

171

Sexual Abuse of Children: Strengths and Weaknesses of Current Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional perpetrator-orientated criminology, sexual abuse of children was seen as a rare offense committed by strangers. In this view, it was more likely to happen in the child's imagination. The presumed cause of the actually committed offense was the abnormal personality of the offender The psychical and social injury of the victim was thought to be rather small. Since

Hans Joachim Schneider

1997-01-01

172

The Strengths and Weaknesses of VEGF Adenovirus-Driven Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral vectors are essential for effective transgene expression in vivo. Revascularisation therapies of ischemic tissues with adenoviruses, the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy trials,\\u000a encoding angiogenic growth factors remain an intriguing option for patients who cannot be treated with conventional revascularisation\\u000a therapies. Adenoviruses yield very high, but transient, gene expression and are very effective in preclinical angiogenic gene

Petra Korpisalo; Tuomas T. Rissanen; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

173

Experience Sampling: Promises and Pitfalls, Strength and Weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience-sampling (ESM) technique is a method in which recording of feelings and activities is done on-line at the moment,\\u000a either at randomly selected moments or at predetermined times. This method has the advantage of being able to not only assess\\u000a people’s general feelings, but to link feelings with situations, times of day, and other circumstances. Thus, ESM provides\\u000a a

Christie Napa Scollon; Chu-Kim Prieto; Ed Diener

174

Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting

Catherine Mathe ´; Marie-France Sagot; Thomas Schiex; Pierre Rouze

2002-01-01

175

Weak interactions, omnivory and emergent food-web properties.  

PubMed Central

Empirical studies have shown that, in real ecosystems, species-interaction strengths are generally skewed in their distribution towards weak interactions. Some theoretical work also suggests that weak interactions, especially in omnivorous links, are important for the local stability of a community at equilibrium. However, the majority of theoretical studies use uniform distributions of interaction strengths to generate artificial communities for study. We investigate the effects of the underlying interaction-strength distribution upon the return time, permanence and feasibility of simple Lotka-Volterra equilibrium communities. We show that a skew towards weak interactions promotes local and global stability only when omnivory is present. It is found that skewed interaction strengths are an emergent property of stable omnivorous communities, and that this skew towards weak interactions creates a dynamic constraint maintaining omnivory. Omnivory is more likely to occur when omnivorous interactions are skewed towards weak interactions. However, a skew towards weak interactions increases the return time to equilibrium, delays the recovery of ecosystems and hence decreases the stability of a community. When no skew is imposed, the set of stable omnivorous communities shows an emergent distribution of skewed interaction strengths. Our results apply to both local and global concepts of stability and are robust to the definition of a feasible community. These results are discussed in the light of empirical data and other theoretical studies, in conjunction with their broader implications for community assembly.

Emmerson, Mark; Yearsley, Jon M.

2004-01-01

176

Spaghetti Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners explore how engineers characterize building materials. Learners test the strength of spaghetti and determine how the number of spaghetti strands affects the strength of a bundle of spaghetti. Use this activity to chemical bonds, mechanical testing, and engineering. Note: The pasta strands can be dipped in water and stuck together to more closely mimic the layers within a piece of plywood. More information about this can be found at the top of page 7, directly underneath the cartoon image. Safety note: Do not eat or drink any of the materials in this activity.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

177

Universality of weak selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak selection, which means a phenotype is slightly advantageous over another, is an important limiting case in evolutionary biology. Recently, it has been introduced into evolutionary game theory. In evolutionary game dynamics, the probability to be imitated or to reproduce depends on the performance in a game. The influence of the game on the stochastic dynamics in finite populations is governed by the intensity of selection. In many models of both unstructured and structured populations, a key assumption allowing analytical calculations is weak selection, which means that all individuals perform approximately equally well. In the weak selection limit many different microscopic evolutionary models have the same or similar properties. How universal is weak selection for those microscopic evolutionary processes? We answer this question by investigating the fixation probability and the average fixation time not only up to linear but also up to higher orders in selection intensity. We find universal higher order expansions, which allow a rescaling of the selection intensity. With this, we can identify specific models which violate (linear) weak selection results, such as the one-third rule of coordination games in finite but large populations.

Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long; Traulsen, Arne

2010-10-01

178

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.917 ...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

2010-10-01

179

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.917 ...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

2009-10-01

180

Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the range of 450-2350 MPa. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the yield strength and the tensile strength to the diamond pyramid hardness values for these steels. Both the yield strength and tensile strength of the steels exhibited a linear correlation with the hardness over the entire range of strength values. Empirical relationships are provided that enable the estimation of strength from a bulk hardness measurement. A weak effect of strain-hardening potential on the hardness-yield strength relationship was also observed.

Pavlina, E. J.; van Tyne, C. J.

2008-12-01

181

Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

Reiweger, I.; Schweizer, J.

2013-09-01

182

Weak-field limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysical applications of ETGs include the possibility of replacing dark matter in galaxy and clusters with modifications of gravity, the weak-field (Newtonian and post-Newtonian) limit, and gravitational waves. Dark matter at galactic and cluster scales is traditionally included in the realm of cosmology and is discussed in Chap. 7. Here we focus on the weak-field limit of metric f(R) gravity, referring the reader to well known sources for other ETGs. We then discuss gravitational waves in ETGs.

Capozziello, Salvatore; Faraoni, Valerio

183

Weak radiative hyperon decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of weak radiative hyperon decays (WRHD) is reviewed. With the rcent measurement of the ?0 -> ?? asymmetry confirming Hara's theorem, implications from its violation in low-energy theoretical approaches are discussed. It is shown how an underlying symmetry link should be formulated for a successful description of both nonleptonic and radiative weak hyperon decays. The sign of the ?0 -> ?? asymmetry and the overall size of parity-violating WRHD amplitudes together lead to the resolution of the old S:P problem in nonleptonic decays.

?enczykowski, P.

2003-02-01

184

77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980- 2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths and Weaknesses for a Pathway to an Improved Dataset AGENCY...data set. An important goal of the meeting is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the current dataset and related...

2012-03-14

185

Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.  

PubMed

The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination. PMID:17703786

Bui, Ngoc H

2007-06-01

186

Terrorism, Security, and the Threat of Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In America, Britain and Australia the threat of terrorism has been used to justify radical new legislation that gives police and intelligence agencies unprecedented powers to detain and question people believed to have information connected to terrorism. In this paper I explore the nature of the threat of non-state terrorism—threat to national security and the well-being of citizens. I argue

Jessica Wolfendale

2006-01-01

187

Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the

Karl A. Seger

2001-01-01

188

Weak Radial Artery Pulse  

PubMed Central

We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed.

Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

2012-01-01

189

Weak decays at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on four aspects of weak decays. The MARK II measurement of the tau lifetime, the MARK II measurement of the D/sup 0/ lifetime, the measurement from several experiments of the semi-leptonic branching fractions of hadrons constraining b and c quarks, and lastly the MAC measurement of the B lifetime. 30 references.

Yelton, J.M.

1984-04-01

190

Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

2004-01-01

191

Negotiating Social Identity When Contexts Change: Maintaining Identification and Responding to Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students’

Kathleen A. Ethier; Kay Deaux

1994-01-01

192

Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students'

Kathleen A. Ethier; Kay Deaux

1994-01-01

193

DOE site-specific threat assessment  

SciTech Connect

A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

1985-07-12

194

"Filoviruses": a real pandemic threat?  

PubMed Central

Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses.

Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

2009-01-01

195

Real threat of nuclear smuggling  

SciTech Connect

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a `flying squad` with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs.

Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-01-01

196

The effects of direct versus witnessed threat on emergency department healthcare workers: implications for PTSD criterion A.  

PubMed

We compared post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster profiles in hospital emergency department (ED) medical staff (N=100) who experienced an emotionally distressing work event that presented either a direct threat to themselves or a witnessed threat to patients. The two groups displayed similar levels of PTSD symptoms, however, they differed on symptom profiles and work consequences. The direct threat group experienced significantly greater fear during the event, more ongoing arousal symptoms, and more job dissatisfaction than the witnessed threat group. The witnessed threat group was more likely to appraise their PTSD symptoms as reflecting personal weakness. Overall, the results point to the need for further research to identify distinctive features of responses to different types of traumatic stressors. PMID:18325730

Alden, Lynn E; Regambal, Marci J; Laposa, Judith M

2008-02-02

197

Poisson Threat Model: An Analytic Approach to Threat/Survivability Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general model for the evaluation of the threat to and/or the survivability of a target subjected to a random sequence of discrete threat events is presented. The approach is based on the modeling of the threat as events driven by a Poisson process. The ...

D. Yavuz

1985-01-01

198

Hysteresis in weak ferromagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic hysteresis is studied in the orthoferrites ErFeO3 and TmFeO3 using the single crystal samples of millimeter dimensions. It is shown that in both materials one observes a temperature transition manifesting itself through the temperature hysteresis of the magnetic moment and a peculiar temperature evolution of the field hysteresis loop shapes near this transition. Experiments rule out the hypothesis that the ordering of the orthoferrite's rare earth magnetic moments plays an important role in these phenomena. The hysteresis curves can be explained by a few-domain magnetic state of the samples that results from the weak ferromagnetism of the orthoferrites. The phenomenon is generic for weak ferromagnets with temperature dependent magnetization. A large characteristic magnetic length makes the behavior of the relatively big samples analogous to that observed in the nano-size samples of strong ferromagnets.

Bazaliy, Ya. B.; Tsymbal, L. T.; Kakazei, G. N.; Vasiliev, S. V.

2011-03-01

199

Weak massive gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find a new class of theories of massive gravity with five propagating degrees of freedom where only rotations are preserved. Our results are based on a nonperturbative and background-independent Hamiltonian analysis. In these theories the weak field approximation is well behaved and the static gravitational potential is typically screened à la Yukawa at large distances, while at short distances no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity is found and there is no need to rely on nonlinear effects to pass the solar system tests. The effective field theory analysis shows that the ultraviolet cutoff is (mMPl)1/2?1/?m, the highest possible. Thus, these theories can be studied in the weak-field regime at all the phenomenologically interesting scales and are candidates for a calculable large-distance modified gravity.

Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L.

2013-06-01

200

Composite weak bosons  

SciTech Connect

Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

Suzuki, M.

1988-04-01

201

Weak characteristics of muonium  

SciTech Connect

The allowed weak decay channels of muonium are studied in detail. They acquire additional significance in the context of possible {ital M}-{ital {bar M}} oscillations that probe beyond the standard model. The muonium decay rate and annihilation rate are found to be 1.000 023 and 1.045{times}10{sup {minus}10}, respectively, in units of the free muon decay rate.

Chatterjee, L.; Chakrabarty, A.; Das, G.; Mondal, S. (Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 32 (India))

1992-12-01

202

Vulnerabilities of Passive Internet Threat Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive Internet monitoring is a powerful tool for mea- suring and characterizing interesting network activity like worms or distributed denial of service attacks. By employing statistical analysis on the captured network traffic, Internet threat monitors gain valuable insight into the nature of Internet threats. In the past, these monitors have been successfully used not only to detect DoS at- tacks

Yoichi Shinoda; Ko Ikai; Motomu Itoh

2005-01-01

203

Keeping Schools Safe through Threat Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates how effective a threat assessment program like the Mid-Valley Student Threat Assessment (STAT) program can be in dealing with violent and threatening students. STAT is a a regional system that draws together resources from schools, mental health agencies, law enforcement bureaus, and other youth-serving organizations in…

Barton, Rhonda

2008-01-01

204

Reputation When Threats and Transfers Are Available  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model where a long run player is allowed to use both money transfers and threats to influence the decisions of a sequence of short run players. We show that threats might be used credibly (even in arbitrarily short repeated games) by a long-lived player who gains by developing a reputation of carrying out punishments. Particular cases of

Ernesto Dal Bó; Pedro Dal Bó; Rafael Di Tella

2007-01-01

205

Hold-Up, Stakeholders and Takeover Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We analyze the impact of takeover threats on long term relationships between the target owners and other stakeholders. In the absence of takeovers, stakeholders' bargaining power increases their incentive to invest but reduces the owners' incentive to invest. The threat of a takeover that would transfer value from the stakeholders reduces their ex ante investment. However, the stakeholders may

Gilles Chemla

2003-01-01

206

Insider Threats, Deception, and User Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There exists a critical gap in current insider threat technology. To date, efforts on insider threat have not seriously taken into account the impact of deception by the insider. Needless to say, without a clear understanding of this impact and mechanisms...

J. E. Santos

2011-01-01

207

Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation:

1992-01-01

208

Automated Threat Response using Intelligent Agents (ATRIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's dynamic battlefield environment requires rapid reconfiguration and reorganization of warfighter assets, communication links, and computing resources in response to enemy attacks. The extent to which supporting operations can take place autonomously, and thus more rapidly, could be critical to neutralize future enemy threats. This paper describes a software system called Automated Threat Response using Intelligent Agents (ATRIA). The ATRIA

A. Quan; R. Crawford; H. Shao; K. Knudtzon; A. Schuler; D. Scott; S. Hayati; R. Abbott

2001-01-01

209

How species respond to multiple extinction threats.  

PubMed

It is well established that different species vary in their vulnerability to extinction risk and that species biology can underpin much of this variation. By contrast, very little is known about how the same species responds to different threat processes. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: to examine the extent to which a species' vulnerability to different types of threat might covary and to explore the biological traits that are associated with threat-specific responses. We use an objective and quantitative measure of local extinction risk to show that vulnerability to local population decline in primates varies substantially among species and between threat types. Our results show that a species' response to one threat type does not predict its response to others. Multivariate analyses also suggest that different mechanisms of decline are associated with each type of threat, since different biological traits are correlated with each threat-specific response. Primate species at risk from forestry tend to exhibit low ecological flexibility, while those species vulnerable to agriculture tend to live in the canopy and eat low-fruit diets; in further contrast, primates at risk from hunting tend to exhibit large body size. Our analyses therefore indicate that a species' vulnerability to local extinction can be highly variable and is likely to depend on both threat type and biology. PMID:15306363

Isaac, Nick J B; Cowlishaw, Guy

2004-06-01

210

The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

2003-01-01

211

Biological terrorism: Threat and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological weapons have a long and eventful history. Five deaths have taken place in the USA after September 11 due to the Anthrax infection. India is under constant threat of terrorism for a decade or so. It is how time that we sit up and take note of the possible threat of bioterrorism. This paper examines the impact of a

A. V. Lele

2002-01-01

212

How you perceive threat determines your behavior.  

PubMed

The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C L; Alves, Rita C S; Campagnoli, Rafaela R; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P A; Erthal, Fátima C S; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G

2013-10-08

213

The effect of threat upon interpersonal bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of threat on the process of bargaining was investigated experimentally by asking Ss to imagine proceeding across a certain route on a map and having various experiences. Threat was seen to affect bargaining detrimentally. In that regard, cooperative ventures were seen to be safer than competitive ones.

M. Deutsch; R. M. Krauss

1960-01-01

214

Cyber Terrorism: A Threat to National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War, the source and nature of threats to the United States were understood and planned for. Even after a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Americans assumed our island nation was secure from foreign threats. Until the 11 September a...

J. E. Elliott

2002-01-01

215

The artificial heart's threat to others.  

PubMed

A member of the two federal advisory panels on artificial hearts reflects that the nuclear-powered artificial heart, had it been developed, would have posed a physical threat to others. Today's artificial heart poses a different threat. Because of the high costs, many people may be deprived of access to other forms of medical care and other social goods. PMID:3082803

Jonsen, A R

1986-02-01

216

An information fusion framework for threat assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to

Justin M. Beaver; Ryan A. Kerekes; Jim N. Treadwell

2009-01-01

217

On assessing the insider threat potential  

SciTech Connect

Most security practitioners are reluctant to try to assess the Insider Threat because of the lack of a valid database for this threat. Yet, nuclear facilities are obligated to determine the effectiveness of their safeguards systems against the Insider Threat and are sometimes required by various government agencies to estimate site risk measures for this threat. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying a topic that resists quantification. Three distinct steps are involved in the methodology for assessing the Insider Threat potential: 1. Characterize the types of insiders who might potentially harm the organization, with emphasis on scientific and engineering facilities; 2. Identify and assess elements in the organization's Personnel Reliability Program that can reduce the chances of the Insider Threat potential being realized; and 3. Apply an event tree methodology that uses the above surrogate data to evaluate the site-specific Insider threat potential. In addition to presenting a methodology for quantifying the Insider Threat potential, the paper also gives some basic conclusions on preventing insider malevolence that are drawn from analyses of insider cases and expert opinion.

Lim, J.J.

1987-07-01

218

Effect of Evaluation Threat on Procrastination Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete

Ngoc H. Bui

2007-01-01

219

The terrorism threat and managing workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research findings on how the threat of terrorism to Australia affects managers and employees in workplaces in a large city. It investigates the various workplace impacts of the terrorist threat and examines how this affects organizational efficiency and effectiveness and employee wellbeing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the impact

Luke Howie

2007-01-01

220

How you perceive threat determines your behavior  

PubMed Central

The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fatima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

2013-01-01

221

Distribution and severity of weakness among patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the distribution and severity of muscle weakness using manual muscle testing (MMT) in 172 patients with PM, DM and juvenile DM (JDM). The secondary objectives included characterizing individual muscle group weakness and determining associations of weakness with functional status and myositis characteristics in this large cohort of patients with myositis. Methods. Strength was assessed for 13 muscle

M. O. Harris-Love; J. A. Shrader; D. Koziol; N. Pahlajani; M. Jain; M. Smith; H. L. Cintas; C. L. McGarvey; L. James-Newton; A. Pokrovnichka; B. Moini; I. Cabalar; D. J. Lovell; R. Wesley; P. H. Plotz; F. W. Miller; J. E. Hicks; L. G. Rider

2008-01-01

222

Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.  

PubMed

This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage. PMID:20889850

Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

2010-09-01

223

ASSESSMENT OF TONGUE WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE  

PubMed Central

Assessment of nonspeech tongue function is common in speech-language pathology. This paper reviews techniques used to determine tongue strength and endurance, and describes a constant-effort task. These techniques are intended to reveal and quantify the presence of weakness or fatigue of the tongue. The consequences of performing these tasks with and without a bite block, used to fix jaw position, are considered. Whether nonspeech tongue impairment is associated with speech dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is another topic of interest. Past studies indicated reduced tongue strength and endurance in Parkinson’s disease, but these measures did not correlate with speech measures. It was hypothesized that weakness and fatigue need to be impaired to a “critical” level before speech is perceptibly affected. To examine whether experimentally induced tongue fatigue affects speech, normal speakers performed prolonged strenuous tongue exercise. Speech deteriorated following these exercises. A new investigation examines whether 1 hour of speech-like tongue exercise (rapid syllable repetitions) affects dysarthric speech. Preliminary data from 6 participants with Parkinson’s disease, 1 person with bulbar ALS, and 6 neurologically normal control subjects indicate that sentences sound more precise but less natural after the exercises. Surprisingly, results did not differ significantly between the groups. Continued collection of data and refinement of tasks will contribute to our understanding of the potential relationships between weakness, fatigue, and speech.

Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2012-01-01

224

Nuclear threats from small states  

SciTech Connect

What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

Kahan, J.H.

1994-06-13

225

In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

Showstack, Randy

2008-12-01

226

`Weak A' phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Thirty-five weak A samples including fourteen A3, eight Ax, seven Aend, three Am and three Ae1 were studied in order to determine their A antigen site density, using an IgG anti-A labelled with 125I. The values obtained ranged between 30,000 A antigen sites for A3 individuals, and 700 sites for the Ae1 red cells. The hierarchy of values observed made it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the red cell agglutinability of these phenotypes measured under standard conditions, and their antigen site density.

Cartron, J. P.; Gerbal, A.; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Salmon, C.

1974-01-01

227

Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions  

PubMed Central

To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat.

Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

2013-01-01

228

Weakly noisy chaotic scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a weak source of noise on the chaotic scattering is relevant to situations of physical interest. We investigate how a weak source of additive uncorrelated Gaussian noise affects both the dynamics and the topology of a paradigmatic chaotic scattering problem as the one taking place in the open nonhyperbolic regime of the Hénon-Heiles Hamiltonian system. We have found long transients for the time escape distributions for critical values of the noise intensity for which the particles escape slower as compared with the noiseless case. An analysis of the survival probability of the scattering function versus the Gaussian noise intensity shows a smooth curve with one local maximum and with one local minimum which are related to those long transients and with the basin structure in phase space. On the other hand, the computation of the exit basins in phase space shows a quadratic curve for which the basin boundaries lose their fractal-like structure as noise turned on.

Bernal, Juan D.; Seoane, Jesús M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

2013-09-01

229

THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

J. F. PILAT

2000-03-01

230

Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis  

SciTech Connect

Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

Not Available

1980-05-09

231

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prevent completion of the threat assessment). (5) Gender. (6...complete the security threat assessment, the Transportation Security...information necessary to reduce the risk of injury or damage to the...applicant's signed security threat assessment application. (2)...

2011-10-01

232

49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prevent completion of the threat assessment). (5) Gender. (6...complete the security threat assessment, the Transportation Security...information necessary to reduce the risk of injury or damage to the...applicant's signed security threat assessment application. (2)...

2012-10-01

233

Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems  

SciTech Connect

We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

2009-01-01

234

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

235

Weak lensing and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

236

Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

North Korea is a master at denying the United States information on its sensitive military capabilities. The resulting lack of information on the North Korean nuclear weapon threat makes that highly uncertain. This briefing addresses those uncertainties, ...

B. W. Bennett

2010-01-01

237

a unique threat to forest ecosystem health?  

Treesearch

Title: Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health ? ... raises important questions concerning organism and ecosystem health. ... U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

238

Terrorism in America. An evolving threat.  

PubMed

The response of the United States to a perceived terrorist threat is dichotomous. The hyperbole and exaggeration often displayed by the media and general public lies in stark contrast to the relative indifference with which terrorism is regarded by the medical community. Quantitating the true nature of the terrorist threat in the United States is difficult, as it is not only poorly defined but rapidly changing. The intent of this commentary is to define what constitutes terrorism and what specific threats exist, including conventional, nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. We will then outline recommendations for modest changes in our disaster medical planning to better prepare for these threats. Special attention will be directed at the emergence of nonconventional weapon use by terrorist organizations and how this might affect the civilian medical community. PMID:9336502

Slater, M S; Trunkey, D D

1997-10-01

239

Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Threat Environment Definition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides definition of the atmospheric electricity threat environment as part of the Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Protection (AEHP) program under Air Force contract F33615-82-C-3406. This issue contains an initial atmospheric electricity ...

B. G. Melander W. W. Cooley

1985-01-01

240

Generating Imagery for Forecasting Terror Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps indicating threat levels based on key feature proximity and incorporating event location uncertainty are useful for planning countermeasures in the global war on terrorism. Intelligence analysts and military planners need predictions about likely ter...

G. Schmidt J. Dalton J. Goffeney R. Willis

2006-01-01

241

International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines international terrorist actions, threats, U.S. policies and responses. It reviews the nation's use of tools at its disposal to combat terrorism, from diplomacy, international cooperation, and constrictive engagement to physical securi...

R. F. Peri

2007-01-01

242

Blog Data Mining for Cyber Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blog data mining is a growing research area that addresses the domain-specific problem of extracting information from blog\\u000a data. In our work, we analyzed blogs for various categories of cyber threats related to the detection of security threats\\u000a and cyber crime. We have extended the Author-Topic model based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation for identify patterns of similarities\\u000a in keywords and

Flora S. Tsai; Kap Luk Chan

243

Organised crime threat assessments: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of the 21st century, several national and international government agencies have initiated organised crime\\u000a threat assessments. Additionally, a few scholars have published methods to assess the risks and threats of organised crime.\\u000a These governmental bodies and scholars claim that their reports and methods can demonstrate that certain forms of organised\\u000a crime are more threatening than others and

Andries Johannes Zoutendijk

2010-01-01

244

Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention  

SciTech Connect

The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

NOEL,WILLIAM P.

2000-01-01

245

Application of Strength Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength

Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

2002-01-01

246

Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.  

PubMed

In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat. PMID:19245886

Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

2008-12-25

247

Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

Kuliasha, Michael

2012-03-01

248

Deflection of weakly magnetic materials by superconducting OGMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of a superconducting Open Gradient Magnetic Separator to fractional separation in air of weakly magnetic materials are presented. The dependence of particle deflection of these materials on the magnetic field strength, release location, magnetic susceptibility, particle density and other properties is investigated. The aim is to maximise the deflection of the magnetically stronger component of the feed to facilitate

J. Boehm; R. Gerber; D. Fletcher; M. R. Parker

1988-01-01

249

Impact of an interactive anti-speeding threat appeal: how much threat is too much?  

PubMed

This study investigates the impact of an interactive television public-service announcement (PSA) containing an anti-speeding threat appeal on feelings of telepresence and behavioral intention. In a 2?×?2?×?2 between-subjects factorial design with 213 participants, the level of threat evoked by a traditional PSA, by the interactive part of the PSA (dedicated advertising location or DAL) and by the preceding program context are manipulated to be either low or high. The results support the assumptions of the Extended Parallel Processing Model with regard to the effect of the level of perceived threat and perceived efficacy in an interactive media environment, and the important role of telepresence as a processing variable. The results of the three-way interaction effect of threat evoked by the program, the PSA and the DAL on telepresence show that when the threat levels of the program and the PSA are both either low or high, exposure to the threatening information in the DAL does not generate a significantly higher feeling of telepresence. However, when a low-threat program is followed by a high-threat PSA, the threat level of the DAL has a positive effect on telepresence. The same trend is found with a high-threat program and a low-threat PSA, although the effect of the threat evoked by the DAL on telepresence is not significant at conventional levels. Finally, there is a positive effect of telepresence on the behavioral intention to reduce speeding, which is partly mediated by the viewer's perceived efficacy to follow the recommended behavior. PMID:21204691

Pani?, Katarina; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

2011-01-04

250

Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper starts with a brief review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the measurement strength. The optimal conditions for weak PPS measurements are obtained in the strongly-nonlinear regime, where the magnitude of the average pointer deflection is equal or close to the maximum. This maximum is independent of the measurement strength, being typically of the order of the pointer uncertainty. In the optimal regime, the small parameter of the theory is comparable to the overlap of the pre- and post-selected states. We show that the amplification coefficient in the weak PPS measurements is generally a product of two qualitatively different factors. The effects of the free system and meter Hamiltonians are discussed. We also estimate the size of the ensemble required for a measurement and identify optimal and efficient meters for weak measurements. Exact solutions are obtained for a certain class of the measured observables. These solutions are used for numerical calculations, the results of which agree with the theory. Moreover, the theory is extended to allow for a completely general post-selection measurement. We also discuss time-symmetry properties of PPS measurements of any strength and the relation between PPS and standard (not post-selected) measurements.

Kofman, Abraham G.; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

2012-11-01

251

Phase Diagram of the Bose Hubbard Model with Weak Links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ground state phase diagram of strongly interacting ultracold Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a tunable weak link, by means of Quantum Monte Carlo simulation. This model contains an on-site repulsive interaction (U) and two different near-neighbor hopping terms, J and t, for the weak link and the remainder of the chain, respectively. We show that by reducing the strength of J, a novel intermediate phase develops which is compressible and non-superfluid. This novel phase is identified as a Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) which does not appear in the phase diagram of the homogeneous bosonic Hubbard model. Further, we find a linear variation of the phase boundary of Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) to SuperFluid (SF) as a function of the strength of the weak link. These results may provide a new path to design advanced atomtronic devices in the future.

Hettiarachchilage, Kalani; Rousseau, Valy; Tam, Ka-Ming; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Sheehy, Daniel

2012-02-01

252

Negative probabilities and information gain in weak measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the outcomes in a general measurement with postselection, and derive upper bounds for the pointer readings in weak measurement. The probabilities inferred from weak measurements change along with the coupling strength; and the true probabilities can be obtained when the coupling is strong enough. By calculating the information gain of the measuring device about which path the particles pass through, we show that the "negative probabilities" only emerge for cases when the information gain is little due to very weak coupling between the measuring device and the particles. When the coupling strength increases, we can unambiguously determine whether a particle passes through a given path every time, hence the average shifts always represent true probabilities, and the strange "negatives probabilities" disappear.

Zhu, Xuanmin; Wei, Qun; Liu, Quanhui; Wu, Shengjun

2013-11-01

253

Missile defence: The challenge for Britain—the threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risks or threats posed to developed nations from the proliferation of ballistic and cruise missile delivery systems are described by Duncan Lennox, giving examples of what might be expected in the next decade. He emphasises the need to take a balanced view of all the threats, and considers the differences between threats to the homeland and threats to allied

Duncan Lennox OBE

1995-01-01

254

Sexual Harassment Under Social Identity Threat: The Computer Harassment Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N = 80 in Experiment 1, N = 90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and

Anne Maass; Mara Cadinu; Gaia Guarnieri; Annalisa Grasselli

2003-01-01

255

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Critique of an Ongoing Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critiques an attempt to apply the FBI threat assessment protocol to an incident involving a homicidal threat by a vocational high school student against the district's superintendent. The student who made the threat was treated in psychotherapy, and the school underwent a threat assessment process that highlighted many operational pitfalls common in assessing homicidal intent in adolescents. Psychotherapy

Frank C. Sacco; Reed Larsen

2003-01-01

256

Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization  

PubMed Central

Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape.

Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

2012-01-01

257

Weak rolling adhesion enhances bacterial surface colonization.  

PubMed

Bacterial adhesion to and subsequent colonization of surfaces are the first steps toward forming biofilms, which are a major concern for implanted medical devices and in many diseases. It has generally been assumed that strong irreversible adhesion is a necessary step for biofilm formation. However, some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli when binding to mannosylated surfaces via the adhesive protein FimH, adhere weakly in a mode that allows them to roll across the surface. Since single-point mutations or even increased shear stress can switch this FimH-mediated adhesion to a strong stationary mode, the FimH system offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the strength of adhesion independently from the many other factors that may affect surface colonization. Here we compare levels of surface colonization by E. coli strains that differ in the strength of adhesion as a result of flow conditions or point mutations in FimH. We show that the weak rolling mode of surface adhesion can allow a more rapid spreading during growth on a surface in the presence of fluid flow. Indeed, an attempt to inhibit the adhesion of strongly adherent bacteria by blocking mannose receptors with a soluble inhibitor actually increased the rate of surface colonization by allowing the bacteria to roll. This work suggests that (i) a physiological advantage to the weak adhesion demonstrated by commensal variants of FimH bacteria may be to allow rapid surface colonization and (ii) antiadhesive therapies intended to prevent biofilm formation can have the unintended effect of enhancing the rate of surface colonization. PMID:17189376

Anderson, Brett N; Ding, Albert M; Nilsson, Lina M; Kusuma, Kaoru; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Vogel, Viola; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Thomas, Wendy E

2006-12-22

258

Threat perception in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that, relative to the other basic emotions, the perception of threat-related emotion is disproportionately impaired in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Yet research has not assessed how schizophrenia-spectrum disorders affect the ability to make direct appraisals of threat. In the present study, participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were compared with controls on two danger rating tasks that involved differentiating between faces and situations normatively judged to be either high or low in threat. It was also assessed whether danger ratings were related to clinical symptoms, as well as performance on an emotion recognition measure that depicted emotions in point-light animation (biological motion). While the two groups did not differ in their ability to differentiate high- from low-danger stimuli, or overall danger attributed to faces, overall danger attributed to situations was greater for the clinical group. The clinical group also showed a selective deficit recognizing fear on the bioemotion task, but only for the control group was recognition of threat-related emotions associated with danger ratings. These data are consistent with other evidence showing that there may be a disconnect between the usual processes used to make inferences regarding potential threat in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:20604986

Henry, Julie D; Von Hippel, Courtney; Ruffman, Ted; Perry, Yael; Rendell, Peter G

2010-07-07

259

Assessing risks from threats to process plants: Threat and vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process security management addresses threats from terrorist and criminal acts against plants that may result in the release of hazardous materials. The risk of such threats must be assessed to determine if existing security measures and safeguards are adequate or need improvement. Risk assessment is the heart of a process security program. Process plants need straightforward and easily applied methods

Paul Baybutt

2002-01-01

260

When under threat, we all look the same: Distinctiveness threat induces ingroup homogeneity in face memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research investigated the well-established outgroup homogeneity effect in face memory (worse recognition for outgroup faces than ingroup faces). Because past research has shown that group distinctiveness threat can enhance ingroup homogeneity, of interest in the current research was whether distinctiveness threat affects face recognition. Across two studies, we found that threatening White American participants’ ethnic distinctiveness led to

John Paul Wilson; Kurt Hugenberg

2010-01-01

261

Weighing Neutrinos: Weak Lensing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the possibility for a measurement of neutrino mass using weak\\u000agravitational lensing. The presence of non-zero mass neutrinos leads to a\\u000asuppression of power at small scales and reduces the expected weak lensing\\u000asignal. The measurement of such a suppression in the weak lensing power\\u000aspectrum allows a direct measurement of the neutrino mass, in contrast to\\u000avarious

Asantha R. Cooray

1999-01-01

262

Strength-based criterion shifts in recognition memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In manipulations of stimulus strength between lists, a more lenient signal detection criterion is more frequently applied\\u000a to a weak than to a strong stimulus class. However, with randomly intermixed weak and strong test probes, such acriterion shift often does not result. A procedure that has yieldeddelay-based within-list criterion shifts was applied to strength manipulations in recognition memory for categorized

Murray Singer

2009-01-01

263

Initiation of Explosives by Low Strength Shocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a study of initiative processes involving weak (i.e. kbar strength) shocks. In the period covered by this contract the authors have done work on the drop-weight impact test, micro-particle initiation of explosives, multiple shocking ...

D. Tabor J. E. Field M. M. Chaudri R. E. Winter W. L. Ng

1974-01-01

264

Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat  

SciTech Connect

Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

Karl A. Seger

2001-04-30

265

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

266

Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

267

Group norms, threat, and children's racial prejudice.  

PubMed

To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was of the same or different race. Consistent with SIDT, prejudice was greater when the in-group had a norm of exclusion and there was threat from the out-group. Norms and threat also interacted with participant age to influence ethnic attitudes, although prejudice was greatest when the in-group had an exclusion norm and there was out-group threat. The implications of the findings for SIDT are discussed. PMID:15892784

Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

268

Threat credibility and weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Individual or collective preparedness for an attack involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD) must be based on an analysis of the threat. In threat assessment one takes many factors into account, including the physical and psychological parameters of the attacker. Although the potential devastation caused by WMD is significant, there are many limitations to the effective use of such weapons. Casualty rates will likely be measured in the thousands rather than millions because of factors that will be discussed. The psychological ramifications, it should be noted, the permutations of which have not yet been defined, will be much longer lasting. In this paper the author discusses these and other characteristics of the current threat. PMID:16212311

Moores, Leon E

2002-03-15

269

Bioterrorism: responding to an emerging threat.  

PubMed

Only a few years ago bioterrorism was considered a remote concern but few today are complacent about the possibility of biological agents being intentionally used to cause widespread panic, disruption, disease and death. By its very nature, the biological weapons threat - with its close links to naturally occurring infectious agents and disease - requires a different paradigm than that for conventional terrorism, military strikes or attacks caused by other weapons of mass destruction. This evolving threat presents the medical, public health and scientific communities (importantly including biotechnology) with a set of difficult and pressing challenges. This article provides a brief overview of the threat from biological weapons, the nature of a bioterrorist attack and some of the issues that need to be addressed if we are to make meaningful progress to prevent or contain this disturbing and potentially catastrophic danger. PMID:12062974

Hamburg, Margaret A

2002-07-01

270

Strength Modeling Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force...

N. I. Badler P. Lee S. Wong

1985-01-01

271

Weak deeply virtual Compton scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross

A. V. Radyushkin; A. Psaker

2007-01-01

272

Universal weakly secure network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of secure network coding under the weak (and practically appealing) security requirements of Bhattad and Narayanan. Weak security allows communication at maximum rate while ensuring that only meaningless information is leaked to a wiretapper. Differently from the approach of Bhattad and Narayanan, which requires a joint design of the underlying network code and the outer

Danilo Silva; Frank R. Kschischang

2009-01-01

273

Intestinal Transport of Weak Electrolytes  

PubMed Central

A study has been made of the transmural fluxes of benzoic, phenylacetic, and pentanoic acids, benzylamine, hexylamine, and D-amphetamine across rat jejunum incubated in vitro. The M to S fluxes of the weak acids were greater than their corresponding S to M fluxes, and the S to M fluxes of the weak bases were larger than their M to S fluxes. These patterns of asymmetric movements were observed when the transmural electrical potential difference was clamped at 0 mV, and when the pH values of the mucosal and serosal fluids were identical. The effects of a weak acid on the fluxes of other weak electrolytes were qualitatively similar when the effector weak acid was added to the mucosal fluid, and when it was added to the serosal fluid. But the effects of a weak base on the fluxes of other weak electrolytes were dependent upon its location, and the interactions observed when the effector weak base was added to the mucosal fluid were qualitatively different than those seen when it was added to the serosal fluid. The interactions between weak electrolytes could readily be explained in terms of the function of a system of three compartments in series, in which the pH of the intermediate compartment is greater than that of the bulk phases. But these observations could not be explained in terms of an analogous system involving an intermediate compartment of low pH, or in terms of a carrier mediated system. The transport function of the three-compartment system can be described in the form of an equation, and it is found that a pH difference of less than 0.5 unit may explain our observations on weak electrolyte transport.

Jackson, Michael J.; Shiau, Yih-Fu; Bane, Susan; Fox, Margaret

1974-01-01

274

Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics

D. A. Henderson

1998-01-01

275

National Drug Threat Assessment, 2005. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and diverted pharmaceuticals pose a serious threat to the United States because of the adverse effects of drug abuse on the lives of millions of Americans and the substantial resources consumed in combating illic...

2005-01-01

276

Impact! - The Threat of Comets and Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Impact , Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at the catastrophic collisions of comets and asteroids with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this frightening possibility. Every day something

Gerrit L. Verschuur

1997-01-01

277

Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

Stader, David L.

2000-01-01

278

Learning to Adapt to Asymmetric Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the changes that might be called for in the Department of Defense (DoD) learning environment to meet the challenges facing the United States as it responds to the asymmetric threats of the 21st century. In DoD planning terms, the conce...

J. C. Tillson W. D. Freeman W. R. Burns J. E. Michel J. A. LeCuyer

2005-01-01

279

New Threat to National Security: Environmental Deterioration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the mid 1960's, 'national security' has been conceptualized in almost strictly military terms, rooted in the assumption that the principal threat to security comes from the military actions of other nations. Such was not always the case. While U.S. ...

S. H. Patterson

1989-01-01

280

Garlic: Nature's Protection Against Physiological Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements

Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Mehmood S. Butt; Javaid Iqbal

2009-01-01

281

Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition,

Gwen C. Marchand; Gita Taasoobshirazi

2012-01-01

282

The Nature of the Terrorism Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how Bruce Hoffman and Marc Sageman, two prominent scholars of terrorism, square off over whether Al Qaeda remains the primary global terrorist threat. The dispute began in the pages of "Foreign Affairs," where Hoffman, a professor in the security-studies program at Georgetown University, wrote a withering review of…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

283

Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Left-wing extremism is 'alive and well' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extr...

K. A. Seger

2001-01-01

284

The Threat Within: Deregulation and Energy Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security has traditionally been understood in terms of import dependence on foreign oil, and the threats to supply from war, instability or political embargos mounted by foreign suppliers. But there is also a risk closer to home. The move towards liberalised energy markets in Europe, the US and, to some extent, Asia could undermine both the long-term contracts which

D. Buchan

2002-01-01

285

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement

Carlos M. Pereira; J. Rastegar; Clifford E. McLain; T. Alanson; Charles McMullan; H.-L. Nguyen

2007-01-01

286

Maritime Threats Workshop. Volume 09-04.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States and Republic of the Philippines strengthened their strategic partnership when representatives of the two countries co-hosted the Maritime Threats Workshop, held in Cebu, Republic of the Philippines on 26-30 July 2004. The workshop focuse...

R. Wohlschlegel C. W. Turner K. Butts

2004-01-01

287

Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social

Galya I. Balatsky; Ruth Duggan

2012-01-01

288

Al Shabaab's Foreign Threat to Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the threat to Somalia by al Shabaab (The Youth), an extremist organization that controls most of southern and central Somalia. It learned its strategy and tactics from al Qaeda and the Taliban and relies heavily on a relatively small number of foreign fighters, most of whom are Somalis with foreign passports from the large Somali diaspora.

David Shinn

2011-01-01

289

Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “war on terror” has exclusively focused on transnational terrorism since the hijackings of 9\\/11. Based on almost 40 years of data, this article shows that domestic terrorism poses a much greater threat to the world community. Thus, this focus needs to be reconsidered, especially because recent research shows that domestic terrorism spills over into transnational terrorism. This article also

Khusrav Gaibulloev; Todd Sandler; Charlinda Santifort

2011-01-01

290

Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes.…

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

291

Securing infrastructure from high explosive threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve

Lee G. Glascoe; Charles Noble; John G. Reynolds; Allen Kuhl; Joseph Morris

2009-01-01

292

The Real Threat of Nuclear Smuggling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest

Phil Williams; Paul N. Woessner

1996-01-01

293

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops

Terry Feeley

2010-01-01

294

Influenza: current threat from avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is an infectious respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and infrequent pandemics, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and burdens on the delivery of health care. The geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 among poultry and wild bird populations is unprecedented. Growing numbers of sporadic avian influenza infections are occurring in humans, increasing the threat of the next

Iain Stephenson; Jane Democratis

295

The threat from space - A British initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although humanity is a technologically advanced civilisation, we as humans are painfully aware of our vulnerability to terrestrial disasters such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and extreme weather phenomena. What has not been well appreciated by many people is the threat to life that extra-terrestrial objects may also pose in the future, nor indeed the role such objects have already played

R. Miles

2001-01-01

296

Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no consensus among experts in and outside the U.S. Government about the magnitude of the threat to U.S. national interests posed by the Al Qaeda organization. Experts agree that Al Qaeda and its sympathizers intend to conduct major attacks in the...

K. Katzman

2005-01-01

297

The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity. The smallpox virus is highly specific for humans and non-pathogenic in animals. There is no antiviral treatment and a vaccine is active only if administered in the

Patrick Berche

2001-01-01

298

Real-Time Detection of Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Government agencies, personnel security professionals, and our military services are faced with new challenges to rapidly assess the credibility of statements made by individuals in airports, border crossings, secured facilities, and a variety of environments not conducive to prolonged interviews. The changing environment has become more global and threats lie not just in the securing of

Andrew H. Ryan Jr.

2003-01-01

299

Infectious Disease: A Global Health Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Government interagency working group was convened on December 14, 1994, to consider the global threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. the working group was established under the aegis of the Committee on International Science, Engine...

1995-01-01

300

Developing vaccines to counter bioterrorist threats.  

PubMed

Large and innovative research programs are underway to define the immune parameters for vaccines against a wide array of pathogens considered to represent a potential bioterrorist threat. However, the development and utilization of such vaccines presents a number of predicaments that have not previously been addressed by the field of vaccinology. PMID:16026243

Altmann, Daniel M

2005-06-01

301

Cruise missiles: New threats, new thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cruise missiles are increasingly being recognized as posing a threat comparable to that of ballistic missiles. Drawing on their recent major study, Cruise Missiles: Precision & Countermeasures, the authors divide the issues into four critical questions: (1) How have cruise missiles developed since Hitler's V?Is (the first operational cruise missiles)? (2) How effective were US. cruise missiles in the 1991

Robin Ranger; Humphry Crum Ewing; David Wiencek; David Boset

1995-01-01

302

The balance of weak and strong interactions in genetic networks.  

PubMed

Genetic interactions are being quantitatively characterized in a comprehensive way in several model organisms. These data are then globally represented in terms of genetic networks. How are interaction strengths distributed in these networks? And what type of functional organization of the underlying genomic systems is revealed by such distribution patterns? Here, I found that weak interactions are important for the structure of genetic buffering between signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the strength of the association between two genes correlates with the number of common interactors they exhibit. I also determined that this network includes genetic cascades balancing weak and strong links, and that its hubs act as particularly strong genetic modifiers; both patterns also identified in Saccharomyces cerevisae networks. In yeast, I further showed a relation, although weak, between interaction strengths and some phenotypic/evolutionary features of the corresponding target genes. Overall, this work demonstrates a non-random organization of interaction strengths in genetic networks, a feature common to other complex networks, and that could reflect in this context how genetic variation is eventually influencing the phenotype. PMID:21347355

Poyatos, Juan F

2011-02-10

303

An Apparatus and Protocol to Measure Shoulder Girdle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Muscles actuating the shoulder girdle are important for stabilizing the scapula and coordinating phased kinematics of the shoulder complex. If these muscles become weak or imbalanced, joint instability and injury may result. Reliable measurement of shoulder strength is thus important for prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation of shoulder problems. To date, studies quantifying the strength of the shoulder girdle

Brian A. Garner; Jaeho Shim; Scott Wilson

2007-01-01

304

Quantifying Variation in the Strengths of Species Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how the strengths of species interactions are distributed among species is critical for developing predictive models of natural food webs as well as for developing management and conservation strategies. Recently a number of ecologists have attempted to clarify the concepts of ''strong-'' and ''weak-interactors'' in a community, and to derive techniques for quantifying interaction strengths in the field, using

Eric L. Berlow; Sergio A. Navarrete; Cheryl J. Briggs; Mary E. Power; Bruce A. Menge

1999-01-01

305

Early exercise rehabilitation of muscle weakness in acute respiratory failure patients.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory failure patients experience significant muscle weakness, which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments after hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. PMID:23873130

Berry, Michael J; Morris, Peter E

2013-10-01

306

Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak  

SciTech Connect

We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width {sigma} small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio {sigma}/d.

Sokolovski, D. [Department of Chemical Physics, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo, 36-5, Plaza Bizkaia, 48011, Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Akhmatskaya, E. [Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM), Building 500, Bizkaia Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain)

2011-08-15

307

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL

2011-01-01

308

Weak-shock reflection factors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-09-07

309

Resisting Weakness of the Will  

PubMed Central

I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

Levy, Neil

2012-01-01

310

Strength Reduction via SSAPRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present techniques that allow strength reduction to be performed concurrently with partial redundancy elimination in the SSAPRE framework. By sharing the characteristics inherent to SSAPRE, the resulting strength reduction algorithm exhibits many interesting attributes. We compare various aspects of the new strength reduction algorithm with previous strength reduction algorithms. We also outline and discuss our implementation of the closely

Robert Kennedy; Fred C. Chow; Peter Dahl; Shin-ming Liu; Raymond Lo; Mark Streich

1998-01-01

311

Pre-emptive Threat Mitigation: Neutralizing the Boko Haram Threat to U.S. Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

West Africa presents unique and complex challenges to the security of the United States (US) and critical US interests abroad. Nigeria, the largest and most diplomatically, militarily and economically progressive nation in West Africa, faces severe threat...

R. W. Robertson

2012-01-01

312

Countering Insider Threats - Handling Insider Threats Using Dynamic, Run-Time Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project was to research and develop applied computer forensic approaches for preventing and detecting insider threats in sensitive organizations in conjunction with advanced access control systems such as Fine-grained, Active...

J. Hallahan

2007-01-01

313

Mixed electrolytes producing very weak electroacoustic signal.  

PubMed

The electrokinetic potential of powders dispersed in concentrated solutions of salts can be determined by electroacoustic methods when the ESA (electrokinetic sonic amplitude) signal of electrolyte is properly corrected for. We propose an alternative solution to the problem of electroacoustic measurements at high ionic strengths; that is, the composition of mixed electrolytes with common ions can be adjusted to minimize the ESA signal of the electrolyte. The measurement of electrokinetic potential of powders dispersed in such mixed electrolytes does not require electrolyte background correction. Mixed electrolytes, which produce very weak ESA signals, were prepared from the following salts with common ions: Li+ (LiNO3 + LiCl), Na+ (NaNO3 + NaBr), K+ (KBr + KNO3), and NO(-)3 (LiNO3 + KNO3). Proportions of the components in these mixed electrolytes are concentration dependent. The electrokinetic potentials of alumina in these mixed electrolytes determined with and without background correction were only marginally different. PMID:17686486

Kosmulski, Marek; Rosenholm, Jarl B

2007-08-07

314

Risk assessment and LAVA's (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment) dynamic threat analysis  

SciTech Connect

LAVA (the Los Alamos Vulnerability/Risk Assessment system) is a three-part systematic approach to risk assessment that can be used to model risk assessment for a variety of application systems such as computer security systems, communications security systems, and information security systems. The first part of LAVA is the mathematical methodology based on such disciplines as hierarchical system theory, event-tree analysis, possibility theory, and cognitive science. The second part is the general software engine,written for a large class of personal computers, that implements the mathematical risk model. The third part is the application data sets written for a specific application system. The methodology provides a framework for creating applications for the software engine to operate upon; all application-specific information is data. Using LAVA, we build knowledge-based expert systems to assess risks in application systems comprising a subject system and a safeguards system. The subject system model comprises sets of threats, assets, and undesirable outcomes; because the threat to security systems is ever-changing, LAVA provides for an analysis of the dynamic aspects of the threat spectrum. The safeguards system model comprises sets of safeguards functions for protecting the assess from the threats by preventing or ameliorating the undesirable outcomes; sets of safeguards subfunctions whose performance determine whether the function is adequate and complete; and sets of issues that appear as interactive questionnaires, whose measures define both the weaknesses in the safeguards system and the potential costs of an undesirable outcome occurring. 29 refs.

Smith, S.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

315

Effective Teaching Strategies for Gifted/Learning-Disabled Students with Spatial Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine effective teaching strategies for use with high-ability students who have spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses. Gifted students with spatial strengths and weak verbal skills often struggle in the traditional classroom. Their learning style enables them to grasp complex systems and excel at higher levels of…

Mann, Rebecca L.

2006-01-01

316

A functional approach to non-local strength conditions and fracture criteria—II. Discrete fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new notions of discrete fracture mechanics are introduced: fracture quantum, homogeneous and isotropic fracture quanta sets, and fracture quanta sets that are weakly sensitive to the boundary. Non-local functional strength conditions for a fracture quantum and for a body are considered. Definitions are given for strength homogeneity, isotropy, finite non-locality, and weak sensitivity to the boundary for a discretely

S. E. Mikhailov

1995-01-01

317

Weak interactions and presupernova evolution  

SciTech Connect

The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Aufderheide, M.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) State Univ. of New York (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1991-02-19

318

Weak to strong pinning crossover.  

PubMed

Material defects in hard type II superconductors pin the flux lines and thus establish the dissipation-free current transport in the presence of a finite magnetic field. Depending on the density and pinning force of the defects and the vortex density, pinning is either weak collective or strong. We analyze the weak to strong pinning crossover of vortex matter in disordered superconductors and discuss the peak effect appearing naturally in this context. PMID:14995270

Blatter, G; Geshkenbein, V B; Koopmann, J A G

2004-02-13

319

Weak deeply virtual Compton scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high-intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Psaker, A.; Radyushkin, A. V. [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2007-03-01

320

Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

2007-03-01

321

Electronic Warfare - Electromagnetic Threat Analysis System, (EW-ETAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort was for the development of a system to assist FTD's analysts in their efforts to provide scientific and technical intelligence on Electronic Warfare and its threat. The system is called the Electronic Warfare - Electromagnetic Threat Analysis ...

J. A. Rummans

1980-01-01

322

Beyond Anthrax: Confronting the Future Biological Weapons Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The threat to national security posed by classical biological agents such as smallpox and anthrax is severe and the federal government's response is thus far incomplete. But this current threat pales in comparison to the potential scourges of the future. ...

2004-01-01

323

49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c) and may pose an imminent threat to transportation or national security, or of terrorism. The Initial Determination of Threat Assessment and Immediate Revocation includesâ (i) A statement that TSA has...

2012-10-01

324

Using SWOT Analysis for Promoting the Accounting Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can be used by business educators to find the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal departmental capabilities (strengths and weaknesses). An example from accounting education is provided. (JOW)|

Sawyer, Joe E.

2001-01-01

325

Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

2009-03-20

326

Current nuclear threats and possible responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

Lamb, Frederick K.

2005-04-01

327

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

Feeley, Terry

2010-04-01

328

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

329

In Brief: Threats to species continue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Showstack, Randy

2009-11-01

330

Brain activation during anticipation of interoceptive threat.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the neural networks activated during the anticipation of potentially threatening body symptoms evoked by a guided hyperventilation task in a group of participants reporting either high or low fear of unexplained somatic sensations. 15 subjects reporting high and 14 subjects reporting low fear of somatic symptoms first learned that one of two cues predicted the occurrence of a hyperventilation task reliably producing body symptoms in all participants that were rated as more intense and unpleasant in the high fear group. During anticipation of unpleasant symptoms, high fear participants reported more intense body symptoms and showed potentiation of the startle reflex. After this learning session, participants were taken into the fMRI where the same cues either predicted the occurrence of hyperventilation or normoventilation, although the task was never performed in the scanner. During anticipation of hyperventilation all participants showed an increased activation of anterior insula/orbitofrontal cortex and rostral parts of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dACC/dmPFC). Brain activation of high compared to low fear participants differed in two ways. First, high fear participants showed an overall stronger activation of this network during threat and safe conditions indexing stronger anxious apprehension during the entire context. Second, while low fear participants no longer responded with stronger activation to the threat cue after experiencing that the hyperventilation challenge did not follow this cue, high fear participants continued to show stronger activation of the network to this cue. Activation of the rostral dACC/dmPFC was significantly correlated with reported fear of somatic symptoms. These data demonstrate that anticipation of interoceptive threat activates the same network that has been found to be active during anticipation of exteroceptive threat cues. Thus, the current paradigm might provide an innovative method to study anxious apprehension and treatment effects in patients with panic disorder. PMID:22440646

Holtz, Katharina; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O

2012-03-14

331

Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1-contraband material in the sea containers, case 2--explosives in soil (landmines), case 3-explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

2009-03-01

332

Globalisation and the Threat to Biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Globalisation has led to a dramatic increase in trade and travel and exotic species are now being exchanged, either accidentally\\u000a or deliberately, at unprecedented rates between geographically isolated regions, countries and continents. Thus, the natural\\u000a barriers that once separated the world’s floras and faunas are no longer effective and invasive alien species pose potent\\u000a and burgeoning threats to both natural

Harry C. Evans; James M. Waller

333

Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect

Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

2012-07-12

334

Intelligence Analyses and the Insider Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the intelligence community, the existence of a malicious insider poses a severe threat to information, to the actual analytic process, and, ultimately, to any decision-making process relying on such information and analyses. An analyst with malicious intent can create irreversible short-term, as well as long-term, damage that is hard to detect. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology

Eugene Santos; Hien Nguyen; Fei Yu; Keum Joo Kim; Deqing Li; John T. Wilkinson; Adam Olson; Jacob Russell; Brittany Clark

2012-01-01

335

Semantic Analysis for Monitoring Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malicious insiders' difficult-to-detect activities pose serious threats to the intelligence community (IC) when these activities go undetected. A novel approach that integrates the results of social network analysis, role-based access monitoring, and semantic analysis of insiders' communications as evidence for evaluation by a risk assessor is being tested on an IC simulation. A semantic analysis, by our proven Natural Language

Svetlana Symonenko; Elizabeth D. Liddy; Ozgur Yilmazel; Robert Del Zoppo; Eric Brown; Matt Downey

2004-01-01

336

Threat Modeling for Electronic Health Record Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security of electronic health record (EHR) systems is crucial for their growing acceptance. There is a need for assurance\\u000a that these records are securely protected from attacks. For a system as complex as an EHR system, the number of possible attacks\\u000a is potentially very large. In this paper, a threat modeling methodology, known as attack tree, is employed to

Ahmad Almulhem

337

Impact! - The Threat of Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Impact , Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at the catastrophic collisions of comets and asteroids with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this frightening possibility. Every day something from space hits our planet, Verschuur reveals. In fact, about 10,000 tons of space debris fall to earth every year, mostly in meteoric form. But meteors are not the greatest threat to life on earth, the author points out. The major threats are asteroids and comets. The reader discovers that astronomers have located some 350 NEAs ("Near Earth Asteroids"), objects whose orbits cross the orbit of the earth. Comets, of course, are even more deadly. He discusses Comet Swift-Tuttle--"the most dangerous object in the solar system"--a comet far larger than the one that many scientists believe killed off the dinosaurs, due to pass through earth's orbit in the year 2126. In addition, the author describes the efforts of Spacewatch and other groups to locate NEAs, and evaluates the idea that comet and asteroid impacts have been an underrated factor in the evolution of life on earth. Whether discussing monumental tsunamis or the innumerable comets in the solar system, Impact will enthrall anyone curious about outer space, remarkable natural phenomenon, or the future of the planet earth.

Verschuur, Gerrit L.

1997-12-01

338

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

339

Toddlers' Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat  

PubMed Central

Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children.

Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2010-01-01

340

SARS: an emerging global microbial threat.  

PubMed

In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance, the development of rapid diagnostics, new therapies, and vaccines, implementation of aggressive evidence-based infection control strategies, and effective communication. PMID:17060979

Hughes, James M

2004-01-01

341

SARS: An Emerging Global Microbial Threat.  

PubMed Central

In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance, the development of rapid diagnostics, new therapies, and vaccines, implementation of aggressive evidence-based infection control strategies, and effective communication. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Hughes, James M.

2004-01-01

342

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2012-01-01

343

Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats

2005-01-01

344

41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Direct threat defense. 60-250...Section 60-250.22 Public Contracts and Property...Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE...60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor...direct threat to the health or safety of the...

2013-07-01

345

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Direct threat defense. 60-741...Section 60-741.22 Public Contracts and Property...Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE...60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor...direct threat to the health or safety of the...

2013-07-01

346

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Direct threat defense. 60-300...Section 60-300.22 Public Contracts and Property...Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE...60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor...direct threat to the health or safety of the...

2013-07-01

347

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2012-01-01

348

Threat Facilitates Subsequent Executive Control During Anxious Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual competition framework (DCF) posits that low-level threat may facilitate behavioral performance by influencing executive control functions. Anxiety is thought to strengthen this effect by enhancing threat's affective significance. To test these ideas directly, we examined the effects of low-level threat and experimentally induced anxiety on one executive control function, the efficiency of response inhibition. In Study 1, briefly presented

Jeffrey L. Birk; Tracy A. Dennis; Lisa M. Shin; Heather L. Urry

2011-01-01

349

Stereotype threat and inflexible perseverance in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examines whether women burdened by stereotype threat, a threat of confirming negative ingroup stereotypes (Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797–811), are less able to abandon old strategies and employ newer, more efficient ones when conditions change. In two

Priyanka B. Carr; Claude M. Steele

2009-01-01

350

A threat coefficient method for extended air defense system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extended air defense system has been analyzed. The Particular attention is paid to the threat of the air defense system to cruise missile. A method named Threat Coefficient Method was proposed based on the analysis of the air defense system structure and its operations. A threat coefficient model of the air defense system was built. It is shown that

Zhihong Yin; Naigang Cui; Shiyi Guan

2007-01-01

351

Determinants of Students' Perceptions of Conventional and Unconventional War Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on Israeli students' perceptions of two war threats: the Iranian and the Hezbollah war hazards. We examined potential determinants of these two perceived threats: individual and public resilience, sense of personal danger, subjective well-being, and denial tendency. We examined further associations between these perceived threats and biographical characteristics: gender, family income, exposure to negative events, and political

Shaul Kimhi; Yohanan Eshel

2012-01-01

352

Threat-sensitive foraging by larval threespine sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis predicts that prey can assess the relative threat posed by a predator and adjust their behaviour to reflect the magnitude of the threat. We tested the ability of larval threespine sticklebacks to adjust their foraging in the presence of predators by exposing them to conspecific predators of various sizes and recording their foraging and predator

Todd D. Bishop; Joseph A. Brown

1992-01-01

353

The Relationship Between Video Game Play and Threat Simulation Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revonsuo proposes an evolutionary theory of dreaming in which dreams allow an individual to prepare for real world threats in the safety of the virtual setting of the dream world. Based upon previous work examining the dreams of video game players, it was hypothesized that high-end gamers would experience fewer threat simulation dreams because of frequent threat resolution rehearsal during

Jayne Gackenbach; Beena Kuruvilla

2008-01-01

354

Game-theoretic modeling and analysis of insider threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malicious insiders are one of the most serious threats to an organization’s information assets. The threat is also extremely difficult to mitigate: an insider can be more knowledgeable than an external attacker about the target system and is, therefore, more effective at defeating security controls that mainly defend against external attacks. A promising technique for addressing the insider threat is

Debin Liu; XiaoFeng Wang; Jean Camp

2008-01-01

355

Physician Office Readiness for Managing Internet Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks. Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. A recent report showed an increase of over 140% percent in the number and severity of Internet security threats in the last 6 months of 2005 (1). These threats include viruses, trojans, spam, spyware, phishing, pharming,

Karim Keshavjee; Nick Pairaudeau; Alisha Bhanji

356

Nuclear threat in the post cold-war era. Monograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph discusses the nuclear threat that the United States faces following the downfall of the Soviet Union. The Russian and Chinese nuclear arsenals represent a formidable threat that must be countered and a new threat is emerging in the third world despite efforts to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The monograph reviews the current status of

Kurey

1995-01-01

357

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...grouped under the following four categories: (1) Time dependent threats such as internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such as fabrication or construction...

2012-10-01

358

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grouped under the following four categories: (1) Time dependent threats such as internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such as fabrication or construction...

2011-10-01

359

Finding weak directional coupling in multiscale time series.  

PubMed

We propose a method to identify the direction of interactions between the components of a coupled system from observed data. This method tries to identify the direction of coupling for various severe conditions including for nonlinear dynamics, small sample size, weak coupling strength, noisy and multiscale data, and multistructure systems. Thus, it appears to be a promising method for real-world problems encountered in a variety of disciplines, such as physics, economics, and biology. PMID:23005515

Alizad-Rahvar, A R; Ardakani, M

2012-07-18

360

Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this

Frédéric van Wijland; Zoltán Rácz

2005-01-01

361

Muscle Strength and BMI as Predictors of Major Mobility Disability in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P)  

PubMed Central

Background. Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. Methods. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which sedentary functionally limited participants (70–89 years, Short Physical Performance Battery ? 9) who were able to complete a 400-m walk test at baseline were randomized to a physical activity or health education intervention and reassessed for major mobility disability every 6 months for up to 18 months. We evaluated whether baseline grip strength and BMI predicted failure to complete the 400-m walk test in 15 minutes or less (major mobility disability). Results. Among N = 406 participants with baseline measures, lower grip strength was associated with an increased risk for developing major mobility disability, with and without covariate adjustment (p < .01): The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus high sex-specific quartile of grip strength was 6.11 (2.24–16.66). We observed a U-shaped relationship between baseline BMI and the risk of developing major mobility disability, such that the risk for participants with a BMI of 25–29 kg/m2 was approximately half that of participants with BMI less than 25 or 30 kg/m2 or more (p = .04 in fully adjusted analyses). Conclusions. Our data highlight the importance of muscle weakness, low BMI, and obesity as risk factors for major mobility disability in older adults. Being overweight may be protective for major mobility disability.

Rejeski, W. Jack; Espeland, Mark A.; Miller, Michael E.; Church, Timothy S.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

2011-01-01

362

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

363

Weak Selection and Protein Evolution  

PubMed Central

The “nearly neutral” theory of molecular evolution proposes that many features of genomes arise from the interaction of three weak evolutionary forces: mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection acting at its limit of efficacy. Such forces generally have little impact on allele frequencies within populations from generation to generation but can have substantial effects on long-term evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of weakly selected mutations are highly sensitive to population size, and near neutrality was initially proposed as an adjustment to the neutral theory to account for general patterns in available protein and DNA variation data. Here, we review the motivation for the nearly neutral theory, discuss the structure of the model and its predictions, and evaluate current empirical support for interactions among weak evolutionary forces in protein evolution. Near neutrality may be a prevalent mode of evolution across a range of functional categories of mutations and taxa. However, multiple evolutionary mechanisms (including adaptive evolution, linked selection, changes in fitness-effect distributions, and weak selection) can often explain the same patterns of genome variation. Strong parameter sensitivity remains a limitation of the nearly neutral model, and we discuss concave fitness functions as a plausible underlying basis for weak selection.

Akashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Naoki; Ohta, Tomoko

2012-01-01

364

Weakness  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer that has spread to the spinal cord Multiple sclerosis Less common causes: Many other conditions sometimes cause ... Sometimes seizures MRI or CT of the brain Multiple sclerosis (affects the brain, spinal cord or both) Usually ...

365

The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

Juhnke, Gerald A.

2010-01-01

366

Distinguishing Stereotype Threat From Priming Effects: On the Role of the Social Self and Threat-Based Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that priming negative stereotypic traits is sufficient to cause stereotype threat. The present research challenges this assumption by highlighting the role of the social self and targets' concerns about confirming a negative group-based stereotype. Specifically, in 3 experiments the authors demonstrate that stereotype threat adversely affects the test performance and threat-based concerns of targets (but not

David M. Marx; Diederik A. Stapel

2006-01-01

367

Flexibility and Muscular Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

Liemohn, Wendell

1988-01-01

368

Weak-chaos ratchet accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical Hamiltonian systems with a mixed phase space and some asymmetry may exhibit chaotic ratchet effects. The most significant such effect is a directed momentum current or acceleration. In known model systems, this effect may arise only for sufficiently strong chaos. In this paper, a Hamiltonian ratchet accelerator is introduced, featuring a momentum current for arbitrarily weak chaos. The system is a realistic, generalized kicked rotor and is exactly solvable to some extent, leading to analytical expressions for the momentum current. While this current arises also for relatively strong chaos, the maximal current is shown to occur, at least in one case, precisely in a limit of arbitrarily weak chaos.

Dana, Itzhack; Roitberg, Vladislav B.

2011-06-01

369

Strength Training for Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

2001-01-01

370

High-Strength Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent steel developments indicate that strength and toughness requirements for 150 ksi yield-strength steel essentially have been met, that the requirements for the 200 ksi yield-strength steel are a near-term probability, and that the requirements for t...

T. P. Groeneveld

1967-01-01

371

Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

2002-09-01

372

A Simon effect for threat-related stimulus content.  

PubMed

When a threat-related stimulus is preferentially processed, it may act as if it is presented alone, and thus trigger processes comparable with the effects elicited by a single stimulus. Peripheral stimuli are known to yield a Simon effect: faster responses when stimulus and response spatially correspond than when not. We designed a task during which a threat-related (physical threat, social threat, or height) word is presented with a neutral word (14 or 500 ms, masked), one above the other, and spatial correspondence of threat-related word and response varies across trials. Undergraduates performed this task when exposed to height (N=22) or in a lab (N=25). The height group, compared to the control group, showed a content-specific Simon effect for physical-threat words. This result adds evidence to the hypothesis of preferential processing of relevant threat-related information. PMID:17109814

Schrooten, Martien G S; Smulders, Fren T Y

2006-11-15

373

A threat coefficient method for extended air defense system analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended air defense system has been analyzed. The Particular attention is paid to the threat of the air defense system to cruise missile. A method named Threat Coefficient Method was proposed based on the analysis of the air defense system structure and its operations. A threat coefficient model of the air defense system was built. It is shown that the threat coefficient will be reduced while threat-length is reduced by using the model. The threat-length has been researched based on radar theory. The method has been verified by means of simulation. Based on the analysis, it is found that reducing the RCS or increasing active chaff could reduce the threat coefficient.

Yin, Zhihong; Cui, Naigang; Guan, Shiyi

2007-11-01

374

Alcohol dose effects on stress response to cued threat vary by threat intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Clarification of alcohol’s effect on stress response during threat is critical to understand motivation for alcohol use and\\u000a related alcohol-use disorders. Evaluation of stress response dampening (SRD) effects of alcohol has been limited by nonsystematic\\u000a use of varied experimental methods and measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This experiment parametrically varied alcohol dose and shock threat intensity among social drinkers to examine their effects\\u000a on

Christine A. Moberg; Stefanie M. Weber; John J. Curtin

375

Acoustic and optical multi-sensor threat detection system for border patrol against aerial threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia has borders covering over 4,300 km that are shared with seven countries. Such large borders pose many challenges for security and patrol. Thermal imagers are considered the most reliable means of threat detection, however, they are quite costly, which can prevent using them over large areas. This work discusses a multi-sensor acoustic and optical implementation for threat detection as an effort to reduce system cost. The acoustic sensor provides position and direction recognition by using a four microphone setup. The data analysis of field tests will be discussed in this work.

Alsawadi, Motasem S.; Ismail, Ahmad; Al-Azem, Badeea F.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Alghamdi, Sultan; Alghamdi, Mansour

2012-10-01

376

Model for Bone Strength and Osteoporotic Fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inner porous regions play a critical role in the load bearing capability of large bones. We show that an extension of disordered elastic networks [Chung et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 15 094 (1996)] exhibits analogs of several known mechanical features of bone. The ``stress backbones'' and histograms of stress distributions for healthy and weak networks are shown to be qualitatively different. A hereto untested relationship between bone density and bone strength is presented.

Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Rajapaksa, Chamith S.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Mohanty, Kishore K.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.

2002-02-01

377

Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

2012-05-01

378

Dynamics of weakly localized waves.  

PubMed

We develop a transport theory to describe the dynamics of (weakly) localized waves in a quasi-1D tube geometry both in reflection and in transmission. We compare our results to recent experiments with microwaves and to other theories, such as random matrix theory and supersymmetric theory. PMID:15089135

Skipetrov, S E; van Tiggelen, B A

2004-03-15

379

Weak Approximations for Wiener functionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a simple space-filtration discretization scheme on Wiener space which allows us to study weak decompositions and smooth explicit approximations for a large class of Wiener functionals. We show that any Wiener functional has an underlying robust semimartingale skeleton which under mild conditions converges to it. The discretization is given in terms of discrete-jumping filtrations which

Dorival Leao; Alberto Ohashi

2009-01-01

380

Weak Intera ction and Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter we examine the connection among the themes: the cosmological constant, the weak interaction and the neutrino mass. Our main pr opose is to review and modify the ideas first propo sed by Hayakawa ( Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. ,532(1965).), in the ligth of the new-fashioned fea tures of contemporary physics. Assuming the pressure of a Fermi gas

P. R. Silva

381

{tau} weak magnetic dipole moment  

SciTech Connect

The weak magnetic dipole moment of the {tau}-lepton is reviewed. Standard Model predictions and the last experimental results are presented. These may result in a stringent test for both their point-like structure and also for new physics.

Gonzalez-Sprinberg, Gabriel [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Rep'ublica Montevideo (Uruguay)

1998-10-05

382

Vibrations of weakly coupled nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrations of a coupled pair of isotropic silver spheres are investigated and compared with the vibrations of the single isolated spheres. Situations of both strong coupling and also weak coupling are investigated using continuum elasticity and perturbation theory. The numerical calculation of the eigenmodes of such dimers is augmented with a symmetry analysis. This checks the convergence and applicability

Lucien Saviot; Daniel B. Murray

2010-01-01

383

The threat of nuclear war: Some responses  

PubMed Central

The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World.

Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

1986-01-01

384

MCNPX Improvements for Threat Reduction Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancements contained in the current MCNPX 2.6.0 Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) release will be presented, including stopped-muon physics, delayed neutron and photon generation, and automatic generation of source photons. Preliminary benchmarking comparisons with data taken with a muon beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute Spallation Neutron Source accelerator will be discussed. We will also describe current improvements now underway, including Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF), pulsed sources, and others. We will also describe very new work begun on a threat-reduction (TR) user interface, designed to simplify the setup of TR-related calculations, and introduce standards into geometry, sources and backgrounds.

Waters, Laurie S.; Durkee, Joe W.; Elson, Jay S.; Esch, Ernst I.; Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Holloway, Shannon T.; James, Michael R.; Jason, Andrew; Johns, Russell C.; Johnson, M. William; Kawano, Toshihiko; McKinney, Gregg W.; Moller, Peter; Pelowitz, Denise B.

2009-03-01

385

Melt motion in a Czochralski puller with a weak transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melt motion in a Czochralski silicon crystal puller with a uniform transverse magnetic field is intrinsically three-dimensional. When the magnetic field is relatively weak, the motion consists of an axisymmetric base solution, plus two perturbations which behave as sin 2? and cos 2?, neglecting terms which are proportional to the fourth power of the magnetic field strength. A 700 G magnetic field stabilizes a melt motion which is unsteady without a magnetic field. As the strength of the magnetic field increases, the magnitudes of the axial and radial velocities increase to maxima at some field strength above 1000 G. This contrasts with an axial magnetic field for which the axial and radial velocities always decrease as the field strength increases. We estimate that 1500 G is the maximum field strength for which our weak-field asymptotic solution is valid.

Williams, M. G.; Walker, J. S.; Langlois, W. E.

1990-02-01

386

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang

2013-03-01

387

When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.  

PubMed

The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N?=?588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice. PMID:23390970

Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

2013-01-01

388

Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety' in performance for a given type of CGF and allows us to organize and build vastly different CgFs within the same architecture. This approach allows us to provide a range of threat skill levels for each threat modeled within the DMTITE system and we can readily expand the system to accommodate peer-to-peer communication and group tactics. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the DMTITE requirements and a component-wise decomposition of the system. We also describe the structure of the major components of the DMT threat systems' decision mechanism. The progress of the initial prototype will also be discussed.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene

1998-08-01

389

Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet - network security threats and vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer networks and computer systems are experiencing attacks and threats from many areas. Threats are also extended to include the individual user's computer assets and resources. Information will be presented on the categories of security and privacy threats, integrity threats, vulnerabilities, delay and denial threats, and intellectual property threats that are being directed towards corporate, educational, governmental, and individual assets.

Robert C. Newman

2006-01-01

390

Effects of weak ties on epidemic predictability on community networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of the degree of bridge nodes on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find out that the bridge node with a small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, the variability of the prevalence will display a complete opposite trend to that of the arrival time, as the distance from the initial seed to the bridge node or the degree of the initial seed increases. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of the arrival time and the worse predictability of the prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the number of weak ties on the epidemic variability. As the community strength becomes very strong, which is caused by the decrease of the number of weak ties, the epidemic variability will change dramatically. Compared with the case of the hub seed and the random seed, the bridge seed can result in the worst predictability of the arrival time and the best predictability of the prevalence.

Shu, Panpan; Tang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

2012-12-01

391

Monocrotophos toxicity and bioenergetics of muscle weakness in the rat.  

PubMed

Acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning is a common medical emergency with high fatality in agricultural communities of Asia. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase and prolonged neuromuscular weakness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of poisoning. Organophosphate pesticide induced muscle weakness may not only arise from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase but also from non-cholinergic pathomechanisms, particularly mitochondrial dysfunction, affecting the production of sufficient ATP for muscle function. This study examined whether muscle weakness in rats subject to monocrotophos toxicity (0.8LD??) was caused by inhibition of ATP synthesis, by oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, in addition to inhibition of muscle acetylcholinesterase. Severe muscle weakness in rats following monocrotophos administration was associated with inhibition of muscle acetylcholinesterase (30-60%) but not with reduced ATP production. The rats rapidly recovered muscle strength with no treatment. The ability of rats to spontaneously reactivate dimethoxy phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase and efficiently detoxify organophosphates may prevent severe inhibition of muscle acetylcholinesterase following acute severe monocrotophos poisoning. This may protect rodents against the development of prolonged muscle weakness induced by organophosphates. PMID:20728503

Raghupathy, V; Poornima, S; Sivaguru, J; Ramachandran, A; Zachariah, A; Oommen, A

2010-08-20

392

Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation  

SciTech Connect

The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation: the first is the five states with declared weapons and doctrine-the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China; the second includes a less visible group that developed a covert capability, without testing weapons or declaring a doctrine of deterrence-for example, Israel, India, and probably Pakistan; and, a third wave of would-be proliferators includes radical states like Iraq, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. Spector's political approach is based on the common interest of wave one and two states to prevent further proliferation. Political-economic incentives have already worked in the cases of Brazil, Argentina, Taiwan, and South Africa-states which appear to have abandoned their nuclear weapons programs. Spector does not rule out the option of military force. Force, especially under international sanctions, can be a powerful tool to back diplomatic efforts. Use of force, however, remains a last resort.

Spector, L.S.

1992-03-12

393

Prefrontal control of attention to threat  

PubMed Central

Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

Peers, Polly V.; Simons, Jon S.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

394

A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

2013-01-01

395

A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

2013-01-01

396

Threats and Threat Scenarios in the North during the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the cold war it is necessary to focus on geopolitics, geostrategy and varying threat scenarios. But it was also a conflict of ideology, in which both parties, with the USA and the Soviet Union at the front, were seeking to promote their own social constructions, based on their respective ideologies, and strengthen their political and military positions. In

Fredrik Fagertun

2003-01-01

397

A Threat Model Approach to Threats and Vulnerabilities in On-line Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line Social Networks (OSN) have become one of the most used In- ternet services. However, as happens with every new technology, they are prone to several security issues. Despite privacy concerns begin to emerge, there are still other dangerous vulnerabilities that affect security and threaten organisations and users assets. In this paper, we present the first Threat Modelling approach in

Carlos Laorden; Borja Sanz; Gonzalo Alvarez; Pablo G. Bringas

2010-01-01

398

Warfighters' Counterspace Threat Analysis (WCTA): A Framework for Evaluating Counterspace Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present an evolutionary approach to evaluating the counterspace threat in support of Department of Defense (DoD) decision-makers. The goal is to present a process that decision-makers can readily utilize to accurately assess the level of the c...

M. L. Douglas A. J. Gray

2000-01-01

399

Assessment of respiratory muscle function and strength.  

PubMed Central

Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and PEmax) during maximal static manoeuvre against a closed shutter. However, PImax and PEmax are volitional tests, and are poorly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 25%. The sniff manoeuvre is natural and probably easier to perform. Sniff pressure, and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure are more reproducible and useful measure of diaphragmatic strength. Nevertheless, the sniff manoeuvre is also volition-dependent, and submaximal efforts are most likely to occur in patients who are ill or breathless. Non-volitional tests include measurements of twitch oesophageal, gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral electrical and magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. Electrical phrenic nerve stimulation is technically difficult and is also uncomfortable and painful. Magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation is less painful and transdiaphragmatic pressure is reproducible in normal subjects. It is a relatively easy test that has the potential to become a widely adopted method for the assessment of diaphragm strength. The development of a technique to measure diaphragmatic sound (phonomyogram) during magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation opens the way for noninvasive assessment of diaphragmatic function.

Syabbalo, N.

1998-01-01

400

Involuntary Smoking: A Threat to Public Health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of involuntary smoking are reviewed in terms of lung cancer, chronic respiratory and ischaemic heart diseases in adults and respiratory disease and growth in children. The evidence for real effects is weak but sufficient to merit concern. Future research must include more accurate data on exposure and should investigate possible biochemical mechanisms by taking advantage of the natural

C. du V. Florey

1989-01-01

401

Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term

Debin Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; L. Jean Camp

2009-01-01

402

Overdamping by weakly coupled environments  

SciTech Connect

A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi's 'golden rule'. We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.

Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz [Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

2005-12-15

403

QCD corrections to weak decays  

SciTech Connect

Weak decays are significantly altered by effects of strong interaction. In the K system these corrections give rise to {Delta}I = 1/2 rule, and have measurable effects on rare weak process like K{yields}{pi}{nu}{bar {nu}}, K{yields}{pi}e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon}. The situation in the K system is briefly reviewed. Strong interaction effects are also important in D and B system. A possible mechanism for D{sup +}-D{sup 0} life-time difference is reviewed and then rare B processes are dealt with extensively. Electromagnetic penguin diagrams are enhanced by QCD corrections, giving rise to process like B{yields}K{sup {asterisk}}{gamma} and B{yields}Ke{sup +}e{sup {minus}}. Process mediated by gluon penguins are also discussed. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Deshpande, N.G.

1989-06-01

404

Weak localization of photon noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental study of coherent backscattering (CBS) of photon noise from multiple scattering media. We use a pseudothermal light source with a microsecond coherence time to produce a noise spectrum covering a continuous transition, from wave fluctuations to shot noise over several MHz. The angle-dependent Fano factor of backscattered light shows an enhancement due to CBS in the wave fluctuation regime. The CBS line shape and enhancement factor of the noise power is consistent with theory in the weak-scattering limit and for a large number of open reflection channels. These initial experiments on weakly scattering media demonstrate that sensitive noise measurements can be combined with the separation of path lengths present in CBS, opening up new experiments on noise transport in the localization regime.

Scalia, Paolo S.; Muskens, Otto L.; Lagendijk, Ad

2013-10-01

405

Weak Coupling in 143Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-spin states of 143Nd have been studied in the 130Te(18O, 5n)143Nd reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV using techniques of in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of ? - ? - t coincidences, ?-ray angular distributions, and ?-ray linear polarizations were performed. A level scheme of 143Nd with spin and parity assignments up to 53/2+ is proposed. While a weak coupling model can explain the level structure up to the J?=39/2- state, this model can not reproduce the higher-lying states. Additionally, a new low-lying non-yrast level sequence in 143Nd was observed in the present work, which can be well described by the weak coupling of an i13/2 neutron to the 142Nd core nucleus.

Zhou, Xiao-Hong; E, Ideguchi; T, Kishida; M, Ishihara; H, Tsuchida; Y, Gono; T, Morikawa; M, Shibata; H, Watanabe; M, Miyake; T, Tsutsumi; S, Motomura; S, Mitarai

2000-04-01

406

Functional weakness and sensory disturbance  

PubMed Central

In the diagnosis of functional weakness and sensory disturbance, positive physical signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Motor signs, particularly Hoover's sign, are more reliable than sensory signs, but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder.

Stone, J; Zeman, A; Sharpe, M

2002-01-01

407

The Neutral Weak Vector Boson.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The properties of the neutral weak vector boson are investigated both in the framework of the standard electroweak theory and in a dynamical model of compositeness. In SU(2) x U(1), the electromagnetic properties of the Z are studied paying a particular attention to the treatment of the anomalous triangle diagrams. The Z to 3gamma together with the scattering of light by light amplitudes are shown to be finite and to satisfy current conservation by using a non-linear gauge. A low-energy theorem for Z production is presented. This allows for a simple derivation of the leading electromagnetic corrections to e^+ e^- to Zgamma near threshold (where LEPI will be operating). Within a composite model for quarks, leptons and weak bosons we show how the weak mixing angle, "sin Theta_{rm w}", can be dynamically generated. In this approach large electromagnetic couplings for the Z are predicted. The anomalous couplings may be observed in e^+e ^- to Zgamma or e^+e^- to ZZ at LEPII where the Z is longitudinally polarized. The composite model also requires an extra neutral vector boson, the Y. From low-energy experiments an absolute lower bound on its mass has been set: M_{rm y} > 350 GeV. As a by product, translating the ideas, used for composite weak bosons, to strong interaction of vector mesons, the rho^{rm o} rightarrow gamma and omega^{rm o} rightarrow gamma mixing parameters are derived in terms of the fundamental parameters of QCD.

Boudjema, Fawzi

408

From strength to strength: "inner strength" with immature ego states.  

PubMed

The ego-strengthening literature concentrates on the use of hypnotic techniques with the entire or total personality. Ego-state therapy conceptualizes the ego as a system of subpersonalities or ego states that have shifting energies. At any particular time the ego state with the most energy is dominant or executive. Any technique that can be used with an individual patient can also be used with an identified ego state. The "inner-strength" hypnotic technique has been used for ego strengthening and mobilization of inner resources. In this paper the "inner-strength" technique is used with ego states that have been identified as responsible for specific symptoms. We will discuss indications for the appropriate use of this technique in ego-state therapy and the mechanisms of its role in the resolution of symptoms in the cases presented. PMID:8480668

Frederick, C; McNeal, S

1993-04-01

409

New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an\\u000aorganization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an\\u000aalarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop,\\u000asmart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G\\u000aconnectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications\\u000aare made available over the Internet. Insider threats

Sugata Sanyal; Ajit Shelat; Amit Gupta

2010-01-01

410

PERCEIVED THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FACING US-BASED TRAVEL AGENCIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews with 19 owners of financially successful US-based travel agencies were conducted during early 2006 to identify major perceived threats and opportunities for the sector. The main threat was unfavourable public perceptions of conventional travel agencies. Sub-themes focused on public gravitation to cybermediaries, the proliferation of unqualified pseudo-agents, and negatively biased mass media. Other threats were unfavourable relations with

David B. Weaver; Laura J. Lawton

411

Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments—especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes—and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority students and of women in math and science. As a consequence, common measures of academic performance, including both grades and

Christine R. Logel; Gregory M. Walton; Steven J. Spencer; Jennifer Peach; Zanna P. Mark

2012-01-01

412

Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical\\u000a ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in\\u000a disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper\\u000a reviews empirical investigations across four common assessment tasks: the

Josh M. Cisler; Amy K. Bacon; Nathan L. Williams

2009-01-01

413

The insider threat--a new aspect of biosecurity.  

PubMed

The need for those responsible for security at hospital research centers to take steps to counter insider threats to use biomedical and microbiological research and for perverted purposes is real, says the author. He spells out what the threats consist of suspicious behaviors to be aware of and reporting procedures for effective resolution that will enable life science researchers and law enforcement to successfully work together to thwart such threats. PMID:24020316

Engells, Thomas E

2013-01-01

414

Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

415

Enhanced neural reactivity and selective attention to threat in anxiety.  

PubMed

Attentional bias towards threat is implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. We examined the neural correlates of threat bias in anxious and nonanxious participants to shed light on the neural chronometry of this cognitive bias. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while anxious (n=23) and nonanxious (n=23) young adults performed a probe-discrimination task measuring attentional bias towards threat (angry) and positive (happy) face stimuli. Results showed an attention bias towards threat among anxious participants, but not among nonanxious participants. No bias to positive faces was found. ERP data revealed enhanced C1 amplitude (?80 ms following threat onset) in anxious relative to nonanxious participants when cue displays contained threat faces. Additionally, P2 amplitude to the faces display was higher in the anxious relative to the nonanxious group regardless of emotion condition (angry/happy/neutral). None of the ERP analyses associated with target processing were significant. In conclusion, our data suggest that a core feature of threat processing in anxiety lies in functional perturbations of a brain circuitry that reacts rapidly and vigorously to threat. It is this over-activation that may set the stage for the attention bias towards threat observed in anxious individuals. PMID:20655976

Eldar, Sharon; Yankelevitch, Roni; Lamy, Dominique; Bar-Haim, Yair

2010-07-23

416

Community Epidemiology Framework for Classifying Disease Threats  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that most parasites can infect multiple host species and that these are primarily responsible for emerging infectious disease outbreaks in humans and wildlife. However, the ecologic and evolutionary factors that constrain or facilitate such emergences are poorly understood. We propose a conceptual framework based on the pathogen's between- and within-species transmission rates to describe possible configurations of a multihost-pathogen community that may lead to disease emergence. We establish 3 dynamic thresholds separating 4 classes of disease outcomes, spillover, apparent multihost, true multihost, and potential emerging infectious disease; describe possible disease emergence scenarios; outline the population dynamics of each case; and clarify existing terminology. We highlight the utility of this framework with examples of disease threats in human and wildlife populations, showing how it allows us to understand which ecologic factors affect disease emergence and predict the impact of host shifts in a range of disease systems.

Pedersen, Amy B.

2005-01-01

417

Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings.  

PubMed

The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa

2012-01-16

418

Bioterrorism as a public health threat.  

PubMed Central

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern--smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use.

Henderson, D. A.

1998-01-01

419

Weak Disorder Localization and Lifshitz Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the study of localization of discrete random Schrödinger Hamiltonians in the weak disorder regime. Consider an i.i.d. Anderson model and assume that its left spectral edge is 0. Let ? be the coupling constant measuring the strength of the disorder. For ? small, we prove a Lifshitz tail type estimate and use it to derive localization in a band starting at 0 going up to a distance of the average of the potential. In this energy region, we show that the localization length at energy E is bounded from above by a constant times the square root of the distance between E and the average of the potential. Résumé. Dans cet article, nous étudions la localisation à faible désordre pour des opérateurs de Schrödinger aléatoires discrets. Considérons un modèle d'Anderson i.i.d. dont le bord spectral gauche vaut 0. Soit ? la constante de couplage mesurant le désordre. Pour ? petit, nous démontrons une estimée de type estimée de Lifshitz pour la densité d'états, et nous utilisons cette estimée pour prouver que le spectre de cet opérateur est localisé dans un intervalle allant de l'énergie 0 jusqu'à une distance de l'ordre de de la moyenne du potentiel. Dans cette région d'énergie, la longueur de localisation à une énergie E est majorée par une constante fois la racine de la distance séparant E de la moyenne du potentiel.

Klopp, Frédéric

420

Constraints on neutrino masses from weak lensing  

SciTech Connect

Weak lensing (WL) distortions of distant galaxy images are sensitive to neutrino masses by probing the suppression effect on clustering strengths of total matter in large-scale structure. We use the latest measurements of WL correlations, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data, to explore constraints on neutrino masses. We find that, while the WL data alone cannot place a stringent limit on neutrino masses due to parameter degeneracies, the constraint can be significantly improved when combined with other cosmological probes, such as the WMAP 5-year data (WMAP5) and the distance measurements of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). The upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses are , 0.76, and 0.54 eV (95% CL) for WL+WMAP5, WMAP5+SNe+BAO, and WL+WMAP5+SNe+BAO, respectively, assuming a flat {lambda}CDM model with finite-mass neutrinos. In deriving these constraints, our analysis includes the non-Gaussian covariances of the WL correlation functions to properly take into account significant correlations between different angles.

Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takada, Masahiro [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2009-01-15

421

Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men  

PubMed Central

We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats.

Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

2011-01-01

422

Assessing fear and anxiety in humans using the threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events (the NPU-threat test)  

PubMed Central

The threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events was developed to assess short-duration (fear) and long-duration (anxiety) aversive states in humans. A typical experiment consists of three conditions: a safe condition (neutral (N)), during which participants are safe from aversive stimuli, and two threat conditions—one in which aversive events are administered predictably (P) (i.e., signaled by a threat cue), and one in which aversive stimuli are administered unpredictably (U). During the so-called NPU -threat test, ongoing change in aversive states is measured with the startle reflex. The NPU -threat test has been validated in pharmacological and clinical studies and can be implemented in children and adults. Similar procedures have been applied in animal models, making the NPU -threat test an ideal tool for translational research. The procedure is relatively short (35 min), simple to implement and generates consistent results with large effect sizes.

Schmitz, Anja; Grillon, Christian

2012-01-01

423

Strengths of serpentinite gouges at elevated temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serpentinite has been proposed as a cause of both low strength and aseismic creep of fault zones. To test these hypotheses, we have measured the strength of chrysotile-, lizardite-, and antigorite-rich serpentinite gouges under hydrothermal conditions, with emphasis on chrysotile, which has thus far received little attention. At 25??C, the coefficient of friction, ??, of chrysotile gouge is roughly 0.2, whereas the lizardite- and antigorite-rich gouges are at least twice as strong. The very low room temperature strength of chrysotile is a consequence of its unusually high adsorbed water content. When the adsorbed water is removed, chrysotile is as strong as pure antigorite gouge at room temperature. Heating to ???200??C causes the frictional strengths of all three gouges to increase. Limited data suggest that different polytypes of a given serpentine mineral have similar strengths; thus deformation-induced changes in polytype should not affect fault strength. At 25??C, the chrysotile gouge has a transition from velocity strengthening at low velocities to velocity weakening at high velocities, consistent with previous studies. At temperatures up to ???200??C, however, chrysotile strength is essentially independent of velocity at low velocities. Overall, chrysotile has a restricted range of velocity-strengthening behavior that migrates to higher velocities with increasing temperature. Less information on velocity dependence is available for the lizardite and antigorite gouges, but their behavior is consistent with that outlined for chrysotile. The marked changes in velocity dependence and strength of chrysotile with heating underscore the hazards of using room temperature data to predict fault behavior at depth. The velocity behavior at elevated temperatures does not rule out serpentinite as a cause of aseismic slip, but in the presence of a hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient, all varieties of serpentine are too strong to explain the apparent weakness of faults such as the San Andreas.

Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.; Ma, S.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J. D.

1997-01-01

424

Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

2011-04-01

425

Orientational disorder and motion of weakly attached cross-bridges.  

PubMed Central

In a relaxed muscle fiber at low ionic strength, the cross-bridges may well be in states comparable to the one that precedes the cross-bridge power stroke (Schoenberg, M. 1988. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 226:189-202). Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and (saturation transfer) electron paramagnetic resonance (ST-EPR) techniques on fibers labeled with maleimide spin label, under low ionic strength conditions designed to produce a majority of weakly-attached heads, we have established that (a) relaxed labeled fibers show a speed dependence of chord stiffness identical to that of unlabeled, relaxed fibers, suggesting similar rapid dissociation and reassociation of cross-bridges; (b) the attached relaxed heads at low ionic strength are nearly as disordered as in relaxation at physiological ionic strength where most of the heads are detached from actin; and (c) the microsecond rotational mobility of the relaxed heads was only slightly restricted compared to normal ionic strength, implying great motional freedom despite attachment. The differences in head mobility between low and normal ionic strength scale with filament overlap and are thus due to acto-myosin interactions. The spectra can be modeled in terms of two populations: one identical to relaxed heads at normal ionic strength (83%), the other representing a more oriented population of heads (17%). The spectrum of the latter is centered at approximately the same angle as the spectrum in rigor but exhibits larger (40 degrees) axial probe disorder with respect to the fiber axis. Alternatively, assuming that the chord stiffness is proportional to the fraction of attached crossbridges, the attached fraction must be even more disordered than 400, with rotational mobility nearly as great as for detached cross-bridges.

Fajer, P. G.; Fajer, E. A.; Schoenberg, M.; Thomas, D. D.

1991-01-01

426

An Investigation of Bluetooth Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluetooth, which offers users the mobility to convenient, low-cost, short-ranged connections with up to seven other Bluetooth-enabled devices, has been widely adopted especially by young adults. However, Bluetooth-enabled networks have similar security weaknesses as any other digital networks. Instilling security awareness and implementing preventive measures, responsibilities of both the device manufacturers and the users, are essential to prevent harmful security

Margaret Tan; Kathrine Aguilar Masagca

2011-01-01

427

Strength of inorganic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in

Kurkjian

1985-01-01

428

Strength of Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength of character is clearly a good quality to possess, but what, exactly, does it involve? Would a person with great strength of character ever be disturbed by events in the external world, or experience a loss of tranquility? Would she ever succumb to her emotions, or be overwhelmed by the intensity of her feelings? Or would the person with

Margaret R. Holmgren

2004-01-01

429

Weak quasielastic production of hyperons  

SciTech Connect

The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

Singh, S. K. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh- 202002 (India); Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

2006-09-01

430

Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J.

2012-10-01

431

Recovering quantum correlations from amplitude damping decoherence by weak measurement reversal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a weak measurement reversal proposal to recover quantum correlations of two-qubit system under local amplitude damping channels. With weak measurement reversal, we show that quantum correlations do not vanish but preserve a finite value in the limit of the noise strength p? 1, which can be attributed to the probabilistic nature of this method. The experimental feasibility of this approach is also discussed in pure optical systems.

Li, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xing

2013-05-01

432

American science and engineering remain productive despite international weaknesses, Science Board finds  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the status of American science and engineering relative to past performance and international competition as seen by the National Science Board (NSB). Topics include the strengths and weakness of the US effort and recommendation of the NSB for correcting the weaknesses including adaptation of educational institutions to modern research programs, dramatic improvement in precollege and undergraduate education, persuade best students to study science and engineering, strengthen university basic research, develop better cooperation among those involved in research including international organizations.

Not Available

1990-04-12

433

Weak gravitational lensing with DEIMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel method for weak-lensing measurements, which is based on a mathematically exact deconvolution of the moments of the apparent brightness distribution of galaxies from the telescope's point spread function (PSF). No assumptions on the shape of the galaxy or the PSF are made. The (de)convolution equations are exact for unweighted moments only, while in practice a compact weight function needs to be applied to the noisy images to ensure that the moment measurement yields significant results. We employ a Gaussian weight function, whose centroid and ellipticity are iteratively adjusted to match the corresponding quantities of the source. The change of the moments caused by the application of the weight function can then be corrected by considering higher order weighted moments of the same source. Because of the form of the deconvolution equations, even an incomplete weighting correction leads to an excellent shear estimation if galaxies and PSF are measured with a weight function of identical size. We demonstrate the accuracy and capabilities of this new method in the context of weak gravitational lensing measurements with a set of specialized tests and show its competitive performance on the GREAT08 Challenge data. A complete C++ implementation of the method can be requested from the authors.

Melchior, P.; Viola, M.; Schäfer, B. M.; Bartelmann, M.

2011-04-01

434

?-? Stacking, spin density and magnetic coupling strength.  

PubMed

The ?-? stacking interaction, one of the main intermolecular forces, sometimes leads to amazing magnetic properties. Although the concept has been raised that spin density is one of the main factors that contribute to the magnetic coupling strength in intermolecular magnetic coupling systems, it has not been confirmed either experimentally or theoretically to date. Herein we present a study on the magnetostructural data of seven unpublished Cu(II) complexes and ten reported radicals. It is confirmed for the first time that the spin density on short contact atoms is a major factor that contributes to the ?-? stacking magnetic coupling strength. Based on the reported data to date, when the short contact distance is larger than the default contact radius, medium or relatively strong magnetic coupling strength could be obtained only if the spin density on the short contact atoms is greater than 0.1350; when the CC short contact is less than the default contact radius of 3.4 Å, but not less than 3.351 Å, and the spin density is less than 0.1, neither medium nor strong magnetic coupling strength could be observed. Further, when the short contact distance decreases with a temperature drop, the spin densities on the relevant short contact atoms increase. In the complexes reported the small spin densities on the relevant short contact atoms are the major factors that result in the weak ?-? magnetic coupling strength. PMID:24005474

Chi, Yan-Hui; Shi, Jing-Min; Li, Hong-Nan; Wei, Wei; Cottrill, Ethan; Pan, Ning; Chen, Hu; Liang, Yuan; Yu, Li; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Hou, Chao

2013-10-22

435

Effect of weak inhomogeneities in high temperature superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of three studies done using a dynamical cluster quantum Monte Carlo approximation. First, we investigate the d-wave superconducting transition temperature Tc in the doped 2D repulsive Hubbard model with a weak inhomogeneity in hopping in the form of checkerboard pattern or a lattice of 2 x 2 plaquettes. Near neighbor hoppings within a plaquette is t and that of between the plaquettes is t'. We investigate T c in the weak inhomogeneous limit 0.8t < t' < 1.2t. We find inhomogeneity (t' ? t) suppresses Tc. The characteristic spin excitation energy (effective exchange energy) and the strength of d-wave pairing interaction decrease with decreasing T c. The latter observations suggest a strong correlation among effective exchange interaction, Tc and the d-wave pairing interaction of the system. Second1, we further find that enhancement of effective exchange interaction causes a slight increase in Tc of a weakly disordered system with low impurity concentration, compared to the homogeneous system. Here the disorder is introduced to homogeneous repulsive 2D Hubbard model as a weak local potential disorder. Third, we present an improved maximum entropy method to analytically continue quantum Monte Carlo data with a severe sign problem. 1A result from a collaborative study done with A. Kemper of Florida State University.

Doluweera, D. G. Sumith P.

436

Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration. PMID:23703222

Liu, Mao-Mei

2013-08-01

437

Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)

Reifel, Stuart

1984-01-01

438

Multiagency security contingency planning: Mutual support against the high threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the author's objective to suggest a process that can materially enhance a critical facility's capacity for detecting, deterring, or if need be, defeating attacks from the higher end of the threat spectrum. This process systematically identifies those proactive and reactive measures required to address threat scenarios beyond the capabilities of in situ security resources. It then establishes implementing

1985-01-01

439

The bio-terrorism threat and casualty prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bio-terrorism threat has become the 'poor man's' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of

Noel; William P

1999-01-01

440

North Korean Special Purpose Forces an Assessment of the Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess the threat that the North Korean Special Forces pose, and to explore how this threat might be deterred or countered. This thesis will answer three questions. First, in the event of a second Korean War, what will the...

M. S. Durtschi

1995-01-01

441

Preparatory meeting of the National Commission on Nuclear Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Keystone Center convened a preparatory meeting on May 13--14, 1997, as part of The Center's efforts to convene the National Commission on Nuclear Threat. The National Commission on Nuclear Threat will be convened in order to develop a compelling asses...

1997-01-01

442

China's Military Modernization: Determining the Level of Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. military planners have a wide range of views concerning the threat posed by China. It is difficult to determine the true extent of this threat by listening to Chinese rhetoric that is often vague or misleading. Conversely, a great deal of insight con...

D. T. Howard

2000-01-01

443

Response of school personnel to student threat assessment training  

Microsoft Academic Search

School safety has become an important area of concern for school improvement. This study examined the effects of staff training as means of improving school responses to student threats of violence. A multidisciplinary sample of 351 staff from 2 school divisions completed pre-post training surveys as part of a 1-day training program using the Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats

Korrie Allen; Dewey Cornell; Edward Lorek; Peter Sheras

2008-01-01

444

Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system

HEATHER TALLIS; ZACH FERDAÑA; ELIZABETH GRAY

2008-01-01

445

Reduced death threat in near-death experiencers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-death experiences (NDEs), profound mystical or transcendental experiences occurring on the threshold of death, have been reported to reduce fear of death and death anxiety. This study compared responses to the Threat Index, a widely used measure of the threat implied by one's personal death, of (a) 135 near-death experiences, (b) 43 individuals who had come close to death but

Bruce Greyson

1992-01-01

446

Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perception indices were derived. Children's level of anxiety was assessed by means of questionnaires and a structured diagnostic interview.

Peter Muris; Merel Kindt; Susan Bogels; Harald Merckelbach; Bjorn Gadet; Veronique Moulaert

2000-01-01

447

Assessing the Jihadist Terrorist Threat to America and American Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al Qaeda and allied groups continue to pose a threat to the United States. Although it is less severe than the catastrophic proportions of a 9\\/11-like attack, the threat today is more complex and more diverse than at any time over the past nine years. Al Qaeda or its allies continue to have the capacity to kill dozens, or even

Peter Bergen; Bruce Hoffman; Katherine Tiedemann

2011-01-01

448

Biological Threat Detection via Host Gene Expression Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased threat posed by biological weapons, detection techniques for biothreat pathogens are criti- cally needed to monitor and assess the severity of the illness once exposure has occurred. Current approaches for detecting biological threats are either time-consum- ing or highly specific but provide little information regarding pathogenicity. Genotyping of pathogens by PCR provides a fast and definitive means

Baochuan Lin; Maryanne T. Vahey; Dzung Thach; David A. Stenger; Joseph J. Pancrazio

2003-01-01

449

75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...briefings on WMD threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and...102-3.155, the Department of Defense has determined that the meeting...public. The Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology...the Office of the DoD FACA Attorney, has determined in...

2010-09-30

450

Attention Bias toward Threat in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention bias towards threat faces is examined for a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using visual probe task. The results showed that anxious individuals showed a selective bias towards threat due to perturbation in neural mechanisms that control vigilance.|

Roy, Amy Krain; Vasa, Roma A.; Bruck, Maggie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sweeney, Michael; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Pine, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

451

Threats to US energy security: the challenge of Arab oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assured access to foreign oil supplies is a vital national interest of the United States which has been repeatedly jeopardized in the 1970s and one that will face additional critical challenges in the 1980s. This paper identifies and analyzes various threats to US energy security both in terms of their past use and future usability. Since the most ominous threat

1979-01-01

452

Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but

Kathy R. Berenson; Anett Gyurak; Özlem Ayduk; Geraldine Downey; Matthew J. Garner; Karin Mogg; Brendan P. Bradley; Daniel S. Pine

2009-01-01

453

Controllability Awareness in Professionals Under the Threat of Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a terror attack, Israeli teachers are often required to debrief their students and support them while having to cope personally with the community threat. This study aimed to advance the understanding of factors associated with improved coping under threat. “Controllability awareness,” being attentive to what is and is not controllable in one's environment, is associated with tolerance for stresses

Eli Somer; Aviva Zrihan Weitzman; Josephine Todrank Heth

2004-01-01

454

Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the

Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks; Eugene Santos

1998-01-01

455

Small threat and contraband detection with TNA-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of small threats, such as explosives, drugs, and chemical weapons, concealed or encased in surrounding material, is a major concern in areas from security checkpoints to UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance. Techniques such as X-ray and trace detection are often ineffectual in these applications. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) provides an effective method for detecting concealed threats. This paper shows

T. J. Shaw; D. Brown; J. D’Arcy; F. Liu; P. Shea; M. Sivakumar; T. Gozani

2005-01-01

456

The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

2012-01-01

457

Use of threat image projection (TIP) to enhance security performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threat Image Projection (TIP) is a software system that is used at airports to project images of threat items amongst the passenger baggage being screened by X-ray. The use of TIP is becoming more widespread and is increasingly being included as part of security regulation. This is due to its purported benefits of improved attention and vigilance, and increased exposure

Victoria Cutler; Susan Paddock

2009-01-01

458

The optimization of situational awareness for insider threat detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, organizations ranging from defense and other government institutions to commercial enterprises, research labs, etc., have witnessed an increasing amount of sophisticated insider attacks that manage to bypass existing security controls. Insider threats are staged by either disgruntled employees, or employees engaged in malicious activities such as industrial espionage. The objectives of such threats range from sabotage, e.g.,

Kenneth Brancik; Gabriel Ghinita

2011-01-01

459

Identifying and Visualizing the Malicious Insider Threat Using Bipartite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies and organizations are just beginning to harness the powerful capabilities of visualization to aid in the prevention, detection, and mitigation of security threats. Most advances in this area have focused on protecting an agency or organization from malicious outsiders. While not a new threat, the malicious insider has recently earned increased focus. This paper investigates methods of classifying

Kara Nance; Raffael Marty

2011-01-01

460

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

461

Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

462

Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

463

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544...Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight: Notification...information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the aircraft...

2012-10-01

464

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

2002

465

Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)|

Reifel, Stuart

1984-01-01

466

US policy and the Iranian threat. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics include `dual containment` as it affects Iran, international community thoughts; external pressures being applied on Clinton administration; conventional arms buildup from threat it poses to GCC. Israel and U.S.; external threat poised against a weakened Iran; dangers Iran`s unconventional weapons program pose to GCC, Israel. Iraq and West; why Iran believes such a program is essential to its existence;

Kerstanski

1995-01-01

467

Gender Identification Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on Women's Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender

Toni Schmader

2002-01-01

468

Ferromagnetism of weakly interacting electrons in disordered systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was realized two decades ago that the two-dimensional diffusive Fermi liquid phase is unstable against arbitrarily weak electron-electron interactions. Recently, using the nonlinear sigma model developed by Finkelstein, several authors have shown that the instablity leads to a ferromagnetic state. In this Brief Report, we consider diffusing electrons interacting through a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. Using the Hartree-Fock approximation to directly calculate the electron self-energy, we find that the total energy is minimized by a finite ferromagnetic moment for arbitrarily weak interactions in two dimensions and for interaction strengths exceeding a critical value proportional to the conductivity in three dimensions. We discuss the relation between our results and previous ones.

Yang, Xiao; Nayak, Chetan

2005-08-01

469

A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

470

"I am us": negative stereotypes as collective threats.  

PubMed

Collective threat is the fear that an in-group member's behavior might reinforce a negative stereotype of one's group. In a field study, self-reported collective threat was higher in stereotyped minorities than in Whites and was linked to lower self-esteem in both groups. In 3 experimental studies, a potentially poor performance by an in-group member on a stereotype-relevant task proved threatening, as evidenced by lower self-esteem among minority students in 2 experiments and women in a 3rd experiment. The latter study demonstrated the generality of collective threat. Collective threat also undermined academic performance and affected self-stereotyping, stereotype activation, and physical distancing from the in-group member. Results further suggest that group identification plays a role in whether people use an avoidance or challenge strategy in coping with collective threat. Implications for theories of social identity and stigmatization are discussed. PMID:16287419

Cohen, Geoffrey L; Garcia, Julio

2005-10-01

471

Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper reviews empirical investigations across 4 common assessment tasks: the Stroop (masked and unmasked), dot probe, visual search, and the Posner tasks. Although the review finds inconsistencies both within and between assessment tasks, the evidence suggests that attentional biases towards threat are comprised of each of the phenomenological characteristics addressed in this paper. Contemporary theoretical models of attentional biases in anxiety are summarized and critically reviewed in light of the current evidence. Suggestions for future research are addressed, including a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the assessment tasks, to utilize consistent theoretically driven operationalizations of attentional biases, and to provide a temporal description of the characteristics of attentional biases towards threat.

Cisler, Josh M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Williams, Nathan L.

2010-01-01

472

Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.  

PubMed

Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors. PMID:23153125

Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

2012-11-15

473

Coping in relation to perceived threat of the risk of graft rejection and Health-Related Quality of Life of organ transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The most serious risk connected with transplantations besides infection is graft rejection. Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) perceive graft rejection as a stress factor and a threat. The primary aim of the present study was to examine types of coping used to handle the threat of the risk of graft rejection among OTRs and to investigate relations between coping and perceived threat as well as Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). A second aim was to test the General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ) for reliability in relation to the threat of the risk of graft rejection. Three different questionnaires, the Perceived Threat of the Risk of Graft Rejection (PTGR), GCQ and the SF-36, were mailed to 229 OTRs between 19 and 65 years old. Patients were transplanted with a kidney, a liver or a heart and/or a lung. All patients with follow-up time of 1 year ± 3 months and 3 years ± 3 months were included. With an 81% response rate, the study comprised of 185 OTRs. The differences between the transplanted organ groups in their use of coping were small. Likewise, coping related weakly with sex, age, time since transplantation and whether they had experienced graft rejections or not. The respondents tended in general to use more of the 'positive' coping (strategies related to positive well-being). The measured coping in relation to the perceived threat of the risk of graft rejection seem to be relatively stable over time and quite independent of demographic and clinical variables. PMID:23190382

Nilsson, Madeleine; Forsberg, Anna; Lennerling, Annette; Persson, Lars-Olof

2012-11-28

474

Threat evaluation for impact assessment in situation analysis systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Situation analysis is defined as a process, the examination of a situation, its elements, and their relations, to provide and maintain a product, i.e., a state of situation awareness, for the decision maker. Data fusion is a key enabler to meeting the demanding requirements of military situation analysis support systems. According to the data fusion model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories' Data Fusion Group, impact assessment estimates the effects on situations of planned or estimated/predicted actions by the participants, including interactions between action plans of multiple players. In this framework, the appraisal of actual or potential threats is a necessary capability for impact assessment. This paper reviews and discusses in details the fundamental concepts of threat analysis. In particular, threat analysis generally attempts to compute some threat value, for the individual tracks, that estimates the degree of severity with which engagement events will potentially occur. Presenting relevant tracks to the decision maker in some threat list, sorted from the most threatening to the least, is clearly in-line with the cognitive demands associated with threat evaluation. A key parameter in many threat value evaluation techniques is the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Along this line of thought, threatening tracks are often prioritized based upon which ones will reach their CPA first. Hence, the Time-to-CPA (TCPA), i.e., the time it will take for a track to reach its CPA, is also a key factor. Unfortunately, a typical assumption for the computation of the CPA/TCPA parameters is that the track velocity will remain constant. When a track is maneuvering, the CPA/TCPA values will change accordingly. These changes will in turn impact the threat value computations and, ultimately, the resulting threat list. This is clearly undesirable from a command decision-making perspective. In this regard, the paper briefly discusses threat value stabilization approaches based on neural networks and other mathematical techniques.

Roy, Jean; Paradis, Stephane; Allouche, Mohamad

2002-07-01

475

Lizard locomotion on weak sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial animal locomotion in the natural world can involve complex foot-ground interaction; for example, running on sand probes the solid and fluid behaviors of the medium. We study locomotion of desert-dwelling lizard Callisaurus draconoides (length 16 cm, mass=20 g) during rapid running on sand. To explore the role of foot-ground interaction on locomotion, we study the impact of flat disks ( 2 cm diameter, 10 grams) into a deep (800 particle diameters) bed of 250 ?m glass spheres of fixed volume fraction ? 0.59, and use a vertical flow of air (a fluidized bed) to change the material properties of the medium. A constant flow Q below the onset of bed fluidization weakens the solid: at fixed ? the penetration depth and time of a disk increases with increasing Q. We measure the average speed, foot impact depth, and foot contact time as a function of material strength. The animal maintains constant penetration time (30 msec) and high speed (1.4 m/sec) even when foot penetration depth varies as we manipulate material strength. The animals compensate for decreasing propulsion by increasing stride frequency.

Goldman, Daniel

2005-03-01

476

Violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons.  

PubMed

By weakly measuring the polarization of a photon between two strong polarization measurements, we experimentally investigate the correlation between the appearance of anomalous values in quantum weak measurements and the violation of realism and nonintrusiveness of measurements. A quantitative formulation of the latter concept is expressed in terms of a Leggett-Garg inequality for the outcomes of subsequent measurements of an individual quantum system. We experimentally violate the Leggett-Garg inequality for several measurement strengths. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett-Garg inequality. PMID:21220296

Goggin, M E; Almeida, M P; Barbieri, M; Lanyon, B P; O'Brien, J L; White, A G; Pryde, G J

2011-01-10

477

Violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons  

PubMed Central

By weakly measuring the polarization of a photon between two strong polarization measurements, we experimentally investigate the correlation between the appearance of anomalous values in quantum weak measurements and the violation of realism and nonintrusiveness of measurements. A quantitative formulation of the latter concept is expressed in terms of a Leggett–Garg inequality for the outcomes of subsequent measurements of an individual quantum system. We experimentally violate the Leggett–Garg inequality for several measurement strengths. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett–Garg inequality.

Goggin, M. E.; Almeida, M. P.; Barbieri, M.; Lanyon, B. P.; O'Brien, J. L.; White, A. G.; Pryde, G. J.

2011-01-01

478

Statistical theory of electromagnetic weak turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The weak turbulence theory as commonly found in the literature employs electrostatic approximation and is applicable to unmagnetized plasmas only. To this date, fully electromagnetic generalization of the existing weak turbulence theory based upon statistical mechanical approach remains largely incomplete. Instead, electromagnetic effects are incorporated into the weak turbulence formalism by means of the semiclassical approach. The present paper reformulates the fully electromagnetic weak turbulence theory from classical statistical mechanical (i.e., the Klimontovich) approach.

Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States)

2006-02-15

479

Weak Links as Stabilizers of Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the previous chapters we learned how weak links stabilize complex systems. The classical study of Granovetter (1973) demonstrated that weak links help the cohesion of society (see Chap. 1). Weak links are necessary for small-worldness, emerging in parallel with topological scale-freeness, and making a key contribution to the formation of nestedness (see Chap. 2). Weak links buffer noise, help relaxation, form barriers against cascading failures, and stabilize the coupled oscillators of bottom networks (see Chap. 3).

Csermely, Peter

480

ITAC, an insider threat assessment computer program  

SciTech Connect

The insider threat assessment computer program, ITAC, is used to evaluate the vulnerability of nuclear material processing facilities to theft of special nuclear material by one or more authorized insider adversaries. The program includes two main parts: one is used to determine the timeliness of nuclear material accounting tests for loss of special nuclear material, and the other determines pathway aggregate detection probabilities for physical protection systems and material control procedures that could detect the theft. Useful features of ITAC include its ability to (1) evaluate and quantify the timeliness of material accounting tests, (2) analyze branching systems of physical pathways and adversary strategies, (3) analyze trickle or abrupt theft situations for combinations of insiders, (4) accept input probabilities and times in the form of ranges rather than discrete points, and (5) simulate input data using Monte Carlo methods to produce statistically distributed aggregate delay times and detection probabilities. The ITAC program was developed by the Security Applications Center of Westinghouse Hanford Comapny and Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA.

Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.

1988-01-01

481

ITAC: An insider threat assessment computer program  

SciTech Connect

The insider threat assessment computer program, ITAC, is used to evaluate the vulnerability of nuclear material processing facilities to theft of special nuclear material by one or more authorized insider adversaries. The program includes two main parts: one is used to determine the timeliness of nuclear material accounting tests for loss of special nuclear material, and the other determines pathway aggregate detection probabilities for physical protection systems and material control procedures that could detect the theft. Useful features of ITAC include its ability to (1) evaluate and quantify the timeliness of material accounting tests, (2) analyze branching systems of physical pathways and adversary strategies, (3) analyze trickle or abrupt theft situations for combinations of insiders, (4) accept input probabilities and times in the form of ranges rather than discrete points, and (5) simulate input data using Monte Carlo methods to produce statistically distributed aggregate delay times and detection probabilities. The ITAC program was developed by the Security Applications Center of Westinghouse Hanford Company and Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA. 1 ref., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.

1988-06-01

482

Evaluation of the insider threat; Performance testing  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability Analysis (VA) and performance testing activities support the same goal: a comprehensive and defensible assessment of a facility's safeguards effectiveness. However, neither one alone provides the confidence we desire in an assessment. While VA models provide for systematically evaluating large numbers of possible scenarios, testing produces facility-specific evidence and justification of safeguards effectiveness for specific scenarios and analysis assumptions. Unfortunately in most cases we're unable to test but a few of the possible scenarios. An approach is needed that provides the rationale for selecting the situations that need to be tested to support analysis results. In this paper, the authors describe how a VA tool can provide the rationale for developing a practical facility specific testing plan. Such a plan would address the difficulties of: performing tests, interpreting test results and allocating limited testing resources. Specifically, for the nonviolent insider threat, the authors illustrate how the ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security) Insider model helps specify: priority items for testing; testing philosophy and protocol for designing relevant tests; and the number of tests required for meaningful performance evaluation. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of the approach for addressing the performance testing requirements of the MSSA/SSSP process.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Sicherman, A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-01-01

483

Progressive leg pain and weakness.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old man presented with progressive asymmetric leg pain and weakness. He had a history of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that was fully treated 2 years earlier. His leg symptoms progressed relentlessly during several months. Imaging studies demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina and leptomeninges of the lower spinal cord. Initial cerebrospinal fluid examination showed an elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis with no malignant cells on cytological analysis. There was short-term improvement in symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities with intravenous steroids. Two additional cerebrospinal fluid studies showed normal cytological findings, elevated IgG synthesis, and elevated antibody titers to varicella-zoster virus. Over time, the patient worsened, developed cranial neuropathies, and ultimately died. The pathological diagnosis and the approach to the clinical data are discussed. PMID:23440264

Navalkele, Digvijaya D; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Burns, Dennis K; Greenberg, Tasha; Vernino, Steven

2013-04-01

484

Weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic wave interactions  

SciTech Connect

Equations describing weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interactions in one Cartesian space dimension are discussed. For wave propagation in uniform media, the wave interactions of interest consist of: (a) three-wave resonant interactions in which high frequency waves, may evolve on long space and time scales if the wave phases satisfy the resonance conditions; (b) Burgers self-wave steepening for the magnetoacoustic waves, and (c) mean wave field effects, in which a particular wave interacts with the mean wave field of the other waves. For wave propagation in non-uniform media, further linear wave mixing terms appear in the equations. The equations describe four types of resonant triads: slow-fast magnetosonic wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-entropy wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-magnetosonic wave interaction; and magnetosonic-entropy wave interaction. The formalism is restricted to coherent wave interactions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Webb, G.M. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Brio, M.; Kruse, M.T. [Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Zank, G.P. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

1999-06-01

485

Weak scale radiative lepton mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a Z8 model for leptons where all Yukawa couplings are of order unity, but known lepton masses are generated radiatively, order by order. The seed is provided by fourth generation leptons E and N, and two additional Higgs doublets are introduced to give nearest-neighbor Yukawa couplings. Loop masses are generated when Z8 is softly broken down to Z2, while me and m? generation require Higgs bosons to be weak scale. The Z2 symmetry forbids ?-->e?. The most stringent bound comes from ?-->??+/-e-/+. The model has implications for ?-->e?, ?e¯-->?¯e conversion, ?-->e?e?¯?, and FCNC decays of E and N (such as E-->?e+/-?-/+).

Wong, Gwo-Guang; Hou, Wei-Shu

1994-09-01

486

An Empirical Evaluation of Weak Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutation testing is a fault-based technique for unit level software testing. Weak mutation was proposed as a way to reduce the expense of mutation testing. Unfortunately, weak mutation is also expected to provide a weaker test of the software than mutation testing does. This paper presents results from an implementation of weak mutation, which we used to evaluate the effectiveness

A. Jefferson Offutt; Stephen D. Lee

1994-01-01

487

Acidizing with chemically heated weak acid  

SciTech Connect

Materials in and around a well are acidized with chemically heated, hot acid by injecting a solution of both nitrogen and heat generating reactants and a mixture of weak acid and weak acid salt that both buffers the relation and provides a weak acid acidizing solution.

Richardson, E. A.

1984-11-13

488

Strength Distribution in Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensile strength distributions are studied in four papers samples that exhibit a variety of brittle-to-ductile properties. 1005 tensile specimens were measured in each case. The standard Gumbel and Weibull distributions, and a recently proposed double exp...

M. J. Korteoja L. I. Salminen K. J. Niskanen M. Alava

1997-01-01

489

Hoodia Maximum Strength  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... reviewed your web site at the Internet address http://www.life-all.com and has determined that the product “Hoodia Maximum Strength” is promoted ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

490

Weak magnetic fields in early-type stars: failed fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak magnetic fields have recently been detected in Vega and Sirius. Here, we explore the possibility that these fields are the remnants of some field inherited or created during or shortly after star formation and are still evolving dynamically as we observe them. The time-scale of this evolution is given in terms of the Alfvén time-scale and the rotation frequency by ?evol ˜ ?2A ?, which is then comparable to the age of the star. According to this theory, all intermediate- and high-mass stars should contain fields of at least the strength found so far in Vega and Sirius. Faster rotators are expected to have stronger magnetic fields. Stars may experience an increase in surface field strength during their early main sequence, but for most of their lives field strength will decrease slowly. The length scale of the magnetic structure on the surface may be small in very young stars but should quickly increase to at least very approximately a fifth of the stellar radius. The field strength may be higher at the poles than at the equator.

Braithwaite, Jonathan; Cantiello, Matteo

2013-02-01

491

Strength of two structured soils in triaxial compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands are dense granular materials with interlocked structure and clay shales are heavily overconsolidated clays. They are classified as structured soil or weak rock, exhibiting high peak strength with severe softening and dilation, particularly at low confining stress. The triaxial compression test results indicate that both materials yield linear Mohr-Coulomb envelopes with an apparent cohesion for peak and residual

Ron C. K. Wong

2001-01-01

492

Powerful signals for weak muscles.  

PubMed

The aim of the present review is to summarise, evaluate and critique the different mechanisms involved in anabolic growth of skeletal muscle and the catabolic processes involved in cancer cachexia and sarcopenia of ageing. This is highly relevant, since they represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Sarcopenia is an inevitable process associated with a gradual reduction in muscle mass and strength, associated with a reduction in motor unit number and atrophy of muscle fibres, especially the fast type IIa fibres. The loss of muscle mass with ageing is clinically important because it leads to diminished functional ability and associated complications. Cachexia is widely recognised as severe and rapid wasting accompanying disease states such as cancer or immunodeficiency disease. One of the main characteristics of cancer cachexia is asthenia or lack of strength, which is directly related to the muscle loss. Indeed, apart from the speed of loss, muscle wasting during cancer and ageing share many common metabolic pathways and mediators. In healthy young individuals, muscles maintain their mass and function because of a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation associated with rates of anabolic and catabolic processes, respectively. Muscles grow (hypertrophy) when protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation. Conversely, muscles shrink (atrophy) when protein degradation dominates. These processes are not occurring independently of each other, but are finely coordinated by a web of intricate signalling networks. Such signalling networks are in charge of executing environmental and cellular cues that ultimately determine whether muscle proteins are synthesised or degraded. Increasing our understanding for the pathways involved in hypertrophy and atrophy and particularly the interaction of these pathways is essential in designing therapeutic strategies for both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting conditions with age and with disease. PMID:19716529

Saini, Amarjit; Faulkner, Steve; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire

2009-02-20

493

Attentional bias toward personally relevant health-threat words.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have emerged regarding the presence of attentional biases (ABs) in health anxiety, probably due to methodological limitations in the stimuli used in cognitive tasks and the assessment of health anxiety-relevant factors. The current study sought to examine ABs toward health-related threats using idiographically chosen health-threat words in a non-clinical sample. A modified dot-probe task using idiographically selected health-threat words was administered to an undergraduate sample. Self-report measures were administered to assess somatic, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of health anxiety, in addition to assessing negative affect, anxiety sensitivity, and experience of actual medical conditions. Results showed that behavioral and somatic aspects of health anxiety were significantly associated with AB toward personally relevant threat words, even after controlling for negative affect, anxiety sensitivity, and experience of actual medical conditions. Additional analyses revealed that these biases reflected difficulty disengaging attention from threat rather than a facilitated detection of threat. In contrast, illness-related cognitions were found to be unrelated to ABs. These findings suggest an association between threat-related ABs and excessive health-care seeking efforts. PMID:22881238

Lee, Hanjoo; Turkel, Jennifer E; Cotter, Stuart P; Milliken, Jennifer M; Cougle, Jesse; Goetz, Amy R; Lesnick, Alexandra M

2012-08-13

494

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from threat using a modified version of the dot probe task. Behavioral measures of attentional biases were also generated pre- and post-training using the dot probe task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were generated to threat and non-threat face pairs and probes during pre- and post-training assessments. Effects of training on behavioral measures of the threat bias were significant, but only for those participants showing pre-training biases. Attention training also influenced early spatial attention, as measured by post-training P1 amplitudes to cues. Results illustrate the importance of taking pre-training attention biases in non-anxious individuals into account when evaluating the effects of attention training and tracking physiological changes in attention following training.

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2011-01-01

495

Influence of Threat and Serotonin Transporter Genotype on Interference Effects  

PubMed Central

Emotion-cognition interactions are critical in goal-directed behavior and may be disrupted in psychopathology. Growing evidence also suggests that emotion-cognition interactions are modulated by genetic variation, including genetic variation in the serotonin system. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of threat-related distracters and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR/rs25531) on cognitive task performance in healthy females. Using a novel threat-distracter version of the Multi-Source Interference Task specifically designed to probe emotion-cognition interactions, we demonstrate a robust and temporally dynamic modulation of cognitive interference effects by threat-related distracters relative to other distracter types and relative to no-distracter condition. We further show that threat-related distracters have dissociable and opposite effects on cognitive task performance in easy and difficult task conditions, operationalized as the level of response interference that has to be surmounted to produce a correct response. Finally, we present evidence that the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotype in females modulates susceptibility to cognitive interference in a global fashion, across all distracter conditions, and irrespective of the emotional salience of distracters, rather than specifically in the presence of threat-related distracters. Taken together, these results add to our understanding of the processes through which threat-related distracters affect cognitive processing, and have implications for our understanding of disorders in which threat signals have a detrimental effect on cognition, including depression and anxiety disorders.

Jasinska, Agnes J.; Ho, S. Shaun; Taylor, Stephan F.; Burmeister, Margit; Villafuerte, Sandra; Polk, Thad A.

2012-01-01

496

The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the