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1

Staff participation in a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats analysis.  

PubMed

The use of a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats (SWOT) analysis to evaluate current and future directions can lead to the successful evolution of any organization. A SWOT analysis was performed by the multidisciplinary staff of a hospital-based home health agency. Outcomes of the SWOT analysis resulted in the establishment of department goals and objectives, as well as staff empowerment and increased cohesiveness. PMID:1919777

Lanzotti, L M

1991-10-01

2

Environmental metabolomics: a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).  

PubMed

Metabolomic approaches have the potential to make an exceptional contribution to understanding how chemicals and other environmental stressors can affect both human and environmental health. However, the application of metabolomics to environmental exposures, although getting underway, has not yet been extensively explored. This review will use a SWOT analysis model to discuss some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are apparent to an investigator venturing into this relatively new field. SWOT has been used extensively in business settings to uncover new outlooks and identify problems that would impede progress. The field of environmental metabolomics provides great opportunities for discovery, and this is recognized by a high level of interest in potential applications. However, understanding the biological consequence of environmental exposures can be confounded by inter- and intra-individual differences. Metabolomic profiles can yield a plethora of data, the interpretation of which is complex and still being evaluated and researched. The development of the field will depend on the availability of technologies for data handling and that permit ready access metabolomic databases. Understanding the relevance of metabolomic endpoints to organism health vs adaptation vs variation is an important step in understanding what constitutes a substantive environmental threat. Metabolomic applications in reproductive research are discussed. Overall, the development of a comprehensive mechanistic-based interpretation of metabolomic changes offers the possibility of providing information that will significantly contribute to the protection of human health and the environment. PMID:17269710

Miller, Marion G

2007-02-01

3

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats of Blended Learning: Students' Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background: Blended learning (BL) in a cell biology course of the premedical program at the Kasturba Medical College International Centre, Manipal, India, commenced in 2006. The program provides training in basic sciences to students, especially from the United States and Canada. The approach to the study was phenomenographic, with a qualitative study design using an open-ended questionnaire, focused interviews and empirical observations. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of BL in a premedical class. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Ninety six students in a premedical cell biology class participated in the study. SWOT analysis of students’ perceptions was conducted manually. Statistical analysis included content analysis of qualitative data to classify data and aligning them into the SWOT analysis matrix. Results: The outcomes of the study revealed student perceptions in terms of SWOT of BL and the potential uses of this strategy. Conclusions: The study provides background for educators and curriculum experts to plan their modules while incorporating a BL approach. PMID:24971204

Hande, S

2014-01-01

4

Education Working Group SWOT Analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis  

E-print Network

Continued and increased focus on community and public health Medical students selecting careers of medical education from UME to GME to CME Promoting careers in primary care Where are we losing reputationEducation Working Group ­ SWOT Analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis

Rollins, Andrew M.

5

Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  

PubMed

We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

2011-04-01

6

The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.  

PubMed

There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights. PMID:8912121

Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

1996-12-01

7

Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.  

PubMed

Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

2010-09-01

8

Application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis in the development of a health technology assessment program.  

PubMed

There has been recent interest in developing a health technology assessment (HTA) function in Estonia. A group of individuals knowledgeable about HTA in Canada, Germany, Romania and Spain, along with representatives of the University of Tartu, Estonia, was convened by the Institute of Health Economics in Edmonton, Canada, to consider options for such a function. In a one-day workshop strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of HTA were conducted, first at a 'global' level, and then of the Estonian situation. The 'global' SWOT analysis yielded a large number of items that pertain to institutionalized HTA in a generic sense, i.e. not based on any individual HTA agency. The 'Estonian' SWOT yielded a subset of items, which pertain to development of HTA in that country. Ten actionable steps were then developed on the basis of this subset, which could be used to initiate the creation of an HTA body in Estonia. PMID:11518600

Gibis, B; Artiles, J; Corabian, P; Meiesaar, K; Koppel, A; Jacobs, P; Serrano, P; Menon, D

2001-10-01

9

Special Education and Rehabilitation in Georgia: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats in a Newly-Independent State of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine Georgian professionals from the fields of health, education, and rehabilitation were brought together for a week-long workshop to discuss issues related to disability, rehabilitation, and special education. Workshop activities included a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of special education in Georgia.…

Hobbs, Tim; Szydlowski, Steven; West, Daniel, Jr.; Germava, Otar

2002-01-01

10

An Examination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Associated with the Adoption of Moodle[TM] by eXtension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of technology to deliver programming across Extension has been addressed widely; however, little research has been conducted concerning the use of Moodle[TM] as a course management system for Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the use of…

Hightower, Tayla Elise; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Coppernoll, Susanna Mumm; Jahedkar, Jennifer; Dooley, Kim E.

2011-01-01

11

Strategic analyses in nursing schools: attracting, educating, and graduating more nursing students: part I--strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.  

PubMed

The shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. This research uses familiar tools in strategic management: the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and stakeholder analysis as initial steps to draw more students to the profession of nursing. In a 2-round modified Delphi survey, chief administrators of schools of nursing identify the main SWOT of schools of nursing and the important internal and external stakeholders that influence nursing school success. The authors of the research suggest ways to use that knowledge to increase the enrollment level of nursing students. Part I of this research focuses on the SWOT analyses. PMID:18695403

Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J; Mahesh, Sathiadev; McLendon, Christy L; Henson, Steve W; Jacques, Paul

2008-01-01

12

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats  

E-print Network

House Calls Program AHEC program Educational initiatives John Hay Medical Pipeline Program #12 public and even faculty #12;on the differences of public health and medical care ­ and how better and improve national presence and reputation as a leader in medical education, advocacy, research

Rollins, Andrew M.

13

Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Impacting the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with administrators, faculty, and support staff (n=42) in a university agriculture department revealed that they recognized distance technology as a means of reaching new audiences; policies and procedures must expand to address technology issues; competition, external dependence, and Internet misinformation were threats.…

Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

2000-01-01

14

The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting  

PubMed Central

Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of funding of personnel to coordinate the assessment process is the most important threat. Conclusion The BelRAI-software allows standardized transmural information transfer and the centralization of medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. It is strictly secured and follows strict privacy regulations, allowing hospitals to optimize (transmural) communication and interaction. However, weaknesses and threats exist and must be tackled in order to promote large scale implementation. PMID:24007312

2013-01-01

15

Strengths and Weaknesses of Enceladus Plume Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong constraints on the source region and eruption mechanism for Enceladus' plumes come from Cassini's Imaging System, Cosmic Dust Analyser, Imaging UV Spectrometer, Composite IR Spectrometer, Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer plus groundbased high-resolution spectroscopy. It is not surprising, given this wealth of diverse information, that it has proven difficult so far to identify a model of the source region and eruption mechanism which together successfully match all the data. To date there are five distinct models and many plausible combinations or intermediate cases. These include the eruption of near-surface geysers (Porco et al., Science 311, 1393-1401, 2006), clathrate decomposition (Kieffer et al., Science 314, 1764-1766, 2006) and shear heating (Nimmo et al., Nature 447, 289-291, 2007), "deep misty caverns" (Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098-1101, 2009) and others not formally described in publications. In this presentation we will highlight the differences between these models, and describe their strengths and weaknesses in terms of matching observations, breadth of physics incorporated and geophysical plausibility. We will also discuss the broader implications of each scenario, including their astrobiogical potential, and draw attention to upcoming observations which may help resolve the debate This work has been supported by NSF's Planetary Astronomy program.

Schneider, Nicholas M.; Spencer, J. R.

2009-09-01

16

The strength of weak ties in crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether weak ties play an important role in explaining criminal activities. We first develop a model where individuals learn about crime opportunities by interacting with other peers. These interactions can take the form of either strong or weak ties. We find that increasing the percentage of weak ties induces more transitions from

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2008-01-01

17

The Strength of Weak Ties in Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether weak ties play an important role in explaining criminal activities. We first develop a model where individuals learn about crime opportunities by interacting with active criminals. These interactions can take the form of either strong or weak ties. We find that increasing the percentage of weak ties induces more transitions from

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2007-01-01

18

The Emotional Strength of Weak Ties: Reevaluating Social Support Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

u Abstract While many theorists have argued that weak ties facilitate online social support, strong evidence within these communities clearly show that the distinction between weak ties and strong ties should be reexamined. After a short expose on tie strength and online social support, we give an example of how this research has operationalized weak ties only in terms of

Jarrid Wong; Mirit Shoham

2011-01-01

19

ASEAN and FTAA: External Threats and Internal Institutional Weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASEAN countries perceive the possible formation of the FTAA as a potential threat on the grounds that it may divert export markets and foreign direct investment (FDI) capital to the FTAA region. This effect, together with the “China factor†and the hangover from the 1997 financial crisis, posts a concern to the ASEAN countries’ economic growth. We show that, with

Yasheng Huang; Randall K. Morck; Bernard Yeung

2004-01-01

20

Cultural Capital: Strengths, Weaknesses and Two Advancements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu's work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly between the work on social mobility and on…

van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

2010-01-01

21

The Hidden Strengths of Weak Theories  

PubMed Central

There has been a strong tradition of assuming that concepts, and their patterns of formation might be best understood in terms of how they are embedded in theory-like sets of beliefs. Although such views of concepts as embedded in theories have been criticized on five distinct grounds, there are reasonable responses to each of these usual objections. There is, however, a newly emerging concern that is much more challenging to address – people’s intuitive theories seem to be remarkably impoverished. In fact, they are so impoverished it is difficult to see how they could provide the necessary structure to explain differences between concepts and how they might form in development. One response to this recent challenge is to abandon all views of concept structure as being related to people’s intuitive theories and see concepts as essentially structure-free atoms. The alternative proposed here argues that our very weak theories might in fact do a great deal of work in explaining how we form concepts and are able to use them to successfully refer.

Keil, Frank

2012-01-01

22

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment  

E-print Network

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment Chris Johnson, Dept that this equipment poses significant risks to military personnel. For instance, the US Army's Black Hawk helicopter of the US Army Safety Center's review of rotary winged aircraft incidents. As can be seen in Table 1

Johnson, Chris

23

Revealing strengths and weaknesses of methods for gene network inference  

E-print Network

MDM2, its key regulator (1). Indeed, the map- ping of biological interactions in the intracellularRevealing strengths and weaknesses of methods for gene network inference Daniel Marbacha,b , Robert November 18, 2009) Numerous methods have been developed for inferring gene regu- latory networks from

Floreano, Dario

24

Minority threat and police strength: an examination of the Golden State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross?sectional study examined the relationships between indicators of law enforcement spending, police strength, and minority threat in California in 2004. Controlling for economic conditions, crime, and indicators of social disruption we find that counties with higher populations of American Indians, Asians, or blacks and non?English speakers employ a greater number of sworn officers, or have increased spending on law

Rick Ruddell; Matthew O. Thomas

2010-01-01

25

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children’s mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth and fifth grade years (n = 181; 56% female). Procedural knowledge was regressed on levels of conceptual knowledge, and vice versa, to obtain residual scores. Residual scores capture variability in each kind of math knowledge that is not shared with the other type of knowledge. Cluster analysis using residuals indicated four distinct knowledge profiles in fourth graders: a) higher than expected conceptual knowledge and relatively lower procedural knowledge, b) relatively lower conceptual knowledge and higher procedural knowledge, c) lower concepts but expected levels of procedural knowledge, and d) relatively higher than expected levels of both procedural and conceptual knowledge. In fifth grade, another cluster emerged that showed lower procedures but expected levels of conceptual knowledge. In general, students with relatively lower than expected conceptual knowledge showed poorer accuracy on measures used to form the clusters and also word problem set-ups and estimation of sums. Implications for explaining seemingly conflicting results from prior work across studies were discussed. PMID:21945345

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

26

Strengths and Weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of NNESTs in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) are always compared with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) on linguistic grounds, their strengths and weaknesses as English teachers are worthy of investigation. This paper reports on a mixed methods study which examines the strengths and weaknesses of NNESTs and NESTs through the…

Ma, Lai Ping Florence

2012-01-01

27

Rotator cuff strength weakness in recurrent anterior shoulder instability physiopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough rotator cuff contractions play an important role in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint, little is known about the role of these muscles in physiopathological recurrent anterior instability.ObjectiveTo analyze the association between isokinetic internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscle strength and glenohumeral joint instability in patients with nonoperated recurrent anterior instability.DesignCase-control study.SettingDepartment of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Laboratory setting.Participants48

P Edouard; L Beguin; F Farizon; P Calmels

2011-01-01

28

Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

2013-01-01

29

Weakness and strength training in persons with poststroke hemiplegia: rationale, method, and efficacy.  

PubMed

Several converging lines of contemporary evidence suggest that weakness presents a more serious compromise to movement function in poststroke hemiplegia than spasticity. This review examines the clinical and functional phenomena of weakness in poststroke hemiplegia, currently available evidence identifying physiologic substrates contributing to weakness, and reports of early investigations involving high-resistance training targeted at improving strength and the transfer of strength to improvements in functional capacity. Based on this information, we describe some unsolved problems and indicate some likely lines of development to increase our knowledge regarding how resistance training can be included in effective stroke rehabilitation. PMID:15543447

Patten, Carolynn; Lexell, Jan; Brown, Heather E

2004-05-01

30

In the students' own words: what are the strengths and weaknesses of the dental school curriculum?  

PubMed

Dental students have little input into the selection of course topics and subject matter included in their dental curricula. Curriculum requirements are framed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation, which has stipulated competencies and associated biomedical and clinical knowledge that must be addressed during dental school. Although these competency requirements restrict the variance of educational experiences, students are eager to share their views on the curriculum within the realm of their educational experience. The objective of this research project was to elicit the perspectives of dental students from a broad cross-section of U.S. and Canadian dental schools about their education. A total of 605 students (285 sophomores, 220 seniors, 100 residents) from twenty North American dental schools completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis to communicate their perceptions of the curriculum. Students were also asked to provide their impressions of the overall quality of the educational program in an open-ended written format. The students' qualitative comments were then reviewed and categorized into key issues or themes. Resulting themes for each category of the Curriculum SWOT (C-SWOT) analysis were the following. Strengths: 1) clinical learning experience, and 2) opportunity to work with knowledgeable faculty. Weaknesses: 1) disorganized and inefficient clinical learning environment, 2) teaching and testing that focus on memorization, 3) poor quality instruction characterized by curricular disorganization, and 4) inconsistency among instructors during student evaluations. Opportunities: 1) develop strategies to provide students with more exposure to patients, especially early in the curriculum, and 2) opportunities to learn new technology/techniques. Threats: 1) cost of dental education, 2) students' concerns about faculty "brain drain," i.e., lack of sufficient numbers of dental faculty capable of providing high-quality instruction, and 3) questionable treatment of patients in the dental clinic as a consequence of pursuing procedural requirements. This report presents commentaries selected from 2,421 total responses that communicate students' perspectives related to C-SWOT themes. Students at seven schools in this study reported that they completed all or portions of the first two years of the curriculum in combined classes with medical students. Sophomore and senior students at these schools provided their thoughts on this curricular approach; these perceptions are also reported. Findings from this study are compared to results from a similar investigation of dental student perceptions conducted fifty years ago. We conclude that students participating in this study were positive overall about their learning experiences in dental schools, but identified several areas that appear to be problematic for many students at a variety of different schools including fundamental concerns about instructional quality in some areas of the curriculum. Academic program administrators in dental schools can use these findings to guide modifications that will enhance the overall dental education experience. PMID:17493972

Henzi, David; Davis, Elaine; Jasinevicius, Roma; Hendricson, William

2007-05-01

31

The strength-of-weak-ties perspective on creativity: a comprehensive examination and extension.  

PubMed

Disentangling the effects of weak ties on creativity, the present study separated, both theoretically and empirically, the effects of the size and strength of actors' idea networks and examined their joint impact while simultaneously considering the separate, moderating role of network diversity. I hypothesized that idea networks of optimal size and weak strength were more likely to boost creativity when they afforded actors access to a wide range of different social circles. In addition, I examined whether the joint effects of network size, strength, and diversity on creativity were further qualified by the openness to experience personality dimension. As expected, results indicated that actors were most creative when they maintained idea networks of optimal size, weak strength, and high diversity and when they scored high on the openness dimension. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:20476837

Baer, Markus

2010-05-01

32

A weak pillar for American national security: The CIA's dismal performance against WMD threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

American preemptive or preventive military action against WMD-armed adversaries in the future will simply not be feasible without high-quality and timely intelligence. But is American intelligence up to this load-bearing task for the post-11 September national security? This article surveys the Central Intelligence Agency's record of gauging potential WMD threats for more than a decade and assesses its overall performance

Richard L. Russell

2005-01-01

33

Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

2009-01-01

34

Library anxiety and characteristic strengths and weaknesses of graduate students’ study habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to identify graduate students’ predominant study habit strengths and weaknesses as well as to examine empirically the relationship between specific study habits and library anxiety. Participants were 133 graduate students in the field of education at a university in the southeast of the USA. These individuals were administered the study habits inventory (SHI) and the library

Qun G. Jiao; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2001-01-01

35

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of Wal-Mart in the United States  

E-print Network

not been enough in the eyes of Wall Street. Wal-Mart is not predicted to outpace the market in terms of 19 stock price (Cohen, 2006). Wal-Mart has had good same store growth in 2004 and 2005, ave effect ch large comp store incr arget... care costs or other forms of public assistance (Hansen, 5). What is the long term, global impact of Wal-Mart? No one knows. Yet. 1. Steidtmann, C. ?Retail Tsunami? Wal*Mart comes to Japan,? Deloitte Research, Throughout this project, one theme...

Nester, Michelle

2006-05-19

36

Extraction of weak transition strengths via the (3He, t) reaction at 420 MeV.  

PubMed

Differential cross sections for transitions of known weak strength were measured with the (3He, t) reaction at 420 MeV on targets of 12C, 13C, 18O, 26Mg, 58Ni, 60Ni, 90Zr, 118Sn, 120Sn, and 208Pb. Using these data, it is shown that the proportionalities between strengths and cross sections for this probe follow simple trends as a function of mass number. These trends can be used to confidently determine Gamow-Teller strength distributions in nuclei for which the proportionality cannot be calibrated via beta-decay strengths. Although theoretical calculations in the distorted-wave Born approximation overestimate the data, they allow one to understand the main experimental features and to predict deviations from the simple trends observed in some of the transitions. PMID:18233136

Zegers, R G T; Adachi, T; Akimune, H; Austin, Sam M; van den Berg, A M; Brown, B A; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Galès, S; Guess, C J; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, H; Hatanaka, K; Hayami, R; Hitt, G W; Howard, M E; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kawase, K; Kinoshita, M; Matsubara, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, S; Okumura, S; Ohta, T; Sakemi, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Scholl, C; Simenel, C; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, T; Yosoi, M

2007-11-16

37

Weak > strong: the ironic effect of argument strength on supportive advocacy.  

PubMed

When people seek support for a cause, they typically present the strongest case they can muster. The present research suggests that under some conditions, the opposite strategy may be superior-in particular, presenting weak rather than strong arguments might stimulate greater advocacy and action. Across four studies, we show that when individuals already agree with a cause (i.e., it is pro-attitudinal), receiving weak arguments in its favor can prompt them into advocating more on its behalf. Perceived argumentation efficacy mediates this effect such that people exposed to weak arguments are more likely to think they have something valuable to contribute. Moreover, consistent with the notion that it is driven by feelings of increased efficacy, the effect is more likely to emerge when initial argumentation efficacy and attitude certainty are moderate or low. Individuals with high argumentation efficacy and high certainty generally advocate more, regardless of the strength of arguments received. PMID:23798375

Akhtar, Omair; Paunesku, David; Tormala, Zakary L

2013-09-01

38

Targeting cancer's weaknesses (not its strengths): Therapeutic strategies suggested by the atavistic model.  

PubMed

In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target-the-weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed tumor environments is an irreversible weakness of cancer that can be exploited by creating a challenge that only the presence of adaptive immunity can meet. This leaves tumor cells more vulnerable than healthy tissue to pathogenic attack. Such a target-the-weakness therapeutic strategy has broad applications, and contrasts with current therapies that target the main strength of cancer: cell proliferation. PMID:25043755

Lineweaver, Charles H; Davies, Paul C W; Vincent, Mark D

2014-09-01

39

Structure and function of emergency care research networks: strengths, weaknesses, and challenges.  

PubMed

The ability of emergency care research (ECR) to produce meaningful improvements in the outcomes of acutely ill or injured patients depends on the optimal configuration, infrastructure, organization, and support of emergency care research networks (ECRNs). Through the experiences of existing ECRNs, we can learn how to best accomplish this. A meeting was organized in Washington, DC, on May 28, 2008, to discuss the present state and future directions of clinical research networks as they relate to emergency care. Prior to the conference, at the time of online registration, participants responded to a series of preconference questions addressing the relevant issues that would form the basis of the breakout session discussions. During the conference, representatives from a number of existing ECRNs participated in discussions with the attendees and provided a description of their respective networks, infrastructure, and challenges. Breakout sessions provided the opportunity to further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these networks and patterns of success with respect to their formation, management, funding, best practices, and pitfalls. Discussions centered on identifying characteristics that promote or inhibit successful networks and their interactivity, productivity, and expansion. Here the authors describe the current state of ECRNs and identify the strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls of research networks. The most commonly cited strengths of population- or disease-based research networks identified in the preconference survey were access to larger numbers of patients; involvement of physician experts in the field, contributing to high-level study content; and the collaboration among investigators. The most commonly cited weaknesses were studies with too narrow a focus and restrictive inclusion criteria, a vast organizational structure with a risk of either too much or too little central organization or control, and heterogeneity of institutional policies and procedures among sites. Through the survey and structured discussion process involving multiple stakeholders, the authors have identified strengths and weaknesses that are consistent across a number of existing ECRNs. By leveraging the strengths and addressing the weaknesses, strategies can be adopted to enhance the scientific value and productivity of these networks and give direction to future ECRNs. PMID:19799579

Papa, Linda; Kuppermann, Nathan; Lamond, Katherine; Barsan, William G; Camargo, Carlos A; Ornato, Joseph P; Stiell, Ian G; Talan, David A

2009-10-01

40

Vocabulary Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Relation to Visuospatial Construction Ability  

PubMed Central

Purpose This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Methods Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of intellectual and language ability. Children with WS also completed a visuospatial construction ability assessment. Results Study 1: Concrete and relational vocabulary standard scores were significantly lower for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS than for TD children. Children with WS earned significantly higher standard scores for concrete than for relational vocabulary. When groups were stringently matched for relational vocabulary size, children with WS did not evidence a specific weakness in spatial vocabulary. Study 2: Standard scores for relational vocabulary were similar to those for visuospatial construction ability for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS. Study 3: 9 – 11-year-olds with WS demonstrated very limited relational vocabulary ability; relational vocabulary ability at 5 – 7 years was highly correlated with later relational language ability. Conclusions Concrete vocabulary is a relative strength for children with WS; relational vocabulary ability is very limited and is at about the level of visuospatial construction ability. Accurate determination of group comparison results depends on stringent group matching. PMID:18658065

Mervis, Carolyn B.; John, Angela E.

2008-01-01

41

The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

Andrekus, N.J.

1989-01-01

42

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports  

SciTech Connect

Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

Schott, J. [Entergy Corp., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

43

The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

2014-01-01

44

Strengths and weaknesses of the global ocean conveyor: Inter-basin freshwater disparities as the major control  

E-print Network

Strengths and weaknesses of the global ocean conveyor: Inter-basin freshwater disparities distant regions of the world ocean. It is shown here that a slight disparity in freshwater redistribution.elsevier.com/locate/pocean Progress in Oceanography #12;The image in Fig. 1 is a waste simplification of what is known

45

Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

2013-01-01

46

A Study to Identify Areas of Relative Strength and Weakness in Support for the Saint Leo College Library Acquisitions Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practicum sought to identify areas of relative strength and weakness in support for the Saint Leo College (Florida) Library Acquisitions Project, a project to improve library support to the Military Education Program administered by Saint Leo College on military installations throughout the Southeast. Using the Interactive Forces Theory of…

McLeod, Stephen G.

47

Cavities of Weak Magnetic Field Strength in the Wake of FTEs: Results from Global Magnetospheric MHD Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

2009-01-01

48

MYTH 1: All students get 11s or 12s Every student has different strengths and weaknesses.  

E-print Network

MYTH 1: All students get 11s or 12s Every student has different strengths and weaknesses. Getting? (Beacon Press, Boston, 2004) MYTH 2: The competition is so steep that students sabotage each other Health and therefore it is vital to create relationships rather than sabotage each other. MYTH 4: All Health Sci

Thompson, Michael

49

Biological responses to weak 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields must vary as the square of the field strength.  

PubMed Central

Under quite general conditions, the biological response j(G) to a very weak continuous 60-Hz electric or magnetic field G is shown to be proportional to the square of the field strength. This conclusion follows from the continuity of the function j(G) and the first three derivatives of j(G) with respect to G over the amplitude of G. That continuity is ensured in nominally discontinuous systems by the presence of thermal noise. I argue the validity of the conjecture that all plausible biological responses to weak 60-Hz fields vary with the square of the field strength. A specific model is used to illustrate characteristic dependencies of biological responses to exposure times. PMID:7937782

Adair, R K

1994-01-01

50

MetaLib, WebFeat, and Google: The strengths and weaknesses of federated search engines compared with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Seeks to describe library federated search engines MetaLib and WebFeat as research tools by comparing MetaLib with WebFeat and by highlighting their strengths and weaknesses against Google and Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study tested MetaLib and WebFeat from various libraries; attended vendor demos and asked vendors questions; reviewed literature; and interviewed system administrators of MetaLib and WebFeat.

Xiaotian Chen

2006-01-01

51

UG PROGRAMS TOWN HALL MEETING 1 (November 19, 2009) Identified Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats in COE UG Programs  

E-print Network

) ·Inconsistent student advising and unequal access to advising resources) · Few engineering experiences in other colleges in research · Leadership minor for COE students · Centralized leadership. Student competition groups 2. Strong connection to industry/industry support 3. Highly qualified

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

52

Experimental limits on the strength of weak neutral currents in lepton pair production at PETRA energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes e +e - ? e +e - and ?+?- have been studied at PETRA using the JADE detector. The data, which were collected at s-values of up to 1300 GeV 2 have been analysed in terms of an electro-weak extension of QED to obtain values for the weak vector and axial vector couplings in the lepton sector. The values obtained agree with the predictions of the standard Salam-Weinberg model and the data are further analysed in terms of this model to obtain the limits 0.10 < sin 2?w < 0.40 (68% CL). The mass of the neutral weak gauge boson is deduced to be greater than 51 GeV/ c2.

Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dittman, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.; Naroska, B.; O'Neill, L. H.; Steffen, P.; Yen, W. L.; Elsen, E.; Helm, M.; Petersen, A.; Warming, P.; Weber, G.; Drumm, H.; Heintze, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Heuer, R. D.; von Krogh, J.; Lennert, P.; Matsumura, H.; Nozaki, T.; Olsson, J.; Rieseberg, H.; Wagner, A.; Darvill, D. C.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Wriedt, H.; Allison, J.; Ball, A. H.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Hassard, J. F.; King, B. T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Macbeth, A. A.; McCann, H.; Mills, H. E.; Murphy, P. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Stephens, K.; Clarke, D.; Goddard, M. C.; Marshall, R.; Pearce, G. F.; Imori, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Komamiya, S.; Koshiba, M.; Minowa, M.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, S.; Sato, A.; Suda, T.; Takeda, H.; Totsuka, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yanagisawa, C.

1981-02-01

53

Turning a Weakness into a Strength: Addressing ABET Requirements for Outcomes Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of South Alabama Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department underwent a comprehensive review of undergraduate programs in Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering by ABET's Engineering Accreditation Commission (EAC) in October of 2005. The Department's two programs were determined to have weaknesses in Criterion 3 that related to the measurement of student outcomes achievement. Constituent surveys were revised and

Tom Thomas; Mohammad Alam; John Steadman

54

Nuclear Energy: Its Strengths, Weaknesses and Role in Finland (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear energy has, in principle, various strengths as an energy form. In spite of the drawbacks of nuclear power, the benefits exceed its cost. That is why power companies in Finland have decided to apply for the construction, of the fifth nuclear power ...

A. Ruuskanen

1991-01-01

55

A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

2012-01-01

56

Profiling Fragile X Syndrome in males: strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

The present study examined the cognitive profile in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) males, and investigated whether cognitive profiles are similar for FXS males at different levels of intellectual functioning. Cognitive abilities in non-verbal, verbal, memory and executive functioning domains were contrasted to both a non-verbal and verbal mental age reference. Model-based cluster analyses revealed three distinct subgroups which differed in level of functioning, but showed similar cognitive profiles. Results showed that cognitive performance is particularly weak on measures of reasoning- and performal abilities confined to abstract item content, but relatively strong on measures of visuo-perceptual recognition and vocabulary. Further, a significant weakness was found for verbal short-term memory. Finally, these results indicated that the choice of an appropriate reference is critically important in examining cognitive profiles. The pattern of findings that emerged from the current cognitive profiling of FXS males was interpreted to suggest a fundamental deficit in executive control. PMID:19939624

Van der Molen, M J W; Huizinga, M; Huizenga, H M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Van der Molen, M W; Hamel, B J C; Curfs, L M G; Ramakers, G J A

2010-01-01

57

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and  

E-print Network

grant to prevent premature births. Other CWRU Programs Social Justice Institute School of Dental; and the potential for new collaborative grants. What are we doing well? Community initiatives within SOM for Environmental Health Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) Early Childhood Obesity Program PHAB: Promoting

Rollins, Andrew M.

58

Are back and leg muscle strengths determinants of lifting motion strategy? Insight from studying the effects of simulated leg muscle weakness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first of a series of studies aimed at elucidating whether back and leg muscle strengths are the intrinsic determinants of lifting motion strategy. The study started with an experiment in which six female subjects performed lifting tasks under three conditions: one unconstrained condition in which subjects used a self-selected lifting strategy and two simulated muscle weakness

Xudong Zhang; Trina Buhr

2002-01-01

59

Are back and leg muscle strengths determinants of lifting motion strategy?Insight from studying the effects of simulated leg muscle weakness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first of a series of studies aimed at elucidating whether back and leg muscle strengths are the intrinsic determinants of lifting motion strategy. The study started with an experiment in which six female subjects performed lifting tasks under three conditions: one unconstrained condition in which subjects used a self-selected lifting strategy and two simulated muscle weakness

Xudong Zhang; Trina Buhr

60

Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different fire regimes and incidence) have been selected to investigate, by questionnaire and meetings, stakeholders perception on present strength and weakness in the adopted plans. The results of the answers analysis show some main deficit aspects covering prevalently carthographic and procedural implementations: • Plans shall include a risk and vulnerability map; dangerous seasons are to be determined and have to be updated with current weather conditions. • Standardization of terminology and classifications in the plans. • Plans shall include a specific section for firefighting in RUI, socially being the most important areas to protect and where most complications during firefighting are found. • Protocols shall be adapted to the real on site situation. A single control center in the event of fire should be identified. This is particularly important if third-party resources are involved in the operations. • Use of new technologies, i.e. fire simulators, LIDAR, for fuel amount and availability determination, wind simulation, CO2 emissions, vegetation structure. In the same time some active proposals are supplyed by the operators, directly derived and linked with the wekness above mentioned: • Use of new technological tools for analysis (simulators, etc.) and for driving the operative aspects during the suppression. • Standardization of communication protocols in the plans and during the field operations. • Increase use of fire for landscape management in certain areas. • Investments shall be made in land resources rather than in air means, generally already sufficient. This analysis represents a first effort to collect and schematize the effective applicability level of the indications included in the Plans. It is the base for possible tuning of the research and policy lines and also to tuning the present documents; the indications supplied prove that the efforts done in research are been acquired by the operative sectors and that the active involvement of stakeholder is the future challenge to enhance the plans efficacy.

Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

2014-05-01

61

Strengths and weaknesses of guideline approaches to safeguard voluntary informed consent of patients within a dependent relationship  

PubMed Central

Background It is thought that a dependent relationship between patients and physicians who enroll their own patients in research compromises voluntary informed consent. Therefore, several ethical guidelines for human subject research provide approaches to mitigate these compromises. Currently, these approaches have not been critically evaluated. In this article, we analyze the approaches of ethical guidelines to manage the influence of a dependent relationship between patients and physicians on voluntary informed consent and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. Methods We performed a review of international ethical guidance documents on human subject research, listed in the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics and found through cross referencing. We also searched Global Ethics Observatory (GEObs) and the World Health Organization (WHO) website. Guidelines from all years were eligible for inclusion. The date last searched was December 2013. Discussion We identified two basic guideline approaches: 1. a process approach, which focuses on the person who obtains informed consent, that is, an independent individual, such as a research nurse or counselor; and 2. a content approach, emphasizing the voluntary nature of participation. Both approaches are valuable, either because the influence of the physician may diminish or because it empowers patients to make voluntary decisions. However, the approaches also face challenges. First, research nurses are not always independent. Second, physician-investigators will be informed about decisions of their patients. Third, involvement of a counselor is sometimes unfeasible. Fourth, the right to withdraw may be difficult to act upon in a dependent relationship. Conclusions Current guideline approaches to protect voluntary informed consent within a dependent relationship are suboptimal. To prevent compromises to voluntary informed consent, consent should not only be obtained by an independent individual, but this person should also emphasize the voluntary nature of participation. At the same time, dependency as such does not imply undue influence. Sometimes the physician may be best qualified to provide information, for example, for a very specialized study. Still, the research nurse should obtain informed consent. In addition, patients should be able to consult a counselor, who attends the informed consent discussions and is concerned with their interests. Finally, both physicians and research nurses should disclose research interests. PMID:24655604

2014-01-01

62

Biological Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ... will not filter chemical agents During During a Biological Threat The first evidence of an attack may ...

63

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.  

PubMed

A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training. PMID:21069487

Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2010-12-01

64

The strength of weak programs in cultural sociology: A critique of Alexander’s critique of Bourdieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeffrey Alexander’s recent book on cultural sociology argues that sociologists must grant the realm of ideas autonomy to determine\\u000a behavior, unencumbered by interference from instrumental or material factors. He criticizes the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu\\u000a as “weak” for failing to give autonomy to culture by reducing it to self-interested behavior that immediately reflects class\\u000a position. However, Alexander’s arguments seriously distort

David Gartman

2007-01-01

65

The Application of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis for Managing Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) Programmes for Improved Efficiency in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the current status of vocational and technical education programmes (VTE) in Nigeria and the major innovations of the Nigerian Government in the recent times in the sector vis-a-vis the demands of the modern world for vocational and technological development. It therefore, proposes a paradigm shift in the operation of VTE…

Adepoju, T. L.; Famade, Olu Adesola

2010-01-01

66

A Qualitative Examination of the History of E-Extension (eXtension), Implementation of Moodle (A Course Management System) and Associated Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats  

E-print Network

study was to describe how and why eXtension was established and the implementation of Moodle as a Course Management System (CMS) within eXtension. The researcher was able to determine that the eXtension system is becoming an accepted form of education...

Hightower, Tayla Elise

2011-08-08

67

Facing ambiguous threats.  

PubMed

On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

2006-11-01

68

The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

2012-01-01

69

Finding the right tool for the specific job: Strengths and weaknesses of different satellite data sets to characterize aerosol over south Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Asia is one of the most complex locations in the world to characterize aerosols. The south Asian air shed contains transported and locally-generated combustion particles and also dust from various sources. These particles are important to local and intercontinental air quality, and they influence global climate forcing and regional circulations. Ground-based monitoring networks and focused field experiments have made much progress in characterizing these particles, allowing ingest into models that predict climate effects and suggest air quality mitigation. However, satellite products can provide a means to complement the existing characterization effort by providing a different perspective. The EOS-era satellite sensors continue to provide important observations of south Asian particles. They are joined most recently by Suomi-NPP VIIRS, a broad swath, wide spectral range imager, in the MODIS tradition. Each of these sensors has strengths and weaknesses that enable it to provide unique information about south Asian aerosols. In bringing together the data from the various sensors and from different retrieval algorithms on the same sensor, we must be aware of each data set's strengths and weaknesses, which can be regionally specific. For example, VIIRS AOT exhibits a positive bias globally over land when compared to either MODIS or to AERONET, except over south Asia, where the bias is negative during the pre-monsoon season. We compare the abilities of different satellite data sets to characterize south Asian aerosol, emphasizing newly available data sets including the VIIRS aerosol product, the MODIS 3 km product and the combined MODIS Dark Target/Deep Blue product.

Kleidman, R. G.; Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.

2012-12-01

70

Congener-based Aroclor quantification and speciation techniques: a comparison of the strengths, weaknesses, and proper use of two alternative approaches.  

PubMed

This paper compares two previously published methods, an Aroclor estimation method and a mixing model method, that relate Aroclor contamination to congener specific data in environmental samples. The Aroclor estimation method, which is consistent with U.S. EPA Method 8082, uses a limited set of congener specific data to estimate Aroclor contributions to the sample, while the mixing model method uses the full congener data to model sample compositions as linear combinations of Aroclors. The performance of these methods are compared, using 181 samples at a variety of trophic levels, in terms of (a) total PCB concentrations, (b) compositional modification levels from original Aroclors, and (c) determination of the Aroclor mixture or mixtures best describing the sample (Aroclor speciation). We find that the two methods agree in all three terms for samples of low trophic level, but disagree for samples of higher tropic levels. Most significantly, the comparison reveals systematic overestimation of total PCB content by the Aroclor estimation method for samples at high trophic levels. The implication is that Aroclor determinations using persistent congeners cannot reliably be used as surrogates for total PCB concentration. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are detailed. PMID:14717180

Sather, Paula J; Newman, John W; Ikonomou, Michael G

2003-12-15

71

Tips from the toolkit: 2--assessing organisational strengths.  

PubMed

'SWOT' is a familiar term used in the development of business strategy. It is based on the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as part of a strategic analysis approach. While there are a range of more sophisticated models for analysing and developing business strategy, it is a useful model for general practice as it is less time consuming than other approaches. The following article discusses some ways to apply this framework to assess organisational strengths (and weaknesses). It is based on The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' "General practice management toolkit". PMID:20369123

Steer, Neville

2010-03-01

72

Cyber threat metrics.  

SciTech Connect

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

2012-03-01

73

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

74

The Effects of Threat Type and Duration on Public Relations Practitioner's Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Responses in Crisis Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contingency theory of public relations relies heavily on the concept of threat without fully developing the concept as well as its operationalization. This study addresses this weakness through the exposition of 2 key dimensions of threats in crises as threat type and duration, and empirically testing their effects on public relations practitioners' cognitive appraisal of threats, affective responses to

Yan Jin; Glen T. Cameron

2007-01-01

75

Threat display in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of threat displays has long been an area in which theory and empirical work have each spurred the other forward. Communication is currently the focus of great interest and effort on the part of modellers. A great deal that classical ethologists have accurately described about threat displays still lacks adequate explanation. Here we review the empirical literature on

Peter L. Hurd; Magnus Enquist

2001-01-01

76

The Zirconia Ceramic: Strengths and Weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Metal ceramic restorations were considered the gold standard as reliable materials. Increasing demand for esthetics supported the commercialization of new metal free restorations. A growing demand is rising for zirconia prostheses. Peer-reviewed articles published till July 2013 were identified through a Medline (Pubmed and Elsevier). Emphasizing was made on zirconia properties and applications. Zirconia materials are able to withstand posterior physiologic loads. Although zirconia cores are considered as reliable materials, these restorations are not problem free. PMID:24851138

Daou, Elie E.

2014-01-01

77

Combatting Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction\\u000a for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the\\u000a development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider\\u000a misuse. We also consider future

Peter G. Neumann

78

Weak bump quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

1994-01-01

79

Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats  

E-print Network

v Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats: 1. Specific Information/location will be given you have received a "SPecific BOmB threat". If possible recall exact wording of threat. 2. Non-Specific No information given other than e.g. "There is a Bomb in the Building". If possible ask and record answers to

Hickman, Mark

80

Research Article Signaling Threat  

E-print Network

Research Article Signaling Threat How Situational Cues Affect Women in Math, Science an MSE con- ference video depicting either an unbalanced ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Women a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate in the conference, than did women who viewed

Gross, James J.

81

The Population Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an address delivered at the University of Notre Dame, May 1969, Secretary McNamara discussed the threat of unmanageable population pressure which is undervalued and misunderstood by the general public. Unrestricted population growth will have catastrophic consequences unless it is dealt with rapidly and rationally. Copies from: Office of…

McNamara, Robert S.

1969-01-01

82

Proliferation: Threat and Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the height of the Cold War, the Russian physicist Andre Sakharov said, 'Reducing the risk of annihilating humanity in a nuclear war carries an absolute priority over all other considerations.' The end of the Cold War has reduced the threat of globa...

1996-01-01

83

Environmental Threats at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

Green, Twhanna

2005-01-01

84

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

E-print Network

Reactors (RERTR) #12;The Nuclear Proliferation Challenge The nuclear age began on December 2, 1942 when against nuclear weapon proliferation or terrorist threats is one of the biggest challenges facing to the Nuclear Proliferation Challenge Argonne National Laboratory, the nation's first national laboratory, grew

Kemner, Ken

85

The Bioterrorism Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those interested in keeping up with latest news as well as past reports on bioterrorism in America should visit PBS' Online NewsHour page entitled The Bioterrorism Threat. Accessible here are audio and video segments as well as text and transcripts from NewsHour broadcasts on Anthrax (the majority of the content), Smallpox, and bioterrorism in general.

2001-01-01

86

The Threat of Harm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student threats of violence should be taken seriously. Although zero-tolerance policies are gaining popularity, mental-health experts urge a more deliberative approach that explores student motives and metes out punishment on a more individualized basis. Fostering strong staff-student relationships and communication can effectively deter violence.…

Rasicot, Julie

1999-01-01

87

RFID SECURITY THREAT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises benefits that accrue from being able to identify and track individual goods in commercial supply chains. This helps in inventory management, reduces theft, can be used in conjunction with other sensor technology to identify damaged goods, and promises cost reductions. The objective of this paper is to identify potential threats to commercial supply chains

Dale R. Thompson; Neeraj Chaudhry; Craig W. Thompson

88

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31

89

Cyber Threat Trees for Large System Threat Cataloging and Analysis*  

E-print Network

Cyber Threat Trees for Large System Threat Cataloging and Analysis* P. Ongsakorn, K. Turney, M Diagram (MDD). The cyber threat tree structure improves upon both the classical fault tree and attack tree and classification. To address this need, we propose an extension to the well-known fault tree representation

Thornton, Mitchell

90

Not All Threats Are Equal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

Surface, Jeanne L.

2011-01-01

91

Drug Threat Assessment Update: Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief update to the Minnesota Drug Threat Assessment, which is a strategic assessment of the status and outlook of the drug threat to Minnesota. Analytical judgment determined the threat posed by each drug type or category, taking into ac...

2002-01-01

92

[Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].  

PubMed

The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world. PMID:17286014

Barbereau, S

2006-12-01

93

Ocean-sized threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas.“Science,” Lubchenco said, “has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

Showstack, Randy

94

Ocean-sized threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas."Science," Lubchenco said, "has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

Showstack, Randy

95

Lesson Plan: Iceberg Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will learn about the potential threat posed by icebergs, particularly the enormous icebergs that have broken away from Antarctica's Ronne Ice Shelf. They will research a news article and various web sites (links are provided) to collect information about icebergs, discuss what icebergs are and where they are found, and brainstorm a list of potential problems that could occur. Groups of students will address the potential problems, develop solutions in written form, and present their proposals to the class.

2000-05-17

96

Threat Characterization: Trajectory Dynamics  

E-print Network

Given a primary interest in "mitigation of the potential hazard" of near-Earth objects impacting the Earth, the subject of characterization takes on an aspect not normally present when considering asteroids as abstract bodies. Many deflection concepts are interested in the classic geophysical characteristics of asteroids when considering the physical challenge of modifying their orbits in order to cause them to subsequently miss an impact with Earth. Yet for all deflection concepts there are characteristics of the threat which overwhelm these traditional factors. For example, a close gravitational encounter with Earth some years or decades prior to impact can reduce the velocity change necessary for deflection by several orders of magnitude if the deflection precedes the close encounter (or encounters). Conversely this "benefit" comes at a "price"; a corresponding increase in the accuracy of tracking required to determine the probability of impact. Societal issues, both national and international, also characterize the NEO deflection process and these may strongly contend with the purely technical issues normally considered. Therefore critical factors not normally considered must be brought into play as one characterizes the threat of NEO impacts.

Russell Schweickart; Clark Chapman; Dan Durda; Bill Bottke; David Nesvorny; Piet Hut

2006-08-15

97

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-01-01

98

Addressing the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

1993-05-01

99

Insider Threat Specification as a Threat Mitigation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insider threats come in many facets and nuances. This results in two major problems: mining big amounts of data for evidence\\u000a of an insider attack, and keeping track of different aspects of threats is very cumbersome. To enable techniques that support\\u000a detection of insider threats as early as possible, one needs mechanisms to automate significant parts of the detection process,

George Magklaras; Steven Furnell

2010-01-01

100

Understanding the Stereotype Threat Effect With \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment examined the mediation of the stereotype threat effect and ex- plored the relationship of 2 different types of stereotype threat: stereotype threat-specific (threat that results specifically from the testing environment) and stereotype threat-general (a global sense of threat that individuals carry across sit- uations) on Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test performance. As predicted, there was a significant interaction

David M. Mayer; Paul J. Hanges

2003-01-01

101

[The threat of smallpox].  

PubMed

Smallpox is a highly contagious disease mainly transmitted by aerosols with a high case-fatality. The smallpox virus has evolved from a long adaptation to humans during Evolution, explaining that the virus is highly specific for humans and nonpathogenic for animals. Smallpox was eradicated in 1977 and vaccination was abandoned in the 1980's. This virus is a dreadful potential biological weapon since the reemergence of smallpox on the planet might be expected to be devastating, due to its high 'contagiosity', which would rapidly spread in naive populations, especially those living in urban areas, and worldwide through air travels. There is no anti-viral treatment and vaccine is active in the first four days post-exposure. Today, the stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats for humanity. There is a need for improving the safety of the vaccine and to reconsider the preventive strategy to face a possible attack by smallpox virus. PMID:12391895

Berche, Patrick

2002-08-01

102

Preparedness for Infectious Threats  

PubMed Central

With the emergence of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso during early 2002, the public health community was faced with the challenge of providing access to an appropriate and affordable vaccine in time for the upcoming 2003 epidemic season. Recognizing the implications of the emergent threat, the World Health Organization developed a strategy, established a public–private partnership to provide the needed vaccine, and then ensured that a stockpile was available for future use. The trivalent N meningitidis ACW135 polysaccharide vaccine that resulted is now one of the primary tools for epidemic response in African meningitis belt countries. It will remain so for the foreseeable future and until appropriate and affordable conjugate vaccines become part of national immunization programs in the region. PMID:17413077

Nelson, Christopher B.; Birmingham, Maureen; Costa, Alejandro; Daviaud, Joelle; Perea, William; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Tarantola, Daniel

2007-01-01

103

Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent  

E-print Network

Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent Caller's Voice Calm Crying Deep Angry Normal Ragged is bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. Where are you? 9. What

104

The threat simulation theory in light of recent empirical evidence: a review.  

PubMed

The recently proposed threat simulation theory (TST) states that dreaming about threatening events has a biological function. In the past few years, the TST has led to several dream content analysis studies that empirically test the theory. The predictions of the TST have been investigated mainly with a new content analysis system, the Dream Threat Scale (DTS), a method developed for identifying and classifying threatening events in dreams. In this article we review the studies that have tested the TST with the DTS. We summarize and reevaluate the results based on the dreams of Finnish and Swedish university students, traumatized and nontraumatized Kurdish, Palestinian, and Finnish children, and special dream samples, namely recurrent dreams and nightmares collected from Canadian participants. We sum up other recent research that has relevance for the TST and discuss the extent to which empirical evidence supports or conflicts with the TST. New evidence and new direct tests of the predictions of the TST yield strong support for the theory, and the TST's strengths seem to outweigh its weaknesses. PMID:19353929

Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti

2009-01-01

105

Threat Assessment in College Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

Cornell, Dewey

2010-01-01

106

Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture, ITSRA, provides an enterprise wide solution to insider threat. The architecture consists of four security layers -- Business, Information, Data, and Application. Organizations should deploy and enforce controls at each layer in order to address insider attacks. Each layer does not function in isolation or independently of other layers. Rather, the correlation of indicators

Joji Montelibano; Andrew Moore

2012-01-01

107

Bio-threat microparticle simulants  

SciTech Connect

A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

2012-10-23

108

Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

Osborne, Jason W.

2007-01-01

109

Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat  

SciTech Connect

{ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

1988-01-01

110

Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

2008-01-01

111

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-02-01

112

Weak Nuclear Forces cause the Strong Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the lattices.

Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

2008-05-29

113

Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

Gastaldo, Evann

1999-01-01

114

Threat Insight Quarterly Wireless Technology  

E-print Network

References..............................................16 About Internet Security Systems significant threats and challenges facing security professionals today. This report is a product of Internet Security Systems Managed Security Services and is compiled by Internet Security Systems (ISS) X

115

Threat Insight Quarterly Regulatory Compliance  

E-print Network

....................................................................................12 About Internet Security Systems ................................................14 Contents Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Quarterly > October 2006 ©2006 Internet Security Systems. All rights reserved worldwide. All contents of this document are the property of Internet Security

116

An Insider Threat Prediction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information systems face several security threats, some of which originate by insiders. This paper presents a novel, interdisciplinary\\u000a insider threat prediction model. It combines approaches, techniques, and tools from computer science and psychology. It utilizes\\u000a real time monitoring, capturing the user’s technological trait in an information system and analyzing it for misbehavior.\\u000a In parallel, the model is using data from

Miltiadis Kandias; Alexios Mylonas; Nikos Virvilis; Marianthi Theoharidou; Dimitris Gritzalis

2010-01-01

117

Combating the Insider Cyber Threat  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

2008-01-02

118

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-print Network

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11

119

Media use and children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability.  

PubMed

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats (i.e., crime, terrorism, earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods). An interactive model of television use and child anxiety in accounting for children's personal threat perceptions was supported, in which the strength of television consumption in predicting children's personal threat perceptions was greater for children with greater anxiety. Relationships were found neither between children's Internet use and threat perceptions nor between media use and perceptions of societal threat. PMID:18645752

Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Beidas, Rinad S; Babyar, Heather M; Kendall, Philip C

2008-07-01

120

Shear Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. John Atkinson, of the University of the West of England, developed a site for undergraduate students wanting to learn more about soil classification. His site addresses issues such as: shear strength, peak strength, and residual strength testing. Filled with charts, diagrams, statistics, the information is pertinent and easily understood by almost any audience.

Atkinson, John

2008-10-07

121

STEREOTYPE THREAT IN THE ACADEMY SELECTED RESEARCH  

E-print Network

threat. · Men are susceptible to stereotype threat compared to women in social situations. · Students of appearing racist. · Women may experience stereotype threat in situations involving math. · Young girlsSTEREOTYPE THREAT IN THE ACADEMY SELECTED RESEARCH EXCERPTS AND ADAPTATIONS WITH PERMISSION FROM

Wong, Pak Kin

122

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

123

Threat image projection in CCTV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operators are key components in a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system, being the link between the system technology and its effective use. Operators' performance will largely determine the level of service provided by the system. There have been few studies testing operator performance, while much work has been done to test the performance of the technology. Previous work on CCTV operator performance carried out by the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) has used filmed video and subjects who knew they were undergoing testing, meaning subjects are likely to be concentrating harder on performing well. HOSDB believes that there is a need for a test that would be able to be routinely used in a CCTV control room throughout the course of a normal shift to provide management with operational performance data. Threat Image Projection (TIP) is routinely used in X-Ray baggage scanners to keep operators alert to possible threats. At random intervals, a threat target image is superimposed over the image of the baggage being screened. The operator then responds to this threat. A similar system could be used for CCTV operators. A threat image would be randomly superimposed over the live CCTV feed and the operator would be expected to respond to this.

Neil, David; Thomas, Nicola; Baker, Bob

2007-10-01

124

Apple Strength Issues  

SciTech Connect

Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

Syn, C

2009-12-22

125

Weak scale supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

Hall, L.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-11-12

126

Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement  

E-print Network

Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be `extracted' not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

Jun Zhang; Shao-xiong Wu; Chang-shui Yu

2014-09-14

127

Weakly sufficient quantum statistics  

E-print Network

Some aspects of weak sufficiency of quantum statistics are investigated. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a weakly sufficient statistic for a given family of vector states, investigate the problem of its minimality, and find the relation between weak sufficiency and other notions of sufficiency employed so far.

Katarzyna Lubnauer; Andrzej ?uczak; Hanna Pods?dkowska

2009-11-23

128

Synesthesia: Strong and Weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we distinguish strong and weak forms of synesthesia. Strong synesthesia is characterized by a vivid image in one sensory modality in response to stimulation in another one. Weak synesthesia is characterized by cross-sensory correspondences expressed through language, perceptual similarity, and perceptual interactions during information processing. Despite important phenomenological dissimilarities between strong and weak synesthesia, we maintain that

Gail Martino; Lawrence E. Marks

2001-01-01

129

BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?  

E-print Network

University Police Office may be called on to search for, locate, or isolate a #12;possible bomb, NO employee or someone who has become aware of information they believe to be credible. What are types of bomb threats the caller. If possible, the call should be transferred to University Police Dispatch, where it can

Fernandez, Eduardo

130

Computer-assisted threat evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

2006-05-01

131

Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat effect with participants performing significantly better on the task in the low threat condition. Additional analyses

Claytie Davis; Joshua Aronson; Moises Salinas

2006-01-01

132

Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

133

BOMB THREAT Questions to Ask  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Questions to Ask: 1. Where is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? Sex of caller: Age: Race

Ravikumar, B.

134

Threat Displays are not Handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a general framework of handicap signalling it was proposed that threat displays are handicaps, they can work only if they put the signaller at a disadvantage, which is only acceptable to honest signallers. The aim of the present article is to investigate this proposal with the help of a simple game-theoretical model. It was found: (1) that the use

SZABOLCS SZÁMADÓ

2003-01-01

135

Intelligence as Threats and Reassurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence's activities provoked feelings of threat in the adversary, and its capabilities provided reassurance for its own side. Fear of espionage (and associated covert action) was common to both sides. Intrusive technical collection had a similar effect, principally through the scale of Western operations around Soviet territory, and in overflights up to May 1960. On the other hand intelligence's capabilities

Michael Herman

2011-01-01

136

Threat Insight Quarterly Vulnerability Management  

E-print Network

is a product of Internet Security Systems Managed Security Services and is compiled by the X-Force® security intelligence team of Internet Security Systems (ISS). Each issue focuses on a specific challenge and provides Internet threats. The ISS X Force serves as trusted security advisor to the U.S. Department of Homeland

137

Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

2008-01-01

138

Strength Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

Londeree, Ben R.

1981-01-01

139

Electroconvective stability of a weakly conducting liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In inhomogeneous electric fields, at sufficiently high field strengths, a weakly conducting liquid becomes unstable and is set in motion [1–4]. The cause of the loss of stability and the motion is the Coulomb force acting on the space charge formed by virtue of the inhomogeneity of the electrical conductivity of the liquid [4–13]. This inhomogeneity may be due to

A. I. Zhakin

1979-01-01

140

Boosting a Weak Learning Algorithm by Majority  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for improving the accuracy of algorithms for learningbinary concepts. The improvement is achieved by combining a large number of hypotheses,each of which is generated by training the given learning algorithm on adifferent set of examples. Our algorithm is based on ideas presented by Schapire inhis paper "The strength of weak learnability", and represents an improvement over

Yoav Freund

1995-01-01

141

Is there muscular weakness in Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

Controversy exists as to whether muscle weakness is present in Parkinson's disease (PD). Computerized literature searches identified clinical trials and reviews about muscular strength assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease, using the following databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Seventeen articles fulfilled all criteria for selection. These studies suggested that isokinetic muscle strength was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease and that muscle weakness was not specifically related to tremor or rigidity. Bilateral asymmetrical muscle weakness was present in Parkinson's disease when presenting with clinical unilateral hemiparkinsonism. Recent studies using sensitive mechanical devices have provided evidence that muscle strength is reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease compared with age-matched controls. The specific cause of this weakness is not known. Questions under debate were whether this weakness was of central or peripheral origin and whether it was intrinsic to the disease or a secondary phenomenon. PMID:19487924

Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Pérez-de-Heredia, Marta; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos; Muñoz-Hellín, Elena; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

2010-01-01

142

Weak greedy algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical greedy type algorithms are studied: a Weak Greedy Algorithm, a Weak Orthogonal Greedy Algorithm, and a Weak Relaxed\\u000a Greedy Algorithm. These algorithms are defined by weaker assumptions than their analogs the Pure Greedy Algorithm, an Orthogonal\\u000a Greedy Algorithm, and a Relaxed Greedy Algorithm. The weaker assumptions make these new algorithms more ready for practical\\u000a implementation. We prove the convergence

Vladimir N. Temlyakov

2000-01-01

143

Threats to the president revisited.  

PubMed

Ten prisoners charged with "threatening the President of the United States" were evaluated in an effort to seek out psychiatric and sociological factors involved in this offence. Comparisons were made with known presidential assassins. A history of abandonment as a child, single or divorced state, and a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia were prominent in both the study group and the group of know assassins. Additionally, the apparent psychological need behind both the threats and the actual assassinations appeared remarkably similar in both groups. The primary differentiating variable related to lethality was "opportunity and happenstance". It is proposed that those threatening the President by letter are at high risk for carrying out their threat if intervention does not take place. PMID:863349

Bort, R F

1977-01-01

144

Bayesian Discovery of Threat Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel unified Bayesian framework for network detection is developed, under which a detection algorithm is derived based on random walks on graphs. The algorithm detects threat networks using partial observations of their activity, and is proved to be optimum in the Neyman-Pearson sense. The algorithm is defined by a graph, at least one observation, and a diffusion model for threat. A link to well-known spectral detection methods is provided, and the equivalence of the random walk and harmonic solutions to the Bayesian formulation is proven. A general diffusion model is introduced that utilizes spatio-temporal relationships between vertices, and is used for a specific space-time formulation that leads to significant performance improvements on coordinated covert networks. This performance is demonstrated using a new hybrid mixed-membership blockmodel introduced to simulate random covert networks with realistic properties.

Smith, Steven T.; Kao, Edward K.; Senne, Kenneth D.; Bernstein, Garrett; Philips, Scott

2014-10-01

145

Access Control Requirements for Preventing Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Today the Intelligence Community (IC) has faced increasing challenges of insider threats. It is generally accepted that the\\u000a cost of insider threats exceeds that of outsider threats. Although the currently available access control approaches have\\u000a a great potential for preventing insider threats, there are still critical obstacles to be solved, especially in large-scale\\u000a computing environments. In this paper we discuss

Joon S. Park; Joseph Giordano

2006-01-01

146

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

147

STEREOTYPE THREAT: AN OVERVIEW EXCERPTS AND ADAPTATIONS  

E-print Network

with a wide range of social groups and stereotypes including, but not limited to: women in math (e.g., SpencerSTEREOTYPE THREAT: AN OVERVIEW EXCERPTS AND ADAPTATIONS FROM REDUCING STEREOTYPE THREAT experiments on stereotype threat have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Learn more at http

Wong, Pak Kin

148

Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

2014-01-01

149

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

150

Detecting Insider Threats: Solutions and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insider threats pose significant challenges to any organization. Many solutions have been proposed in the past to detect insider threats. Unfortunately, given the complexity of the problem and the human factors involved, many solutions which have been proposed face strict constraints and limitations when it comes to the working environment. As a result, many past insider threat solutions have in

Sherali Zeadally; Byunggu Yu; Dong Hyun Jeong; Lily Liang

2012-01-01

151

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net February 2007 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly February The IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly is designed to highlight some

152

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net September . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly The IBM Internet Security SystemsTM X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly is designed to highlight some

153

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net May 2007 #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly May Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly is designed to highlight some of the most

154

Weak Probabilistic Anonymity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymity means that the identity of the user performing a certain action is main- tained secret. The protocols for ensuring anonymity often use random mechanisms which can be described probabilistically. In this paper we propose a notion of weak probabilistic anonymity, where weak refers to the fact that some amount of proba- bilistic information may be revealed by the protocol.

Yuxin Deng; Catuscia Palamidessi; Jun Pang

2007-01-01

155

Intelligence analysis and threat assessment: towards a more comprehensive model of threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central focus of intelligence is the identification, analysis and assessment of threat. However, as acknowledged by intelligence practitioners, threat assessment lags behind the related field of risk assessment. This paper highlights how definitions of threat currently favoured by intelligence agencies are primarily based on threatening entities alone. Consequently, assessments of threat are almost singularly concerned with understanding an identified

Charles Vandepeer

2011-01-01

156

Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat

Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

2006-01-01

157

Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act  

E-print Network

Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain information with the checklist on this card. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURE If a bomb threat is received by phone: Remain calm. Keep the caller on the line for as long

Slatton, Clint

158

Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors  

E-print Network

Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS Stereotype threat can reduce older adults, 90089-0191. Phone: 213-740-6772. Email: barbersa@usc.edu #12;STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS 2 Abstract (144 words) Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information

Mather, Mara

159

The role of threats in animal cooperation  

PubMed Central

In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors—impact, accuracy and perception—that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation. PMID:20798110

Cant, Michael A.

2011-01-01

160

Local shear instabilities in weakly ionized, weakly magnetized disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We extend the analysis of axisymmetric magnetic shear instabilities from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows to weakly ionized plasmas with coupling between ions and neutrals caused by collisions, ionization, and recombination. As part of the analysis, we derive the single-fluid MHD dispersion relation without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. This work expands the range of applications of these instabilities from fully ionized accretion disks to molecular disks in galaxies and, with somewhat more uncertainty, to protostellar disks. Instability generally requires the angular velocity to decrease outward, the magnetic field strengths to be subthermal, and the ions and neutrals to be sufficiently well coupled. If ionization and recombination processes can be neglected on an orbital timescale, adequate coupling is achieved when the collision frequency of a given neutral with the ions exceeds the local epicyclic freqency. When ionization equilibrium is maintained on an orbital timescale, a new feature is present in the disk dynamics: in contrast to a single-fluid system, subthermal azimuthal fields can affect the axisymmetric stability of weakly ionized two-fluid systems. We discuss the underlying causes for this behavior. Azimuthal fields tend to be stabilizing under these circumstances, and good coupling between the neutrals and ions requires the collision frequency to exceed the epicyclic frequency by a potentially large secant factor related to the magnetic field geometry. When the instability is present, subthermal azimuthal fields may also reduce the growth rate unless the collision frequency is high, but this is important only if the field strengths are very subthermal and/or the azimuthal field is the dominant field component. We briefly discuss our results in the context of the Galactic center circumnuclear disk, and suggest that the shear instability might be present there, and be responsible for the observed turbulent motions.

Blaes, Omer M.; Balbus, Steven A.

1994-01-01

161

Peripheral Muscle Weakness in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral muscle weakness is commonly found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary dis- ease (COPD) and may play a role in reducing exercise capacity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate, in patients with COPD: ( 1 ) the relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), ( 2 ) the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness, and ( 3

SARAH BERNARD; PIERRE L E BLANC; FRANÇOIS WHITTOM; GUY CARRIER; JEAN JOBIN; ROGER BELLEAU; FRANÇOIS MALTAIS

1998-01-01

162

The Stength of Weak cooperation: A Case Study on Flickr  

E-print Network

effect of their individual publication activities. The `strength of weak cooperation'1 lies in 1 with the principle of weak cooperation, where a huge amount of individual contributions build solid and structured on for this study, collected from Flickr website using the public API. Keywords web2.0, social media, flickr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

A Review of the Theory and Research Underlying the StrengthsQuest Program for Students. The Quest for Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

StrengthsQuest is a student program that focuses on strengths rather than weaknesses. It is intended to lead students to discover their natural talents and gain unique and valuable insights into how to develop such talents into strengths--strengths that equip them to succeed and to make important decisions that enable them to balance the demands…

Hodges, Timothy D.; Harter, James K.

2005-01-01

164

Stereotype threat and female communication styles.  

PubMed

A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21646549

von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

2011-10-01

165

Women athletes' mental rotation under stereotypic threat.  

PubMed

This experiment examined whether nullifying a stereotypic threat about sex-related abilities in mental rotation in women athletes increased facility with rotations. Women athletes and nonathletes (N = 64) were told that they would be performing mental rotation presumed to create an implicit stereotypic threat. Then 32 participants learned that the mental rotation tasks required the same abilities as those mastered by athletes, presumed to nullify the stereotypic threat. Participants completed an 8-item Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test and provided reports of ability, experience, and background. Contrary to the hypothesis, athletes receiving nullified instructions performed more poorly than peers who worked under the implicit stereotypic threat, but nonathletes' scores were not affected by the threat. These findings are consistent with the idea that group identification and concomitant worry about representing a group in a positive manner may contribute to responses to stereotypic threat, and that even with explicit nullification of threat, performance may not change. PMID:18986057

Brownlow, Sheila; Valentine, Stephanie E; Owusu, Alvin

2008-08-01

166

Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting

Catherine Mathe ´; Marie-France Sagot; Thomas Schiex; Pierre Rouze

2002-01-01

167

Culture in Global Software Development - A Weakness or Strength?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural diversity is assumed to be a fundamental issue in global software development. Research carried out to date has raised concerns over how to manage cultural differences in global software development. Our empirical research in India, a major outsourcing destination, has helped us investigate this complex issue of global software development. A triangulated study based on a questionnaire, telephonic interviews

Sadhana Deshpande; Ita Richardson; V. Casey; S. Beecham

2010-01-01

168

Metformin in patients with chronic kidney disease: strengths and weaknesses.  

PubMed

A wide array of benefits has been attributed to metformin. These include attenuation of abnormal glucose metabolism (diabetes treatment and prevention), weight neutrality or weight loss, improvement in the pathophysiologic components of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction), lipid-lowering properties, cardiovascular protection, and antineoplastic potential. Metformin itself is not a nephrotoxic drug. Initially appointed as the safest hypoglycemic agent in chronic kidney disease, its use has been limited in these patients because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis. A fear perpetuated by numerous case reports in which it is implicated. Current guidelines stipulate that it must be used with caution in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of less than 60 mL/minute and not at all in eGFRs of less than 30 mL/minute. Identified risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include acute kidney injury, hypoxemia, sepsis, alcohol abuse, liver failure, myocardial infarction, and shock. Treatment may include supportive care and dialysis techniques. On the other hand, it is likely that the use of metformin would be beneficial in many with chronic kidney disease according to the advantages associated with attenuation of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular protection. The reality of severe metformin-induced lactic acidosis in the absence of chronic renal impairment raises the question of limitation of its use in these patients. PMID:22641582

Rocha, Ana; Almeida, Marta; Santos, Josefina; Carvalho, André

2013-01-01

169

The Strengths and Weaknesses of ISO 9000 in Vocational Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ISO 9000 is a set of quality standards that assists an organization to identify, correct and prevent errors, and to promote continual improvement. Educational institutions worldwide are implementing ISO 9000 as they face increasing external pressure to maintain accountability for funding. Similar to other countries, in the United States vocational…

Bevans-Gonzales, Theresa L.; Nair, Ajay T.

2004-01-01

170

Black fighting formations: Their strengths, weaknesses and potentialities  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractClausewitz observed that “war is an extension of politics.” This paper argues that a fatal flaw among Black political organizations?with certain exceptions?has been their failure to adequately prepare for warfare in the service of self?defense and revolutionary struggles. The failure of the non?violent credo of the Southern Civil Rights Movement is examined as are exceptions to that credo, Robert F.

Russell Shoats

1999-01-01

171

Experience Sampling: Promises and Pitfalls, Strength and Weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience-sampling (ESM) technique is a method in which recording of feelings and activities is done on-line at the moment,\\u000a either at randomly selected moments or at predetermined times. This method has the advantage of being able to not only assess\\u000a people’s general feelings, but to link feelings with situations, times of day, and other circumstances. Thus, ESM provides\\u000a a

Christie Napa Scollon; Chu-Kim Prieto; Ed Diener

172

Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses Associated with Prader-Willi Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and nine age- and IQ-matched adults with PWS completed standardized tests of long-term and short-term memory, visual and auditory processing, and reading and mathematics achievement. Contrary to previous findings, long-term memory in PWS subjects was strong relative to IQ and there was no evidence that…

Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Atwell, Julie A.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

2000-01-01

173

Some strengths and weaknesses of electricity industry restructuring in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity industry restructuring is a complex, multidisciplinary problem that requires a consistent approach to its engineering, economic, commercial and socio-political aspects to achieve a satisfactory outcome. Moreover, all aspects of the energy conversion chain, from primary energy forms to end-use energy services, should be consistently addressed so that options at all points in the energy conversion chain receive equal consideration,

Hugh R Outhred

2003-01-01

174

Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?  

PubMed

Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

2014-03-01

175

Anisotropy of Weakly Vibrated Granular Flows  

E-print Network

We experimentally probe the anisotropy of the fabric of weakly vibrated, flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters --- flow rate and vibration strength --- this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggests that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a crucial role in determining the rheology of granular flows.

Geert Wortel; Martin van Hecke

2014-10-16

176

Rheology of Weakly Vibrated Granular Media  

E-print Network

We probe the rheology of weakly vibrated granular flows as function of flow rate, vibration strength and pressure by performing experiments in a vertically vibrated split-bottom shear cell. For slow flows, we establish the existence of a novel vibration dominated granular flow regime, where the driving stresses smoothly vanish as the driving rate is diminished. We distinguish three qualitatively different vibration dominated rheologies, most strikingly a regime where the shear stresses no longer are proportional to the pressure.

Geert H. Wortel; Joshua A. Dijksman; Martin van Hecke

2013-12-02

177

Real threat of nuclear smuggling  

SciTech Connect

Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a `flying squad` with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs.

Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-01-01

178

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2008-05-29

179

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

INL

2009-09-01

180

Reversing the Weak Quantum Measurement for a Photonic Qubit  

E-print Network

We demonstrate the conditional reversal of a weak (partial-collapse) quantum measurement on a photonic qubit. The weak quantum measurement causes a nonunitary transformation of a qubit which is subsequently reversed to the original state after a successful reversing operation. Both the weak measurement and the reversal operation are implemented linear optically. The state recovery fidelity, determined by quantum process tomography, is shown to be over 94% for partial-collapse strength up to 0.9. We also experimentally study information gain due to the weak measurement and discuss the role of the reversing operation as an information erasure.

Yong-Su Kim; Young-Wook Cho; Young-Sik Ra; Yoon-Ho Kim

2009-03-18

181

Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

2004-01-01

182

The effects of direct versus witnessed threat on emergency department healthcare workers: implications for PTSD criterion A.  

PubMed

We compared post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster profiles in hospital emergency department (ED) medical staff (N=100) who experienced an emotionally distressing work event that presented either a direct threat to themselves or a witnessed threat to patients. The two groups displayed similar levels of PTSD symptoms, however, they differed on symptom profiles and work consequences. The direct threat group experienced significantly greater fear during the event, more ongoing arousal symptoms, and more job dissatisfaction than the witnessed threat group. The witnessed threat group was more likely to appraise their PTSD symptoms as reflecting personal weakness. Overall, the results point to the need for further research to identify distinctive features of responses to different types of traumatic stressors. PMID:18325730

Alden, Lynn E; Regambal, Marci J; Laposa, Judith M

2008-12-01

183

Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.  

PubMed

One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. PMID:21366614

Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

2011-03-01

184

Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

1977-01-01

185

Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

186

Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation:

1992-01-01

187

The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

2003-01-01

188

The Peer-to-Peer Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We often perceive the latest threats to corporate environments to be those that are directed at overtly attacking our infrastructure. Such examples include the introduction of a destructive application i.e. a virus or by overwhelming systems due to the replication of the agent as in the case of the worm. Other organizations consider industrial espionage to be a significant threat

David Duke

2002-01-01

189

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net October 2007 Honeypots and Honeynets: From darknets to things that go bump in the dark . . . . . . . . . 2 The State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly

190

The terrorism threat and managing workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research findings on how the threat of terrorism to Australia affects managers and employees in workplaces in a large city. It investigates the various workplace impacts of the terrorist threat and examines how this affects organizational efficiency and effectiveness and employee wellbeing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the impact

Luke Howie

2007-01-01

191

Automated Threat Response using Intelligent Agents (ATRIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's dynamic battlefield environment requires rapid reconfiguration and reorganization of warfighter assets, communication links, and computing resources in response to enemy attacks. The extent to which supporting operations can take place autonomously, and thus more rapidly, could be critical to neutralize future enemy threats. This paper describes a software system called Automated Threat Response using Intelligent Agents (ATRIA). The ATRIA

A. Quan; R. Crawford; H. Shao; K. Knudtzon; A. Schuler; D. Scott; S. Hayati; R. Abbott

2001-01-01

192

FirewallsFirewalls Security threats and network  

E-print Network

COMP 522 FirewallsFirewalls COMP 522 Security threats and network · As we have already discussed, many serious security threats come from the networks; · The firewalls implement hardware or software traffic from inside to outside, and vice versa, must pass through the firewall. All access to the local

Fisher, Michael

193

Towards a Theory of Insider Threat Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insider attacks are a well-known problem acknowl- edged as a threat as early as 1980s. The threat is at- tributed to legitimate users who abuse their privileges, and given their familiarity and proximity to the compu- tational environment, can easily cause signicant dam- age or losses. Due to the lack of tools and techniques, security analysts do not correctly perceive

Ramkumar Chinchani; Anusha Iyer; Hung Q. Ngo; Shambhu J. Upadhyaya

2005-01-01

194

Stereotype Threat, Identity Salience, and Spatial Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat research provides insight into how the low standardized test scores of students from stigmatized social groups may derive in part from the negative performance expectations about these groups. Because these students belong to many social groups, one means of mitigating the threat is to remind them of their membership in groups…

McGlone, Matthew S.; Aronson, Joshua

2006-01-01

195

Schema Content for Threat in Social Phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cognitive theories of anxiety disorders suggest that anxious individuals are characterized by maladaptive schemata for threat, threat-related schema content has rarely been investigated empirically. In this study, participants with social phobia (n = 16) and nonanxious participants (n = 17) generated scripts, or event-based schemata, for two common scenarios, one social in nature, and one evaluative in nature. Social

Amy Wenzel

2004-01-01

196

IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

April 2008 IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly #12;Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 #12;About the report The IBM Internet Security SystemsTM (ISS) X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly today . This report is a product of IBM Managed Security Services and is compiled by the IBM Internet

197

Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

2008-01-01

198

How you perceive threat determines your behavior  

PubMed Central

The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fatima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

2013-01-01

199

Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.  

PubMed

We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

2012-01-01

200

Identifying future zoonotic disease threats  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Emerging infectious diseases often originate in wildlife, making it important to identify infectious agents in wild populations. It is widely acknowledged that wild animals are incompletely sampled for infectious agents, especially in developing countries, but it is unclear how much more sampling is needed, and where that effort should focus in terms of host species and geographic locations. Here, we identify these gaps in primate parasites, many of which have already emerged as threats to human health. Methodology: We obtained primate host–parasite records and other variables from existing databases. We then investigated sampling effort within primates relative to their geographic range size, and within countries relative to their primate species richness. We used generalized linear models, controlling for phylogenetic or spatial autocorrelation, to model variation in sampling effort across primates and countries. Finally, we used species richness estimators to extrapolate parasite species richness. Results: We found uneven sampling effort within all primate groups and continents. Sampling effort among primates was influenced by their geographic range size and substrate use, with terrestrial species receiving more sampling. Our parasite species richness estimates suggested that, among the best sampled primates and countries, almost half of primate parasites remain to be sampled; for most primate hosts, the situation is much worse. Conclusions and implications: Sampling effort for primate parasites is uneven and low. The sobering message is that we know little about even the best studied primates, and even less regarding the spatial and temporal distribution of parasitism within species. PMID:24481184

Cooper, Natalie; Nunn, Charles L.

2013-01-01

201

In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

Showstack, Randy

2008-12-01

202

Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning.  

PubMed

Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response. PMID:20660737

Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T

2010-08-10

203

Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype “women are bad at math” causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned “popout” (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response. PMID:20660737

Shiffrin, Richard M.; Boucher, Kathryn L.; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T.

2010-01-01

204

QM02 Strength Measurement  

SciTech Connect

In late April, Paul Emma reported that his orbit fitting program could find a reasonably good fit only if the strength of QM02 was changed from design value of -5.83 kG to -6.25 kG - a strength change of 7.3%. In late May, we made a focal length measurement of QM02 by turning off all focusing optics between YC07 and BPMS1 (in the spectrometer line) except for QM02 and adjusted the strength of QM02 so that vertical kicks by YC07 did not produce any displacements at BPMS1 (see Figure 1). The result was quoted in the LCLS elog was that QM02 appeared to 6% too weak, and approximately agreed with Paul's observation. The analysis used for the entry in the log book was based on the thin lens approximation and used the following numbers: Distance YC07 to QM02 - 5.128 m; Distance QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.778 m; and Energy - 135 MeV. These distances were computed from the X,Z coordinates given the on the large plot of the Injector on the wall of the control room. On review of the MAD output file coordinates, it seems that the distance used for QM02 to BPMS1 is not 1.778 m. The correct value is Distance, center of QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.845 m. There may be a typo on the wall chart values for the coordinates of BPMS1, or perhaps there was a misinterpretation of edge versus center of QM02. In any case, the effect of this change is that the thin lens estimate changes from 6% too weak to 9% too weak. At John Galayda's suggestion, we looked into the thin lens versus thick lens approximation. A Mathematica program was written to solve for the K value of the QM02, in the thick lens approximation, that provides point to point focusing from YC07 to BPMS1, and to compare this number with the value obtained using the thin lens approximation. The length of QM02 used in the thick lens calculation is the effective length determined by magnetic measurements of 0.108 m. The result of the Mathematica calculation is that the thin lens approximation predicts less magnet strength is required to produce the same focusing by about 1.3%. When both the distance correction and the thick lens approximation are taken into account, the result is: K{sub thick} - K{sub mm}/K{sub thick} = -7.6% where K{sub mm} is the value obtained from magnetic measurements and K{sub thick} is the value of K obtained from the focal length measurement in the thick lens approximation. That is, QM02 acts weaker than it was measured by magnetic measurements by 7.6%. This is remarkably close to Paul's original estimate. The unexpected weakness could in principle be due to several things: shorted turns, a current calibration error, magnetic measurement error; it could even be due to the presence of an gradient from QM01, which is of opposite sign and right next to QM02, despite it being set to zero current (although it was not DAC-zeroed). Plans have been implemented to remove and replace QM02 at the earliest ROD.

Welch, J; Wu, J.; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-24

205

Weak Polarized Electron Scattering  

E-print Network

Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

Jens Erler; Charles J. Horowitz; Sonny Mantry; Paul A. Souder

2014-01-23

206

Weak Polarized Electron Scattering  

E-print Network

Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

2014-01-01

207

Weak Polarized Electron Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left–right cross-section asymmetry (ALR) is the goal of a number of experiments that have recently been completed or are in progress. The experiments are challenging, given that ALR is small, typically between 10?4 and 10?8. By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, one can isolate various pieces of the weak Lagrangian, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are being studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher-twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

Erler, Jens; Horowitz, Charles J.; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A.

2014-10-01

208

Weak Gravitational Lensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy, which affects the evolution of structures. Gravitational lensing is the process by which light from distant galaxies is bent by the gravity of intervening mass in the Universe as it travels toward us. This bending causes the images of background galaxies to appear slightly distorted, and can be used to extract important cosmological information. In the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Einstein predicted that massive bodies could be seen as gravitational lenses that bend the path of light rays by creating a local curvature in space time. One of the first confirmations of Einstein's new theory was the observation during the 1919 solar eclipse of the deflection of light from distant stars by the sun. Since then, a wide range of lensing phenomena have been detected. The gravitational deflection of light by mass concentrations along light paths produces magnification, multiplication, and distortion of images. These lensing effects are illustrated by Figure 14.2, which shows one of the strongest lenses observed: Abell 2218, a very massive and distant cluster of galaxies in the constellation Draco. The observed gravitational arcs are actually the magnified and strongly distorted images of galaxies that are about 10 times more distant than the cluster itself. These strong gravitational lensing effects are very impressive but they are very rare. Far more prevalent are weak gravitational lensing effects, which we consider in this chapter, and in which the induced distortion in galaxy images is much weaker. These gravitational lensing effects are now widely used, but the amplitude of the weak lensing signal is so weak that its detection relies on the accuracy of the techniques used to analyze the data. Future weak lensing surveys are already planned in order to cover a large fraction of the sky with high accuracy, such as Euclid [68]. However, improving accuracy also places greater demands on the methods used to extract the available information.

Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

2012-03-01

209

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2012-10-01

210

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2013-10-01

211

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

2011-10-01

212

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2012-10-01

213

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2011-10-01

214

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

2013-10-01

215

Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions  

PubMed Central

To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

2013-01-01

216

Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.  

PubMed

To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

2013-02-01

217

Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis  

SciTech Connect

Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

Not Available

1980-05-09

218

PROHIBITED USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THREATS, HARASSMENT, AND PORNOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

Page 1 PROHIBITED USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THREATS, HARASSMENT, AND PORNOGRAPHY Policy, and prohibits the use of University Electronic Resources for threats, harassment, and pornography. Reason threats, engaging in harassing behavior, and viewing, downloading, or communicating pornography. Table

Shahriar, Selim

219

Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:23736227

Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

2013-01-01

220

Inherent weaknesses of cosmology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources of astrophysical evidence necessary to verify a cosmological model are reviewed. Cosmological history of the universe is divided into four epochs, each unique in its physical conditions related to observability at present. The current epoch, started after recombination of hydrogen in the universe, offers the most in observability. In earlier epochs, verifiable astrophysical evidence gradually disappeared. It seems that no astrophysical evidence has been left behind from the singularity epoch of the Universe. The gradual disappearance of astrophysical evidence ascertainable at present is the result of physical conditions structured within the cosmological models, hence indicating certain inherent weaknesses of cosmology as a verifiable physical theory.

Chiu, H.-Y.

1986-01-01

221

The rise of "china threat" arguments  

E-print Network

The study seeks to explain the rise of "China threat" arguments in the United States and Japan in the 1990s by using three theories of states behavior- realism, organization theory, and democratic peace theory. The rise ...

Ueki, Chikako

2006-01-01

222

Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.  

PubMed

The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life. PMID:19996725

Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

2009-11-01

223

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2008-05-29

224

Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

2010-01-08

225

Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism.  

PubMed

Ostracism threatens fundamental needs of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence, which should motivate participants to respond to this threat. However, research has yet to examine the role of need threat in producing motivation after ostracism. In the current work, participants completed a "cognitive ability" (antisaccade) task following Cyberball-induced ostracism or inclusion. In two experiments, it was found that when ostracized, participants do not see antisaccade performance as a means of responding to the concerns produced by need threat; they respond only to the social threat, leading to worse performance than included participants (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when participants see an avenue of response (the Cyberball players can compare antisaccade performances), ostracized participants outperform included participants (Experiment 2). Moreover, this effect was mediated by the need for belonging, suggesting that ostracized participants were motivated to elevate their inclusionary status by demonstrating their worth on the cognitive ability task. PMID:20388870

Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G; Williams, Kipling D

2010-05-01

226

Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model adaptation (learning). The increasingly complex demands facing analysts evaluating activity threatening to the security of the United States make the family of agent-based data collection (fusion) a promising area. This paper will discuss a system to support the collection and evaluation of potential threat activity as well as an approach fro presentation of the information.

Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

2004-09-01

227

Blog Data Mining for Cyber Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blog data mining is a growing research area that addresses the domain-specific problem of extracting information from blog\\u000a data. In our work, we analyzed blogs for various categories of cyber threats related to the detection of security threats\\u000a and cyber crime. We have extended the Author-Topic model based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation for identify patterns of similarities\\u000a in keywords and

Flora S. Tsai; Kap Luk Chan

228

Stereotype Threat and the Student-Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement gaps may reflect the cognitive impairment thought to occur in evaluative settings (e.g., classrooms) where a stereotyped identity is salient (i.e., stereotype threat). This study presents an economic model of stereotype threat that reconciles prior evidence on how student effort and performance are influenced by this social-identity phenomenon. This study also presents empirical evidence from a laboratory experiment in

Thomas S. Dee

2009-01-01

229

Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

1987-01-01

230

Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention  

SciTech Connect

The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

NOEL,WILLIAM P.

2000-01-01

231

An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

2009-01-01

232

Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

Kuliasha, Michael

2012-03-01

233

In silico study of potential autoimmune threats from rotavirus infection.  

PubMed

Rotavirus, the major cause of infantile nonbacterial diarrhea, was found to be associated with development of diabetes-associated auto-antibodies. In our study we tried to find out further potential autoimmune threats of this virus using bioinformatics approach. We took rotaviral proteins to study similarity with Homo sapiens proteome and found most conserved structural protein VP6 matches at two regions with ryanodine receptor, an autoimmune target associated with myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis, a chronic neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder with no typical known reason, is characterized by fluctuating muscle weakness which is typically enhanced during muscular effort. Affected patients generate auto antibodies against mainly acetyl choline receptor and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel protein ryanodine receptor. Further, we observed that two regions which matched with ryanodine receptor remain conserved in all circulating rotaviral strains and showed significant antigenecity with respect to myasthenia gravis associated HLA haplotypes. Overall, our study detected rotaviral VP6 as a potential threat for myasthenia gravis and enlighten an area of virus associated autoimmune research. PMID:24929545

Sarkar, Tapati; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya; Bhowmick, Rahul; Nandy, Ashesh

2014-08-01

234

Weak measurements beyond the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman formalism  

SciTech Connect

We extend the idea of weak measurements to the general case, provide a complete treatment, and obtain results for both the regime when the preselected and postselected states (PPS) are almost orthogonal and the regime when they are exactly orthogonal. We surprisingly find that for a fixed interaction strength, there may exist a maximum signal amplification and a corresponding optimum overlap of PPS to achieve it. For weak measurements in the orthogonal regime, we find interesting quantities that play the same role that weak values play in the nonorthogonal regime.

Wu Shengjun; Li Yang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2011-05-15

235

Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems  

SciTech Connect

We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

2009-01-01

236

Weak lensing and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

237

Weak localization and weak anti-localization in topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak localization and weak anti-localization are quantum interference effects in quantum transport in a disor- dered electron system. Weak anti-localization enhances the conductivity and weak localization suppresses the conductivity with decreasing temperature at very low temperatures. A magnetic field can destroy the quantum interference effect, giving rise to a cusp-like positive and negative magnetoconductivity as the signatures of weak localization and weak anti-localization, respectively. These effects have been widely observed in topological in- sulators. In this article, we review recent progresses in both theory and experiment of weak (anti-)localization in topological insulators, where the quasiparticles are described as Dirac fermions. We predicted a crossover from weak anti-localization to weak localization if the massless Dirac fermions (such as the surface states of topo- logical insulator) acquire a Dirac mass, which was confirmed experimentally. The bulk states in a topological insulator thin film can exhibit the weak localization effect, quite different from other system with strong spin- orbit interaction. We compare the localization behaviors of Dirac fermions with conventional electron systems in the presence of disorders of different symmetries. Finally, we show that both the interaction and quantum interference are required to account for the experimentally observed temperature and magnetic field dependence of the conductivity at low temperatures.

Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

2014-08-01

238

Stereotype Threats Effects on Anxiety and Short­Term Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a participant's anxiety level would increase, or if their short­term memory would decrease when induced with a negative stereotype. The participants were 62 Winona State University students. There were four groups for this experiment: Females with threat and no threat induced, and males with threat and no threat induced. Participants were

Michael McCants

2005-01-01

239

Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.  

PubMed

The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns. PMID:20855899

Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

2010-10-01

240

Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions  

PubMed Central

Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

Holdstock, Douglas

2008-01-01

241

Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

242

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

243

Why Strength Training?  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity Physical Activity Share Compartir Why strength training? Research has shown that strengthening exercises are both ... person's mental and emotional health. Benefits of Strength Training There are numerous benefits to strength training regularly, ...

244

Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT IN OLDER ADULTS 1 Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults' memory  

E-print Network

Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT IN OLDER ADULTS 1 Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, and Rico Velasco for research assistance and to Dr. Tom Hess for providing us with the stereotype threat for publication. #12;STEREOTYPE THREAT IN OLDER ADULTS 2 Abstract (150) Negative stereotypes about aging can

Mather, Mara

245

Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat.  

PubMed

The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders. Interviews revealed that their coping with the situation varied and consisted of emotion-focused, defensive, palliative and instrumental coping strategies. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder occurred in some individuals, and tendencies to express milder or stronger opinions on sensitive issues were reported. Psychosocial knowledge can be useful in helping to cope with the situation in the best possible way. PMID:20884958

Nijdam, Mirjam J; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

2010-10-01

246

Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.

Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Petitjean, Cyril [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France) [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Laboratoire de Physique, CNRS UMR5672, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d'Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Wellens, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schlagheck, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Schlagheck@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

2012-08-15

247

Comparison of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is thought to play a major role in the functional impairment that occurs with old age. In clinical practice, sarcopenia is often determined by measuring handgrip strength. Here, we compared the lower limb quadriceps strength to the handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care. Our study population consisted of older adults (n?=?764, 68.2 % women, median age 83) that participated in the Integrated Systemic Care for Older People (ISCOPE) study. Participants were visited at baseline to measure quadriceps strength and handgrip strength. Data on health outcomes were obtained at baseline and after 12 months (including life satisfaction, disability in daily living, GP contact-time and hospitalization). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength showed a weak association (??=?0.42 [95 % CI 0.33-0.50]; R (2)?=?0.17). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength were independently associated with health outcomes at baseline, including quality of life, disability in daily living, GP contact-time, hospitalization, and gait speed. Combined weakness of the quadriceps and handgrip distinguished a most vulnerable subpopulation that presented with the poorest health outcomes. At follow-up, handgrip strength showed an association with quality of life (??=?0.05; P?=?0.002) and disability in daily living (??=?-0.5; P?=?0.004). Quadriceps weakness did not further contribute to the prediction of the measured health outcomes. We conclude that quadriceps strength is only moderately associated with handgrip strength in an older population and that the combination of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength measurements may aid in the identification of older adults in primary care with the poorest health outcomes. In the prediction of poor health outcomes, quadriceps strength measurements do not show an added value to the handgrip strength. PMID:25280549

Chan, On Ying A; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Jeanet W; den Elzen, Wendy P J

2014-10-01

248

Using the threat probability task to assess anxiety and fear during uncertain and certain threat.  

PubMed

Fear of certain threat and anxiety about uncertain threat are distinct emotions with unique behavioral, cognitive-attentional, and neuroanatomical components. Both anxiety and fear can be studied in the laboratory by measuring the potentiation of the startle reflex. The startle reflex is a defensive reflex that is potentiated when an organism is threatened and the need for defense is high. The startle reflex is assessed via electromyography (EMG) in the orbicularis oculi muscle elicited by brief, intense, bursts of acoustic white noise (i.e., "startle probes"). Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). In the Threat Probability Task, fear is measured via startle potentiation to high probability (100% cue-contingent shock; certain) threat cues whereas anxiety is measured via startle potentiation to low probability (20% cue-contingent shock; uncertain) threat cues. Measurement of startle potentiation during the Threat Probability Task provides an objective and easily implemented alternative to assessment of negative affect via self-report or other methods (e.g., neuroimaging) that may be inappropriate or impractical for some researchers. Startle potentiation has been studied rigorously in both animals (e.g., rodents, non-human primates) and humans which facilitates animal-to-human translational research. Startle potentiation during certain and uncertain threat provides an objective measure of negative affective and distinct emotional states (fear, anxiety) to use in research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse and broadly in affective science. As such, it has been used extensively by clinical scientists interested in psychopathology etiology and by affective scientists interested in individual differences in emotion. PMID:25285398

Bradford, Daniel E; Magruder, Katherine P; Korhumel, Rachel A; Curtin, John J

2014-01-01

249

Proceedings of the lightning threat warning workshop  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop on lightning detection and warning. Papers from government and private industry researchers are presented. The topics of the papers cover electric field sensors, mathematical models of thunderclouds, lightning damage mechanisms, and future warning systems. Briefings are included which summarize each participant's involvement with lightning threats. Papers are indexed separately. (JDH)

Not Available

1987-01-01

250

Android Keylogging Threat Fadi Mohsen, Mohammed Shehab  

E-print Network

Android Keylogging Threat Fadi Mohsen, Mohammed Shehab Department of Software and Information--The openness of Android platform has attracted users, developers and attackers. Android offers bunch of capabil-similar to Android soft keyboards-using the KeyboardView class. This class is available since api level 3.0 and can

Shehab, Mohamed

251

Influenza: current threat from avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is an infectious respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and infrequent pandemics, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and burdens on the delivery of health care. The geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 among poultry and wild bird populations is unprecedented. Growing numbers of sporadic avian influenza infections are occurring in humans, increasing the threat of the next

Iain Stephenson; Jane Democratis

252

Strategic threat: narcos and narcotics overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory essay provides a strategic overview of the threat posed by the largest Mexican drug cartels (The Federation, Gulf, Juárez, and Tijuana), and affiliated mercenary groups and street and prison gangs, to the United States. Cartel areas of operation in both Mexico and the United States are highlighted along with linkages to affiliated enforcers and gangs such as Los

Robert J. Bunker

2010-01-01

253

Stereotype Threat and Counter-Stereotypical Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that stereotype threat can occur in a labor market signaling model where no one believes that an agent played a strictly dominated strategy. This idea of self-fulfilling statistical discrimination is different from the one Spence posed in his original work on market signaling, which requires employers to believe that low-ability women would play a strictly dominated strategy. Our

Richard Chisik

254

Understanding influenza transmission, immunity and pandemic threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current pandemic threat can be best understood within an ecological framework that takes account of the history of past pandemics caused by influenza A, the relationships between pandemic and seasonal spread of influenza viruses, and the importance of immunity and behavioural responses in human populations. Isolated populations without recent exposure to seasonal influenza seem more susceptible to new pandemic

John D. Mathews; Joanne M. Chesson; James M. McCaw; Jodie McVernon

2009-01-01

255

Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics

D. A. Henderson

1998-01-01

256

The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity. The smallpox virus is highly specific for humans and non-pathogenic in animals. There is no antiviral treatment and a vaccine is active only if administered in the

Patrick Berche

2001-01-01

257

Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria [page 18] Assessment of Domestic Antibiotic-Resistant Threats [page 20] Running Out of Drugs to Treat Serious Gram-Negative Infections [page 22] People at Especially High Risk [page 24] Antibiotic Safety [page 25] Gaps in Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance [ ...

258

Survey on Security Threats and Protection Mechanisms  

E-print Network

such as USB, Bluetooth, WiFi or even 3G. Such interfaces may expose the internal network to the outside world in the embedded networks of current vehicles, we then analyze the potential threats targeting these networks (USB) or wireless (Bluetooth, WiFi, 3G...) communi- cation with the outside world. This trend

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK: 1. When is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? CALLER'S VOICE: ___Calm

Cui, Yan

260

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement

Carlos M. Pereira; J. Rastegar; Clifford E. McLain; T. Alanson; Charles McMullan; H.-L. Nguyen

2007-01-01

261

Impact! - The Threat of Comets and Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Impact , Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at the catastrophic collisions of comets and asteroids with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this frightening possibility. Every day something

Gerrit L. Verschuur

1997-01-01

262

Unauthorized Collaboration on Facebook: Threats and Responses  

E-print Network

Unauthorized Collaboration on Facebook: Threats and Responses Recent events at FSU have uncovered and collaboration. The Problem: When students, faculty, and staff join Facebook using a valid FSU email address this and believe it is affiliated with or endorsed by Florida State University. Facebook also allows students

McQuade, D. Tyler

263

Threats and countermeasures for network security  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

Denning, Peter J.

1991-01-01

264

Al Shabaab's Foreign Threat to Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the threat to Somalia by al Shabaab (The Youth), an extremist organization that controls most of southern and central Somalia. It learned its strategy and tactics from al Qaeda and the Taliban and relies heavily on a relatively small number of foreign fighters, most of whom are Somalis with foreign passports from the large Somali diaspora.

David Shinn

2011-01-01

265

Modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present insights generated by modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities in organiza- tions. In our model, we integrate concepts from social judgment theory, signal detection theory, and the cognitive psychology of memory and belief formation. With this model, we investigate the emergence of vulnerabilities (es- pecially that are insider-driven) in complex systems char- acterized by

Ignacio J. Martinez-moyano; Eliot H. Rich; Stephen H. Conrad; David F. Andersen

2006-01-01

266

An Architecture for Contextual Insider Threat Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown there is a growing concern about the damage possible when trusted organization insiders behave maliciously. In particular, data exfiltration can lead to loss of revenue, damage to an organization's reputation, and disruption of service for critical infrastructure systems. In this work, we introduce the Contextually Adaptive INsider threat architecture (CAIN), which incorporates contextual and risk-based access

Michael Kirkpatrick; Elisa Bertino; Frederick Sheldon

267

Modeling the Emergence of Insider Threat Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present insights generated by modeling the emergence of insider threat vulnerabilities in organizations. In our model, we integrate concepts from social judgment theory, signal detection theory, and the cognitive psychology of memory and belief formation. With this model, we investigate the emergence of vulnerabilities (especially that are insider-driven) in complex systems characterized by high levels of

Ignacio J. Martinez-Moyano; S. H. Conrad; E. H. Rich; David F. Andersen

2006-01-01

268

Environmental Degradation and Environmental Threats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a review of environmental degradation and its threats in China. Air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, soil degradation, sand depositing in dams, decaying urban infrastructure, and more and more hazards such as floods, landslides and soil erosion are major consequences of environmental degradation and are making tremendous loss both in life and property. Through investigation, the author found

Ying Wang

2004-01-01

269

The Threat Index: An Additive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of actualization and integration on death anxiety in 120 students who completed the Threat Index, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, and Templer Death Anxiety Scale. Results provided clear evidence that actualization and integration have an additive effect on death fear and anxiety. (JAC)

Robinson, Paul J.; Wood, Keith

1985-01-01

270

Proliferation: Threat and response (November 1997)  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; South Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus; The Transnational Threat; Department of Defense Response; Prevention; Protection; Acquisition; DOD Capabilities to Respond to NBC Terrorism; Conclusion; Technical Annex; Further Reading; and Glossary.

NONE

1997-11-01

271

Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

272

25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation of a building, place of assembly or facility of public...

2010-04-01

273

Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

2009-01-01

274

The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a systematic procedure for threat assessment and intervention of school shooters. The model is designed to be used by educators, mental-health professionals, and law-enforcement agencies and is intended to help refine and strengthen the efforts of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. Its fundamental building…

O'Toole, Mary Ellen

275

The silent threat of low genetic diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

Hunter, Margaret E.

2013-01-01

276

Managing Lake Kariba sustainably: threats and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to communicate and share experiences with stakeholders on how the sustainability threats and challenges associated with managing Lake Kariba and the Kariba Dam wall are being managed by the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case study area is Lake Kariba and Kariba Dam wall located in the mid-Zambezi river basin.

Michael James Tumbare

2008-01-01

277

Garlic: Nature's Protection Against Physiological Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements

Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Mehmood S. Butt; Javaid Iqbal

2009-01-01

278

Decoherence effects on weak value measurements in double quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of decoherence on a weak value measurement in a paradigm system consisting of a double quantum dot continuously measured by a quantum point contact. Fluctuations of the parameters controlling the dot state induce decoherence. We find that, for measurements longer than the decoherence time, weak values are always reduced within the range of the eigenvalues of the measured observable. For measurements at shorter time scales, the measured weak value strongly depends on the interplay between the decoherence dynamics of the system and the detector backaction. In particular, depending on the postselected state and the strength of the decoherence, a more frequent classical readout of the detector might lead to an enhancement of weak values.

Thomas, Mark; Romito, Alessandro

2012-12-01

279

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

280

Licensing "Weak" Patents David Encaoua  

E-print Network

Licensing "Weak" Patents David Encaoua and Yassine Lefouili This Version: May 2009 Abstract In this paper, we revisit the issue of licensing "weak" patents under the shadow of litigation. Departing from industry. It is shown that the optimal two-part tariff license from the patent holder's perspective may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Weakly chiral networks and two-dimensional delocalized states in a weak magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study numerically the localization properties of two-dimensional electrons in a weak perpendicular magnetic field. For this purpose we construct weakly chiral network models on the square and triangular lattices. The prime idea is to separate in space the regions with phase action of magnetic field, where it affects interference in course of multiple disorder scattering, and the regions with orbital action of magnetic field, where it bends electron trajectories. In our models, the disorder mixes counterpropagating channels on the links, while scattering matrices at the nodes describe exclusively the bending of electron trajectories. By artificially introducing a strong spread in the scattering strengths on the links (but keeping the average strength constant), we eliminate the interference and reduce the electron propagation over a network to a classical percolation problem. In this limit we establish the form of the disorder-magnetic field phase diagram. This diagram contains the regions with and without edge states, i.e., the regions with zero and quantized Hall conductivities. Taking into account that, for a given disorder, the scattering strength scales as inverse electron energy, we find agreement of our phase diagram with levitation scenario: energy separating the Anderson and quantum-Hall insulating phases floats up to infinity upon decreasing magnetic field. From numerical study, based on the analysis of quantum transmission of the network with random phases on the links, we conclude that the positions of the weak-field quantum-Hall transitions on the phase diagram are very close to our classical-percolation results. We checked that, in accord with the Pruisken theory, presence or absence of time-reversal symmetry on the links has no effect on the line of delocalization transitions. We also find that floating up of delocalized states in energy is accompanied by doubling of the critical exponent of the localization radius. We establish the origin of this doubling within classical-percolation analysis.

Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Kagalovsky, V.; Raikh, M. E.

2010-04-01

282

Effective Teaching Strategies for Gifted/Learning-Disabled Students with Spatial Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine effective teaching strategies for use with high-ability students who have spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses. Gifted students with spatial strengths and weak verbal skills often struggle in the traditional classroom. Their learning style enables them to grasp complex systems and excel at higher levels of…

Mann, Rebecca L.

2006-01-01

283

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.  

PubMed

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2013-08-01

284

Resisting Weakness of the Will  

PubMed Central

I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

Levy, Neil

2012-01-01

285

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-300.2(w) defining direct threat....

2012-07-01

286

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat....

2011-07-01

287

41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-250.2(w) defining direct threat...

2013-07-01

288

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-300.2(w) defining direct threat....

2010-07-01

289

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-300.2(w) defining direct threat....

2011-07-01

290

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat....

2010-07-01

291

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-300.2(w) defining direct threat....

2013-07-01

292

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat....

2012-07-01

293

41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.  

...BADGE VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-300.2(g) defining direct threat....

2014-07-01

294

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

...AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(e) defining direct threat....

2014-07-01

295

41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat....

2013-07-01

296

41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. ...to the health or safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-250.2(w) defining direct threat...

2012-07-01

297

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...threat assessment standards. (e) Comparability of Other Security Threat Assessment...TWIC applicants. (1) In making a comparability determination, TSA will consider...credential. (2) To apply for a comparability determination, the agency...

2012-10-01

298

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...threat assessment standards. (e) Comparability of Other Security Threat Assessment...TWIC applicants. (1) In making a comparability determination, TSA will consider...credential. (2) To apply for a comparability determination, the agency...

2011-10-01

299

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...threat assessment standards. (e) Comparability of Other Security Threat Assessment...TWIC applicants. (1) In making a comparability determination, TSA will consider...credential. (2) To apply for a comparability determination, the agency...

2013-10-01

300

Stereotype Threat and Feedback Seeking in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 166 African American managers, those who were the only minority-group member in their workgroup perceived more stereotype threat. Stereotype threat was related to indirect feedback seeking and discounting of supervisors' performance feedback. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

Roberson, Loriann; Deitch, Elizabeth A.; Brief, Arthur P.; Block, Caryn J.

2003-01-01

301

Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect

This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

2012-09-01

302

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

303

In Brief: Threats to species continue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Showstack, Randy

2009-11-01

304

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

305

Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

2009-03-20

306

Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat.  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium parvum, a leading cause of persistent diarrhea in developing countries, is a major threat to the U.S. water supply. Able to infect with as few as 30 microscopic oocysts, Cryptosporidium is found in untreated surface water, as well as in swimming and wade pools, day-care centers, and hospitals. The organism can cause illnesses lasting longer than 1 to 2 weeks in previously healthy persons or indefinitely in immunocompromised patients; furthermore, in young children in developing countries, cryptosporidiosis predisposes to substantially increased diarrheal illnesses. Recent increased awareness of the threat of cryptosporidiosis should improve detection in patients with diarrhea. New methods such as those using polymerase chain reaction may help with detection of Cryptosporidium in water supplies or in asymptomatic carriers. Although treatment is very limited, new approaches that may reduce secretion or enhance repair of the damaged intestinal mucosa are under study. PMID:9126444

Guerrant, R. L.

1997-01-01

307

Climate change and global infectious disease threats.  

PubMed

The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health. PMID:8538543

Jackson, E K

308

Identifying Keystone Threats to Biological Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human beings have become the dominant force for environmental change and the task of conservation planning is to counter those\\u000a changes most threatening biodiversity by identifying key areas providing resiliency and refuge. Landscape-scale conservation\\u000a planners need to dissect those ‘threats’ (human activities that have driven ecological processes beyond the range of natural\\u000a variability) to understand exactly what anthropogenic activities are

Robert F. Baldwin

309

Semantic Analysis for Monitoring Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malicious insiders' difficult-to-detect activities pose serious threats to the intelligence community (IC) when these activities go undetected. A novel approach that integrates the results of social network analysis, role-based access monitoring, and semantic analysis of insiders' communications as evidence for evaluation by a risk assessor is being tested on an IC simulation. A semantic analysis, by our proven Natural Language

Svetlana Symonenko; Elizabeth D. Liddy; Ozgur Yilmazel; Robert Del Zoppo; Eric Brown; Matt Downey

2004-01-01

310

Insider Threat and Information Security Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion\\u000a and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions\\u000a and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security\\u000a management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus

Lizzie Coles-Kemp; Marianthi Theoharidou

2010-01-01

311

Reassessing the earthquake threat to San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. New research suggests that authorities may need to reassess the threat posed by the Hayward fault, the fault responsible for San Francisco's highly destructive 1868 earthquake. The authors used a large shaking vehicle to send vibrations into the ground along a 1.6 kilometer portion of the Hayward fault and used the recorded vibrations reflected back from the fault to develop a profile of its shape and location. Findings are described.

Al., Williams E.; Agu

312

Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

1985-01-01

313

Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

2001-03-01

314

Bot armies as threats to network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2007-04-01

315

SARS: An Emerging Global Microbial Threat.  

PubMed Central

In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance, the development of rapid diagnostics, new therapies, and vaccines, implementation of aggressive evidence-based infection control strategies, and effective communication. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:17060979

Hughes, James M.

2004-01-01

316

How robust is human gait to muscle weakness? Marjolein M. van der Krogt a,b,  

E-print Network

. Disuse, aging, and disease can lead to a loss of muscle strength, which may limit the performance movements requiring agility, timing, and strength. Disuse, aging, and disease can lead to a loss of muscleHow robust is human gait to muscle weakness?§ Marjolein M. van der Krogt a,b, *, Scott L. Delp c

Delp, Scott

317

Experimental test of error-disturbance uncertainty relations by weak measurement.  

PubMed

We experimentally test the error-disturbance uncertainty relation (EDR) in generalized, strength-variable measurement of a single photon polarization qubit, making use of weak measurement that keeps the initial signal state practically unchanged. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg EDR is violated, yet the Ozawa and Branciard EDRs are valid throughout the range of our measurement strength. PMID:24483994

Kaneda, Fumihiro; Baek, So-Young; Ozawa, Masanao; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2014-01-17

318

Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.  

PubMed

We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

2013-07-01

319

Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

2007-03-01

320

Weak deeply virtual Compton scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high-intensity neutrino beam facilities.

Psaker, A.; Melnitchouk, W.; Radyushkin, A. V.

2007-03-01

321

Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats

2005-01-01

322

78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. DATES: Effective...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-158...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. The...

2013-08-01

323

77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. DATES: Effective...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-158...and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 1012 (Pub. L....

2012-12-10

324

Physician Office Readiness for Managing Internet Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks. Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. A recent report showed an increase of over 140% percent in the number and severity of Internet security threats in the last 6 months of 2005 (1). These threats include viruses, trojans, spam, spyware, phishing, pharming,

Karim Keshavjee; Nick Pairaudeau; Alisha Bhanji

325

EVALUATION OF THREAT BY POLICE OFFICERS: INITIAL FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police officers' threat perception of static images was examined using images reflecting the range of five threat categories on which police officers are trained. Thirteen experienced officers from a police departments in the southeastern United States participated in this study. Officers rated their perceived threat level for 110 images that were presented to them on a laptop computer. Each of

Karen A. Delos Santos; Shawn C. Stafford; James L. Szalma

326

Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

327

Towards Countermeasure of Insider Threat in Network Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss countermeasure against insider threats in network security aspect. In the context of countermeasure against insider threats, there is no perimeter for access control in a network. A traditional access control process by using a firewall on a perimeter is not suitable. We show a mechanism of countermeasure against insider threats in network security for countermeasure technically and legally.

Yoshiaki Hori; Takashi Nishide; Kouichi Sakurai

2011-01-01

328

Determinants of Students' Perceptions of Conventional and Unconventional War Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on Israeli students' perceptions of two war threats: the Iranian and the Hezbollah war hazards. We examined potential determinants of these two perceived threats: individual and public resilience, sense of personal danger, subjective well-being, and denial tendency. We examined further associations between these perceived threats and biographical characteristics: gender, family income, exposure to negative events, and political

Shaul Kimhi; Yohanan Eshel

2012-01-01

329

Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

Osborne, Jason W.

2006-01-01

330

Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company X-Force Threat Insight this report The Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly is designed

331

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2012-01-01

332

Network Dynamic Risk Assessment Based on the Threat Stream Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of the dynamic risk assessment for the network based on the threat stream analysis. We analyze the general approach to do the network dynamic risk assessment. A stream based cube model is built to analyze the characteristics of the threat stream. Then combining with the research about the description and analysis of the threat effect,

Wencong Cheng; Xishan Xu; Yan Jia; Peng Zou

2008-01-01

333

49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546...Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may...United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane,...

2010-10-01

334

Corticospinal Tract Abnormalities Are Associated with Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To assess the relationship between muscle strength in multiple sclerosis (MS) and corticospinal tract (CST) abnormalities detected with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods In 47 individuals with MS, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to reconstruct the intracranial CSTs. Tract profiles depicted the variation in T2 relaxation time, magnetization transfer ratio, and DTI-derived indices (fractional anisotropy and diffusivity) as a function of normalized position along the tract. Brain parenchymal fraction was calculated as a normalized measure of brain volume. Stepwise linear regression modeling was used to determine the MRI indices most closely related to ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion strength assessed with quantitative dynamometry. Results Individuals with MS were significantly weak: average ankle strength fell 1.7 standard deviations below the age-, handedness-, and sex-corrected healthy mean. Brain parenchymal fraction was not associated with weakness. A parsimonious model that includes magnetization transfer ratio in the brainstem and MS clinical subtype explained 30% to 45% of the variance in ankle and hip strength. The model was successfully applied to scans and strength data from the same individuals at an earlier time point. Conclusion MRI abnormalities specific to the motor tract are associated with clinical dysfunction related to that tract. The relevant abnormalities are found in the brainstem, distant from the periventricular inflammatory lesions that are common in MS. This suggests that neurodegeneration, rather than primary inflammation, at least partially explains the findings. PMID:17974617

Reich, Daniel S.; Zackowski, Kathleen M.; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza M.; Smith, Seth A.; Chodkowski, BettyAnn A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2009-01-01

335

Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte.  

PubMed

Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain. PMID:25296835

Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

2014-10-01

336

Weak interactions in hot nucleon matter  

SciTech Connect

The reaction rates for electron capture, neutrino absorption, and neutrino scattering in hot asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated with two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces by use of correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and the one-quasiparticle quasi-hole response functions are calculated with a large microcanonical sample and the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Results for matter at a temperature of 10 MeV, proton fraction 0.4, and densities {rho}=(1/2),1,(3/2){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the equilibrium density of symmetric nuclear matter, are presented to illustrate the method. In general, the strength of the response is shifted to higher-energy transfers when compared with that of a noninteracting Fermi gas. The shift in the response and the weakness of effective operators as compared with the bare operators significantly reduce the cross sections for electron capture and neutrino scattering by factors of {approx}2.5-3.5. In contrast, the symmetry energy enhances the neutrino absorption reaction rate relative to the Fermi gas. However, this reaction rate is still quite small because of Pauli blocking.

Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-02-15

337

Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

2014-10-01

338

Using SWOT Analysis for Promoting the Accounting Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can be used by business educators to find the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal departmental capabilities (strengths and weaknesses). An example from accounting education is provided. (JOW)

Sawyer, Joe E.

2001-01-01

339

TRANSLATIONAL STRENGTHS AT  

E-print Network

TRANSLATIONAL STRENGTHS AT OHSU 2 0 1 3 Translational Strengths at OHSU (STINT) Conducted;2 OregOnCliniCalandTranslaTiOnalresearChinsTiTuTe ExEcutivE Summary Strengths in Translation at OHSU (STINT) In Spring of 2013, the OCTRI Office of Research Impact interviewed 51 OHSU translational

Chapman, Michael S.

340

Muscle Strength and BMI as Predictors of Major Mobility Disability in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P)  

PubMed Central

Background. Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. Methods. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which sedentary functionally limited participants (70–89 years, Short Physical Performance Battery ? 9) who were able to complete a 400-m walk test at baseline were randomized to a physical activity or health education intervention and reassessed for major mobility disability every 6 months for up to 18 months. We evaluated whether baseline grip strength and BMI predicted failure to complete the 400-m walk test in 15 minutes or less (major mobility disability). Results. Among N = 406 participants with baseline measures, lower grip strength was associated with an increased risk for developing major mobility disability, with and without covariate adjustment (p < .01): The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus high sex-specific quartile of grip strength was 6.11 (2.24–16.66). We observed a U-shaped relationship between baseline BMI and the risk of developing major mobility disability, such that the risk for participants with a BMI of 25–29 kg/m2 was approximately half that of participants with BMI less than 25 or 30 kg/m2 or more (p = .04 in fully adjusted analyses). Conclusions. Our data highlight the importance of muscle weakness, low BMI, and obesity as risk factors for major mobility disability in older adults. Being overweight may be protective for major mobility disability. PMID:21975090

Rejeski, W. Jack; Espeland, Mark A.; Miller, Michael E.; Church, Timothy S.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

2011-01-01

341

Self-consistent Mean Field theory in weakly ionized media  

E-print Network

We present a self-consistent mean field theory of the dynamo in 3D and turbulent diffusion in 2D in weakly ionized gas. We find that in 3D, the backreaction does not alter the beta effect while it suppresses the alpha effect when the strength of a mean magnetic field exceeds a critical value. These results suggest that a mean field dynamo operates much more efficiently in weakly ionized gas compared to the fully ionized gas. Furthermore, we show that in 2D, the turbulent diffusion is suppressed by back reaction when a mean magnetic field reaches the same critical strength, with the upper bound on turbulent diffusion given by its kinematic value. Astrophysical implications are discussed.

Nicolas Leprovost; Eun-Jin Kim

2007-10-10

342

On the Ultimate Strength of Condensed Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This and an accompanying paper track a range of thresholds for the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient state to the point at which the material bond strength is overcome and it becomes warm dense matter. The threshold considered here is the weak shock limit that differentiates weak- from strong shock dynamic loading. This work examines this threshold and shows a correlation with the theoretical strength of the material. The structure of the shock that evolves has steady and unsteady phases that sweep different regions in a target in differing manners. This is put in context with scale to show it as a transit to a hydrodynamic regime. Limits on the applicability of solid mechanics are discussed in relation to the mechanisms observed.

Bourne, Neil K.

2014-07-01

343

Cosmology with weak lensing surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also provide valuable cosmological information. Finally, we consider the prospects for joint analysis with other probes, such as (1) the CMB to probe background cosmology (2) galaxy surveys to probe large-scale bias and (3) Sunyaev Zeldovich surveys to study small-scale baryonic physics, and consider the lensing effect on cosmological supernova observations.

Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Heavens, Alan

2008-06-01

344

Self-Consistent Mean Field Theory in Weakly Ionized Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a self-consistent mean field theory of the dynamo in 3D and turbulent diffusion in 2D in weakly ionized gas. We find that in 3D, the backreaction does not alter the beta effect while it suppresses the alpha effect when the strength of a mean magnetic field exceeds the critical value Bc ˜&surd;nu_in taun \\/R_m. Here, nu_in, tau_n, and

Nicolas Leprovost; Eun-Jin Kim

2003-01-01

345

Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

2014-01-01

346

Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength  

PubMed Central

Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles during intrinsic foot muscle strength testing. PMID:23181771

2012-01-01

347

Weakness  

MedlinePLUS

... by a slipped disk in the spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) ...

348

Acoustic and optical multi-sensor threat detection system for border patrol against aerial threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia has borders covering over 4,300 km that are shared with seven countries. Such large borders pose many challenges for security and patrol. Thermal imagers are considered the most reliable means of threat detection, however, they are quite costly, which can prevent using them over large areas. This work discusses a multi-sensor acoustic and optical implementation for threat detection as an effort to reduce system cost. The acoustic sensor provides position and direction recognition by using a four microphone setup. The data analysis of field tests will be discussed in this work.

Alsawadi, Motasem S.; Ismail, Ahmad; Al-Azem, Badeea F.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Alghamdi, Sultan; Alghamdi, Mansour

2012-10-01

349

A concise colorimetric and fluorimetric probe for sarin related threats designed via the "covalent-assembly" approach.  

PubMed

A turn-on signal from zero background allows sensitive detection of a weak signal and is highly desired. The "covalent-assembly" probe design principle is powerful in this regard. Herein, we report an embodiment of this principle (NA570) for detection of Sarin related threats, based on a phenylogous Vilsmeier-Haack reaction. NA570 bears a concise molecular construct, exhibits a colorimetric and a fluorimetric signal, and has potential for real applications. PMID:24766398

Lei, Zuhai; Yang, Youjun

2014-05-01

350

The threat of nuclear war: Some responses  

PubMed Central

The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

1986-01-01

351

Monitoring Technologies for Mitigating Insider Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we propose a design for an insider threat detection system that combines an array of complementary techniques\\u000a that aims to detect evasive adversaries. We are motivated by real world incidents and our experience with building isolated\\u000a detectors: such standalone mechanisms are often easily identified and avoided by malefactors. Our work-in-progress combines\\u000a host-based user-event monitoring sensors with trap-based

Brian M. Bowen; Malek Ben Salem; Angelos D. Keromytis; Salvatore J. Stolfo

352

Do stereotype threats affect peer providers?  

PubMed

Mental health organizations are increasingly employing peers, but not without set-backs. This brief commentary explores the possible adverse impact of stereotype threats on the performance of peer providers. A review of social psychology literature would suggest that at least some of these set-backs emerge from the peer's apprehension about fulfilling some of the negative stereotypes that exist about people with mental illnesses. Additional training and supervision are indicated for both peer and non-peer staff members in order to reduce the salience of negative stereotypes in the workplace. PMID:23824288

Oh, Hans

2014-09-01

353

A generalized SSI reliability model considering stochastic loading and strength aging degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized stress-strength interference (SSI) reliability model to consider stochastic loading and strength aging degradation is presented in this paper. This model conforms to previous models for special cases, but also demonstrates the weakness of those models when multiple stochastic elements exist. It can be used for any nonhomogeneous Poisson loading process, and any kind of strength aging degradation model.

Wei Huang; Ronald G. Askin

2004-01-01

354

Weak-Chaos Ratchet Accelerator  

E-print Network

Classical Hamiltonian systems with a mixed phase space and some asymmetry may exhibit chaotic ratchet effects. The most significant such effect is a directed momentum current or acceleration. In known model systems, this effect may arise only for sufficiently strong chaos. In this paper, a Hamiltonian ratchet accelerator is introduced, featuring a momentum current for arbitrarily weak chaos. The system is a realistic, generalized kicked rotor and is exactly solvable to some extent, leading to analytical expressions for the momentum current. While this current arises also for relatively strong chaos, the maximal current is shown to occur, at least in one case, precisely in a limit of arbitrarily weak chaos.

Itzhack Dana; Vladislav B. Roitberg

2012-05-28

355

Cosmology and the weak interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

Schramm, David N.

1989-01-01

356

The dimensional structure of people's fears, threats, and concerns and their relationship with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation.  

PubMed

Most theories addressing the topic have proposed that threat and fear underlie right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and many empirical findings have been consistent with this proposition. Important questions, however, remain unanswered, such as whether RWA is associated with fear and threat in general or only specific kinds of fear and threat. Theories of RWA generate markedly different predictions on this issue, particularly with respect to social or personal fears, and whether the association would also hold for the closely related construct of social dominance orientation (SDO). We investigated the issue by asking 463 undergraduate students to rate their feelings of fear, concern, and anxiety to a comprehensive 93-item list of potential fears and threats, which were formulated as either personal or social. Exploratory factors analysis identified five distinct fear-threat factors: harm to self, child, or country; personal and relationship failures; environmental and economic fears; political and personal uncertainties; and threats to ingroup. All the fear-threat factors were correlated with RWA, with the strongest correlations being for threats to ingroup, and with stronger effects for social than for personal fears. None of the fear factors correlated with SDO. These relationships were not affected by controlling for social desirability or emotional stability (EMS). When the intercorrelations between fear factors and EMS were controlled using ridge regression, only threats to ingroup predicted RWA. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a model in which low levels of EMS had a significant path to threats to ingroup, which in turn had a significant path to RWA, and EMS having a significant though weak indirect (fully mediated) inverse effect on RWA. Implications of these findings for theories of authoritarianism and future research are discussed. PMID:23390968

Shaffer, Barbara; Duckitt, John

2013-01-01

357

Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.  

PubMed

Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects. PMID:25181298

MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; Wit, Cynthia A de; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

2014-10-01

358

Initial perspectives on process threat management.  

PubMed

Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this "inside the gate" response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study. PMID:15518979

Whiteley, James R Rob; Mannan, M Sam

2004-11-11

359

Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation  

SciTech Connect

The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation: the first is the five states with declared weapons and doctrine-the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China; the second includes a less visible group that developed a covert capability, without testing weapons or declaring a doctrine of deterrence-for example, Israel, India, and probably Pakistan; and, a third wave of would-be proliferators includes radical states like Iraq, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. Spector's political approach is based on the common interest of wave one and two states to prevent further proliferation. Political-economic incentives have already worked in the cases of Brazil, Argentina, Taiwan, and South Africa-states which appear to have abandoned their nuclear weapons programs. Spector does not rule out the option of military force. Force, especially under international sanctions, can be a powerful tool to back diplomatic efforts. Use of force, however, remains a last resort.

Spector, L.S.

1992-03-12

360

From strength to strength: "inner strength" with immature ego states.  

PubMed

The ego-strengthening literature concentrates on the use of hypnotic techniques with the entire or total personality. Ego-state therapy conceptualizes the ego as a system of subpersonalities or ego states that have shifting energies. At any particular time the ego state with the most energy is dominant or executive. Any technique that can be used with an individual patient can also be used with an identified ego state. The "inner-strength" hypnotic technique has been used for ego strengthening and mobilization of inner resources. In this paper the "inner-strength" technique is used with ego states that have been identified as responsible for specific symptoms. We will discuss indications for the appropriate use of this technique in ego-state therapy and the mechanisms of its role in the resolution of symptoms in the cases presented. PMID:8480668

Frederick, C; McNeal, S

1993-04-01

361

A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

2013-01-01

362

Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet - network security threats and vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer networks and computer systems are experiencing attacks and threats from many areas. Threats are also extended to include the individual user's computer assets and resources. Information will be presented on the categories of security and privacy threats, integrity threats, vulnerabilities, delay and denial threats, and intellectual property threats that are being directed towards corporate, educational, governmental, and individual assets.

Robert C. Newman

2006-01-01

363

Weak lensing and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance- redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq. deg. down to a limiting magnitude of R = 27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy.

Huterer, Dragan

364

Hierarchic Superposition With Weak Abstraction  

E-print Network

Hierarchic Superposition With Weak Abstraction Peter Baumgartner Uwe Waldmann MPI­I­2013­RG1­002 June 2013 #12;Authors' Addresses Peter Baumgartner NICTA and Australian National University Tower A, 7 London Circuit Canberra ACT 2601, Australia Uwe Waldmann Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Informatik Campus E 1 4

Waldmann, Uwe

365

Strength functions for fragmented doorway states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling a strongly excited "doorway state" to weak "hallway states" distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the indefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of "parametric continuation" is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continuous function.

MacDonald, William M.

1980-04-01

366

Strength functions for fragmented doorway states  

SciTech Connect

Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function.

MacDonald, W.M.

1980-04-01

367

Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term

Debin Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; L. Jean Camp

2009-01-01

368

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. PMID:23198980

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

2013-01-01

369

Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang

2013-03-01

370

Post-selected weak measurement beyond the weak value  

E-print Network

Closed expressions are derived for the quantum measurement statistics of pre-and postselected gaussian particle beams. The weakness of the pre-selection step is shown to compete with the non-orthogonality of post-selection in a transparent way. The approach is shown to be useful in analyzing post-selection-based signal amplification, allowing measurements to be extended far beyond the range of validity of the well-known Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman limit.

Tamas Geszti

2009-09-11

371

Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

372

Authoritarianism and religious identification: Response to threats on religious beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study illustrates the impact of threat and authoritarianism on individuals and their respective belief systems within a Christian framework. Participants completed Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale, the Religious Fundamentalism Scale, the Questions and Doubts about Religion Scale, and the Behavioral and Faith Scale. Participants also read a threat- or non-threat-inducing article concerning the crisis of the Catholic Church.

Barbara A. Shaffer; Brad M. Hastings

2007-01-01

373

New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an\\u000aorganization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an\\u000aalarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop,\\u000asmart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G\\u000aconnectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications\\u000aare made available over the Internet. Insider threats

Sugata Sanyal; Ajit Shelat; Amit Gupta

2010-01-01

374

Gender, Threat\\/Control-Override Delusions and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study brings together the threat\\/control-override perspective and the literature on gender and stress coping to argue that gender moderates the association between threat delusions and violence. We suggest that men are more likely than women to respond to stressors such as threat delusions with violence. We test these ideas using data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, a

Brent Teasdale; Eric Silver; John Monahan

2006-01-01

375

PERCEIVED THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FACING US-BASED TRAVEL AGENCIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews with 19 owners of financially successful US-based travel agencies were conducted during early 2006 to identify major perceived threats and opportunities for the sector. The main threat was unfavourable public perceptions of conventional travel agencies. Sub-themes focused on public gravitation to cybermediaries, the proliferation of unqualified pseudo-agents, and negatively biased mass media. Other threats were unfavourable relations with

David B. Weaver; Laura J. Lawton

376

The limits of strength in materials in the condensed phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a range of thresholds in loading for the response of condensed phase matter, starting with inelastic deformation at the yield stress. Beyond this point compression continues until the material bond strength is overcome and becomes so-called warm dense matter. In this regime formulations of solid mechanics derived in the ambient state no longer apply. Between these two limits lies a boundary that differentiates weak- from strong-shock dynamic loading. This work examines these thresholds and shows a correlation between the theoretical strength of the material and this weak shock limit for a range of metals.

Bourne, N. K.

2014-05-01

377

Mission configurable threat detection sensor suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes work that has been undertaken at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) to integrate a number of electro-optics sensors into a modular mission configurable threat detection sensor suite (TDSS) demonstrator. The sensor suite is based on a series of plug and play detection heads networked together in the same fashion as a computer network. The architecture allows optimization of the detection capabilities according to a mission requirement. The TDSS demonstrator was developed to study different sensor configuration in order to establish the requirements to improve the protection of the military platforms. It is a good example showing how networking can help in adapting military systems to specific requirements. The paper gives an up to date description of the TDSS demonstrator. To our knowledge, it is the first time that this approach is used in the field of military detection sensors.

Fortin, Jean; Cantin, Andre; Dubois, Jacques; Trudel, Carol

2000-12-01

378

Females that experience threat are better teachers.  

PubMed

Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

2014-05-01

379

Marburg and Ebola viruses as aerosol threats.  

PubMed

Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the genus Filovirus in the family Filoviridae. There has been considerable media attention and fear generated by outbreaks of filoviruses because they can cause a severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome that has a rapid onset and high mortality. Although they are not naturally transmitted by aerosol, they are highly infectious as respirable particles under laboratory conditions. For these and other reasons, filoviruses are classified as category A biological weapons. However, there is very little data from animal studies with aerosolized filoviruses. Animal models of filovirus exposure are not well characterized, and there are discrepancies between these models and what has been observed in human outbreaks. Building on published results from aerosol studies, as well as a review of the history, epidemiology, and disease course of naturally occurring outbreaks, we offer an aerobiologist's perspective on the threat posed by aerosolized filoviruses. PMID:15588056

Leffel, Elizabeth K; Reed, Douglas S

2004-01-01

380

Threats from space: 20 years of progress  

E-print Network

It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

Remo, J L

2014-01-01

381

Bioterrorism as a public health threat.  

PubMed Central

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern--smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use. PMID:9716981

Henderson, D. A.

1998-01-01

382

Biological terrorism. Preparing to meet the threat.  

PubMed

The threat of terrorists using biological warfare agents has received increased attention in recent years. Despite the hope that, with the right mix of policies, security measures, and intelligence gathering, a major biological warfare terrorist attack can be prevented, the history of conventional terrorism indicates otherwise. The greatest payoff in combating biological terrorism lies in focusing on how best to respond to a terrorist attack. The medical and emergency service communities will play the most important role in that process. Ensuring that they are trained to recognize the symptoms of diseases caused by biological warfare agents and have Critical Incident Stress Debriefing teams available to help them cope with the emotional aspects of treating exposed survivors should be part of contingency planning. By improving our readiness to respond to biological terrorism, many lives can be saved and terrorists denied their goal of creating panic and crisis throughout the country. PMID:9244336

Simon, J D

1997-08-01

383

Biological threat characterization research: a critical component of national biodefense.  

PubMed

Biological warfare (BW) threat assessments identify and prioritize BW threats to civilian and military populations. In an ideal world, they provide policymakers with clear and compelling guidance to prioritize biodefense research, development, testing, evaluation, and acquisition of countermeasures. Unfortunately, the biodefense community does not exist in an ideal world. National security professionals responsible for crafting BW threat assessments often are challenged by factors that limit the clarity and/or timeliness of those assessments. Moreover, the potential for life science advances to enhance threats enabled by state programs and the possibility that non-state actors may pursue crude but effective BW methodologies will drastically expand the scope of the perceived threat. Appropriate investment of federal biodefense funds will require some mechanism for validating and prioritizing present and future threats. Ideally, such a mechanism will incorporate empirical data targeted to elucidate actual hazards. In this regard, the Department of Homeland Security's creation of a Biological Threat Characterization Program for the technical validation of threat agents will be a valuable addition to the nation's overall biodefense strategy. This article articulates the need for a coordinated national biological threat characterization program, discusses some of the principal challenges associated with such research, and suggests a few options for their resolution. PMID:16366839

Petro, James B; Carus, W Seth

2005-01-01

384

Die Auswirkungen von Stereotype Threat auf die Leseleistung im Volksschulalter.  

E-print Network

??In dieser Arbeit wurden mögliche Auswirkungen von Stereotype Threat auf die Leseleistung von Volksschulkindern der ersten und dritten Schulstufe untersucht. Aus der bisherigen Forschungsliteratur ist… (more)

Breitenfeld, Simone

2012-01-01

385

Culture, distance, and threat perception: comment on Stamps (2011).  

PubMed

Stamps found that the effects of visual cues on the perception of threat decrease with distance, even when the range of distance is extended to 45 m. The present comment suggests that the findings Stamps obtained in a Western culture may not hold in other cultures. The robustness of these findings might be improved by using real targets at actual physical distances and "necessarily high" threats. Further studies are needed to examine whether other dimensions of psychological distance have the same effect on threat perception as does spatial distance. There is also a need to examine whether perceived threats have a significant effect on the perception of spatial distance. PMID:23409589

Su, Yin; Zheng, Yu; Li, Shu

2012-12-01

386

Age and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Smedley hand dynamometer, muscular strength of 552 male industrial manual workers was measured. Results indicate that muscular strength shows an increase to the late twenties and a decline at an increasing rate from that age upward. Explanations of the findings, and the results of previous similar studies are given. 18 references.

M. Bruce Fisher; James E. Birren

1947-01-01

387

HP's International Cryptography Framework: Compromise or Threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hewlett-Packard (HP) has developed the International Cryptography Framework (ICF), the strongest encryption system approved for export by the US government to date. The hardware-software system provides various levels of encryption strength, depending on government regulations in the USA and importing countries. In some cases, ICF will allow US manufacturers to export stronger encryption products than regulations have permitted in the

Sara Reese Hedberg

1997-01-01

388

Weak Coupling in 143Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-spin states of 143Nd have been studied in the 130Te(18O, 5n)143Nd reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV using techniques of in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of ? - ? - t coincidences, ?-ray angular distributions, and ?-ray linear polarizations were performed. A level scheme of 143Nd with spin and parity assignments up to 53/2+ is proposed. While a weak coupling model can explain the level structure up to the J?=39/2- state, this model can not reproduce the higher-lying states. Additionally, a new low-lying non-yrast level sequence in 143Nd was observed in the present work, which can be well described by the weak coupling of an i13/2 neutron to the 142Nd core nucleus.

Zhou, Xiao-Hong; E, Ideguchi; T, Kishida; M, Ishihara; H, Tsuchida; Y, Gono; T, Morikawa; M, Shibata; H, Watanabe; M, Miyake; T, Tsutsumi; S, Motomura; S, Mitarai

2000-04-01

389

Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience besides others play a role. An attempt to quantify this variable under high uncertainty is also presented. Quantifying ET is based on a GIS modelling using a Cost Weighted Distance approach. Basic principle is to define the best evacuation path from a given point to the next safe area (shelter location). Here the fastest path from that point to the shelter location has to be found. Thereby the impact of land cover, slope, population density, population age and gender distribution are taken into account as literature studies prove these factors as highly important. Knowing the fastest path and the distance to the next safe area together with a spatially distributed pattern of evacuation speed delivers the time needed from each location to a safe area. By considering now the obtained time value for RsT the coverage area of an evacuation target point (safe area) can be assigned. Incorporating knowledge on people capacity of an evacuation target point the respective coverage area is refined. Hence areas with weak, moderate and good human response capabilities can be detected. This allows calculation of potential amount of people affected (dead or injured) and amount of people dislocated. First results for Kuta (Bali) for a worst case tsunami event deliver people affected of approx. 25 000 when RT = 0 minutes (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning to 120 000 when RT > ETA (no evacuation action until tsunami hits the land). Additionally fastest evacuation routes to the evacuation target points can be assigned. Areas with weak response capabilities can be assigned as priority areas to install e.g. additional evacuation target points or to increase tsunami knowledge and awareness to promote a faster reaction time. Especially in analyzing underlying socio-economic properties causing deficiencies in responding to a tsunami threat can lead to valuable information and direct planning of adaptation measures. Keywords: Community level, Risk and vulnerability assessment, Early warning, Disaster management, Tsunami, Indonesia

Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

2009-04-01

390

Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men  

PubMed Central

We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

2011-01-01

391

A Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic  

E-print Network

In this paper we motivate and study the possibility of an intuitionistic quantum logic. An explicit investigation of the application of the theory of Bruns and Lakser on distributive hulls on traditional quantum logic (as suggested in [Coe]) leads us to a small modification of this scheme. In this way we obtain a weak Heyting algebra (cf. [CJ]) for describing the language of quantum mechanics.

Ronnie Hermens

2010-09-13

392

Weak measurement of arrival time  

SciTech Connect

The arrival time probability distribution is defined by analogy with classical mechanics. The difficulty of requiring knowledge of the values of noncommuting operators is circumvented using the concept of weak measurements. The proposed procedure is suitable for free particles as well as for those subjected to an external potential. It is shown that such an approach imposes an inherent limitation on the accuracy of the arrival time determination.

Ruseckas, J.; Kaulakys, B. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, A. Gostauto 12, 2600 Vilnius (Lithuania)

2002-11-01

393

Quark mixing in weak interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the quark mixing in weak interaction is reviewed. The 3×3 quark mixing matrix for the three left-handed doublet model is analyzed using various experimental information involving strange, charmed, and b-flavored particles. Its interplay with nonleptonic decays, implication on neutral particle-antiparticle mixing and CP violation in heavy quark systems, and the possible origin of the quark mixing from

Ling-Lie Chau

1983-01-01

394

The Weak Scale from BBN  

E-print Network

The measured values of the weak scale, $v$, and the first generation masses, $m_{u,d,e}$, are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of $(m_u,m_d,m_e,v)$, catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of $(1.4,1.3,2.5,\\sim5)$, respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as $v$ is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of $m_{u,d,e}$ that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability. For very large values of $v$ a new regime is entered where weak in...

Hall, Lawrence J; Ruderman, Joshua T

2014-01-01

395

Assessing fear and anxiety in humans using the threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events (the NPU-threat test)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events was developed to assess short-duration (fear) and long-duration (anxiety) aversive states in humans. A typical experiment consists of three conditions: a safe condition (neutral (N)), during which participants are safe from aversive stimuli, and two threat conditions—one in which aversive events are administered predictably (P) (i.e., signaled by a threat cue), and

Christian Grillon; Anja Schmitz

2012-01-01

396

Induced tolerance expressed as relaxed behavioural threat response in millimetre-sized aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals responded with immediate downward swimming to UVR exposure, but when released from the threat they rapidly returned to the surface. Large individuals swam faster and generally travelled longer distances than small individuals. Interestingly, individuals previously exposed to UVR (during several generations) showed a more relaxed response to UVR and travelled shorter total distances than those that were naive to UVR, suggesting induced tolerance to the threat. In addition, animals previously exposed to UVR also had smaller eyes than the naive ones, whereas UVR-protective melanin pigmentation of the animals was similar between populations. Finally, we show that smaller individuals have lower capacity to avoid UVR which could explain patterns in natural systems of lower migration amplitudes in small individuals. The ability to change behavioural patterns in response to a threat, in this case UVR, adds to our understanding of how organisms navigate in the 'landscape of fear', and this has important implications for individual fitness and for interaction strengths in biotic interactions. PMID:24966309

Hylander, Samuel; Ekvall, Mikael T; Bianco, Giuseppe; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders

2014-08-01

397

Weak Interactions ,Tunneling Racemization and Chiral Stability  

E-print Network

We study in the framework of the Schrodinger equation the effect of intermolecular interactions on the tunneling racemization of the active molecule. The active molecule is assumed as a two-level system and the left-right isomerism is viewed in terms of a double-bottomed harmonic potential well. The active molecule is assumed to be embedded in a gas, liquid or solid, submitted to a perturbing potential U created by the molecules of the sample. In our model we take into account the difference of energy E due to the weak interactions between the left (L) and right (R) configurations. We have shown that when E is equal to zero the system cannot be optically stable: the optical activity tends asymptotically to zero in the case of dilute gases or compressed gases and liquids or oscillates periodically around zero when the molecules are isolated or submitted to a static potential. Only when E is different of zero the system can be optically stable depending on the strength parameters of the potential U and on the magnitude of the spontaneous tunneling.

M. Cattani; J. M. F. Bassalo

2009-10-21

398

Weak Interactions ,Tunneling Racemization and Chiral Stability  

E-print Network

We study in the framework of the Schrodinger equation the effect of intermolecular interactions on the tunneling racemization of the active molecule. The active molecule is assumed as a two-level system and the left-right isomerism is viewed in terms of a double-bottomed harmonic potential well. The active molecule is assumed to be embedded in a gas, liquid or solid, submitted to a perturbing potential U created by the molecules of the sample. In our model we take into account the difference of energy E due to the weak interactions between the left (L) and right (R) configurations. We have shown that when E is equal to zero the system cannot be optically stable: the optical activity tends asymptotically to zero in the case of dilute gases or compressed gases and liquids or oscillates periodically around zero when the molecules are isolated or submitted to a static potential. Only when E is different of zero the system can be optically stable depending on the strength parameters of the potential U and on the m...

Cattani, M

2009-01-01

399

The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

400

The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

Kenneth Geers

2009-01-01

401

Lack of Stereotype Threat at a Liberal Arts College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat has been demonstrated to reduce the performance of stereotyped individuals in the threatened domain (Steele & Aronson, 1995). This study attempted to replicate the finding that stereotype threat instruction can erase the performance deficit women experience in math performance (Johns, Schmader, & Martens, 2005) and to further…

Rivardo, Mark G.; Rhodes, Michael E.; Klein, Brandi

2008-01-01

402

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

2002

403

Sampling-Based Threat Assessment Algorithms for Intersection Collisions  

E-print Network

Sampling-Based Threat Assessment Algorithms for Intersection Collisions Involving Errant Drivers demonstrate that this threat assessment algorithm can be used in real-time to minimize the risk of collision of human-driven ground transportation systems. Negotiating a traffic inter- section safely is one

How, Jonathan P.

404

Gender Identification Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on Women's Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender

Toni Schmader

2002-01-01

405

Threat, reward and explanatory arguments: generation and evaluation  

E-print Network

Threat, reward and explanatory arguments: generation and evaluation Leila Amgoud1 and Henri Prade 2 frameworks have then been proposed for gen- erating and evaluating such arguments. However, recent works on argumentation-based negotiation have emphasized different other types of arguments such as threats, rewards

Grasso, Floriana

406

Climate change as the ‘new’ security threat: implications for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once it was an environmental issue, then an energy problem, now climate change is being recast as a security threat. So far, the debate has focused on creating a security ‘hook’, illustrated by anecdote, to invest climate negotiations with a greater sense of urgency. Political momentum behind the idea of climate change as a security threat has progressed quickly, even

OLI BROWN; ANNE HAMMILL; ROBERT MCLEMAN

2007-01-01

407

University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure  

E-print Network

University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure Updated August 2004 Individual receiving call will take the following steps: Remain calm and complete the attached Bomb Threat Report. Keep by the person. If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation, ask

Li, X. Rong

408

The Chikungunya threat: an ecological and evolutionary perspective  

E-print Network

The Chikungunya threat: an ecological and evolutionary perspective Christine Chevillon1 , Laurence), Institut de Biologie, 4 Boulevard Henri IV, F-34905 Montpellier CEDEX 2, France Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are likely to help delineate the potential of further CHIKV (re-)emergence. Chikungunya: an overlooked threat

409

The optimization of situational awareness for insider threat detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, organizations ranging from defense and other government institutions to commercial enterprises, research labs, etc., have witnessed an increasing amount of sophisticated insider attacks that manage to bypass existing security controls. Insider threats are staged by either disgruntled employees, or employees engaged in malicious activities such as industrial espionage. The objectives of such threats range from sabotage, e.g.,

Kenneth Brancik; Gabriel Ghinita

2011-01-01

410

Maritime Threat Detection Using Probabilistic Graphical Models Bryan Auslander1  

E-print Network

Maritime Threat Detection Using Probabilistic Graphical Models Bryan Auslander1 , Kalyan Moy Gupta1.lastname@knexusresearch.com | david.aha@nrl.navy.mil Abstract Maritime threat detection is a challenging problem because maritime environments can involve a complex combination of concurrent vessel activities, and only a small fraction

Gupta, Kalyan Moy

411

Threat Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia affect many aspects of emotion processing. Even though the ability to detect threat is a particularly important aspect of emotion processing, no study to date has assessed threat perception in either of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to test whether individuals with MCI (n = 38) and mild dementia (n

Julie D. Henry; Claire Thompson; Ted Ruffman; Felicity Leslie; Adrienne Withall; Perminder Sachdev; Henry Brodaty

2009-01-01

412

An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance.  

PubMed

Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students, we investigated stereotype threat effects during childhood and adolescence. Three activation methods were used, ranging from implicit to explicit. Across studies, we found no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat. In 2 of the studies, there were gender differences on the mathematics assessment regardless of whether stereotype threat was activated. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed, including the possibility that stereotype threat effects only occur in very specific circumstances or that they are in fact occurring all the time. We also address the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias. PMID:23356523

Ganley, Colleen M; Mingle, Leigh A; Ryan, Allison M; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

2013-10-01

413

Identifying and Visualizing the Malicious Insider Threat Using Bipartite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies and organizations are just beginning to harness the powerful capabilities of visualization to aid in the prevention, detection, and mitigation of security threats. Most advances in this area have focused on protecting an agency or organization from malicious outsiders. While not a new threat, the malicious insider has recently earned increased focus. This paper investigates methods of classifying

Kara Nance; Raffael Marty

2011-01-01

414

A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of

Mohammed M. Olama; Glenn O. Allgood; Kristen M. Davenport; Jack C. Schryver

2010-01-01

415

Assessing the Jihadist Terrorist Threat to America and American Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al Qaeda and allied groups continue to pose a threat to the United States. Although it is less severe than the catastrophic proportions of a 9\\/11-like attack, the threat today is more complex and more diverse than at any time over the past nine years. Al Qaeda or its allies continue to have the capacity to kill dozens, or even

Peter Bergen; Bruce Hoffman; Katherine Tiedemann

2011-01-01

416

University of Texas countermeasures to biological and chemical threats program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the continental US and the international scene have alerted the defense community to the threat of biological and chemical agents on civilian and military populations. The objective of the program will lead to the protection of US and allied forces from biological\\/chemical threats. The following focus areas are being developed and integrated in our program: (1) scientific validation;

Steve E. Kornguth

2002-01-01

417

Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

418

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems  

E-print Network

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems Patrick Stahlberg, Gerome Miklau of data stored in database systems. This data can be recovered by forensic analysis, and it poses a threat to forensic analysis. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.4 [Systems]: Relational Databases; H.2

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

419

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

420

Predicting and Preventing Insider Threat in Relational Database Systems  

E-print Network

Predicting and Preventing Insider Threat in Relational Database Systems Qussai Yaseen and Brajendra Panda Dept. of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA. {qyaseen,bpanda}@uark.edu Abstract. This paper investigates the problem of insider threat in re- lational

Boyer, Edmond

421

A Scalable Architecture for Countering Network-Centric Insider Threats  

E-print Network

A Scalable Architecture for Countering Network-Centric Insider Threats Faisal M. Sibai Volgenau. Menasc´e Dept. of Computer Science, MS 4A5, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030, USA Email: menasce@gmu.edu Abstract--Dealing with the insider threat in networked en- vironments poses many challenges. Privileged

Menascé, Daniel A.

422

Preventative Directions For Insider Threat Mitigation Via Access Control  

E-print Network

173 Preventative Directions For Insider Threat Mitigation Via Access Control Sara Sinclair and Sean W. Smith Department of Computer Science, Dartmouth College Abstract Much research on mitigating threat posed by insiders focuses on detec- tion. In this chapter, we consider the prevention of attacks

Smith, Sean W.

423

Supervised Learning for Insider Threat Detection Using Stream Mining  

E-print Network

1 Supervised Learning for Insider Threat Detection Using Stream Mining Pallabi Parveen, Zackary R Weger, Bhavani Thuraisingham, Kevin Hamlen and Latifur Khan Department of Computer Science University of Texas at Dallas Abstract--Insider threat detection requires the identification of rare anomalies

Hamlen, Kevin W.

424

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

July 2008 IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force Threat Insight Monthly #12;Table of Contents About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 #12;About the report The IBM Internet Security SystemsTM X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly today . This report is a product of IBM Managed Security Services and IBM Internet Security Systems (ISS

425

IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force Threat Insight Monthly  

E-print Network

June 2008 IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force Threat Insight Monthly #12;Table of Contents About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 #12;About the report The IBM Internet Security SystemsTM X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly today . This report is a product of IBM Managed Security Services and IBM Internet Security Systems (ISS

426

FUTURE THREATS AYCOCK & MAURUSHAT 275VIRUS BULLETIN CONFERENCE SEPTEMBER 2007  

E-print Network

the publication of future threats. Our analysis addresses cultural, ethical and legal issues. We hope to provoke ideas and techniques to use that they might not have arrived at on their own. This poses a dilemma. Two possible ethical problems are identified. One is where a researcher knows of a threat, but does

Aycock, John

427

Aligning Technology Solutions to Address Over-the-Horizon Threats  

E-print Network

today for solutions that address the next five years and beyond. WHAT WE DO Pacific Northwest National to national and global security? What emerging threats will pose new challenges, and how can we best landscape shifts, so do threats to this nation. To confront these challenges, we must lay the groundwork

428

An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on…

Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

2008-01-01

429

Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

Simmons, Cecil Max

2010-01-01

430

49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544...Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight: Notification...information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the aircraft...

2010-10-01

431

Response of school personnel to student threat assessment training  

Microsoft Academic Search

School safety has become an important area of concern for school improvement. This study examined the effects of staff training as means of improving school responses to student threats of violence. A multidisciplinary sample of 351 staff from 2 school divisions completed pre-post training surveys as part of a 1-day training program using the Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats

Korrie Allen; Dewey Cornell; Edward Lorek; Peter Sheras

2008-01-01

432

Emerging threats: financial crime in the virtual world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight emerging threats in cyberspace, with particular reference to financial crime in the virtual world, which have real life implications, as well as to recommend ways in which the threat may be mitigated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology adopted consisted of an extensive literature review on topics to include cyber crime, virtual

Shima D. Keene

2012-01-01

433

Vision-based threat detection in dynamic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A prevailing threat is the covert placement of bombs inside crowded public facilities. Although video-surveillance systems are increasingly common, current systems cannot detect the placement of bombs. It is also unlikely that security personnel could detect a bomb or its

Jeffrey J

2007-01-01

434

The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

2012-01-01

435

Emerging viral diseases: confronting threats with new technologies.  

PubMed

Emerging viral diseases pose ongoing health threats, particularly in an era of globalization; however, new biomedical research technologies such as genome sequencing and structure-based vaccine and drug design have improved our ability to respond to viral threats. PMID:25210060

Marston, Hilary D; Folkers, Gregory K; Morens, David M; Fauci, Anthony S

2014-09-10

436

Threat as a Motivator of Political Activism: A Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here examined the effects of two potential motivators of political activism—policy change threat and policy change opportunity—in a field experiment. Dif- ferent versions of a letter were sent by a political lobbying organization to potential con- tributors. One version highlighted threats of undesirable policy changes, another version highlighted opportunities for desirable policy changes, and the third version

Joanne M. Miller; Jon A. Krosnick

2004-01-01

437

Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

2009-01-01

438

Weak Interactions in Atoms Nuclear Anapole Moment Weak Coupling Constants Nuclear Anapole Moment  

E-print Network

Weak Interactions in Atoms Nuclear Anapole Moment Weak Coupling Constants Nuclear Anapole Moment;Weak Interactions in Atoms Nuclear Anapole Moment Weak Coupling Constants Plan of the talk Weak Interactions in Atoms Charged and Neutral Currents. Effective P-odd Hamiltonian Nuclear Anapole Moment

Pines, Alexander

439

Tagged-weak {pi} method  

SciTech Connect

A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

Margaryan, A., E-mail: mat@yerphi.am [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Tang, L. [Hampton University, Department of Physics (United States)

2011-02-15

440

Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited  

SciTech Connect

The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

2012-10-15

441

Weak quasielastic production of hyperons  

SciTech Connect

The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

Singh, S. K. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh- 202002 (India); Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

2006-09-01

442

Smart Grid Insecurity: A New Generation of Threats  

E-print Network

Abstract- The critical infrastructure powering the nation is currently undergoing a massive collaborative effort to integrate modern technologies with 50 year-old assets derived from 100 year-old designs. Improving the existing electric power infrastructure with smart grid technologies compounds existing threats with new threats. Identification of next generation smart grid security threats is vital for implementing a more secure national power grid. This paper discusses security threats in the information layer of the smart grid conceptual model by mapping threats to the seven domains. This paper also discusses federal- and statelevel smart grid security initiatives. supported by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act and $4.5 from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act [7, 9]. National energy demands continue to increase requiring efficient energy production control. Electricity is currently produced in response to demands largely due to the lack of battery technology capable of storing electricity. Alternative sources of power include wind and solar generators.

Summer Olmstead; Dr. Ambareen Siraj

443

Unhealthy Interactions: The Role of Stereotype Threat in Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors. PMID:23153125

Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M.; Juarez, Lindsay

2014-01-01

444

A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

445

Growing up with the threat of nuclear war: some indirect effects on personality development  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the nuclear peril upon youngsters in middle childhood are considered, with particular emphasis on the extent to which ego strengths and weaknesses are influenced by adult behavior. It is suggested that the adult response to a pervasive danger such as the nuclear arms build-up shapes children's views of the trustworthiness of adult society and defines the limits of their growth and development.

Escalona, S.K.

1982-10-01

446

Crew Strength Training  

NASA Video Gallery

Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

447

ITAC, an insider threat assessment computer program  

SciTech Connect

The insider threat assessment computer program, ITAC, is used to evaluate the vulnerability of nuclear material processing facilities to theft of special nuclear material by one or more authorized insider adversaries. The program includes two main parts: one is used to determine the timeliness of nuclear material accounting tests for loss of special nuclear material, and the other determines pathway aggregate detection probabilities for physical protection systems and material control procedures that could detect the theft. Useful features of ITAC include its ability to (1) evaluate and quantify the timeliness of material accounting tests, (2) analyze branching systems of physical pathways and adversary strategies, (3) analyze trickle or abrupt theft situations for combinations of insiders, (4) accept input probabilities and times in the form of ranges rather than discrete points, and (5) simulate input data using Monte Carlo methods to produce statistically distributed aggregate delay times and detection probabilities. The ITAC program was developed by the Security Applications Center of Westinghouse Hanford Comapny and Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA.

Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.

1988-01-01

448

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. An overview of significant MMOD impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the RCC regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it s role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Kerr, J. H.

2008-01-01

449

Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

2007-01-01

450

Environmental degradation and environmental threats in China.  

PubMed

The article presents a review of environmental degradation and its threats in China. Air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, soil degradation, sand depositing in dams, decaying urban infrastructure, and more and more hazards such as floods, landslides and soil erosion are major consequences of environmental degradation and are making tremendous loss both in life and property. Through investigation, the author found that poor air quality in the large cities; water pollution in the downstream of many rivers; the multiple problems of many mining areas; lack of access to fresh water; decaying sewage systems; and the disastrous impact of these environmental degradations on public health and agricultural products in many provinces is rather serious. Relationship of environmental degradation and natural hazards is close; more attention should be put in environmental degradation that may surpass economy progress if the trend continues. It is therefore imperative that Chinese government undertake a series of prudent actions now that will enable to be in the best possible position when the current environmental crisis ultimately passes. PMID:15887370

Wang, Ying

2004-01-01

451

Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to ? Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. ? Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, ? Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, ? Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

2008-05-01

452

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

2007-09-01

453

On security threats for robust perceptual hashing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perceptual hashing has to deal with the constraints of robustness, accuracy and security. After modeling the process of hash extraction and the properties involved in this process, two different security threats are studied, namely the disclosure of the secret feature space and the tampering of the hash. Two different approaches for performing robust hashing are presented: Random-Based Hash (RBH) where the security is achieved using a random projection matrix and Content-Based Hash (CBH) were the security relies on the difficulty to tamper the hash. As for digital watermarking, different security setups are also devised: the Batch Hash Attack, the Group Hash Attack, the Unique Hash Attack and the Sensitivity Attack. A theoretical analysis of the information leakage in the context of Random-Based Hash is proposed. Finally, practical attacks are presented: (1) Minor Component Analysis is used to estimate the secret projection of Random-Based Hashes and (2) Salient point tampering is used to tamper the hash of Content-Based Hashes systems.

Koval, O.; Voloshynovskiy, S.; Bas, P.; Cayre, F.

2009-02-01

454

ITAC: An insider threat assessment computer program  

SciTech Connect

The insider threat assessment computer program, ITAC, is used to evaluate the vulnerability of nuclear material processing facilities to theft of special nuclear material by one or more authorized insider adversaries. The program includes two main parts: one is used to determine the timeliness of nuclear material accounting tests for loss of special nuclear material, and the other determines pathway aggregate detection probabilities for physical protection systems and material control procedures that could detect the theft. Useful features of ITAC include its ability to (1) evaluate and quantify the timeliness of material accounting tests, (2) analyze branching systems of physical pathways and adversary strategies, (3) analyze trickle or abrupt theft situations for combinations of insiders, (4) accept input probabilities and times in the form of ranges rather than discrete points, and (5) simulate input data using Monte Carlo methods to produce statistically distributed aggregate delay times and detection probabilities. The ITAC program was developed by the Security Applications Center of Westinghouse Hanford Company and Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA. 1 ref., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.

1988-06-01

455

Superluminous supernovae: no threat from eta Carinae.  

PubMed

Recently, Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of approximately 10(44) Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to eta Carinae, which resides in our own Galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. eta Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given that its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a gamma-ray burst oriented toward Earth, eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We have found that, given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over approximately 10(4) y and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae-e-ndocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous" for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, eta Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree. PMID:18199005

Thomas, Brian C; Melott, Adrian L; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

2008-02-01

456

Quantum Weak Measurements and Cosmology  

E-print Network

The indeterminism of quantum mechanics generally permits the independent specification of both an initial and a final condition on the state. Quantum pre-and-post-selection of states opens up a new, experimentally testable, sector of quantum mechanics, when combined with statistical averages of identical weak measurements. In this paper I apply the theory of weak quantum measurements combined with pre-and-post-selection to cosmology. Here, pre-selection means specifying the wave function of the universe or, in a popular semi-classical approximation, the initial quantum state of a subset of quantum fields propagating in a classical back-ground spacetime. The novel feature is post-selection: the additional specification of a condition on the quantum state in the far future. I discuss "natural" final conditions, and show how they may lead to potentially large and observable effects at the present cosmological epoch. I also discuss how pre-and-post-selected quantum contrast to the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, resolving a vigorous debate from the 1970's. The paper thus provides a framework for computing large-scale cosmological effects arising from this new sector of quantum mechanics. A simple experimental test is proposed.

Paul Davies

2013-09-03

457

Weakly Circadian Cells Improve Resynchrony  

PubMed Central

The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population. PMID:23209395

Thoroughman, Kurt A.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.

2012-01-01

458

Quantum Weak Measurements and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indeterminism of quantum mechanics generally permits the independent specification of both an initial and a final condition on the state. Quantum pre- and post-selection of states opens up a new, experimentally testable, sector of quantum mechanics, when combined with statistical averages of identical weak measurements. In this paper I apply the theory of weak quantum measurements combined with pre- and post-selection to cosmology. Here, pre-selection means specifying the wave function of the universe or, in a popular semi-classical approximation, the initial quantum state of a subset of quantum fields propagating in a classical background spacetime. The novel feature is post-selection: the additional specification of a condition on the quantum state in the far future. I discuss "natural" final conditions, and show how they may lead to potentially large and observable effects at the present cosmological epoch. I also discuss how pre- and post-selected quantum fields couple to gravity via the DeWitt-Schwinger effective action prescription, in contrast to the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, resolving a vigorous debate from the 1970s. The paper thus provides a framework for computing large-scale cosmological effects arising from this new sector of quantum mechanics. A simple experimental test is proposed. [Editors note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Davies at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-13.

Davies, P. C. W.

459

Weak lensing and cosmological investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.

Acquaviva, Viviana

2005-03-01

460

Tunable photon statistics in weakly nonlinear photonic molecules  

E-print Network

In recent studies [Liew et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 183601 (2010); Bamba et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 021802(R) (2011)], due to destructive interference between different paths for two-photon excitation, strong photon antibunching can be obtained in a photonic molecule consisting of two coupled cavity modes with weak Kerr nonlinearity when one of the cavity modes is driven resonantly. Here, we study the photon statistics in a nonlinear photonic molecule with both the two cavity modes being driven coherently. We show that the statistical properties of the photons can be controlled by regulating the coupling constant between the cavity modes, the strength ratio and the relative phase between the driving fields. The photonic molecules with two driven modes can be used to generate tunable single-photon sources or controlled photonic quantum gates with weak Kerr nonlinearity.

Xun-Wei Xu; Yong Li

2014-07-11

461

Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

2014-09-01

462

Tie Strength Distribution in Scientific Collaboration Networks  

E-print Network

Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent work have demonstrated a counter-intuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribut...

Ke, Qing

2014-01-01

463

Severe Weather and Weak Waterspout Checklist in MIDDS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this task was to migrate the functionality of the AMU web-based Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and the 45 WS Weak Waterspout Checklist to MIDDS, the operational data ingest and display system of the 45 WS. Forecasting the occurrence and timing of warm season severe weather and weak waterspouts is challenging for 45 WS operational personnel. These interactive tools assist forecasters in determining the probability of issuing severe weather watches and warnings for the day. MIDDS is able retrieve many of the needed parameter values for the worksheet automatically. The AMU was able to develop user-friendly tools in MIDDS for both of these tools using McBASI coded programs. The tools retrieve needed values from MIDDS automatically, and require the forecaster to answer a few subjective questions. Both tools were tested and previewed to the 45 WS on MIDDS. In their previous forms, the forecasters enter values into both tools manually to output a threat index. Making these tools more automatic will reduce the possibility of human error and increase efficiency.

Wheeler, Mark M.

2009-01-01

464

Development of the Evans Wave Equation in the Weak-Field Limit: The Electrogravitic Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evans wave equation [1-3] is developed in the weak-field limit to give the Poisson equation and an electrogravitic equation expressing the electric field strength E in terms of the acceleration g due to gravity and a fundamental scalar potential f(0) with the units of volts (joules per coulomb). The electrogravitic equation shows that an electric field strength can be

P. K. Anastasovski; P. Carpenter; C. Ciubotariu; W. T. Coffey; G. J. Evans; M. W. Evans; R. Flower; J. B. Hart; T. Kurata; A. Labounsky; B. Lehnert; J. K. Moscicki; S. Roy

2004-01-01

465

Central Bank Financial Strength and Policy Performance: An Econometric Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial health of central banks and its relation to policy outcomes has recently been recognized as an important policy issue. While case study evidence clearly indicates that weak central bank finances can hamper effective policy implementation, the question of whether central bank financial strength influences policy performance remains controversial. This is due, in part, to a lack of econometric

Ulrich H. Klueh; Peter Stella

2008-01-01

466

7 CFR 51.894 - Weak.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means that individual berries are somewhat...

2010-01-01

467

POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive to the academic, research and operational functions of  

E-print Network

POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive. Policy Any bomb threat or incident of a suspected explosive device shall be considered as valid by all the lives and safety of all concerned. II. Procedures A. Any person who receives a bomb threat or has

Collins, Gary S.

468

Stability in Real Food Webs: Weak Links in Long Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing evidence that the strengths of interactions among populations in biological communities form patterns that are crucial for system stability requires clarification of the precise form of these patterns, how they come about, and why they influence stability. We show that in real food webs, interaction strengths are organized in trophic loops in such a way that long loops contain relatively many weak links. We show and explain mathematically that this patterning enhances stability, because it reduces maximum ``loop weight'' and thus reduces the amount of intraspecific interaction needed for matrix stability. The patterns are brought about by biomass pyramids, a feature common to most ecosystems. Incorporation of biomass pyramids in 104 food-web descriptions reveals that the low weight of the long loops stabilizes complex food webs. Loop-weight analysis could be a useful tool for exploring the structure and organization of complex communities.

Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Heesterbeek, Johan A. P.; de Ruiter, Peter C.

2002-05-01

469

Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.  

PubMed

Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance. PMID:25036595

Turner, Martin J; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B; Coffee, Peter

2014-10-01

470

Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

2009-03-23

471

Low earth orbit identification of space asset threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low earth orbit space assets, such as communications satellites, may become the targets of threats in the form of nearby (meters away) satellites. Such threats, due to their often small size, are referred to as micro-sats. Knowledge of the pres-ence of a micro-sat near an asset, in particular its size and relative location, may prove invaluable in determining the danger that the threat presents. Few commercial satellites are launched with the on-board capability to detect the pres-ence of such threats. Complex imaging systems with adaptive optics offer the possibility of threat detection but at prohi-bitive cost for regular use. This paper introduces a non-imaging approach with considerably less expense than adaptive optics based systems. In a previous paper1 the authors presented a novel concept to distinguish between symmetric and oblong objects using a rotating far-field beam pattern. This current paper modifies the approach to consider a far-field pattern that consists of two beams, offset in angle, with one rotating about a stabilized central beam. Creation of the spilt-beams in not difficult optically and rotation may be achieved using a K-mirror. The reflected signal viewed as a time-series, will exhibit a spike when the rotating portion passes over a threat and the angular separation will determine the proximity of the threat to the asset.

Chandler, Susan M.; Lukesh, Gordon W.

2009-02-01

472

129A Lecture Notes Weak Interactions II  

E-print Network

129A Lecture Notes Weak Interactions II 1 Glashow­Weinberg­Salam Theory We have seen that the weak processes. This point strongly suggests that the weak interaction is caused by the similar mechanism, Sheldon Glashow in 1962, and later Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, tried to formulate the theory

Murayama, Hitoshi

473

Elasticity and Strength of Biomacromolecular Crystals: Lysozyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static Young modulus, E = 0.1 to 0.5 GPa, the crystal critical strength (sigma(sub c)) and its ratio to E,sigma(sub c)/E is approximately 10(exp 3), were measured for the first time for non cross-linked lysozyme crystals in solution. By using a triple point bending apparatus, we also demonstrated that the crystals were purely elastic. Softness of protein crystals built of hard macromolecules (26 GPa for lysozyme) is explained by the large size of the macromolecules as compared to the range of intermolecular forces and by the weakness of intermolecular bonds as compared to the peptide bond strength. The relatively large reported dynamic elastic moduli (approximately 8 GPa) from resonance light scattering should come from averaging over the moduli of intracrystalline water and intra- and intermolecular bonding.

Holmes, A. M.; Witherow, W. K.; Chen, L. Q.; Chernov, A. A.

2003-01-01

474

Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax-Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523-44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493-506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401-20).

Zavidovique, M.

2010-04-01

475

Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.  

PubMed Central

Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:12053717

Wenzel, Richard P.

2002-01-01

476

Facing the threat of equine influenza.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of vaccines, equine influenza virus (EIV) continues to pose a threat to the racing industry. The virus spreads rapidly in unprotected populations and large scale outbreaks, such as those in South Africa in 2003 and Australia in 2007, can cost billions of pounds. Like other influenza viruses, EIV undergoes antigenic variation, enabling it to evade antibodies generated against previous infection or vaccination. The UK has an active surveillance programme to monitor antigenic drift and participates in an international collaboration with other countries in Europe, Japan and the USA to select suitable vaccine strains. Selection is primarily based upon characterisation of the viral haemagglutinin (HA), the surface protein that induces a protective antibody response; this protein is an important component of commercial vaccines. In recent years vaccine technology has improved and diagnostic methods have become increasingly sensitive, both play a crucial part in facilitating the international movement of horses. Mathematical modelling techniques have been applied to study the risk factors involved in outbreaks and provide valuable information about the impact of vaccination. Other factors, such as pathogenicity, are poorly understood for EIV yet may play an important role in the spread of a particular virus. They may also affect the ability of the virus to cross the species barrier, as seen with the transfer to dogs in the USA. Severity of infection is likely to be influenced by more than one gene, but differences in the NS1 protein are believed to influence the cytokine response in the horse and have been manipulated to produce potential vaccine strains. PMID:21492200

Elton, D; Bryant, N

2011-05-01

477

Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing reduces working memory interference  

PubMed Central

Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM) task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modeling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesized that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat-related interference. PMID:23750133

Clarke, Robert; Johnstone, Tom

2013-01-01

478

Small threat and contraband detection with TNA-based systems.  

PubMed

The detection of small threats, such as explosives, drugs, and chemical weapons, concealed or encased in surrounding material, is a major concern in areas from security checkpoints to UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance. Techniques such as X-ray and trace detection are often ineffectual in these applications. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) provides an effective method for detecting concealed threats. This paper shows the effectiveness of Ancore's SPEDS, based on TNA, in detecting concealed liquid threats and differentiating live from inert mortar shells. PMID:16026994

Shaw, T J; Brown, D; D'Arcy, J; Liu, F; Shea, P; Sivakumar, M; Gozani, T

2005-01-01

479

Reducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African-Americans Students: A Self-  

E-print Network

J. (2007). Stereotype threat in classroom settings: TheD. (2003). Stereotype threat in the classroom: Dejectionstereotype threat is an important factor influencing academic performance on standardized tests, classroom

Simmons, Crystal Marie

2011-01-01

480

Anxiety Enhances Threat Processing Without Competition Among Multiple Inputs: A Diffusion Model Analysis  

E-print Network

Anxiety Enhances Threat Processing Without Competition Among Multiple Inputs: A Diffusion Model is necessary for enhanced threat processing. Implications for theories of anxiety are discussed. Keywords: diffusion model, lexical decision, anxiety, threat bias, processing competition Numerous studies have

Segraves, Kari A.

481

Point load testing of brittle materials to determine tensile strength and relative brittleness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most brittle solids are relatively weak in tension and this weakness can be very significant in determining their performance in structures and excavations. There are now 3 distinct approaches being used to determine the tensile strength of brittle materials. These are shown schematically. The fist method consists of simply pulling the specimen apart by applying an axial load. Although this

Reichmuth

1968-01-01

482

Getting a Job in Finance-The Strength of Collaboration Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seminal papers of Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job and ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, ithas been acknowledged that contacts are a valuable way of getting a job, and that weak ties aremore efficient than strong ties because the former convey more original information than thelatter. We would like to challenge this overemphasizing focus of network sociology oninformation. We

Olivier Godechot

2010-01-01

483

Spin resonance strength calculations  

SciTech Connect

In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

Courant,E.D.

2008-10-06

484

Stereotype threat spillover: how coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.  

PubMed

Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not "in the air." In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought. PMID:20649368

Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia K

2010-09-01

485

Opportunism, Threats, and the Evolution of Systematic Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

Comment Opportunism, Threats, and the Evolution of Systematic Conservation Planning ROBERT L 4072, Australia Introduction Systematic conservation planning (Margules & Pressey 2000) is approaching "those . . . involved in pragmatic real- world conservation planning," among whom we count ourselves. We

Queensland, University of

486

Threats to biodiversity -what's driving the crisis? Part 1  

E-print Network

1 Threats to biodiversity - what's driving the crisis? Part 1 Habitat Alteration A. Destruction B practices and runoff of pollutants, sediments and nutrients; coral bleaching, associated with increasing Biological consequences of fragmentation Initial exclusion Crowding effect Insularization and area effects

Dever, Jennifer A.

487

49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL...

2011-10-01

488

Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.  

PubMed Central

Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when