Sample records for weaknesses threats strengths

  1. Environmental metabolomics: a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).

    PubMed

    Miller, Marion G

    2007-02-01

    Metabolomic approaches have the potential to make an exceptional contribution to understanding how chemicals and other environmental stressors can affect both human and environmental health. However, the application of metabolomics to environmental exposures, although getting underway, has not yet been extensively explored. This review will use a SWOT analysis model to discuss some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are apparent to an investigator venturing into this relatively new field. SWOT has been used extensively in business settings to uncover new outlooks and identify problems that would impede progress. The field of environmental metabolomics provides great opportunities for discovery, and this is recognized by a high level of interest in potential applications. However, understanding the biological consequence of environmental exposures can be confounded by inter- and intra-individual differences. Metabolomic profiles can yield a plethora of data, the interpretation of which is complex and still being evaluated and researched. The development of the field will depend on the availability of technologies for data handling and that permit ready access metabolomic databases. Understanding the relevance of metabolomic endpoints to organism health vs adaptation vs variation is an important step in understanding what constitutes a substantive environmental threat. Metabolomic applications in reproductive research are discussed. Overall, the development of a comprehensive mechanistic-based interpretation of metabolomic changes offers the possibility of providing information that will significantly contribute to the protection of human health and the environment. PMID:17269710

  2. Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats of Blended Learning: Students’ Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Hande, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blended learning (BL) in a cell biology course of the premedical program at the Kasturba Medical College International Centre, Manipal, India, commenced in 2006. The program provides training in basic sciences to students, especially from the United States and Canada. The approach to the study was phenomenographic, with a qualitative study design using an open-ended questionnaire, focused interviews and empirical observations. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of BL in a premedical class. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Ninety six students in a premedical cell biology class participated in the study. SWOT analysis of students’ perceptions was conducted manually. Statistical analysis included content analysis of qualitative data to classify data and aligning them into the SWOT analysis matrix. Results: The outcomes of the study revealed student perceptions in terms of SWOT of BL and the potential uses of this strategy. Conclusions: The study provides background for educators and curriculum experts to plan their modules while incorporating a BL approach. PMID:24971204

  3. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of Wal-Mart in the United States

    E-print Network

    Nester, Michelle

    2006-05-19

    set of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This paper reviews the strengths of Wal-Mart’s clarity of vision, pervasive culture that supports the vision, work ethic expectations, customer understanding of low prices, sustainable growth...

  4. Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

  5. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record. PMID:17970252

  6. Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

  7. Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.

    PubMed

    Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

    2010-09-01

    Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients. PMID:20881215

  8. Special Education and Rehabilitation in Georgia: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats in a Newly-Independent State of the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Tim; Szydlowski, Steven; West, Daniel, Jr.; Germava, Otar

    2002-01-01

    Forty-nine Georgian professionals from the fields of health, education, and rehabilitation were brought together for a week-long workshop to discuss issues related to disability, rehabilitation, and special education. Workshop activities included a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of special education in Georgia.…

  9. An Examination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Associated with the Adoption of Moodle[TM] by eXtension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Tayla Elise; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Coppernoll, Susanna Mumm; Jahedkar, Jennifer; Dooley, Kim E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology to deliver programming across Extension has been addressed widely; however, little research has been conducted concerning the use of Moodle[TM] as a course management system for Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the use of…

  10. Perspectives of Health Care Issues in Rural Kansas Communities: An Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gina M. Berg-Copas; Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt; Ruth Wetta-Hall; David J. Cook

    2009-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of healthcare issues in rural Kansas communities. Methods. Ten focus groups were conducted with rural community leaders. Results . Community strengths included quality of life, community involvement, healthcare facilities, agency collaboration, and commitment to healthcare worker recruitment. Weaknesses were language barriers, aging population, healthcare workforce availability, physician and

  11. Strategic analyses in nursing schools: attracting, educating, and graduating more nursing students: part I--strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.

    PubMed

    Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J; Mahesh, Sathiadev; McLendon, Christy L; Henson, Steve W; Jacques, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. This research uses familiar tools in strategic management: the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and stakeholder analysis as initial steps to draw more students to the profession of nursing. In a 2-round modified Delphi survey, chief administrators of schools of nursing identify the main SWOT of schools of nursing and the important internal and external stakeholders that influence nursing school success. The authors of the research suggest ways to use that knowledge to increase the enrollment level of nursing students. Part I of this research focuses on the SWOT analyses. PMID:18695403

  12. The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of funding of personnel to coordinate the assessment process is the most important threat. Conclusion The BelRAI-software allows standardized transmural information transfer and the centralization of medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. It is strictly secured and follows strict privacy regulations, allowing hospitals to optimize (transmural) communication and interaction. However, weaknesses and threats exist and must be tackled in order to promote large scale implementation. PMID:24007312

  13. The Hidden Strengths of Weak Theories

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank

    2012-01-01

    There has been a strong tradition of assuming that concepts, and their patterns of formation might be best understood in terms of how they are embedded in theory-like sets of beliefs. Although such views of concepts as embedded in theories have been criticized on five distinct grounds, there are reasonable responses to each of these usual objections. There is, however, a newly emerging concern that is much more challenging to address – people’s intuitive theories seem to be remarkably impoverished. In fact, they are so impoverished it is difficult to see how they could provide the necessary structure to explain differences between concepts and how they might form in development. One response to this recent challenge is to abandon all views of concept structure as being related to people’s intuitive theories and see concepts as essentially structure-free atoms. The alternative proposed here argues that our very weak theories might in fact do a great deal of work in explaining how we form concepts and are able to use them to successfully refer. PMID:25309684

  14. Strengths and Weaknesses in Securities Market Regulation: A Global Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Elliott; Ana Carvajal

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of securities regulatory systems worldwide with a view to a better understanding of common problems and areas of global concern. We found that a consistent theme emerges regarding the lack of ability of regulators to effectively enforce compliance with existing rules and regulation. In many countries, a combination of factors, including insufficient legal

  15. SHEAR STRENGTH AND SNOWPACK STABILITY TRENDS IN NON-PERSISTANT WEAK LAYERS Catherine Brown1

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    SHEAR STRENGTH AND SNOWPACK STABILITY TRENDS IN NON-PERSISTANT WEAK LAYERS Catherine Brown1 and mechanical properties. The shear strength and its rate of change, relevant to storm snow slab avalanches and rarely measured. To measure the shear strength we performed up to 10 sets of 12 shear frame tests for 16

  16. Separate and interactive contributions of weak inhibitory control and threat sensitivity to prediction of suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Venables, Noah C; Sellbom, Martin; Sourander, Andre; Kendler, Kenneth S; Joiner, Thomas E; Drislane, Laura E; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Patrick, Christopher J

    2015-04-30

    Biobehavioral dispositions can serve as valuable referents for biologically oriented research on core processes with relevance to many psychiatric conditions. The present study examined two such dispositional variables-weak response inhibition (or disinhibition; INH-) and threat sensitivity (or fearfulness; THT+)-as predictors of the serious transdiagnostic problem of suicide risk in two samples: male and female outpatients from a U.S. clinic (N=1078), and a population-based male military cohort from Finland (N=3855). INH- and THT+ were operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibition and fear/fearlessness, known to be related to DSM-defined clinical conditions and brain biomarkers. Suicide risk was assessed by clinician ratings (clinic sample) and questionnaires (both samples). Across samples and alternative suicide indices, INH- and THT+ each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicide risk-beyond internalizing and externalizing problems in the case of the clinic sample where diagnostic data were available. Further, in both samples, INH- and THT+ interactively predicted suicide risk, with individuals scoring concurrently high on both dispositions exhibiting markedly augmented risk. Findings demonstrate that dispositional constructs of INH- and THT+ are predictive of suicide risk, and hold potential as referents for biological research on suicidal behavior. PMID:25712631

  17. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  18. Insiders' Perspectives on Strengths and Weaknesses of the Mexican Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippberger, Susan

    This study examines strengths and weaknesses of Mexican public education as perceived by educators within the system. Forty teachers and administrators from various levels in the public school system were interviewed in 1988. Interviewees were primarily located in southern Mexican cities. Mexico's public educational structure is highly…

  19. Vocabulary Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Relation to Visuospatial Construction Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; John, Angela E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Method: Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of…

  20. Local strength and global weakness: A maritime network perspective on South Korea as Northeast Asia's

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Local strength and global weakness: A maritime network perspective on South Korea as Northeast: Port development in South Korea has taken advantage of the countrys remarkable situation and economic substitution strategy between 1953 and 1961, the Republic of Korea (ROK, hereafter South Korea

  1. K-12 Distance Education in the United States: Technology Strengths, Weaknesses, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    This article briefly identifies seven distance education case study projects completed for the Office of Technology Assessment as part of their November 1989 report, "Linking for Learning: A New Course for Education" (ED 310 765). The paper focuses on strengths and weaknesses associated with telecommunicated distance education delivery systems and…

  2. The Strength of Weak Ties in Electronic Development of the Scholarly Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Three overlapping models of new technology diffusion are described in relation to the Internet: (1) individual threshold; (2) critical mass; and (3) strength of weak ties. The prospective role of academic libraries in the electronic development of the scholarly communication system is discussed, and further research is suggested. (55 references)…

  3. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  4. Memory profiles in children with mild intellectual disabilities: Strengths and weaknesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariët J. Van der Molen; Johannes E. H. Van Luit; Marian J. Jongmans; Maurits W. Van der Molen

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children). Children with MID performed less well on all measures compared to the CA children.

  5. Memory profiles in children with mild intellectual disabilities: strengths and weaknesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molen van der M. J; Luit van J. E. H; M. J. Jongmans; Molen van der M. W

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children). Children with MID performed less well on all measures compared to the CA children.

  6. Education Working Group SWOT Analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    educational research A national leader in bioethics, with a curriculum that reaches across degrees to do research Students learn in self-directed way to serves them well in clinical settings Where to expand to nursing, dentistry, social work, i.e., cross education-horizontal and vertical UME to GME

  7. Department of Horticultural Sciences Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and ThreatsSWOT Analysis

    E-print Network

    segment of our population (both urban and rural) and because the green industry is now recognized is fortunate to employ a group of committed, high quality teachers. Nearly all faculty take their teaching responsibilities seriously and understand the importance of educating students. We are also fortunate

  8. Oscillator strengths of some weak Fe II lines of astrophysical interest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Heise; M. Kock

    1990-01-01

    Oscillator strengths of 20 weak Fe II lines in the wavelength range 430-780 nm have been obtained by emission measurements on a high-current hollow-cathode. By applying a magnetic field the sputter rate and the current density in the discharge could be increased considerably so that very faint Fe II lines were detectable with a sufficient S\\/N ratio. The measured branching

  9. Targeting cancer's weaknesses (not its strengths): Therapeutic strategies suggested by the atavistic model.

    PubMed

    Lineweaver, Charles H; Davies, Paul C W; Vincent, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target-the-weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed tumor environments is an irreversible weakness of cancer that can be exploited by creating a challenge that only the presence of adaptive immunity can meet. This leaves tumor cells more vulnerable than healthy tissue to pathogenic attack. Such a target-the-weakness therapeutic strategy has broad applications, and contrasts with current therapies that target the main strength of cancer: cell proliferation. PMID:25043755

  10. Mechanisms of weak phase interconnection and the effects of phase strength contrast on fabric development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holyoke, Caleb W.; Tullis, Jan

    2006-04-01

    To determine how deformation mechanisms and fabrics evolve during the strain weakening and localization that accompany the transition from a load-bearing framework to an interconnected weak phase, shear experiments were conducted on a fine-grained gneiss (58% quartz, interconnected; 28% plagioclase, dispersed; 13% biotite, aligned but dispersed) at 745 and 800 °C, 1500 MPa and two strain rates (2×10 -5 and 2×10 -6 s -1). In experiments with a high phase strength contrast (HPSC, 25× and 45×) between dispersed biotite and framework quartz grains, biotite grains become interconnected due to stress concentration at their tips that allow local semi-brittle flow of intervening quartz and cataclasis of intervening plagioclase. In the higher temperature HPSC samples, the biotite partially dehydrated in high strain zones; a single narrow shear zone formed because the PSC between the quartz and biotite/reaction product layers remained high. In the lower temperature HPSC samples there was no reaction, and a penetrative S-C' fabric formed. The fabric is defined by the many multiply interconnected biotite strands that formed because the PSC between the quartz and biotite decreased as the biotites kinked. In slower strain rate experiments with a much lower PSC (˜10×), biotite interconnection occurs by shearing into quartz/quartz boundaries where new, weak strain-free recrystallized grains form. At low strain a weak S-C' fabric forms, but it evolves to an S-C fabric as the PSC decreases with strain. Thus, the magnitude of the strength contrast between a weak phase and its matrix influences the mechanism of weak phase interconnection, the degree of strain localization and the fabric.

  11. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  12. Selectivity in mammalian extinction risk and threat types: a new measure of phylogenetic signal strength in binary traits.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Susanne A; Purvis, Andy

    2010-08-01

    The strength of phylogenetic signal in extinction risk can give insight into the mechanisms behind species' declines. Nevertheless, no existing measure of phylogenetic pattern in a binary trait, such as extinction-risk status, measures signal strength in a way that can be compared among data sets. We developed a new measure for phylogenetic signal of binary traits, D, which simulations show gives robust results with data sets of more than 50 species, even when the proportion of threatened species is low. We applied D to the red-list status of British birds and the world's mammals and found that the threat status for both groups exhibited moderately strong phylogenetic clumping. We also tested the hypothesis that the phylogenetic pattern of species threatened by harvesting will be more strongly clumped than for those species threatened by either habitat loss or invasive species because the life-history traits mediating the effects of harvesting show strong evolutionary pattern. For mammals, our results supported our hypothesis; there was significant but weaker phylogenetic signal in the risk caused by the other two drivers (habitat loss and invasive species). We conclude that D is likely to be a useful measure of the strength of phylogenetic pattern in many binary traits. PMID:20184650

  13. Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in East Azerbaijan Earthquake: Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Javad; Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Soroush, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: A Surveillance System was established for 19 diseases/syndromes in order to prevent and control communicable diseases after 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes. This study was conducted to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the established SS. Methods: This study was carried out on an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis in 2012. Data was collected by semi-structured deep interviews and surveillance data. Fifteen interviews were conducted with experts and health system managers who were engaged in implementing the communicable disease surveillance system in the affected areas. The selection of participants was purposeful. Data saturation supported the sample size. The collected data was analyzed using the principles suggested by Strauss and Corbin. Results: Establishment of the disease surveillance system was rapid and inexpensive. It collected the required data fast. It also increased confidence in health authorities that the diseases would be under control in earthquake-stricken regions. Non estimated denominator for calculating the rates (incidence & prevalence), non-participation of the private sector and hospitals, rapid turnover of health staff and unfamiliarity with the definitions of the diseases were the weak points of the established disease SS. Conclusion: During the time when surveillance system was active, no significant outbreak of communicable diseases was reported. However, the surveillance system had some weaknesses. Thus, considering Iran’s susceptibility to various natural hazards, repeated exercises should be conducted in the preparedness phase to decrease the weaknesses. In addition, other types of surveillance system such as web-based or mobile-based systems should be piloted in disaster situations for future. PMID:25685619

  14. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

  15. The Strength of the Weak: The Uncertainty Principle and More-Direct Access to the Wave Function through Weak Measurements

    E-print Network

    David R Geelan

    2013-06-14

    Recent empirical work in the field of 'weak measurements' has yielded novel ways of more directly accessing and exploring the quantum wavefunction. Measuring either position or momentum for a photon in a 'weak' manner yields a wide range of possible values for the measurement, and can be done in such a way as to only minimally effect the wavefunction rather than to collapse it to a specific precise value. Measuring the other complementary variable (position or momentum) precisely at a later time ('post-selection') and averaging the weak measurements can yield information about the wavefunction that is not directly experimentally obtainable using other methods. This paper discusses two recent papers on weak measurement in the context of the uncertainty principle more broadly, and considers some possibilities for further research.

  16. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J. [Entergy Corp., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

  17. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

  18. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

  19. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  20. Cavities of Weak Magnetic Field Strength in the Wake of FTEs: Results from Global Magnetospheric MHD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

  1. [Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate in 2014 by tests and equations: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Hougardy, J M; Delanaye, P; Le Moine, A; Nortier, J

    2014-09-01

    The accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a goal of multiple interests regarding clinical, research and public health aspects. The strong relationship between progressive loss of renal function and mortality underlines the need for early diagnosis and close follow-up of renal diseases. Creatinine is the commonest biomarker of GFR in use. By reason of non-renal determinants of GFR, it is required to integrate creatinine values within equations that take in account its most important determinants (i.e., age, sex). The CKD-EPI 2009 equation is now recommended as the first line equation to estimate GFR within the general population. In this indication, it should replace MDRD that tends to overestimate the prevalence of stage 3 chronic kidney disease with GFR around 60 ml/min. However, many questions remain about the accuracy of GFR equations in specific situations such as extremes of age or body weight. The identification of new biomarkers, less determined by non-renal determinants, is of importance. Among these biomarkers, cystatin-C is more accurate to estimate GFR when it is combined to creatinine (i.e., equation CKD-EPI 2012). However the indica. tions for using cystatin-C instead of creatinine alone are still unclear and its use remains limited in routine practice. In conclusion, neither biomarker nor equation gives an accurate estimation for the whole range of GFR and for all patient populations. Limits of prediction are relying on both biomarker's properties and the range of GFR that is concerned, but also rely on the measurement methods. Therefore, it is crucial to interpret the estimated GFR according to the strengths and weaknesses of the equation in use. PMID:25675627

  2. Strength of chrysotile-serpentinite gouge under hydrothermal conditions: Can it explain a weak San Andreas fault?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.E.; Lockner, D.A.; Summers, R.; Shengli, M.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Chrysotile-bearing serpentinite is a constituent of the San Andreas fault zone in central and northern California. At room temperature, chrysotile gouge has a very low coefficient of friction (?? ??? 0.2), raising the possibility that under hydrothermal conditions ?? might be reduced sufficiently (to ???0.1) to explain the apparent weakness of the fault. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frictional strength of a pure chrysotile gouge at temperatures to 290??C and axial-shortening velocities as low as 0.001 ??m/s. As temperature increases to ???100??C, the strength of the chrysotile gouge decreases slightly at low velocities, but at temperatures ???200??C, it is substantially stronger and essentially independent of velocity at the lowest velocities tested. We estimate that pure chrysotile gouge at hydrostatic fluid pressure and appropriate temperatures would have shear strength averaged over a depth of 14 km of 50 MPa. Thus, on the sole basis of its strength, chrysotile cannot be the cause of a weak San Andreas fault. However, chrysotile may also contribute to low fault strength by forming mineral seals that promote the development of high fluid pressures.

  3. MetaLib, WebFeat, and Google: The strengths and weaknesses of federated search engines compared with Google

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaotian Chen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Seeks to describe library federated search engines MetaLib and WebFeat as research tools by comparing MetaLib with WebFeat and by highlighting their strengths and weaknesses against Google and Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study tested MetaLib and WebFeat from various libraries; attended vendor demos and asked vendors questions; reviewed literature; and interviewed system administrators of MetaLib and WebFeat.

  4. Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T P Lam

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo explore the attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese towards the strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine.DESIGNQualitative study of subjects' opinions using semi-structured focus group interviews.SETTINGSouthern district of Hong Kong Island where many of the residents have a fisherman background.PARTICIPANTSTwenty nine participants took part in eight focus group interviews.Measurements and main results—Participants' attitudes towards TCM and

  5. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Using Social Software in Higher and Further Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, A.; Minocha, S.; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    Social software is increasingly being used in higher and further education to support teaching and learning processes. These applications provide students with social and cognitive stimulation and also add to the interaction between students and educators. However, in addition to the benefits the introduction of social software into a course…

  6. Ejecta from Targets Strong and Weak: Experimental Measurements of Strength Controlled and Strengthless Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents novel time-resolved 3D measurements of the impact ejecta through crater formation and the arresting process that ceases growth into a variety of targets exhibiting a spectrum of different strengths of interest on planetary bodies.

  7. Lessons from dwarf8 on the strengths and weaknesses of structured association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strengths of association mapping lie in its resolution and allelic richness, but spurious associations arising from historical relationships and selection patterns need to be accounted for in statistical analyses. Here we reanalyze one of the first generation structured association mapping studi...

  8. A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

  9. Interaction strength of weakly coupled pairs measured by a two laser spectroscopy technique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (2) of Pr . Grossly, the shift of a satellite from the main line is an indication of the spatial distance between the two ions of the pair : the larger this shift, the nearer the ions. With weakly doped crystals-conversion fluorescence from 3Po. On the right, energy levels of interest for Pr3 + : LaF3. The method used for the direct

  10. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing complexity of many safety critical systems poses new problems for mishap analysis. Techniques developed in the sixties and seventies cannot easily scale-up to analyze incidents involving tightly integrated software and hardware components. Similarly, the realization that many failures have systemic causes has widened the scope of many mishap investigations. Organizations, including NASA and the NTSB, have responded by starting research and training initiatives to ensure that their personnel are well equipped to meet these challenges. One strand of research has identified a range of mathematically based techniques that can be used to reason about the causes of complex, adverse events. The proponents of these techniques have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. Mathematical proofs can reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have opposed the introduction of these techniques by identifying social and political aspects to incident investigation that cannot easily be reconciled with a logic-based approach. Traditional theorem proving mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators routinely use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper summarizes some of the benefits that logics provide, describes their weaknesses, and proposes a number of directions for future research.

  11. The Shear Behavior of Bedding Planes of Weakness Between Two Different Rock Types with High Strength Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazvinian, A. H.; Taghichian, A.; Hashemi, Mahmoud; Mar'ashi, S. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this article, the shear behavior of discontinuities caused by bedding planes of weakness between two different rock types with high strength difference is investigated. The effect of roughness and compressive strength of joint wall in such discontinuities are studied. The designed profiles consist of two regular and three irregular artificial joints molded by three types of plaster mortars with different uniaxial compressive strengths. Firstly, it is demonstrated that the shear behavior of discontinuities with different joint wall compressive strengths (JCS) is different from rock joints with identical wall compressive strengths by showing that Barton’s empirical criterion is not appropriate for the former discontinuities. After that, some correlation equations are proposed between the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) parameter and some surface statistical/fractal parameters, and the normal stress range of Barton’s strength criterion is also modified to be used for such discontinuities. Then, a new empirical criterion is proposed for these discontinuities in such a way that a rational function is used instead of JRC log10(JCS/ ? n) as i 0( ? c/ ? n)a/[ b + ( ? c/ ? n) a ] by satisfying the peak dilation angle boundary conditions under zero and very high normal stress (physical infinite normal stress causing zero peak dilation angle). The proposed criterion has three surface parameters: i 0, a, and b. The reason for separation of i 0 from JRC is indicated and the method of its calculation is mentioned based on the literature. The two remaining coefficients ( a and b) are discussed in detail and it is shown that a shows a power-law relationship with b, introducing the coefficient c through b = c a . Then, it is expressed that a is directly related to discontinuity surface topography. Finally, it is shown that the coefficient c has higher values in irregular profiles in comparison with regular profiles and is dominated by intensity of peak dilation angle reduction (majorly related to the surface irregularity and minorly related to roughness). The coefficient c is to be determined by performing regression analysis on experimental data.

  12. Lessons from Dwarf8 on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Structured Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Sara J.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    The strengths of association mapping lie in its resolution and allelic richness, but spurious associations arising from historical relationships and selection patterns need to be accounted for in statistical analyses. Here we reanalyze one of the first generation structured association mapping studies of the Dwarf8 (d8) locus with flowering time in maize using the full range of new mapping populations, statistical approaches, and haplotype maps. Because this trait was highly correlated with population structure, we found that basic structured association methods overestimate phenotypic effects in the region, while mixed model approaches perform substantially better. Combined with analysis of the maize nested association mapping population (a multi-family crossing design), it is concluded that most, if not all, of the QTL effects at the general location of the d8 locus are from rare extended haplotypes that include other linked QTLs and that d8 is unlikely to be involved in controlling flowering time in maize. Previous independent studies have shown evidence for selection at the d8 locus. Based on the evidence of population bottleneck, selection patterns, and haplotype structure observed in the region, we suggest that multiple traits may be strongly correlated with population structure and that selection on these traits has influenced segregation patterns in the region. Overall, this study provides insight into how modern association and linkage mapping, combined with haplotype analysis, can produce results that are more robust. PMID:23437002

  13. Chemical Threats

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indicate a chemical agent release. Before Before a Chemical Threat What you should do to prepare for ... and on the highest level. During During a Chemical Threat What you should do in a chemical ...

  14. Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different fire regimes and incidence) have been selected to investigate, by questionnaire and meetings, stakeholders perception on present strength and weakness in the adopted plans. The results of the answers analysis show some main deficit aspects covering prevalently carthographic and procedural implementations: • Plans shall include a risk and vulnerability map; dangerous seasons are to be determined and have to be updated with current weather conditions. • Standardization of terminology and classifications in the plans. • Plans shall include a specific section for firefighting in RUI, socially being the most important areas to protect and where most complications during firefighting are found. • Protocols shall be adapted to the real on site situation. A single control center in the event of fire should be identified. This is particularly important if third-party resources are involved in the operations. • Use of new technologies, i.e. fire simulators, LIDAR, for fuel amount and availability determination, wind simulation, CO2 emissions, vegetation structure. In the same time some active proposals are supplyed by the operators, directly derived and linked with the wekness above mentioned: • Use of new technological tools for analysis (simulators, etc.) and for driving the operative aspects during the suppression. • Standardization of communication protocols in the plans and during the field operations. • Increase use of fire for landscape management in certain areas. • Investments shall be made in land resources rather than in air means, generally already sufficient. This analysis represents a first effort to collect and schematize the effective applicability level of the indications included in the Plans. It is the base for possible tuning of the research and policy lines and also to tuning the present documents; the indications supplied prove that the efforts done in research are been acquired by the operative sectors and that the active involvement of stakeholder is the future challenge to enhance the plans efficacy.

  15. Strengths and weaknesses of guideline approaches to safeguard voluntary informed consent of patients within a dependent relationship

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is thought that a dependent relationship between patients and physicians who enroll their own patients in research compromises voluntary informed consent. Therefore, several ethical guidelines for human subject research provide approaches to mitigate these compromises. Currently, these approaches have not been critically evaluated. In this article, we analyze the approaches of ethical guidelines to manage the influence of a dependent relationship between patients and physicians on voluntary informed consent and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. Methods We performed a review of international ethical guidance documents on human subject research, listed in the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics and found through cross referencing. We also searched Global Ethics Observatory (GEObs) and the World Health Organization (WHO) website. Guidelines from all years were eligible for inclusion. The date last searched was December 2013. Discussion We identified two basic guideline approaches: 1. a process approach, which focuses on the person who obtains informed consent, that is, an independent individual, such as a research nurse or counselor; and 2. a content approach, emphasizing the voluntary nature of participation. Both approaches are valuable, either because the influence of the physician may diminish or because it empowers patients to make voluntary decisions. However, the approaches also face challenges. First, research nurses are not always independent. Second, physician-investigators will be informed about decisions of their patients. Third, involvement of a counselor is sometimes unfeasible. Fourth, the right to withdraw may be difficult to act upon in a dependent relationship. Conclusions Current guideline approaches to protect voluntary informed consent within a dependent relationship are suboptimal. To prevent compromises to voluntary informed consent, consent should not only be obtained by an independent individual, but this person should also emphasize the voluntary nature of participation. At the same time, dependency as such does not imply undue influence. Sometimes the physician may be best qualified to provide information, for example, for a very specialized study. Still, the research nurse should obtain informed consent. In addition, patients should be able to consult a counselor, who attends the informed consent discussions and is concerned with their interests. Finally, both physicians and research nurses should disclose research interests. PMID:24655604

  16. Weak faults in a strong crust: Geodynamic constraints on fault strength, stress in the crust, and the vertical distribution of strength in the lithosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, N.; Humphreys, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present results of steady-state dynamic finite element numerical models for the state of stress and strain rate in the crust and upper mantle in the vicinity of a transform fault. Model rheology is elastic-viscous-plastic where plastic mechanical behavior is used as a proxy for pressure-dependent friction of the seismogenic crust. Viscous flow is incorporated as temperature dependent, power-law creep. We assume that the crust outside the fault zone is at or near its frictional yield strength (i.e., `strong', e.g., Townend and Zoback, 2001) predicted by Byerlee's Law and aim to determine the acceptable range of fault strength and viscosity distributions that satisfy the observations that seismic faulting extends to typically 15 km and that the tectonic strain rate of fault-bounding blocks is small. Assuming the traditional `christmas-tree' strength distribution of the lithosphere (e.g., Brace and Kohlstedt, 1980), our primary results are the following. The upper limit of fault strength is approximately 30 MPa (averaged over 15 km), the majority (>50%) of the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere resides in the uppermost mantle, and the depth to which frictional deformation occurs in the crustal blocks depends on the strength of nearby faults and viscosity of the lower crust and should not exceed approximately 6-9 km, below which relatively low strain rate viscous creep is the dominant deformation mechanism. We also incorporate the thermal feedback effects of viscous and frictional shear heating and explore the controls on the distribution of shear strain in the lower crust and upper mantle.

  17. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  18. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training. PMID:21069487

  19. The strength of weak programs in cultural sociology: A critique of Alexander’s critique of Bourdieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gartman

    2007-01-01

    Jeffrey Alexander’s recent book on cultural sociology argues that sociologists must grant the realm of ideas autonomy to determine\\u000a behavior, unencumbered by interference from instrumental or material factors. He criticizes the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu\\u000a as “weak” for failing to give autonomy to culture by reducing it to self-interested behavior that immediately reflects class\\u000a position. However, Alexander’s arguments seriously distort

  20. The Application of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis for Managing Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) Programmes for Improved Efficiency in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adepoju, T. L.; Famade, Olu Adesola

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of vocational and technical education programmes (VTE) in Nigeria and the major innovations of the Nigerian Government in the recent times in the sector vis-a-vis the demands of the modern world for vocational and technological development. It therefore, proposes a paradigm shift in the operation of VTE…

  1. A Qualitative Examination of the History of E-Extension (eXtension), Implementation of Moodle (A Course Management System) and Associated Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    E-print Network

    Hightower, Tayla Elise

    2011-08-08

    of the innovation, have formed an attitude toward the innovation, and have decided to adopt or reject the innovation based on the stages of Rogers' innovation-decision process. Completion of the implementation of the innovation and confirmation of the decision stage...

  2. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  3. Tips from the toolkit: 2--assessing organisational strengths.

    PubMed

    Steer, Neville

    2010-03-01

    'SWOT' is a familiar term used in the development of business strategy. It is based on the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as part of a strategic analysis approach. While there are a range of more sophisticated models for analysing and developing business strategy, it is a useful model for general practice as it is less time consuming than other approaches. The following article discusses some ways to apply this framework to assess organisational strengths (and weaknesses). It is based on The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' "General practice management toolkit". PMID:20369123

  4. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

  5. TERRORISM THREAT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Woo

    The dynamic adaptive nature of terrorism requires a systematic and methodical intelligent strategy for terrorism threat assessment and management. Unwitting weaknesses in approach and deficiencies in scope invite strategic surprise. Effective decision-making on managing terrorism risk benefits from insights available from quantitative thinking across the range of significant risk factors. This way of thinking about terrorism is presented in a

  6. The Strength of Weak Learnability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Schapire

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of an hypothesis output by a learning algorithm in the distribution-free (PAC) learning model. A concept class is learnable (or strongly learnable) if, given access to a Source of examples of the unknown concept, the learner with high probability is able to output an hypothesis that is correct on all but

  7. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors questionnaire (SWAN) when compared with DISC-IV

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace Fong-Chun; Lai, Kelly Yee-Ching; Luk, Ernest Siu-Luen; Hung, Se-Fong; Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN) questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined. Method A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN. Results Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Conclusion SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. PMID:25187717

  8. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat

  9. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat

  10. Strengths and weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers and semi-structured interviews for capturing fine-scale human mobility: findings from Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Stoddard, Steven T; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-06-01

    Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80-100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50-80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n=101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility. PMID:24922530

  11. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  12. Diaphragmatic weakness and paralysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pearce G. Wilcox; Richard L. Pardy

    1989-01-01

    Diaphragmatic weakness implies a decrease in the strength of the diaphragm. Diaphragmatic paralysis is an extreme form of\\u000a diaphragmatic weakness. Diaphragmatic paralysis is an uncommon clinical problem while diaphragmatic weakness, although uncommon,\\u000a is probably frequently unrecognized because appropriate tests to detect its presence are not performed. Weakness of the diaphragm\\u000a can result from abnormalities at any site along its neuromuscular

  13. Muscle strength and BMI as predictors of major mobility disability in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. T...

  14. Cyber threat panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Vout

    2012-01-01

    Presents a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Topics covered include: Information assurance & the risk equation; Advanced persistant threats (APTs) The threat of mobility to the US FAA.

  15. Assessing Student Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy; Emmendorfer, Beth; Lewis, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    For administrators at the secondary level, not many school days go according to plan or script, but few things are more disruptive than a student threat of violence. When threats are made--or if there is a rumor of a serious student threat--it can take both time and resources to investigate, interview, and analyze multiple pieces of information in…

  16. BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

  17. BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat: Motivation and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: The Hoax Caller: The most frequent goal of the threat to minimize personal injuries or property damage. The caller may be the person placing the bomb

  18. Threat display in birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Hurd; Magnus Enquist

    2001-01-01

    The study of threat displays has long been an area in which theory and empirical work have each spurred the other forward. Communication is currently the focus of great interest and effort on the part of modellers. A great deal that classical ethologists have accurately described about threat displays still lacks adequate explanation. Here we review the empirical literature on

  19. Aspects of Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter; Bishop, Matt

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an "insider" has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling the insider threat is reasonable under those circumstances; if one cannot define a problem precisely, how can one approach a solution, let alone know when the problem is solved? This chapter presents some aspects of insider threats, collected at an inter-disciplinary workshop in 2008.

  20. BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat · The Hoax Caller and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: · The Credible Caller: The caller be the person placing the bomb or someone who has become aware of information they believe to be credible. What

  1. BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BOMB THREATS What should I know about bomb threats? Goals of a Bomb Threat: Motivation and goals for making a bomb threat usually comes from one of two goals: The Hoax Caller: The most frequent goal placing the bomb or someone who has become aware of information they believe to be credible. What

  2. Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    v Bomb threat There are two types of Bomb Threats: 1. Specific Information/location will be given you have received a "SPecific BOmB threat". If possible recall exact wording of threat. 2. Non-Specific No information given other than e.g. "There is a Bomb in the Building". If possible ask and record answers to

  3. Insider Threat Specification as a Threat Mitigation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magklaras, George; Furnell, Steven

    Insider threats come in many facets and nuances. This results in two major problems: mining big amounts of data for evidence of an insider attack, and keeping track of different aspects of threats is very cumbersome. To enable techniques that support detection of insider threats as early as possible, one needs mechanisms to automate significant parts of the detection process, and that allow to specify what is meant by insider threat. This chapter describes the Insider Threat Prediction Specification Language (ITPSL), a research effort to address the description of threat factors as a mechanism to mitigate insider threats.

  4. Combatting Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  5. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  6. Threat radar system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

  7. The Zirconia Ceramic: Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Daou, Elie E.

    2014-01-01

    Metal ceramic restorations were considered the gold standard as reliable materials. Increasing demand for esthetics supported the commercialization of new metal free restorations. A growing demand is rising for zirconia prostheses. Peer-reviewed articles published till July 2013 were identified through a Medline (Pubmed and Elsevier). Emphasizing was made on zirconia properties and applications. Zirconia materials are able to withstand posterior physiologic loads. Although zirconia cores are considered as reliable materials, these restorations are not problem free. PMID:24851138

  8. Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantum Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Bennett; Ethan Bernstein; Gilles Brassard; Umesh V. Vazirani

    1997-01-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has focused on quantum computation following a sequence of results suggesting that quantum computers are more powerful than classical probabilistic computers. Following Shor's result that factoring and the extraction of discrete logarithms are both solvable in quantum polynomial time, it is natural to ask whether all of NP can be efficiently solved in quantum

  9. Strengths and Weaknesses: The Impediments of Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    We tend to overlook the fact that we judge performances in context. That is why people who are generally competent outside the classroom can appear so inept inside it. "Can you read this text?" is not merely a demand to make some sense of it, but often, in school, to identify plot, character, author intent, or at a minimum, to be ready to recast…

  10. Threat Assessment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    With every new case of school violence, district leaders are urged to be proactive in hopes of averting potential violence. Experts say part of that proactive work comes from a threat assessment plan that every district should have. While every district that receives funds from the U.S. Department of Education for school safety is required to have…

  11. The Bioterrorism Threat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those interested in keeping up with latest news as well as past reports on bioterrorism in America should visit PBS' Online NewsHour page entitled The Bioterrorism Threat. Accessible here are audio and video segments as well as text and transcripts from NewsHour broadcasts on Anthrax (the majority of the content), Smallpox, and bioterrorism in general.

  12. Laser threat warning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Coleman

    1986-01-01

    The military lasers against which threat warning systems are most urgently required are comparatively low in energy and primarily employed in association with a conventional weapon system for rangefinding and fire control. The detection of laser illumination will therefore indicate the imminent arrival of a shell or missile. Attention is presently given to imaging, nonimaging, interferometric, and scatter detector devices

  13. Environmental Threats at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Twhanna

    2005-01-01

    Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

  14. RFID SECURITY THREAT MODEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale R. Thompson; Neeraj Chaudhry; Craig W. Thompson

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises benefits that accrue from being able to identify and track individual goods in commercial supply chains. This helps in inventory management, reduces theft, can be used in conjunction with other sensor technology to identify damaged goods, and promises cost reductions. The objective of this paper is to identify potential threats to commercial supply chains

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  16. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

  17. Comet Threat Mitigation Approaches & Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Marusek

    (Abstract) Comet threat mitigation has either been ignored or folded in with asteroid deflection options. But comets represent a distinctly different threat and it would be extremely irresponsible to not address each threat separately. In general, comets are larger and faster than asteroids and can cause significantly greater damage and produce terrestrial mass extinctions. Comets, especially long-period comets from the

  18. Not All Threats Are Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

  19. Space collision threat mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Stipanovi?, Dušan; Mehra, Raman K.; Pham, Khanh

    2014-06-01

    Mitigation of possible collision threats to current and future operations in space environments is an important an challenging task considering high nonlinearity of orbital dynamics and discrete measurement updates. Such discrete observations are relatively scarce with respect to space dynamics including possible unintentional or intentional rocket propulsion based maneuvers even in scenarios when measurement collections are focused to a one single target of interest. In our paper, this problem is addressed in terms of multihypothesis and multimodel estimation in conjunction with multi-agent multigoal game theoretic guaranteed evasion strategies. Collision threat estimation is formulated using conditional probabilities of time dependent hypotheses and spacecraft controls which are computed using Liapunov-like approach. Based on this formulation, time dependent functional forms of multi-objective utility functions are derived given threat collision risk levels. For demonstrating developed concepts, numerical methods are developed using nonlinear filtering methodology for updating hypothesis sets and corresponding conditional probabilities. Space platform associated sensor resources are managed using previously developed and demonstrated information-theoretic objective functions and optimization methods. Consequently, estimation and numerical methods are evaluated and demonstrated on a realistic Low Earth Orbit collision encounter.

  20. Lesson Plan: Iceberg Threat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson plan, students will learn about the potential threat posed by icebergs, particularly the enormous icebergs that have broken away from Antarctica's Ronne Ice Shelf. They will research a news article and various web sites (links are provided) to collect information about icebergs, discuss what icebergs are and where they are found, and brainstorm a list of potential problems that could occur. Groups of students will address the potential problems, develop solutions in written form, and present their proposals to the class.

  1. New global viral threats.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Hakan; Ünal, Serhat

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diseases have caused great catastrophes in human history, as in the example of the plague, which wiped out half of the population in Europe in the 14th century. Ebola virus and H7N9 avian influenza virus are 2 lethal pathogens that we have encountered in the second decade of the 21st century. Ebola infection is currently being seen in West Africa, and H7N9 avian flu appears to have settled in Southeast Asia. This article focuses on the current situation and the future prospects of these potential infectious threats to mankind. PMID:25828274

  2. Security threats on EPC based RFID systems J. G. Alfaro ,, M. Barbeau, and E. Kranakis

    E-print Network

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    is ranked as major when its likelihood is possible and its impact is medium. A threat is assessed and privacy threats can target the different services of the EPC network, if weaknesses are not handled on their likelihood of oc- currence, their possible impact upon the targeted system, and the risk that they may

  3. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  4. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  5. Threat Characterization: Trajectory Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Russell Schweickart; Clark Chapman; Dan Durda; Bill Bottke; David Nesvorny; Piet Hut

    2006-08-15

    Given a primary interest in "mitigation of the potential hazard" of near-Earth objects impacting the Earth, the subject of characterization takes on an aspect not normally present when considering asteroids as abstract bodies. Many deflection concepts are interested in the classic geophysical characteristics of asteroids when considering the physical challenge of modifying their orbits in order to cause them to subsequently miss an impact with Earth. Yet for all deflection concepts there are characteristics of the threat which overwhelm these traditional factors. For example, a close gravitational encounter with Earth some years or decades prior to impact can reduce the velocity change necessary for deflection by several orders of magnitude if the deflection precedes the close encounter (or encounters). Conversely this "benefit" comes at a "price"; a corresponding increase in the accuracy of tracking required to determine the probability of impact. Societal issues, both national and international, also characterize the NEO deflection process and these may strongly contend with the purely technical issues normally considered. Therefore critical factors not normally considered must be brought into play as one characterizes the threat of NEO impacts.

  6. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason W. Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele’s stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory—that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance—using real?time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or low stereotype threat conditions involving a challenging mathematics task while physiological measures of

  7. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  8. Herpesviruses - a zoonotic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Tischer, B. Karsten; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2009-01-01

    Herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. Only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. Among the zoonotic herpesviruses, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the most significant and can be transmitted from macaques to human. Conversely, Human herpesvirus 1 is capable of causing severe disease in primates. Besides those two examples, there are several herpesviruses with a certainly limited or only suspected ability to cross species barriers. Those include Saimiriine herpesvirus 2, Phocid herpesvirus 2, Equid herpesvirus 1, Epstein-Barr Virus, Marek’s disease virus, and pseudorabies virus. Concerning xenotransplantations, porcine gammaherpesviruses must be considered as a zoonotic threat. PMID:19616388

  9. Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent

    E-print Network

    Bomb Threat Bomb Threat Caller's Sex Age Accent Caller's Voice Calm Crying Deep Angry Normal Ragged is bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. Where are you? 9. What

  10. VII. Deprivation, threat, and frustration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Maslow

    1941-01-01

    A distinction is made between frustration which merely involves deprivation, and that which brings a threat to the personality, his life-goal, defensive system, security, or self-esteem. It is contended that only the latter kind has the multitude of undesirable effects which are commonly attributed to frustration in general. Therefore the concepts of deprivation and threat to the personality are the

  11. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  12. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  13. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  14. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  15. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  16. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  17. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  18. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  19. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  20. Managing biosecurity threats in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2011-03-01

    Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks. PMID:21361794

  1. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

  2. IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly

    E-print Network

    systems to help sustain profitable cyber crime. Divisions between classic threat types are becoming backed business. The cyber underground's motivations have moved beyond attention and glory blurred making it increasingly difficult to address cyber threats. New blended threats incorporate

  3. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Injection Safety Share Compartir A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Important Information! Please read ... due to syringe reuse by your healthcare provider. Patients need to be aware of a very serious ...

  4. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  5. Combating the Insider Cyber Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

    2008-01-02

    This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

  6. Non-representative quantum mechanical weak values

    E-print Network

    B. E. Y. Svensson

    2015-03-06

    The operational definition of a weak value for a quantum mechanical system involves the limit of the weak measurement strength tending to zero. I study how this limit compares to the situation for the undisturbed (no weak measurement) system. Under certain conditions, which I investigate, this limit is discontinuous in the sense that it does not merge smoothly to the Hilbert space description of the undisturbed system. Hence, in these discontinuous cases, the weak value does not represent the undisturbed system. As a result, conclusions drawn from such weak values regarding the properties of the studied system cannot be upheld. Examples are given.

  7. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  8. Strength Training

    MedlinePLUS

    ... comfortably perform the exercise for 8 to 15 repetitions. Before you begin any type of strength training ... added weight. Perform three sets of 8-15 repetitions (or reps) of each exercise, starting out with ...

  9. Conflict, frustration, and the theory of threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Maslow

    1943-01-01

    Similar to frustration, there are two types of conflict situations: non-threatening and threatening. The former are quite unimportant, since ordinarily not pathogenic; the latter are important, because often pathogenic. The essential pathogenic characteristics of conflict and frustration are threat of thwarting of the basic needs of the organism, threat to its integrity, threat to its integration, and threat to its

  10. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  11. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  12. The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.

    PubMed

    Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Pälkäs, Outi; Ismail, Kamaran Hassan; Ali, Karzan Jalal; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2005-03-01

    The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children. PMID:15766897

  13. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  14. Spaghetti Strength

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2011-01-01

    In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners explore how engineers characterize building materials. Learners test the strength of spaghetti and determine how the number of spaghetti strands affects the strength of a bundle of spaghetti. Use this activity to chemical bonds, mechanical testing, and engineering. Note: The pasta strands can be dipped in water and stuck together to more closely mimic the layers within a piece of plywood. More information about this can be found at the top of page 7, directly underneath the cartoon image. Safety note: Do not eat or drink any of the materials in this activity.

  15. Weak Nuclear Forces cause the Strong Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect

    Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

    2008-05-29

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the lattices.

  16. Parking garage threats and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Preventing and dealing with crime in hospital parking facilities poses a serious challenge to administration and security. Multiple methods to effectively combat the threats are described by the author, but their implementation depends on how seriously a healthcare organization views its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment for its staff, patients and visitors. PMID:15457923

  17. Potential IED threat system (PITS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Li; Diane Bramsen; Rafael Alonso

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial reasoning approach for predicting IED emplacement in an urban terrain. PITS is a tool that dynamically assesses the potential IED threat (PIT), i.e. the likelihood of emplacing IEDs by insurgents in a geographic area. PIT is determined for each region based on a linear function of relevant features which are systematically derived using heuristics and

  18. Mobile Security : Threats and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    . Smartphones, tablets, etc. o Devices with increasing computing, networking and sensing capabilities. Gartner implantable medical devices 3 #12;Security Threats The world's first mobile malware celebrates its 10th Birthday! Cabir First mobile malware appeared in 2004. Affecting Symbian mobile OS. Fake Player First

  19. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  20. BIODIVERSITY Geographical linkages between threats

    E-print Network

    Kark, Salit

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Geographical linkages between threats and imperilment in freshwater fish in the Mediterranean Basin Miguel Clavero1,2 *, Virgilio Hermoso3,4 , Noam Levin5 and Salit Kark3,6 INTRODUCTION With the current massive loss of biodiversity, understanding the geographical patterns in the distribution

  1. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vantine

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear\\/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are

  2. BOMB THREAT Questions to Ask

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Questions to Ask: 1. Where is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? Sex of caller: Age: Race

  3. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    E-print Network

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2007-12-11

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  4. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness.

    PubMed

    Collettini, Cristiano; Niemeijer, André; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

    2009-12-17

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals, high fluid pressures within the fault core and dynamic processes such as normal stress reduction, acoustic fluidization or extreme weakening at high slip velocity. Dynamic weakening mechanisms can explain some observations; however, creep and aseismic slip are thought to occur on weak faults, and quasi-static weakening mechanisms are required to initiate frictional slip on mis-oriented faults, at high angles to the tectonic stress field. Moreover, the maintenance of high fluid pressures requires specialized conditions and weak mineral phases are not present in sufficient abundance to satisfy weak fault models, so weak faults remain largely unexplained. Here we provide laboratory evidence for a brittle, frictional weakening mechanism based on common fault zone fabrics. We report on the frictional strength of intact fault rocks sheared in their in situ geometry. Samples with well-developed foliation are extremely weak compared to their powdered equivalents. Micro- and nano-structural studies show that frictional sliding occurs along very fine-grained foliations composed of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). When the same rocks are powdered, frictional strength is high, consistent with cataclastic processes. Our data show that fault weakness can occur in cases where weak mineral phases constitute only a small percentage of the total fault rock and that low friction results from slip on a network of weak phyllosilicate-rich surfaces that define the rock fabric. The widespread documentation of foliated fault rocks along mature faults in different tectonic settings and from many different protoliths suggests that this mechanism could be a viable explanation for fault weakening in the brittle crust. PMID:20016599

  5. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a ...

  6. New threats to academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. PMID:24602125

  7. Identifying Separation Threats in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argles, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the types of separation threats common in troubled families. Signs that threats are being used may include inappropriate clinging behavior, phobias, psychosomatic symptoms, and anxious attachment. Therapists may find other behaviors, often seen as problems in themselves, that are really reactions to perceived separation threats. (JAC)

  8. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  9. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct threat. 36.208 Section 36.208 Judicial...General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require...accommodation when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others....

  10. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131 Housing...URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require...agency when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others....

  11. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  12. Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome Tobacyk

    1983-01-01

    Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

  13. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  14. Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat

  15. Corium crust strength measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-11-01

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  16. Are subduction zones inherently weak?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Cruden, Alexander; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2014-05-01

    An outstanding question in geodynamics is how weak are plate boundaries when compared to their interiors? Particularly, how weak are subduction zone interfaces? Because subduction is believed to be the major driver of plate tectonics, this question is of fundamental importance for geodynamics. Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth plays a key role. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: i) an empirical relationship between shear stress at the interface and subduction velocity, deduced from laboratory experiments of subduction; and ii) a parametric study of natural subduction zones that provides new insights on subduction zone interface strength. Our results suggest that subduction is only mechanically feasible when shear stresses along the plate interface are relatively low (< 33 MPa). To account for this global requirement, we propose that there is a feedback mechanism between subduction velocity, water release rate from the subducting plate and serpentinization and weakening of the forearc mantle that may explain how relatively low shear stresses are maintained at subduction interfaces globally.

  17. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

  18. Heavy Flavor Weak Decays

    E-print Network

    R. C. Verma

    1997-03-04

    Weak decays of heavy flavor hadrons play a special role in our understanding of physics of the Standard Model and beyond. The measured quantities, however, result from a complicated interplay of weak and strong interactions. Weak leptonic and semileptonic decays are reasonably well understood, whereas weak hadronic decays present challenges to theory. In this talk, we review the present status of exclusive weak decays of charm and bottom hadrons.

  19. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination. PMID:17703786

  20. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  1. Shear strength of granular materials Farhang Radjai and Emilien Azma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Shear strength of granular materials Farhang Radjai and Emilien Azéma LMGC, CNRS the role of fabric and force anisotropies with respect to the critical-state shear strength. Then, a model. KEYWORDS: granular media, shear strength, fabric anisotropy, weak and strong forces. Revue, Volume X ­ n

  2. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  3. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hilland; G. Phipps; C. Jingle; G. Newton

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW\\/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW\\/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser

  4. Satellite threat warning and attack reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Hilland; G. S. Phipps; C. M. Jingle; G. Newton

    1998-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW\\/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW\\/AR program objectives are: (1) Develop cost-effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (2) Demonstrate innovative, lightweight, low-power, RF and

  5. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  6. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2009-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  7. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  8. The spectrum of weakly coupled map lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kupiainen; M DEGLIESPOSTI; S ISOLA; E JARVENPAA

    1998-01-01

    We consider weakly coupled analytic expanding circle maps on the lattice Zd (for d ? 1), with small coupling strength ? and coupling between two sites decaying exponentially with the distance. We study the spectrum of the associated (Perron-Frobenius) transfer operators. We give a Fréchet space on which the operator associated to the full system has a simple eigenvalue at

  9. Boosting a Weak Learning Algorithm by Majority

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Freund

    1995-01-01

    We present an algorithm for improving the accuracy of algorithms for learningbinary concepts. The improvement is achieved by combining a large number of hypotheses,each of which is generated by training the given learning algorithm on adifferent set of examples. Our algorithm is based on ideas presented by Schapire inhis paper "The strength of weak learnability", and represents an improvement over

  10. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2009-01-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  11. Calculating the Threat of Tsunami

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarre, Alastair.

    Provided by the Australian Academy of Science, Calculating the Threat of Tsunami is a recent feature of NOVA: Science in the News (described in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report describes recent "advances towards predicting tsunami by combining mathematics, geology, and physics." The importance of being able to predict tsunami was made clear when, on July 17, 1998, the north coast of Papua New Guinea and villages near the Sissano lagoon were destroyed by a massive tsunami. In addition to the general text, the special feature includes a Glossary, Activities, Further Reading, and a solid selection of Useful Sites. Anyone interested in tsunami will find a plethora of information for all levels at this site.

  12. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of information into a common rigorous framework. Ultimately, our framework may greatly assist conservation organizations in documenting threatening processes and planning species recovery. PMID:25065712

  13. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Goodman, Steven J.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches are proposed and developed for making time and space dependent, quantitative short-term forecasts of lightning threat, and a blend of these approaches is devised that capitalizes on the strengths of each. The new methods are distinctive in that they are based entirely on the ice-phase hydrometeor fields generated by regional cloud-resolving numerical simulations, such as those produced by the WRF model. These methods are justified by established observational evidence linking aspects of the precipitating ice hydrometeor fields to total flash rates. The methods are straightforward and easy to implement, and offer an effective near-term alternative to the incorporation of complex and costly cloud electrification schemes into numerical models. One method is based on upward fluxes of precipitating ice hydrometeors in the mixed phase region at the-15 C level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domain-wide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domain-wide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. Our blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Exploratory tests for selected North Alabama cases show that, because WRF can distinguish the general character of most convective events, our methods show promise as a means of generating quantitatively realistic fields of lightning threat. However, because the models tend to have more difficulty in predicting the instantaneous placement of storms, forecasts of the detailed location of the lightning threat based on single simulations can be in error. Although these model shortcomings presently limit the precision of lightning threat forecasts from individual runs of current generation models,the techniques proposed herein should continue to be applicable as newer and more accurate physically-based model versions, physical parameterizations, initialization techniques and ensembles of forecasts become available.

  14. Weak scale supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-12

    An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

  15. THE WEEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN ROMANIA. DIMENSION, STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia CIOCOIU; Stefan BURCEA; Valentina TARTIU

    2010-01-01

    Management systems for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have modernized as countries have accumulated experience. They are characterized by a profound dynamism because of the alert pace of growth of waste quantities which have been generated, but also because of the continuous diversification of the range of electronic equipment sold as an effect of the technical progress evolution and

  16. Experience Sampling: Promises and Pitfalls, Strength and Weaknesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie Napa Scollon; Chu-Kim Prieto; Ed Diener

    The experience-sampling (ESM) technique is a method in which recording of feelings and activities is done on-line at the moment,\\u000a either at randomly selected moments or at predetermined times. This method has the advantage of being able to not only assess\\u000a people’s general feelings, but to link feelings with situations, times of day, and other circumstances. Thus, ESM provides\\u000a a

  17. Revealing strengths and weaknesses of methods for gene network inference

    E-print Network

    Floreano, Dario

    . DREAM challenge community experiment reverse engineering transcriptional regulatory networks within the context of the DREAM (Dialogue on Re- verse Engineering Assessment and Methods) project. We by participating teams. Performance profiling reveals that current inference methods are affected, to various

  18. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  19. Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Mathe ´; Marie-France Sagot; Thomas Schiex; Pierre Rouze

    2002-01-01

    While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting

  20. Pacific rim coal markets: competitors' strengths and weaknesses

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    An analysis is given of the coal regions bidding for the Asian export market with respect to their advantages and disadvantages prior to port loading. The countries analyzed are: Australia, South Africa, Canada, Colombia, and the United States. The factors felt to be most important to economic attractiveness are a coal reserve's location, quality, and geology. Australia has high quality coal close to deep water ports that is easily mined, but rail tariffs, export duties, and frequent labor disputes partially offset these advantages. South Africa's advantages lie in the simple geology, which results in low production costs, and its rail transportation system. Canada's coal varies in quality and washing is often necessary to decrease ash content. Transportation costs make up more than half the delivered-to-port costs. The geology is more complex, but the large size of the mines help to minimize mining costs. Coal quality is generally good in Colombia and is close to tidewater. Although the geology is complex, it can be surface mined. Colombia's central location and the desire of importing nations to diversify their sources are advantages. In the US the western coal quality is not high, and it is located far from ports. The only real advantages are the stability of supply and the desire to diversify sources. The eastern coals are top quality, but found in more complex geology. The mining costs and storage costs are high. Alaska has medium quality coal located close to tidewater that can be developed. Vast reserves though are located in the permafrost zone. The determination of who actually captures the market is complicated by the diversity of supply objectives of consumers, but competition will be keen. (CKK)

  1. Bioplastics and Petroleum-based Plastics: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gironi; V. Piemonte

    2011-01-01

    The application of biomass, such as starch, cellulose, wood, and sugar, used to substitute fossil resources for the production of plastics, is a widely accepted strategy towards sustainable development. In fact, this way a significant reduction of non renewable energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission is accomplished. In recent years, several typologies of bioplastics were introduced and the most important

  2. C.P.S.—Its Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    1961-01-01

    The following, a supplement to the annual report of the Board of Trustees of California Physicians' Service that was published in the March 1961 issue of California Medicine, was delivered at the 1961 Annual Session of the House of Delegates by Dr. John G. Morrison, chairman of the board. PMID:18732431

  3. The Strengths and Weaknesses of ISO 9000 in Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans-Gonzales, Theresa L.; Nair, Ajay T.

    2004-01-01

    ISO 9000 is a set of quality standards that assists an organization to identify, correct and prevent errors, and to promote continual improvement. Educational institutions worldwide are implementing ISO 9000 as they face increasing external pressure to maintain accountability for funding. Similar to other countries, in the United States vocational…

  4. Strengths and Weaknesses of Two New Potato Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outlook (dimethenamid-p) and Chateau (flumioxazin) are two new preemergence herbicides labeled for use in potatoes. Both herbicides are restricted to preemergence applications only and improve nightshade control when tank mixed with other potato herbicides. Dimethenamid-p is particularly strong on ...

  5. Weakly sufficient quantum statistics

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Lubnauer; Andrzej ?uczak; Hanna Pods?dkowska

    2009-11-23

    Some aspects of weak sufficiency of quantum statistics are investigated. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a weakly sufficient statistic for a given family of vector states, investigate the problem of its minimality, and find the relation between weak sufficiency and other notions of sufficiency employed so far.

  6. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  7. Personality Correlates of Nuclear War Threat Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    This study investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and the threat of nuclear war among 192 introductory psychology students at a small college in the Pacific Northwest. One measure of nuclear threat perception was spontaneous concern, which was assessed using five presentations each of the incomplete sentences,…

  8. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fátima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

  9. RFID Security and Privacy: Threats and Countermeasures

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    RFID Security and Privacy: Threats and Countermeasures Marco Spruit Wouter Wester Technical Report Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;RFID SECURITY AND PRIVACY: THREATS of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and the objection of consumers to buy products that include non

  10. Third world radiation threats to satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Solin

    2006-01-01

    The era of hardening military satellites against nuclear events, lasers, and high-power microwaves, appears to have come to an end. A case is made here for maintaining rudimentary nuclear, laser, and high-power microwave (HPM) hardening requirements in order to protect against developing third world threats. The third world nuclear threat is well known. Less appreciated is the fact that third

  11. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  12. Cyber Threat Trend Analysis Model Using HMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Hoon Kim; Taek Lee; Sung-Oh David Jung; Hoh Peter In; Hee Jo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Prevention is normally recognized as one of the best defense strategy against malicious hackers or attackers. The desire of deploying better prevention mechanisms has motivated many security researchers and practitioners, who are studies threat trend analysis models. However, threat trend is not directly revealed from the time-series data because the trend is implicit in its nature. Besides, traditional time-series analysis,

  13. Cyber Threat Trend Analysis Model Using HMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do-hoon Kim; Taek Lee; Sung-oh David Jung; Hoh Peter In; Heejo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Prevention, not reaction, is normally recognized as one of the best defense strategy against malicious hackers or attackers. The desire of deploying better prevention mechanism motivated many security researchers and practitioners to develop a threat trend analysis model. However, threat trend is not directly revealed from the time-series data because it is normally implicit in its nature. Besides, traditional time-series

  14. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  15. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terroristic threats. 11.402 Section 11.402 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she...

  16. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  17. The New Nuclear Threat John Deutch

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    and other weapons of mass destruction. Governments and international organizations, including. Deutch THE NEW NUCLEAR THREAT he threat of nuclear weapons spread across the world has displaced the fear), although experts agree that Israel, Pakistan and South Africa also have a nuclear weapons capability

  18. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  19. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  20. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    PubMed

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

  1. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage. PMID:20889850

  2. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    PubMed

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message. PMID:24393019

  3. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

  4. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

  5. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

  6. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

  7. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

  10. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight...Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a...

  12. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 ...Threat and Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign...airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that...

  13. Naval threat and countermeasures simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.; Alexan, Karim; Birk, A. M.; Morin, Josee

    1994-10-01

    A Canadian Naval threat/countermeasures simulator (NTCS) capable of modeling the engagement between a naval ship and an infrared (IR) guided anti-ship missile is presented. The NTCS program is built upon previously developed naval ship signature software entitled Ship Infrared Simulator (SHIPIR) which produces 3-D graphical imagery of a ship in its sea/sky background for a wide range of operational, atmospheric, observer, and spectral conditions. By adding models for an IR seeker head, missile flight dynamics and commonly deployed ship IR countermeasures, NTCS can effectively assess the IR susceptibility of naval platforms through calculation of target lock-on ranges and hit/miss distances. Current and future naval ships can be analyzed for IR suppression effectiveness in such areas as hot surface visibility, low emissivity paints, and engine exhaust signature suppression. The various deployable countermeasures (flares, smoke screens, washdown, and ship maneuvers) and missile/seeker heads modeled in NTCS permit the assessment of ship survivability and development of tactics and counter-measures necessary to provide adequate IR protection. A description of NTCS is provided with emphasis on the missile and countermeasure models and overall engagement simulation. Some sample simulations to date on the Canadian DDH-280 tribal class destroyer are presented.

  14. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  15. Strength loss in kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarne, Jose

    Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

  16. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

  17. Soviet threat perceptions of NATO's Eurostrategic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    The problem investigated here is how Soviet perceptions of particular military threats, in this case from NATO's new INF missiles, affect their arms control negotiating policy. This study most closely examines Soviet writings in the 1979-83 period and relies on extensive interviewing, sponsored by IREX, at the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institutes. It attempts to distinguish between Soviet portrayals and real perceptions of the military and political threats from the 1983 INF deployments. It explores how such Soviet assessments interrelate with Soviet military doctrine and broader foreign policy strategies, and how perceptions might differ among Soviet analysts and officials. It is divided into six chapters: (1) Historical Perspectives; (2) Soviet Threat Portrayals; (3) Evaluating Soviet Threat Portrayals; (4) Soviet Military Doctrine and the INF Threat; (5) Soviet Political-Military Interests at the INF Negotiations; (6) The Soviet Net Assessment. The study finds that Soviet threat portrayals are loosely consistent with Soviet perceptions of the potential threat, especially from an extended-range Pershing missile against their National Command Authorities.

  18. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  19. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...prevent completion of the threat assessment). (5) Gender. (6...complete the security threat assessment, the Transportation Security...information necessary to reduce the risk of injury or damage to the...applicant's signed security threat assessment application. (2)...

  20. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...assessment or a comparable security threat assessment described in § 1540...must submit to TSA a security threat assessment application for...although failure to provide it may delay or prevent completion of the threat assessment). (5)...

  1. 49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Procedures for security threat assessment. 1540.205 Section 1540...AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.205 Procedures for security threat assessment. (a) Contents of...

  2. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ...Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY...of Defense announces a meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter...of Contact: Mr. Eric Wright, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/AST, 8725 John...

  3. 77 FR 1672 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter...William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725...

  4. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  5. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:23736227

  6. Superconducting weak links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Likharev

    1979-01-01

    This review covers experimental results and theoretical ideas on the properties of superconducting weak links, i.e., weak electrical contacts between superconducting electrodes which exhibit direct (non-tunnel-type) conductivity. When the dimensions of such weak links are sufficiently small, the Josephson effect is observed in them, in other words, a single-valued and 2pi -periodic relationship exists between the supercurrent Is and the

  7. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  8. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  9. Confronting Ego Threats with Reappraisal versus Rumination

    E-print Network

    Caskey, Ryan

    2010-01-16

    Two experiments compared the effects of two cognitive responses (i.e., rumination and cognitive reappraisal) individuals may adopt when confronted with a threat to self-regard. In Study 1, participants received negative feedback about their social...

  10. JiTT - Threats to Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Guertin

    1) How is climate change a threat to biodiversity? 2) What are the impacts of pesticides on animals (including insects) and humans? 3) Can human population growth really impact biodiversity? Explain your viewpoint.

  11. Terrorism in America. An evolving threat.

    PubMed

    Slater, M S; Trunkey, D D

    1997-10-01

    The response of the United States to a perceived terrorist threat is dichotomous. The hyperbole and exaggeration often displayed by the media and general public lies in stark contrast to the relative indifference with which terrorism is regarded by the medical community. Quantitating the true nature of the terrorist threat in the United States is difficult, as it is not only poorly defined but rapidly changing. The intent of this commentary is to define what constitutes terrorism and what specific threats exist, including conventional, nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. We will then outline recommendations for modest changes in our disaster medical planning to better prepare for these threats. Special attention will be directed at the emergence of nonconventional weapon use by terrorist organizations and how this might affect the civilian medical community. PMID:9336502

  12. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2010-01-08

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  13. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  14. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  15. Local shear instabilities in weakly ionized, weakly magnetized disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, Omer M.; Balbus, Steven A.

    1994-01-01

    We extend the analysis of axisymmetric magnetic shear instabilities from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows to weakly ionized plasmas with coupling between ions and neutrals caused by collisions, ionization, and recombination. As part of the analysis, we derive the single-fluid MHD dispersion relation without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. This work expands the range of applications of these instabilities from fully ionized accretion disks to molecular disks in galaxies and, with somewhat more uncertainty, to protostellar disks. Instability generally requires the angular velocity to decrease outward, the magnetic field strengths to be subthermal, and the ions and neutrals to be sufficiently well coupled. If ionization and recombination processes can be neglected on an orbital timescale, adequate coupling is achieved when the collision frequency of a given neutral with the ions exceeds the local epicyclic freqency. When ionization equilibrium is maintained on an orbital timescale, a new feature is present in the disk dynamics: in contrast to a single-fluid system, subthermal azimuthal fields can affect the axisymmetric stability of weakly ionized two-fluid systems. We discuss the underlying causes for this behavior. Azimuthal fields tend to be stabilizing under these circumstances, and good coupling between the neutrals and ions requires the collision frequency to exceed the epicyclic frequency by a potentially large secant factor related to the magnetic field geometry. When the instability is present, subthermal azimuthal fields may also reduce the growth rate unless the collision frequency is high, but this is important only if the field strengths are very subthermal and/or the azimuthal field is the dominant field component. We briefly discuss our results in the context of the Galactic center circumnuclear disk, and suggest that the shear instability might be present there, and be responsible for the observed turbulent motions.

  16. Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

  17. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  18. In silico study of potential autoimmune threats from rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tapati; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya; Bhowmick, Rahul; Nandy, Ashesh

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus, the major cause of infantile nonbacterial diarrhea, was found to be associated with development of diabetes-associated auto-antibodies. In our study we tried to find out further potential autoimmune threats of this virus using bioinformatics approach. We took rotaviral proteins to study similarity with Homo sapiens proteome and found most conserved structural protein VP6 matches at two regions with ryanodine receptor, an autoimmune target associated with myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis, a chronic neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder with no typical known reason, is characterized by fluctuating muscle weakness which is typically enhanced during muscular effort. Affected patients generate auto antibodies against mainly acetyl choline receptor and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel protein ryanodine receptor. Further, we observed that two regions which matched with ryanodine receptor remain conserved in all circulating rotaviral strains and showed significant antigenecity with respect to myasthenia gravis associated HLA haplotypes. Overall, our study detected rotaviral VP6 as a potential threat for myasthenia gravis and enlighten an area of virus associated autoimmune research. PMID:24929545

  19. Weak Lie 2-bialgebra

    E-print Network

    Zhuo Chen; Mathieu Stienon; Ping Xu

    2013-02-05

    We introduce the notion of weak Lie 2-bialgebra. Roughly, a weak Lie 2-bialgebra is a pair of compatible 2-term $L_\\infty$-algebra structures on a vector space and its dual. The compatibility condition is described in terms of the big bracket. We prove that (strict) Lie 2-bialgebras are in one-one correspondence with crossed modules of Lie bialgebras.

  20. Weak Lie 2-bialgebra

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notion of weak Lie 2-bialgebra. Roughly, a weak Lie 2-bialgebra is a pair of compatible 2-term $L_\\infty$-algebra structures on a vector space and its dual. The compatibility condition is described in terms of the big bracket. We prove that (strict) Lie 2-bialgebras are in one-one correspondence with crossed modules of Lie bialgebras.

  1. Weakly ?-continuous functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Noiri; S. Jafari; M. Caldas

    1987-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to introduce a new class of generalizations of continuous functions via ‚-open sets called weakly ‚- continuous functions. Moreover, we study some of its fundamental prop- erties. It turns out that weak ‚-continuity is weaker than ‚-continuity (1).

  2. GMM with Weak Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Stock; Jonathan H. Wright

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops asymptotic distribution theory for GMM estimators and test statistics when some or all of the parameters are weakly identified. General results are obtained and are specialized to two important cases: linear instrumental variables regres- sion and Euler equations estimation of the CCAPM. Numerical results for the CCAPM demonstrate that weak-identification asymptotics explains the breakdown of conventional GMM

  3. Weak values are universal in von Neumann measurements.

    PubMed

    Dressel, Justin; Jordan, Andrew N

    2012-12-01

    We refute the widely held belief that the quantum weak value necessarily pertains to weak measurements. To accomplish this, we use the transverse position of a beam as the detector for the conditioned von Neumann measurement of a system observable. For any coupling strength, any initial states, and any choice of conditioning, the averages of the detector position and momentum are completely described by the real parts of three generalized weak values in the joint Hilbert space. Higher-order detector moments also have similar weak value expansions. Using the Wigner distribution of the initial detector state, we find compact expressions for these weak values within the reduced system Hilbert space. As an application of the approach, we show that for any Hermite-Gauss mode of a paraxial beamlike detector these expressions reduce to the real and imaginary parts of a single system weak value plus an additional weak-value-like contribution that only affects the momentum shift. PMID:23368169

  4. Weak measurement of cotunneling time

    E-print Network

    Alessandro Romito; Yuval Gefen

    2014-10-24

    Quantum mechanics allows the existence of "virtual states" that have no classical analogue. Such virtual states defy direct observation through strong measurement, which would destroy the volatile virtual state. Here we show how a virtual state of an interacting many-body system can be detected employing a weak measurement protocol with postselection. We employ this protocol for the measurement of the time it takes an electron to tunnel through a virtual state of a quantum dot (cotunneling). Contrary to classical intuition, this cotunneling time is independent of the strength of the dot-lead coupling and may deviate from that predicted by time-energy uncertainty relation. Our approach, amenable to experimental verification, may elucidate an important facet of quantum mechanics which hitherto was not accessible by direct measurements.

  5. Inhibitory control as a moderator of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-06-01

    Prior findings are mixed regarding the presence and direction of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety. The current study examined general inhibitory control (IC), measured by the classic colour-word Stroop, as a moderator of the relationship between both threat interference biases [indexed by the emotional Stroop (e-Stroop)] and several social anxiety indicators. High socially anxious undergraduate students (N = 159) completed the emotional and colour-word Stroop tasks, followed by an anxiety-inducing speech task. Participants completed measures of trait social anxiety, state anxiety before and during the speech, negative task-interfering cognitions during the speech and overall self-evaluation of speech performance. Speech duration was used to measure behavioural avoidance. In line with hypotheses, IC moderated the relationship between e-Stroop bias and every anxiety indicator (with the exception of behavioural avoidance), such that greater social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with weak IC, whereas lesser social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with strong IC. Implications for the theory and treatment of threat interference biases in socially anxious individuals are discussed. PMID:24967719

  6. Anisotropy of Weakly Vibrated Granular Flows

    E-print Network

    Geert Wortel; Martin van Hecke

    2014-10-16

    We experimentally probe the anisotropy of the fabric of weakly vibrated, flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters --- flow rate and vibration strength --- this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggests that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a crucial role in determining the rheology of granular flows.

  7. Guess Again (and Again and Again): Measuring Password Strength by Simulating Password-Cracking

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    for attackers to compromise. A common threat model is an attacker who steals a list of hashed passwordsGuess Again (and Again and Again): Measuring Password Strength by Simulating Password University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 #12;Guess again (and again and again): Measuring password strength

  8. Impact of an interactive anti-speeding threat appeal: how much threat is too much?

    PubMed

    Pani?, Katarina; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the impact of an interactive television public-service announcement (PSA) containing an anti-speeding threat appeal on feelings of telepresence and behavioral intention. In a 2?×?2?×?2 between-subjects factorial design with 213 participants, the level of threat evoked by a traditional PSA, by the interactive part of the PSA (dedicated advertising location or DAL) and by the preceding program context are manipulated to be either low or high. The results support the assumptions of the Extended Parallel Processing Model with regard to the effect of the level of perceived threat and perceived efficacy in an interactive media environment, and the important role of telepresence as a processing variable. The results of the three-way interaction effect of threat evoked by the program, the PSA and the DAL on telepresence show that when the threat levels of the program and the PSA are both either low or high, exposure to the threatening information in the DAL does not generate a significantly higher feeling of telepresence. However, when a low-threat program is followed by a high-threat PSA, the threat level of the DAL has a positive effect on telepresence. The same trend is found with a high-threat program and a low-threat PSA, although the effect of the threat evoked by the DAL on telepresence is not significant at conventional levels. Finally, there is a positive effect of telepresence on the behavioral intention to reduce speeding, which is partly mediated by the viewer's perceived efficacy to follow the recommended behavior. PMID:21204691

  9. SECURITY THREAT MODELING AND ANALYSIS: A GOAL-ORIENTED APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebenezer A. Oladimeji; Sam Supakkul; Lawrence Chung

    Threat modeling provides a good foundation for the specifi- cation of security requirements during application develop- ment. When applied during the early phases of software de- velopment, threat modeling empowers developers in several ways. These range from verifying application architecture, identifying and evaluating threats, designing countermea- sures, to penetration testing based on a threat model. There is however paucity of

  10. Guidelines for Student Threat Assessment: Field-Test Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dewey G. Cornell; Peter L. Sheras; Sebastian Kaplan; David McConville; Julea Douglass; Andrea Elkon; Lela McKnight; Chris Branson; Joanna Cole

    A demonstration project was conducted to field-test guidelines for schools to use in responding to student threats of violence. Results from 188 student threats occurring in 35 schools over the course of one school year are described. School- based teams used a decision-tree model to evaluate the seriousness of a threat and take appropriate action to reduce the threat of

  11. The cyber crime threat on mobile Chris Mitchell

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Chris

    The cyber crime threat on mobile devices Chris Mitchell Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham and emerging cyber crime threats to mobile devices. The main classes of threat are briefly reviewed as follows. The main cyber (and hence cyber crime) threats to mobile devices are reviewed. We then look

  12. WATERBASED PATHOGENS: THE HIDDEN THREAT IN OURTHE HIDDEN THREAT IN OUR

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    WATERBASED PATHOGENS: THE HIDDEN THREAT IN OURTHE HIDDEN THREAT IN OUR WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS Ian Pepper and Chuck Gerba The University of Arizona Emerging Pathogens inEmerging Pathogens in Water Workshop March 9 2010March 9, 2010 #12;WATERBORNE PATHOGENS W b di i d h h i i f i d Waterborne disease

  13. Stereotype threat in sports 1 Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT AND ACHIEVEMENT GOALS IN SPORTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stereotype threat in sports 1 Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT AND ACHIEVEMENT GOALS IN SPORTS Do Cury CNRS Provence University and Toulon Var South University, France Journal of Sport and Exercise Mailing addresses: Aïna Chalabaev and Philippe Sarrazin, Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social

  14. Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M.; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60 000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the “threat-sensitive hypothesis”. PMID:24489778

  15. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    PubMed

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis". PMID:24489778

  16. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  17. Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

  18. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PROVISION OF AN ACCEPTABLE STANDARD OF HEALTH CARE, PARTICULARLY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, WILL BE UNDERMINED BY THREE ONGOING PROCESSES: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  19. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  20. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  1. Assessing the threat status of ecological communities.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Emily; Keith, David A; Wilcove, David S

    2009-04-01

    Conservationists are increasingly interested in determining the threat status of ecological communities as a key part of their planning efforts. Such assessments are difficult because of conceptual challenges and a lack of generally accepted criteria. We reviewed 12 protocols for assessing the threat status of communities and identified conceptual and operational issues associated with developing a rigorous, transparent, and universal set of criteria for assessing communities, analogous to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List standards for species. We examined how each protocol defines a community and its extinction and how each applies 3 overarching criteria: decline in geographic distribution, restricted geographic distribution, and changes to ecological function. The protocols vary widely in threshold values used to assess declines and distribution size and the time frames used to assess declines, leading to inconsistent assessments of threat status. Few of the protocols specify a scale for measuring distribution size, although assessment outcomes are highly sensitive to scale. Protocols that apply different thresholds for species versus communities tend to require greater declines and more restricted distributions for communities than species to be listed in equivalent threat categories. Eleven of the protocols include a reduction in ecological function as a criterion, but almost all assess it qualitatively rather than quantitatively. We argue that criteria should be explicit and repeatable in their concepts, parameters, and scale, applicable to a broad range of communities, and address synergies between types of threats. Such criteria should focus on distribution size, declines in distribution, and changes to key ecological functions, with the latter based on workable proxies for assessing the severity, scope, and immediacy of degradation. Threat categories should be delimited by thresholds that are assessed at standard scales and are logically consistent with the viability of component species and important ecological functions. PMID:19245533

  2. Protecting Networked Systems from Malware Threats

    E-print Network

    Shin, Seung Won

    2013-07-26

    PROTECTING NETWORKED SYSTEMS FROM MALWARE THREATS A Dissertation by SEUNG WON SHIN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Chair... answers for each question. First, we analyze the behaviors and characteristics of large-scale bot infected hosts, and it provides us new ndings of network malware and new insights that are useful to detect (or defeat) recent network threats. To do this...

  3. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  4. Do strengths measure up?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicky Garcea; Stephen Isherwood; Alex Linley

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper sets out to draw comparisons and make linkages between strengths and competency methodologies. Whereas some authors have seen the strengths approach as a revolution in human resources (HR), the authors of this paper see it more as a natural evolution. The paper aims to overview the strengths approach as well as presenting a case study of

  5. Evolution, Punctuational Crises and the Threat to Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clube, S. V. M.

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between “punctuated equilibrium” and “impact crises” is critically examined in the light of our present knowledge of asteroids and comets. It turns out that the emphasis on relatively narrow epochs associated with occasional “NEO” impacts is probably misplaced. Rather priority should be given to the wider and more frequent epochs associated with multiple “NEO” debris impacts which result in so-called “punctuational crises” afflicting the planets. These comprise the global coolings, super-Tunguska events and generally enhanced fireball flux produced by the larger orbital debris whenever an active, dormant or dead comet fragments and produces a trail. Taken as a whole and in conjunction with the target, the response function is inevitably complex. Nevertheless we broadly expect that the strength of a punctuational crisis will vary as the progenitor comet mass, the inverse dispersion of its debris and the inverse delay since fragmentation. The encounter of P/SL-9 with Jupiter may be taken as representing an extreme punctuational crisis where the dispersion and delay were exceptionally small. The more familiar crises affecting the Earth with less extreme values of dispersion and delay, which have resulted in civilization being disturbed a good many times during recent millennia, are no less important however. Indeed, the next such threat to civilization ostensibly has a roughly 1 in 4 lifetime chance. Any support for the Spaceguard programme which detracts from consideration of these punctuational crises, whatever their strength, would seem now to be peculiarly wide of the mark.

  6. ICU-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, William D; Hall, Jesse

    2007-05-01

    Observational studies of patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation and other forms of critical care support have determined acquired neuromuscular disorders to be extremely common. Early studies used electrophysiologic investigations to diagnose critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and muscle biopsy to confirm critical illness myopathy (CIM). More recent approaches seek to obviate these invasive techniques and build on a standardized bedside neuromuscular examination to identify patients with acquired weakness syndromes. Serial examination in the alert patient may serve as a reasonable prognosticator for most patients. The importance of ICU-acquired weakness syndromes is supported by the observation that muscle wasting and weakness are among the most prominent long-term complications of survivors of ARDS. In addition, a strong association appears to exist between acquired weakness and protracted ventilator dependence, an important determinant of ICU length of stay. Multivariate analysis has identified several risk factors associated with increased incidence for ICU-acquired weakness, including severe systemic inflammation, medications (specifically, corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents), glycemic control, and immobility. We advocate an approach to this common syndrome that identifies risk factors early in the hope of minimizing their impact. PMID:17494803

  7. Managing Lake Kariba sustainably: threats and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael James Tumbare

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to communicate and share experiences with stakeholders on how the sustainability threats and challenges associated with managing Lake Kariba and the Kariba Dam wall are being managed by the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case study area is Lake Kariba and Kariba Dam wall located in the mid-Zambezi river basin.

  8. The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Berche

    2001-01-01

    Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity. The smallpox virus is highly specific for humans and non-pathogenic in animals. There is no antiviral treatment and a vaccine is active only if administered in the

  9. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Henderson

    1998-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics

  10. The Nature of the Terrorism Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Bruce Hoffman and Marc Sageman, two prominent scholars of terrorism, square off over whether Al Qaeda remains the primary global terrorist threat. The dispute began in the pages of "Foreign Affairs," where Hoffman, a professor in the security-studies program at Georgetown University, wrote a withering review of Sageman's…

  11. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  12. Amphibian commerce and the threat of pathogen

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    7/16/2011 1 Amphibian commerce and the threat of pathogen pollution Angela Picco, PhD United% for commercial purposes, mostly for pet trade (Smith et al., 2009) W.B. Karesh #12;7/16/2011 2 Amphibian trade · Pet trade · Food trade · Research, biomedical, education · Bait trade · 5 million live amphibians per

  13. Al Shabaab's Foreign Threat to Somalia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Shinn

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the threat to Somalia by al Shabaab (The Youth), an extremist organization that controls most of southern and central Somalia. It learned its strategy and tactics from al Qaeda and the Taliban and relies heavily on a relatively small number of foreign fighters, most of whom are Somalis with foreign passports from the large Somali diaspora.

  14. Countering GPS jamming and EW threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Pereira; J. Rastegar; Clifford E. McLain; T. Alanson; Charles McMullan; H.-L. Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement

  15. Roving Bugnet: Distributed Surveillance Threat and Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xinyuan "Frank"

    Advanced mobile devices such as laptops and smartphones make conve- nient hiding places for surveillance unchecked threat reaching critical po- tential. Primarily, consumers are realizing that a smartphone malware. A microphone in every house with Internet access is of little use to the average attacker

  16. Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

  17. Saturday, January 16, 2010 Arsenic Threat

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    With arsenic creeping into farmlands and the water table falling fast due to excessive groundwater mining in croplands due to excessive groundwater irrigation. A study carried out by leading arsenic researchers fromFront Page Saturday, January 16, 2010 Arsenic Threat Govt plans paradigm shift in agriculture

  18. Unauthorized Collaboration on Facebook: Threats and Responses

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Unauthorized Collaboration on Facebook: Threats and Responses Recent events at FSU have uncovered and collaboration. The Problem: When students, faculty, and staff join Facebook using a valid FSU email address this and believe it is affiliated with or endorsed by Florida State University. Facebook also allows students

  19. Garlic: Nature's Protection Against Physiological Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Mehmood S. Butt; Javaid Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements

  20. Large Online Social Footprints -An Emerging Threat

    E-print Network

    Li, Kang

    of the information revealed by multiple social networking sites, a user's online social footprint. We study-identity management site. Online-identity management sites allow a user to provide links to all their social networkLarge Online Social Footprints - An Emerging Threat Danesh Irani #1 , Steve Webb 2 , Kang Li &3

  1. Stereotype Threat Reinterpreted as a Regulatory Mismatch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa R. Grimm; Arthur B. Markman; W. Todd Maddox; Grant C. Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    This research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. The authors combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows them to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. The authors draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce

  2. Deriving security requirements from crosscutting threat descriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. Haley; Robin C. Laney; Bashar Nuseibeh

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that early determination of the stakeholder requirements assists in the development of systems that better meet the needs of those stakeholders. General security requirements frustrate this goal because it is difficult to determine how they affect the functional requirements of the system.This paper illustrates how representing threats as crosscutting concerns aids in determining the effect of

  3. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Gilmore; Michael A. Pagels; Justin Palk

    2001-01-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational

  4. Stereotype Threat and Counter-Stereotypical Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Chisik

    We show that stereotype threat can occur in a labor market signaling model where no one believes that an agent played a strictly dominated strategy. This idea of self-fulfilling statistical discrimination is different from the one Spence posed in his original work on market signaling, which requires employers to believe that low-ability women would play a strictly dominated strategy. Our

  5. Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

  6. BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST QUESTIONS TO ASK: 1. When is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? CALLER'S VOICE: ___Calm

  7. Weak mutually unbiased bases

    E-print Network

    M. Shalaby; A. Vourdas

    2012-03-05

    Quantum systems with variables in ${\\mathbb Z}(d)$ are considered. The properties of lines in the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space of these systems, are studied. Weak mutually unbiased bases in these systems are defined as bases for which the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases, is equal to $d^{-1/2}$ or alternatively to one of the $d_i^{-1/2},0$ (where $d_i$ is a divisor of $d$ apart from $d,1$). They are designed for the geometry of the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space, in the sense that there is a duality between the weak mutually unbiased bases and the maximal lines through the origin. In the special case of prime $d$, there are no divisors of $d$ apart from $1,d$ and the weak mutually unbiased bases are mutually unbiased bases.

  8. Strength Modeling Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

    1985-01-01

    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  9. On the Ultimate Strength of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.

    2014-07-01

    This and an accompanying paper track a range of thresholds for the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient state to the point at which the material bond strength is overcome and it becomes warm dense matter. The threshold considered here is the weak shock limit that differentiates weak- from strong shock dynamic loading. This work examines this threshold and shows a correlation with the theoretical strength of the material. The structure of the shock that evolves has steady and unsteady phases that sweep different regions in a target in differing manners. This is put in context with scale to show it as a transit to a hydrodynamic regime. Limits on the applicability of solid mechanics are discussed in relation to the mechanisms observed.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF TONGUE WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of nonspeech tongue function is common in speech-language pathology. This paper reviews techniques used to determine tongue strength and endurance, and describes a constant-effort task. These techniques are intended to reveal and quantify the presence of weakness or fatigue of the tongue. The consequences of performing these tasks with and without a bite block, used to fix jaw position, are considered. Whether nonspeech tongue impairment is associated with speech dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is another topic of interest. Past studies indicated reduced tongue strength and endurance in Parkinson’s disease, but these measures did not correlate with speech measures. It was hypothesized that weakness and fatigue need to be impaired to a “critical” level before speech is perceptibly affected. To examine whether experimentally induced tongue fatigue affects speech, normal speakers performed prolonged strenuous tongue exercise. Speech deteriorated following these exercises. A new investigation examines whether 1 hour of speech-like tongue exercise (rapid syllable repetitions) affects dysarthric speech. Preliminary data from 6 participants with Parkinson’s disease, 1 person with bulbar ALS, and 6 neurologically normal control subjects indicate that sentences sound more precise but less natural after the exercises. Surprisingly, results did not differ significantly between the groups. Continued collection of data and refinement of tasks will contribute to our understanding of the potential relationships between weakness, fatigue, and speech. PMID:15832858

  11. Risk assessment and LAVA's (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment) dynamic threat analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    LAVA (the Los Alamos Vulnerability/Risk Assessment system) is a three-part systematic approach to risk assessment that can be used to model risk assessment for a variety of application systems such as computer security systems, communications security systems, and information security systems. The first part of LAVA is the mathematical methodology based on such disciplines as hierarchical system theory, event-tree analysis, possibility theory, and cognitive science. The second part is the general software engine,written for a large class of personal computers, that implements the mathematical risk model. The third part is the application data sets written for a specific application system. The methodology provides a framework for creating applications for the software engine to operate upon; all application-specific information is data. Using LAVA, we build knowledge-based expert systems to assess risks in application systems comprising a subject system and a safeguards system. The subject system model comprises sets of threats, assets, and undesirable outcomes; because the threat to security systems is ever-changing, LAVA provides for an analysis of the dynamic aspects of the threat spectrum. The safeguards system model comprises sets of safeguards functions for protecting the assess from the threats by preventing or ameliorating the undesirable outcomes; sets of safeguards subfunctions whose performance determine whether the function is adequate and complete; and sets of issues that appear as interactive questionnaires, whose measures define both the weaknesses in the safeguards system and the potential costs of an undesirable outcome occurring. 29 refs.

  12. Muscle Strength and BMI as Predictors of Major Mobility Disability in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P)

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Espeland, Mark A.; Miller, Michael E.; Church, Timothy S.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background. Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. Methods. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which sedentary functionally limited participants (70–89 years, Short Physical Performance Battery ? 9) who were able to complete a 400-m walk test at baseline were randomized to a physical activity or health education intervention and reassessed for major mobility disability every 6 months for up to 18 months. We evaluated whether baseline grip strength and BMI predicted failure to complete the 400-m walk test in 15 minutes or less (major mobility disability). Results. Among N = 406 participants with baseline measures, lower grip strength was associated with an increased risk for developing major mobility disability, with and without covariate adjustment (p < .01): The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus high sex-specific quartile of grip strength was 6.11 (2.24–16.66). We observed a U-shaped relationship between baseline BMI and the risk of developing major mobility disability, such that the risk for participants with a BMI of 25–29 kg/m2 was approximately half that of participants with BMI less than 25 or 30 kg/m2 or more (p = .04 in fully adjusted analyses). Conclusions. Our data highlight the importance of muscle weakness, low BMI, and obesity as risk factors for major mobility disability in older adults. Being overweight may be protective for major mobility disability. PMID:21975090

  13. Imbalanced Weak MHD Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Yoram Lithwick; Peter Goldreich

    2002-08-02

    MHD turbulence consists of waves that propagate along magnetic fieldlines, in both directions. When two oppositely directed waves collide, they distort each other, without changing their respective energies. In weak MHD turbulence, a given wave suffers many collisions before cascading. "Imbalance" means that more energy is going in one direction than the other. In general, MHD turbulence is imbalanced. A number of complications arise for the imbalanced cascade that are unimportant for the balanced one. We solve weak MHD turbulence that is imbalanced. Of crucial importance is that the energies going in both directions are forced to equalize at the dissipation scale. We call this the "pinning" of the energy spectra. It affects the entire inertial range. Weak MHD turbulence is particularly interesting because perturbation theory is applicable. Hence it can be described with a simple kinetic equation. Galtier et al. (2000) derived this kinetic equation. We present a simpler, more physical derivation, based on the picture of colliding wavepackets. In the process, we clarify the role of the zero-frequency mode. We also explain why Goldreich & Sridhar claimed that perturbation theory is inapplicable, and why this claim is wrong. (Our "weak" is equivalent to Goldreich & Sridhar's "intermediate.") We perform numerical simulations of the kinetic equation to verify our claims. We construct simplified model equations that illustrate the main effects. Finally, we show that a large magnetic Prandtl number does not have a significant effect, and that hyperviscosity leads to a pronounced bottleneck effect.

  14. High power ultrasonic bond strength evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    S>Bond strength of diffusion and adhesive bonds has long remained one of ;\\u000a the unsolved problems facing the materials testing industry. Many techniques are ;\\u000a available for the detection of unbonds but these tend to become inaccurate when ;\\u000a the unbonded surfaces are in intimate contact. Weak bonds in almost all cases ;\\u000a cannot be distinguished from bends which approach

  15. OPUS: Preventing weak password choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford

    1992-01-01

    A common problem with systems that use passwords for auth- entication is that users choose weak passwords. Weak passwords are passwords that are easy to guess, simple to derive, or likely to be found in a dictionary attack. Thus, the choice of weak passwords may lead to a compromised system. Methods exist to prevent users from selecting and using weak

  16. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572...threat assessment includes biometric identification and a biometric credential. (2...enrollment process and provide biometric information to obtain a...applicant seeks unescorted access to a secure area of a...

  17. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572...threat assessment includes biometric identification and a biometric credential. (2...enrollment process and provide biometric information to obtain a...applicant seeks unescorted access to a secure area of a...

  18. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  19. Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

  20. Using SWOT Analysis for Promoting the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Joe E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can be used by business educators to find the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal departmental capabilities (strengths and weaknesses). An example from accounting education is provided. (JOW)

  1. Enhanced probing of fermion interaction using weak-value amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Alex; Feizpour, Amir; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a scheme for enhanced probing of an interaction between two single fermions based on weak-value amplification. The scheme is applied to measuring the anisotropic electron-hole exchange interaction strength in semiconductor quantum dots where both spin and energy are mapped onto emitted photons. We study the effect of dephasing of the probe on the weak-value-enhanced measurement. We find that, in the limit of slow noise, weak-value amplification provides a unique tool for enhanced-precision measurement of few-fermion systems.

  2. Associative recognition and the list strength paradigm.

    PubMed

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    When a subset of list items is strengthened, the discriminability of the nonstrengthened items is unaffected. This regularity has been dubbed the null list strength effect (LSE), and despite its many replications in item recognition, little research has investigated whether an LSE occurs in associative recognition. We conducted two experiments in which a set of pairs were studied once and a set of interference pairs were studied either once (pure-weak-list condition) or four times (mixed-list condition). Equivalent levels of performance for the nonstrengthened pairs were observed in both the pure-weak and mixed conditions using both yes-no and two-alternative forced choice testing. Additionally, equivalent false alarm rates were observed between rearranged pairs composed of weak and strong items. Both sets of results were found to be consistent with a matrix model that has no overlap among its item representations. PMID:24317960

  3. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  4. Pop-up threat models for persistent area denial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Liu; COREY J. SCHUMACHER

    2007-01-01

    Pop-up threats usually appear or disappear randomly in a battle field. If the next pop-up threat locations could be predicted it would assist a search or attack team, such as in a persistent area denial (PAD) mission, in getting a team of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) to the threats sooner. We present a Markov model for predicting pop-up ground threats

  5. Threat Modelling for Web Services Based Web Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieven Desmet; Bart Jacobs; Frank Piessens; Wouter Joosen

    Threat analysis of a web application can lead to a wide variety of identified threats. Some of these threats will be very\\u000a specific to the application; others will be more related to the underlying infrastructural software, such as the web or application\\u000a servers, the database, the directory server and so forth. This paper analyzes the threats that can be related

  6. INNOVATIVE TESTS TO PREDICT THE STRENGTH AND TYPE OF ASPHALT-AGGREGATE BONDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur R. Tarrer; Vinay P. Wagh

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses two techniques to characterize the type and measure the strength of asphalt-aggregate bonds. The Modified Lottman Test is commonly used to measure the physical strength of asphalt-aggregate bonds. Under certain conditions bonds may become weak due to chemical factors that are not accounted for in the Modified Lottman Test. In order to measure the chemical strength of

  7. EVOLVING SHEAR STRENGTH, STABILITY AND SNOWPACK PROPERTIES IN STORM SNOW Catherine Brown

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    EVOLVING SHEAR STRENGTH, STABILITY AND SNOWPACK PROPERTIES IN STORM SNOW Catherine Brown 1 with a tilt-board test, we measured changes in layer shear strength over time with a shear frame test. We and the stress induced by overlying load. Keywords: non-persistent weak layers, storm snow, shear strength

  8. Current nuclear threats and possible responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

  9. In Brief: Threats to species continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

  10. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  11. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  12. Lightning threat extent of a small thunderstorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James R.; Maier, Launa M.; Weems, John

    1988-01-01

    The concern for safety of the personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has caused NASA to promulgate strict safety procedures requiring either termination or substantial curtailment when ground lightning threat is believed to exist within 9.3 km of a covered operation. In cases where the threat is overestimated, in either space or time, an opportunity cost is accrued. This paper describes a small thunderstorm initiated over the KSC by terrain effects, that serves to exemplify the impact such an event may have on ground operations at the Center. Data from the Air Force Lightning Location and Protection System, the AF/NASA Launch Pad Lightning Warning System field mill network, radar, and satellite imagery are used to describe the thunderstorm and to discuss its impact.

  13. External threats and nursing home administrator turnover.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, J; Gifford, D; Shah, A; Mor, V

    2001-01-01

    External threats and volatility in the long-term-care sector in recent decades have posed serious challenges for nursing home administrators. Greater job complexity and administrative responsibilities resulting from public policies and more specialization and competitiveness in nursing home markets have made turnover a significant issue. This article examines administrator turnover from 1970 through 1997 in New York State and describes how turnover increased markedly in the late 1980s and early 1990s. PMID:11482176

  14. Soviet debates on the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Shenfield, S.

    1987-01-01

    Looking at how the Soviet Union views nuclear war and peace and how Soviet views on these critical questions differ from those in the West, this book examines how the academic debate on the nuclear threat and peace relates to Soviet perspectives on arms control. The author penetrates the surface of political unanimity to reveal major differences between traditional hard-liners and a growing group of specialists and politicians who see peace as an absolute value.

  15. Identifying Keystone Threats to Biological Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Baldwin

    \\u000a Human beings have become the dominant force for environmental change and the task of conservation planning is to counter those\\u000a changes most threatening biodiversity by identifying key areas providing resiliency and refuge. Landscape-scale conservation\\u000a planners need to dissect those ‘threats’ (human activities that have driven ecological processes beyond the range of natural\\u000a variability) to understand exactly what anthropogenic activities are

  16. Reassessing the earthquake threat to San Francisco

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Williams et al.

    This resource provides an abstract. New research suggests that authorities may need to reassess the threat posed by the Hayward fault, the fault responsible for San Francisco's highly destructive 1868 earthquake. The authors used a large shaking vehicle to send vibrations into the ground along a 1.6 kilometer portion of the Hayward fault and used the recorded vibrations reflected back from the fault to develop a profile of its shape and location. Findings are described.

  17. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  18. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  19. Bullying: a hidden threat to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Longo, Joy; Hain, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a crucial element for quality care in hemodialysis facilities. When evaluating possible threats to safety, an important factor to consider is the behavior of the healthcare staff. Inappropriate behaviors, such as bullying, have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In addressing inappropriate behaviors, it is necessary to consider the role of the work environment. Healthy work environment initiatives provide a possible strategy to prevent and/or address the behaviors. PMID:24818452

  20. Making Mountains of Morality From Molehills of Virtue: Threat Causes People to Overestimate Their Moral Credentials.

    PubMed

    Effron, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    Seven studies demonstrate that threats to moral identity can increase how definitively people think they have previously proven their morality. When White participants were made to worry that their future behavior could seem racist, they overestimated how much a prior decision of theirs would convince an observer of their non-prejudiced character (Studies 1a-3). Ironically, such overestimation made participants appear more prejudiced to observers (Study 4). Studies 5 to 6 demonstrated a similar effect of threat in the domain of charitable giving-an effect driven by individuals for whom maintaining a moral identity is particularly important. Threatened participants only enhanced their beliefs that they had proven their morality when there was at least some supporting evidence, but these beliefs were insensitive to whether the evidence was weak or strong (Study 2). Discussion considers the role of motivated reasoning, and implications for ethical decision making and moral licensing. PMID:24793359

  1. Processing of Threat-Related Information in Rape Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna B. Foa; Ulrike Feske; Tamera B. Murdock; Michael J. Kozak; Paul R. McCarthy

    1991-01-01

    We investigated selective processing of threat information in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by using a modified Stroop procedure. Subjects were 15 rape victims with PTSD, 13 rape victims without the disorder, and 16 nontraumatized control subjects. They were asked to name the color of four types of words: specific threat (rape-related) words, general threat (related to physical harm

  2. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-300.22 Section 60-300...Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use...held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the...

  3. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-741.22 Section 60-741...Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use...held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the...

  4. Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

  5. Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

  6. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  7. Nuclear threat in the post cold-war era. Monograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurey

    1995-01-01

    This monograph discusses the nuclear threat that the United States faces following the downfall of the Soviet Union. The Russian and Chinese nuclear arsenals represent a formidable threat that must be countered and a new threat is emerging in the third world despite efforts to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The monograph reviews the current status of

  8. Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa J Green; Mary L Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Rapid and efficient judgments about the significance of social threat are important for species survival and may recruit specialized neurocognitive systems, consistent with biological models of threat processing [1]. We review cognitive, psychophysiological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence in support of specialized neural networks subserving the processing of facial displays of threat. Cognitive research suggests that faces depicting anger are detected

  9. Fundamental freedoms and the psychology of threat, bargaining, and inequality.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Adam; Mishra, Sandeep; Barclay, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert's findings may be explained by the psychology of threat and bargaining. Poor people facing extreme threats must cope by surrendering individual freedom in service of shared group needs. Wealthier people are more able to flee from threats and/or resist authoritarianism, so their leaders must concede greater freedom. Incorporating these factors (plus inequality) can sharpen researchers' predictions. PMID:23985171

  10. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  11. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, N.; Silbersweig, D.; Engelien, A.; Emmerich, S.; Malavade, K.; Beattie, B.; Leon, A. C.; Stern, E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in animals demonstrate a crucial role for the amygdala in emotional and social behavior, especially as related to fear and aggression. Whereas lesion and functional-imaging studies in humans indicate the amygdala’s participation in assessing the significance of nonverbal as well as paralinguistic cues, direct evidence for its role in the emotional processing of linguistic cues is lacking. In this study, we use a modified Stroop task along with a high-sensitivity neuroimaging technique to target the neural substrate engaged specifically when processing linguistic threat. Healthy volunteer subjects were instructed to name the color of words of either threat or neutral valence, presented in different color fonts, while neural activity was measured by using H215O positron-emission tomography. Bilateral amygdalar activation was significantly greater during color naming of threat words than during color naming of neutral words. Associated activations were also noted in sensory-evaluative and motor-planning areas of the brain. Thus, our results demonstrate the amygdala’s role in the processing of danger elicited by language. In addition, the results reinforce the amygdala’s role in the modulation of the perception of, and response to, emotionally salient stimuli. The current study further suggests conservation of phylogenetically older mechanisms of emotional evaluation in the context of more recently evolved linguistic function. PMID:10468630

  12. Global Health Threats: Global Warming in Perspective

    E-print Network

    Indur M. Goklany, Ph.D.

    Some authorities have claimed that global warming is one of the most—if not the most—important public health threat of this century. They do not, however, support this assertion by comparative analysis of the relative magnitude and severity of various health threats. Such an analysis, presented here, shows that other global health threats outrank global warming at present, and are likely to continue to do so through the foreseeable future, even under the warmest scenario developed by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Exaggerated and unsupported claims about the importance of global warming risk skewing the world’s public health priorities away from real, urgent health problems. Policies curbing global warming would, moreover, increase energy prices and reduce its usage, retarding both economic development and advances in human wellbeing. That would slow advances in society’s adaptive capacity to deal not only with the effects of global warming, but all other sources of adversity. Through the foreseeable future, global health would be advanced farther, faster, more surely, and more economically if efforts are focused not on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but on reducing vulnerability to today’s urgent health problems that may be exacerbated by global warming, while increasing adaptive capacity, particularly of developing countries, through economic development.

  13. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  14. SARS: An Emerging Global Microbial Threat.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, James M.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance, the development of rapid diagnostics, new therapies, and vaccines, implementation of aggressive evidence-based infection control strategies, and effective communication. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:17060979

  15. Weak Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy, which affects the evolution of structures. Gravitational lensing is the process by which light from distant galaxies is bent by the gravity of intervening mass in the Universe as it travels toward us. This bending causes the images of background galaxies to appear slightly distorted, and can be used to extract important cosmological information. In the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Einstein predicted that massive bodies could be seen as gravitational lenses that bend the path of light rays by creating a local curvature in space time. One of the first confirmations of Einstein's new theory was the observation during the 1919 solar eclipse of the deflection of light from distant stars by the sun. Since then, a wide range of lensing phenomena have been detected. The gravitational deflection of light by mass concentrations along light paths produces magnification, multiplication, and distortion of images. These lensing effects are illustrated by Figure 14.2, which shows one of the strongest lenses observed: Abell 2218, a very massive and distant cluster of galaxies in the constellation Draco. The observed gravitational arcs are actually the magnified and strongly distorted images of galaxies that are about 10 times more distant than the cluster itself. These strong gravitational lensing effects are very impressive but they are very rare. Far more prevalent are weak gravitational lensing effects, which we consider in this chapter, and in which the induced distortion in galaxy images is much weaker. These gravitational lensing effects are now widely used, but the amplitude of the weak lensing signal is so weak that its detection relies on the accuracy of the techniques used to analyze the data. Future weak lensing surveys are already planned in order to cover a large fraction of the sky with high accuracy, such as Euclid [68]. However, improving accuracy also places greater demands on the methods used to extract the available information.

  16. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Jens; Horowitz, Charles J.; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A.

    2014-10-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left–right cross-section asymmetry (ALR) is the goal of a number of experiments that have recently been completed or are in progress. The experiments are challenging, given that ALR is small, typically between 10?4 and 10?8. By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, one can isolate various pieces of the weak Lagrangian, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are being studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher-twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  17. Sequential weak measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchison, Graeme; Jozsa, Richard; Popescu, Sandu

    2007-12-01

    The notion of weak measurement provides a formalism for extracting information from a quantum system in the limit of vanishing disturbance to its state. Here we extend this formalism to the measurement of sequences of observables. When these observables do not commute, we may obtain information about joint properties of a quantum system that would be forbidden in the usual strong measurement scenario. As an application, we provide a physically compelling characterization of the notion of counterfactual quantum computation.

  18. General Weak Random Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Zuckerman

    1990-01-01

    The following model for a weak random source is considered. The source is asked only once for R bits, and the source outputs an R-bit string such that no string has probability more than 2 -?R of being output. for some fixed ?>0. A pseudorandom generator that runs in time nO(log n) and simulates RP using as a seed a

  19. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  20. Floquet Spectrum of Weakly Coupled Map Lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane Baladi; Hans Henrik Rugh

    2001-01-01

    :   We consider weakly coupled analytic expanding circle maps on the lattice ?\\u000a \\u000a D\\u000a \\u000a (for D? 1), with small coupling strength ? and summable decay of the two-sites coupling. We study the spectrum of the associated\\u000a (Perron–Frobenius) transfer operators ??. On a suitable Banach space, perturbation theory applied to the difference of a high iterate n\\u000a \\u000a 0 of the transfer

  1. Shear strength properties of wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richefeu, Vincent; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Radjaï, Farhang

    2006-05-01

    We investigate shear strength properties of wet granular materials in the pendular state (i.e., the state where the liquid phase is discontinuous) as a function of water content. Sand and glass beads were wetted and tested in a direct shear cell and under various confining pressures. In parallel, we carried out three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations by using an explicit equation expressing capillary force as a function of interparticle distance, water bridge volume, and surface tension. We show that, due to the peculiar features of capillary interactions, the major influence of water content over the shear strength stems from the distribution of liquid bonds. This property results in shear strength saturation as a function of water content. We arrive at the same conclusion by a microscopic analysis of the shear strength. We propose a model that accounts for the capillary force, the granular texture, and particle size polydispersity. We find fairly good agreement of the theoretical estimate of the shear strength with both experimental data and simulations. From numerical data, we analyze the connectivity and anisotropy of different classes of liquid bonds according to the sign and level of the normal force as well as the bond direction. We find that weak compressive bonds are almost isotropically distributed whereas strong compressive and tensile bonds have a pronounced anisotropy. The probability distribution function of normal forces is exponentially decreasing for strong compressive bonds, a decreasing power-law function over nearly one decade for weak compressive bonds, and an increasing linear function in the range of tensile bonds. These features suggest that different bond classes do not play the same role with respect to the shear strength.

  2. Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

  3. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  4. Assessing the threat of firearms: new threat formula, resources, and ontological linking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of an ongoing larger project.2, 3, 11, 12 The goal of this project is to develop a system capable of automatic threat assessment for instances of firearms use in public places. The main components of the system are: an ontology of firearms;1, 14 algorithms to create the visual footprint of the firearms,1, 14 to compare visual information,2, 3, 11, 12 to facilitate search in the ontology, and to generate the links between the conceptual and visual ontologies; as well as a formula to calculate the threat of individual firearms, firearms classes, and ammunition types in different environments. One part of the dual-level ontology for the properties of the firearms captures key visual features used to identify their type or class in images, while the other part captures their threat-relevant conceptual properties. The visual ontology is the result of image segmentation and matching methods, while the conceptual ontology is designed using knowledge-engineering principles and populated semi-automatically from Web resources. The focus of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we will report on an update of the initial threat formula, based on the substantially increased population of the firearm ontology, including ammunition types and comparisons to actual incidents, and allowing for an overall more accurate assessment. On the other hand, the linking algorithms between the visual and conceptual ontologies are elaborated for faster transfer of information leading to an improvement in accuracy of the threat assessment.

  5. Deflection of weakly magnetic materials by superconducting OGMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Boehm; R. Gerber; D. Fletcher; M. R. Parker

    1988-01-01

    Applications of a superconducting Open Gradient Magnetic Separator to fractional separation in air of weakly magnetic materials are presented. The dependence of particle deflection of these materials on the magnetic field strength, release location, magnetic susceptibility, particle density and other properties is investigated. The aim is to maximise the deflection of the magnetically stronger component of the feed to facilitate

  6. Social Identity Threat Motivates Science-Discrediting Online Comments

    PubMed Central

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as “gamers”) were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

  7. Social identity threat motivates science-discrediting online comments.

    PubMed

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as "gamers") were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

  8. Sustained preferential processing of social threat cues: bias without competition?

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; McTeague, Lisa M; Keil, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Stimuli of high emotional significance such as social threat cues are preferentially processed in the human brain. However, there is an ongoing debate whether or not these stimuli capture attention automatically and weaken the processing of concurrent stimuli in the visual field. This study examined continuous fluctuations of electrocortical facilitation during competition of two spatially separated facial expressions in high and low socially anxious individuals. Two facial expressions were flickered for 3000 msec at different frequencies (14 and 17.5 Hz) to separate the electrocortical signals evoked by the competing stimuli ("frequency tagging"). Angry faces compared to happy and neutral expressions were associated with greater electrocortical facilitation over visual areas only in the high socially anxious individuals. This finding was independent of the respective competing stimulus. Heightened electrocortical engagement in socially anxious participants was present in the first second of stimulus viewing and was sustained for the entire presentation period. These results, based on a continuous measure of attentional resource allocation, support the view that stimuli of high personal significance are associated with early and sustained prioritized sensory processing. These cues, however, do not interfere with the electrocortical processing of a spatially separated concurrent face, suggesting that they are effective at capturing attention, but are weak competitors for resources. PMID:20807057

  9. Strengths of serpentinite gouges at elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.E.; Lockner, D.A.; Ma, S.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Serpentinite has been proposed as a cause of both low strength and aseismic creep of fault zones. To test these hypotheses, we have measured the strength of chrysotile-, lizardite-, and antigorite-rich serpentinite gouges under hydrothermal conditions, with emphasis on chrysotile, which has thus far received little attention. At 25??C, the coefficient of friction, ??, of chrysotile gouge is roughly 0.2, whereas the lizardite- and antigorite-rich gouges are at least twice as strong. The very low room temperature strength of chrysotile is a consequence of its unusually high adsorbed water content. When the adsorbed water is removed, chrysotile is as strong as pure antigorite gouge at room temperature. Heating to ???200??C causes the frictional strengths of all three gouges to increase. Limited data suggest that different polytypes of a given serpentine mineral have similar strengths; thus deformation-induced changes in polytype should not affect fault strength. At 25??C, the chrysotile gouge has a transition from velocity strengthening at low velocities to velocity weakening at high velocities, consistent with previous studies. At temperatures up to ???200??C, however, chrysotile strength is essentially independent of velocity at low velocities. Overall, chrysotile has a restricted range of velocity-strengthening behavior that migrates to higher velocities with increasing temperature. Less information on velocity dependence is available for the lizardite and antigorite gouges, but their behavior is consistent with that outlined for chrysotile. The marked changes in velocity dependence and strength of chrysotile with heating underscore the hazards of using room temperature data to predict fault behavior at depth. The velocity behavior at elevated temperatures does not rule out serpentinite as a cause of aseismic slip, but in the presence of a hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient, all varieties of serpentine are too strong to explain the apparent weakness of faults such as the San Andreas.

  10. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  11. The limits of strength in materials in the condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    There is a range of thresholds in loading for the response of condensed phase matter, starting with inelastic deformation at the yield stress. Beyond this point compression continues until the material bond strength is overcome and becomes so-called warm dense matter. In this regime formulations of solid mechanics derived in the ambient state no longer apply. Between these two limits lies a boundary that differentiates weak- from strong-shock dynamic loading. This work examines these thresholds and shows a correlation between the theoretical strength of the material and this weak shock limit for a range of metals.

  12. Alcohol dose effects on stress response to cued threat vary by threat intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. Moberg; Stefanie M. Weber; John J. Curtin

    Rationale  Clarification of alcohol’s effect on stress response during threat is critical to understand motivation for alcohol use and\\u000a related alcohol-use disorders. Evaluation of stress response dampening (SRD) effects of alcohol has been limited by nonsystematic\\u000a use of varied experimental methods and measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This experiment parametrically varied alcohol dose and shock threat intensity among social drinkers to examine their effects\\u000a on

  13. Ignoring real faces: effects of valence, threat, and salience.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Elisabeth; Watson, Derrick G

    2014-04-01

    Facial stimuli have been shown to accrue a special status within visual processing, particularly when attention is prioritized to one face over another on the basis of affective content. This has been examined in relation to the ability of faces to guide or hold attention, or to resist attentional suppression. Previous work has shown that schematic faces can only be partially ignored and that the emotional valence of to-be-ignored faces has little effect. Given recent debates concerning the use of schematic faces, here we examined the ease with which photorealistic faces could be ignored. Although we found evidence of a partial preview benefit for these stimuli, the findings were complex, with stimulus salience, valence, and threat content interacting to affect both the strength of the benefit and target detection efficiency (Exps. 1-3). Experiment 4 then clarified the effects of physical salience and perceived stimulus similarity in the previous experiments, demonstrating that a combination of these factors is likely to account for the search patterns observed. PMID:24435898

  14. The dimensional structure of people's fears, threats, and concerns and their relationship with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Barbara; Duckitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Most theories addressing the topic have proposed that threat and fear underlie right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and many empirical findings have been consistent with this proposition. Important questions, however, remain unanswered, such as whether RWA is associated with fear and threat in general or only specific kinds of fear and threat. Theories of RWA generate markedly different predictions on this issue, particularly with respect to social or personal fears, and whether the association would also hold for the closely related construct of social dominance orientation (SDO). We investigated the issue by asking 463 undergraduate students to rate their feelings of fear, concern, and anxiety to a comprehensive 93-item list of potential fears and threats, which were formulated as either personal or social. Exploratory factors analysis identified five distinct fear-threat factors: harm to self, child, or country; personal and relationship failures; environmental and economic fears; political and personal uncertainties; and threats to ingroup. All the fear-threat factors were correlated with RWA, with the strongest correlations being for threats to ingroup, and with stronger effects for social than for personal fears. None of the fear factors correlated with SDO. These relationships were not affected by controlling for social desirability or emotional stability (EMS). When the intercorrelations between fear factors and EMS were controlled using ridge regression, only threats to ingroup predicted RWA. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a model in which low levels of EMS had a significant path to threats to ingroup, which in turn had a significant path to RWA, and EMS having a significant though weak indirect (fully mediated) inverse effect on RWA. Implications of these findings for theories of authoritarianism and future research are discussed. PMID:23390968

  15. Sustaining earth: Response to the environmental threats

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, D.J.R.; Comer, J.D.; Wilkinson, M.L.N. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 17 essays has a common theme of examining how politicians, industrialists, scientists, and the public are responding to the recommendations of the 1987 report by World Commission on Environment and Development and to the environmental degradation it highlighted. The book has six sections: background; threats to the environment; individuals, society, and sustainable development; national governments and sustainable development; the international community and sustainable development; conclusions. Insights into the ways in which members of the international political and scientific establishments define and seek to address global environments are best represented.

  16. Threats to validity in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Fogg, L; Gross, D

    2000-02-01

    The purposes of this article are to present an overview of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and describe some of the methodological problems inherent in using RCTs in nursing research. Many nursing intervention studies are fraught with problems that defy the stringent control criteria required for RCTs, leading to biased estimates of intervention efficacy. Five threats to validity in RCTs are presented, including problems related to (a) differential dropout, (b) random assignment, (c) identifying and maintaining an adequate control condition, (d) nonadherence to research protocols, and (e) assessment of clinically meaningful change. Three strategies are recommended for addressing some of the problems posed by RCTs and improving inference. PMID:10686575

  17. The threat of nuclear war: Some responses

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

  18. MCNPX Improvements for Threat Reduction Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Laurie S.; Durkee, Joe W.; Elson, Jay S.; Esch, Ernst I.; Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Holloway, Shannon T.; James, Michael R.; Jason, Andrew; Johns, Russell C.; Johnson, M. William; Kawano, Toshihiko; McKinney, Gregg W.; Moller, Peter; Pelowitz, Denise B.

    2009-03-01

    Enhancements contained in the current MCNPX 2.6.0 Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) release will be presented, including stopped-muon physics, delayed neutron and photon generation, and automatic generation of source photons. Preliminary benchmarking comparisons with data taken with a muon beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute Spallation Neutron Source accelerator will be discussed. We will also describe current improvements now underway, including Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF), pulsed sources, and others. We will also describe very new work begun on a threat-reduction (TR) user interface, designed to simplify the setup of TR-related calculations, and introduce standards into geometry, sources and backgrounds.

  19. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  20. Weak lensing and dark energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragan Huterer

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

  1. Why Strength Training?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of heart disease and as a therapy for patients in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Research and Background About Strength Training Scientific research has shown that exercise can slow the physiological aging clock. While aerobic ...

  2. When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.

    PubMed

    Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N?=?588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice. PMID:23390970

  3. Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet - network security threats and vulnerabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Newman

    2006-01-01

    Computer networks and computer systems are experiencing attacks and threats from many areas. Threats are also extended to include the individual user's computer assets and resources. Information will be presented on the categories of security and privacy threats, integrity threats, vulnerabilities, delay and denial threats, and intellectual property threats that are being directed towards corporate, educational, governmental, and individual assets.

  4. Fe II oscillator strengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kroll; M. Kock

    1987-01-01

    Oscillator strengths of 124 Fe II lines in the wavelength range 220-540 nm were obtained from wall-stabilized arc and hollow-cathode measurements. By a combination of hook and emission measurements it was possible to determine a large set of relative oscillator strengths of Fe II lines without any assumptions concerning the plasma state of the light sources used. The relative f-values

  5. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2008-06-30

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

  6. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  7. Recognizing Threat: A Simple Geometric Shape Activates Neural Circuitry for Threat Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Larson; Joel Aronoff; Issidoros C. Sarinopoulos; David C. Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The urgent need to recognize danger quickly has been shown to rely on preferential processing in dedicated neural circuitry. In previous behavioral studies examining the pattern of the face when displaying anger, we found evidence that simple noncontextual geometric shapes containing downward-pointing V-shaped angles activate the perception of threat. We here report that the neural circuitry known to be mobilized

  8. Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization

    PubMed Central

    Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape. PMID:22927384

  9. Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Petitjean, Cyril [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France) [SPSMS, UMR-E 9001 CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Laboratoire de Physique, CNRS UMR5672, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d'Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Wellens, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schlagheck, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Schlagheck@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Departement de Physique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.

  10. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    PubMed

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18284782

  11. An Overview of Non-Traditional Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Bruce D.; Wogman, Ned A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, air cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear war-heads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or “dirty” bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are considered. The defense against undesirable materials enter-ing our borders is considered. The radiation and other signatures of potential nuclear and radio-logical threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo.

  12. An Overview of Non-traditional Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Bruce D.; Wogman, Ned A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear warheads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or ''dirty'' bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are considered. The defense against undesirable materials entering our borders is considered. The radiation and other signatures or potential nuclear and radiological threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo.

  13. Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in drug-DNA complexes: A statistical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil K. Panigrahi; Gautam R. Desiraju

    2007-01-01

    A statistical analysis of strong and weak hydrogen bonds in the minor groove of DNA was carried out for a set of 70 drug-DNA\\u000a complexes. The terms ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ pertain to the inherent strengths and weakness of the donor and acceptor fragments\\u000a rather than to any energy considerations. The dataset was extracted from the protein data bank (PDB). The

  14. Strong and Weak Chaos in Nonlinear Networks with Time-Delayed Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligenthal, Sven; Dahms, Thomas; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Jüngling, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Kanter, Ido; Schöll, Eckehard; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    We study chaotic synchronization in networks with time-delayed coupling. We introduce the notion of strong and weak chaos, distinguished by the scaling properties of the maximum Lyapunov exponent within the synchronization manifold for large delay times, and relate this to the condition for stable or unstable chaotic synchronization, respectively. In simulations of laser models and experiments with electronic circuits, we identify transitions from weak to strong and back to weak chaos upon monotonically increasing the coupling strength.

  15. Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

    Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

  16. Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josh M. Cisler; Amy K. Bacon; Nathan L. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical\\u000a ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in\\u000a disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper\\u000a reviews empirical investigations across four common assessment tasks: the

  17. The insider threat--a new aspect of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Engells, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The need for those responsible for security at hospital research centers to take steps to counter insider threats to use biomedical and microbiological research and for perverted purposes is real, says the author. He spells out what the threats consist of suspicious behaviors to be aware of and reporting procedures for effective resolution that will enable life science researchers and law enforcement to successfully work together to thwart such threats. PMID:24020316

  18. FKBP5 and Attention Bias for Threat

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Negar; Gutman, David; Tone, Erin B.; Almli, Lynn; Mercer, Kristina B.; Davis, Jennifer; Glover, Ebony; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Dinov, Ivo D.; Zamanyan, Alen; Toga, Arthur W.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The FKBP5 gene product regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and has been associated with many stress-related psychiatric disorders. The study of intermediate phenotypes, such as emotion-processing biases and their neural substrates, provides a way to clarify the mechanisms by which FKBP5 dysregulation mediates risk for psychiatric disorders. Objective To examine whether allelic variations for a putatively functional single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with FKBP5 gene regulation (rs1360780) would relate differentially to attention bias for threat. this was measured through behavioral response on a dot probe task and hippocampal activation during task performance. Morphologic substrates of differential hippocampal response were also measured. Design Cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2012 examining associations between genotype, behavioral response, and neural response (using functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) on the dot probe; voxel-based morphometry and global and local shape analyses were used to measure structural differences in hippocampi between genotype groups. Setting Participants were recruited from primary care clinics of a publicly funded hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants An African American cohort of adults (N=103) was separated into 2 groups by genotype: one genotype group included carriers of the rs1360780 T allele, which has been associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and affective disorders; the other group did not carry this allele. Behavioral data included both sexes (N=103); the MRI cohort (n=36) included only women. Main Outcome Measures Behavioral and fMRI (blood oxygen level–dependent) response, voxel-based morphometry, and shape analyses. Results Carriers of the rs1360780 T allele showed an attention bias toward threat compared with individuals with-out this allele (F1,90=5.19, P=.02). Carriers of this allele demonstrated corresponding increases in hippocampal activation and differences in morphology; global and local shape analyses revealed alterations in hippocampal shape for TT/TC compared with CC genotype groups. Conclusion Genetic variants of FKBP5 may be associated with risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders via differential effects on hippocampal structure and function, resulting in altered attention response to perceived threat. PMID:23407841

  19. The propagation of weak shocks in non-uniform o ws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K.-R. K E V L A H A Ny

    A new theory of the propagation of weak shocks into non-uniform, two-dimensional o ws is introduced. The theory is based on a description of shock propagation in terms of a manifold equation together with compatibility conditions for shock strength and its normal derivatives behind the shock. This approach was developed by Ravindran & Prasad (1993) for shocks of arbitrary strength

  20. Experimental test of error-disturbance uncertainty relations by weak measurement.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Fumihiro; Baek, So-Young; Ozawa, Masanao; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-17

    We experimentally test the error-disturbance uncertainty relation (EDR) in generalized, strength-variable measurement of a single photon polarization qubit, making use of weak measurement that keeps the initial signal state practically unchanged. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg EDR is violated, yet the Ozawa and Branciard EDRs are valid throughout the range of our measurement strength. PMID:24483994

  1. Guess again (and again and again): Measuring password strength by simulating password-cracking algorithms

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Lujo

    for attackers to compromise. A common threat model is an attacker who steals a list of hashed passwordsGuess again (and again and again): Measuring password strength by simulating password--Text-based passwords remain the dominant au- thentication method in computer systems, despite significant advancement

  2. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section...Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION...

  3. PERSISTENT SURVEILLANCE FOR PIPELINE PROTECTION AND THREAT INTERDICTION

    E-print Network

    043-05/rs PERSISTENT SURVEILLANCE FOR PIPELINE PROTECTION AND THREAT INTERDICTION International; · Analyzed results of experiments to advance understanding of fusion plasma physics; · The organization

  4. Induced tolerance expressed as relaxed behavioural threat response in millimetre-sized aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Samuel; Ekvall, Mikael T; Bianco, Giuseppe; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2014-08-01

    Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All individuals responded with immediate downward swimming to UVR exposure, but when released from the threat they rapidly returned to the surface. Large individuals swam faster and generally travelled longer distances than small individuals. Interestingly, individuals previously exposed to UVR (during several generations) showed a more relaxed response to UVR and travelled shorter total distances than those that were naive to UVR, suggesting induced tolerance to the threat. In addition, animals previously exposed to UVR also had smaller eyes than the naive ones, whereas UVR-protective melanin pigmentation of the animals was similar between populations. Finally, we show that smaller individuals have lower capacity to avoid UVR which could explain patterns in natural systems of lower migration amplitudes in small individuals. The ability to change behavioural patterns in response to a threat, in this case UVR, adds to our understanding of how organisms navigate in the 'landscape of fear', and this has important implications for individual fitness and for interaction strengths in biotic interactions. PMID:24966309

  5. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  6. Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

  7. Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains

    PubMed Central

    Fane, Anne; Rush, Catherine; Govan, Brenda; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J.; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2015-01-01

    The death rate for neurologic melioidosis is high. Whether certain Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are more likely than other strains to cause central nervous system infection and whether route of infection influences the neurotropic threat remain unclear. Therefore, we compared the virulence and dissemination of Australian clinical isolates collected during October 1989–October 2012 from patients with neurologic and nonneurologic melioidosis after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of mice in an experimental model. We did not observe neurotropism as a unique characteristic of isolates from patients with neurologic melioidosis. Rather, a distinct subset of B. pseudomallei strains appear to have heightened pathogenic potential for rapid dissemination to multiple tissues, including the central nervous system, irrespective of the infection route. This finding has valuable public health ramifications for initiating appropriate and timely therapy after exposure to systemically invasive B. pseudomallei strains. Increasing understanding of B. pseudomallei pathology and its influencing factors will further reduce illness and death from this disease. PMID:25530166

  8. Monitoring Technologies for Mitigating Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brian M.; Salem, Malek Ben; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

    In this chapter, we propose a design for an insider threat detection system that combines an array of complementary techniques that aims to detect evasive adversaries. We are motivated by real world incidents and our experience with building isolated detectors: such standalone mechanisms are often easily identified and avoided by malefactors. Our work-in-progress combines host-based user-event monitoring sensors with trap-based decoys and remote network detectors to track and correlate insider activity. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. We identify several challenges in scaling up, deploying, and validating our architecture in real environments.

  9. Threats from space: 20 years of progress

    E-print Network

    Remo, J L

    2014-01-01

    It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

  10. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  11. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. Central Bank Financial Strength and Policy Performance: An Econometric Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich H. Klueh; Peter Stella

    2008-01-01

    The financial health of central banks and its relation to policy outcomes has recently been recognized as an important policy issue. While case study evidence clearly indicates that weak central bank finances can hamper effective policy implementation, the question of whether central bank financial strength influences policy performance remains controversial. This is due, in part, to a lack of econometric

  13. Influence of fly ash on strength behavior of typical soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prabakar; Nitin Dendorkar; R. K. Morchhale

    2004-01-01

    Construction of any infrastructure over a weak or a soft soil is highly typical on the geo-technical grounds as the soil undergoes differential settlements, poor shear strength and high compressibility. Normally, the type of foundations varies depending upon the availability of soil strata as well as cost involvement. Sometimes, it is essential to have a high rise building over a

  14. Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience besides others play a role. An attempt to quantify this variable under high uncertainty is also presented. Quantifying ET is based on a GIS modelling using a Cost Weighted Distance approach. Basic principle is to define the best evacuation path from a given point to the next safe area (shelter location). Here the fastest path from that point to the shelter location has to be found. Thereby the impact of land cover, slope, population density, population age and gender distribution are taken into account as literature studies prove these factors as highly important. Knowing the fastest path and the distance to the next safe area together with a spatially distributed pattern of evacuation speed delivers the time needed from each location to a safe area. By considering now the obtained time value for RsT the coverage area of an evacuation target point (safe area) can be assigned. Incorporating knowledge on people capacity of an evacuation target point the respective coverage area is refined. Hence areas with weak, moderate and good human response capabilities can be detected. This allows calculation of potential amount of people affected (dead or injured) and amount of people dislocated. First results for Kuta (Bali) for a worst case tsunami event deliver people affected of approx. 25 000 when RT = 0 minutes (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning to 120 000 when RT > ETA (no evacuation action until tsunami hits the land). Additionally fastest evacuation routes to the evacuation target points can be assigned. Areas with weak response capabilities can be assigned as priority areas to install e.g. additional evacuation target points or to increase tsunami knowledge and awareness to promote a faster reaction time. Especially in analyzing underlying socio-economic properties causing deficiencies in responding to a tsunami threat can lead to valuable information and direct planning of adaptation measures. Keywords: Community level, Risk and vulnerability assessment, Early warning, Disaster management, Tsunami, Indonesia

  15. Interrelationship between muscle strength, motor units, & aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ryan D.; Nakazawa, Masato; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle strength, motor unit (MU) number, and age is poorly understood, and in this study we sought to determine whether age-related differences in muscle strength are moderated by estimates of functioning MU number and size. Eighteen older adults (OA; 67±1.20 yrs) and 24 young adults (YA; 22±0.74 yrs) participated in this study. Maximum voluntary pinch grip strength of the nondominant hand was determined and estimates of MU number were obtained from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle using the noninvasive motor unit number index (MUNIX) technique. The MUNIX technique was also utilized to derive a motor unit size index (MUSIX). An analysis of covariance (Age Group X MUNIX or MUSIX) was used to test heterogeneity of regression slopes, with body mass and gender serving as covariates. We observed that the slope of pinch grip strength on the estimated number of MUs between YA and OA differed, indicated by an Age Group X MUNIX interaction (p=0.04). Specifically, after controlling for the effect of body mass and gender, the slope in OA was significantly positive (0.14±0.06 N/MUs, p=0.03), whereas no such relationship was found in YA (?0.08±0.09 N/MUs, p=0.35). A significant Age Group X MUSIX interaction was also observed for strength (p<0.01). In contrast to MUNIX, the slope in younger adults was significantly positive (0.48±0.11 N/?V, p<0.01), whereas no such relationship was found in older adults (?0.30±0.22 N/?V, p=0.18). These findings indicate that there is an interrelationship between muscle strength, MU numbers, and aging, which suggests that a portion of muscle weakness in seniors may be attributable to the loss of functioning motor units. PMID:23832080

  16. Functional organization of excitatory synaptic strength in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Cossell, Lee; Iacaruso, Maria Florencia; Muir, Dylan R; Houlton, Rachael; Sader, Elie N; Ko, Ho; Hofer, Sonja B; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D

    2015-02-19

    The strength of synaptic connections fundamentally determines how neurons influence each other's firing. Excitatory connection amplitudes between pairs of cortical neurons vary over two orders of magnitude, comprising only very few strong connections among many weaker ones. Although this highly skewed distribution of connection strengths is observed in diverse cortical areas, its functional significance remains unknown: it is not clear how connection strength relates to neuronal response properties, nor how strong and weak inputs contribute to information processing in local microcircuits. Here we reveal that the strength of connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) obeys a simple rule--the few strong connections occur between neurons with most correlated responses, while only weak connections link neurons with uncorrelated responses. Moreover, we show that strong and reciprocal connections occur between cells with similar spatial receptive field structure. Although weak connections far outnumber strong connections, each neuron receives the majority of its local excitation from a small number of strong inputs provided by the few neurons with similar responses to visual features. By dominating recurrent excitation, these infrequent yet powerful inputs disproportionately contribute to feature preference and selectivity. Therefore, our results show that the apparently complex organization of excitatory connection strength reflects the similarity of neuronal responses, and suggest that rare, strong connections mediate stimulus-specific response amplification in cortical microcircuits. PMID:25652823

  17. Factors explaining chronic knee extensor strength deficits after ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2011-05-01

    Persistent quadriceps muscle weakness is common after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanisms underlying these chronic strength deficits are not clear. This study examined quadriceps strength in people 2-15 years post-ACL reconstruction and tested the hypothesis that chronic quadriceps weakness is related to levels of voluntary quadriceps muscle activation, antagonistic hamstrings moment, and peripheral changes in muscle. Knee extensor strength and activation were evaluated in 15 ACL reconstructed and 15 matched uninjured control subjects using an interpolated triplet technique. Electrically evoked contractile properties were used to evaluate peripheral adaptations in the quadriceps muscle. Antagonistic hamstrings moments were predicted using a practical mathematical model. Knee extensor strength and evoked torque at rest were significantly lower in the reconstructed legs (p??0.05). Regression analyses indicated that side-to-side differences in evoked torque at rest explained 71% of the knee extensor strength differences by side (p??0.05). Chronic quadriceps weakness in this sample was primarily related to peripheral changes in the quadriceps muscle, not to levels of voluntary activation or antagonistic hamstrings activity. PMID:21246615

  18. Emergent Soft Monopole Modes in Weakly-Bound Deformed Nuclei

    E-print Network

    J. C. Pei; M. Kortelainen; Y. N. Zhang; F. R. Xu

    2014-11-13

    Based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solutions in large deformed coordinate spaces, the finite amplitude method for quasiparticle random phase approximation (FAM-QRPA) has been implemented, providing a suitable approach to probe collective excitations of weakly-bound nuclei embedded in the continuum. The monopole excitation modes in Magnesium isotopes up to the neutron drip line have been studied with the FAM-QRPA framework on both the coordinate-space and harmonic oscillator basis methods. Enhanced soft monopole strengths and collectivity as a result of weak-binding effects have been unambiguously demonstrated.

  19. INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Chapter 15 INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH GENETIC PROGRAMMING Empirical Modeling and Symbolic Regression via and Arthur Kordon3 1Dow Chemical, Midland, MI USA 2Dow Benelux, Terneuzen, NV 3Dow Chemical, Freeport, TX USA of a multi-disciplinary approach to empir- ical modeling at Dow Chemical. Herein we review the role

  20. Corticospinal Tract Abnormalities Are Associated with Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Daniel S.; Zackowski, Kathleen M.; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza M.; Smith, Seth A.; Chodkowski, BettyAnn A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose To assess the relationship between muscle strength in multiple sclerosis (MS) and corticospinal tract (CST) abnormalities detected with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods In 47 individuals with MS, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to reconstruct the intracranial CSTs. Tract profiles depicted the variation in T2 relaxation time, magnetization transfer ratio, and DTI-derived indices (fractional anisotropy and diffusivity) as a function of normalized position along the tract. Brain parenchymal fraction was calculated as a normalized measure of brain volume. Stepwise linear regression modeling was used to determine the MRI indices most closely related to ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion strength assessed with quantitative dynamometry. Results Individuals with MS were significantly weak: average ankle strength fell 1.7 standard deviations below the age-, handedness-, and sex-corrected healthy mean. Brain parenchymal fraction was not associated with weakness. A parsimonious model that includes magnetization transfer ratio in the brainstem and MS clinical subtype explained 30% to 45% of the variance in ankle and hip strength. The model was successfully applied to scans and strength data from the same individuals at an earlier time point. Conclusion MRI abnormalities specific to the motor tract are associated with clinical dysfunction related to that tract. The relevant abnormalities are found in the brainstem, distant from the periventricular inflammatory lesions that are common in MS. This suggests that neurodegeneration, rather than primary inflammation, at least partially explains the findings. PMID:17974617

  1. Evolutionary behavior of weak shocks in a non-ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Rajan; Siddiqui, Mohd Junaid

    2013-03-01

    Except some empirical methods, which have been developed in the past, no analytical method exists to describe the evolutionary behavior of a shock wave without limiting its strength. In this paper, we have derived a system of transport equations for the shock strength and the induced continuity. We generate a completely intrinsic description of plane, cylindrical, and spherical shock waves of weak strength, propagating into a non-ideal gas. It is shown that for a weak shock, the disturbance evolves like an acceleration wave at the leading order. For a weak shock, we may assume that [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We have considered a case when the effect of the first order-induced discontinuity or the disturbances that overtook the shock from behind are strong, i.e., [ p x ] = O(1). The evolutionary behavior of the weak shocks in a non-ideal gas is described using the truncation approximation.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND PROFILES OF BACTERIAL THREAT AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Horsmon; Kathy Crouse

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles are potentially an underutilized class of threat agent signatures that may be exploited in the identification of threat agents. In the present study we first focused on determining if VOC profiles collected from liquid culture headspace could be utilized to differentiate between bacterium of different genus, in this case Bacillus and Yersinia. The second focus

  3. Threats to validity and reliability in mixed methods accounting research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eeva-Mari Ihantola; Lili-Anne Kihn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the threats to quality in mixed methods accounting research, wherein quantitative and qualitative approaches are combined in data collection, analysis and interpretation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is framed according to three perspectives. The authors first synthesize the threats to validity and reliability in quantitative and qualitative parts of

  4. Assessing the Jihadist Terrorist Threat to America and American Interests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bergen; Bruce Hoffman; Katherine Tiedemann

    2011-01-01

    Al Qaeda and allied groups continue to pose a threat to the United States. Although it is less severe than the catastrophic proportions of a 9\\/11-like attack, the threat today is more complex and more diverse than at any time over the past nine years. Al Qaeda or its allies continue to have the capacity to kill dozens, or even

  5. Threat-Driven Design and Analysis of Secure Software Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianxiang Xu; Joshua J. Pauli

    Computer software is a major source of security risks in information systems. To deal with software security issues in the early stages of software development, this paper presents a threat- driven approach to the architectural design and analysis of secure software. Based on the identification and mitigation of security threats as misuse use cases, we leverage use cases, misuse cases,

  6. The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

  7. Bio-threat preparedness: Need for a paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, A.K.; Roy, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    India of late has been vulnerable to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threat, on account of its unique geographic position. Biological threat is an imminent threat in the hands of a terrorist. The public health system of our country is overburdened due to its present role and bio-attack response is not a priority area. This paper suggests that as the prime focus is on the CR and N threats in the integrated CBRN preparedness strategy and that specialized and technical forces are needed to deal with a bio-threat; hence there is a need for a paradigm shift in policy. The emerging field of bio-threat needs to be delinked from the joint family of ‘CBRN’, with consequent structural and functional changes. A separate specialized cadre needs to be formed for dealing with bio-threat, created from the pool of doctors and non-medical scientists from the AFMS and the DRDO. Structural changes are needed in the organization, to bring in the resources of NCDC, New Delhi for enhanced disease surveillance capacity and creation of a bio-threat mitigation node in the AFMC, Pune. PMID:24843207

  8. Maritime Threat Detection using Plan Recognition Bryan Auslander1

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Kalyan Moy

    Maritime Threat Detection using Plan Recognition Bryan Auslander1 , Kalyan Moy Gupta1 , & David W algorithms for maritime threat detection employ a variety of normalcy models that are probabilistic and detect anomalies in maritime scenarios. To address these limitations, we apply plan recognition

  9. Maritime Threat Detection Using Probabilistic Graphical Models Bryan Auslander1

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Kalyan Moy

    Maritime Threat Detection Using Probabilistic Graphical Models Bryan Auslander1 , Kalyan Moy Gupta1.lastname@knexusresearch.com | david.aha@nrl.navy.mil Abstract Maritime threat detection is a challenging problem because maritime maritime situations. In this paper, we study the performance of PGMs for detecting (small boat) maritime

  10. Aligning Technology Solutions to Address Over-the-Horizon Threats

    E-print Network

    understand the multifaceted nature of these threats? How can the science, technology, and policy communitiesAligning Technology Solutions to Address Over-the-Horizon Threats As the world's geopolitical for the U.S. Government bridging the gap between policy development and technology implementation WHAT WE

  11. Chrome Extensions: Threat Analysis and Countermeasures Xinwen Zhang

    E-print Network

    Chen, Songqing

    Chrome Extensions: Threat Analysis and Countermeasures Lei Liu Xinwen Zhang Vuclip Inc. Huawei R&D Center Milpitas, CA 95035 Santa Clara, CA 95050 lliu@vuclip.com xinwen.zhang@huawei.com Guanhua Yan settings, we demonstrate that malicious Chrome ex- tensions pose serious threats, including both

  12. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  13. Innovation threats and strategic responses in oligopoly markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Dawid; Michael Kopel; Peter M. Kort

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the strategic reaction of firms to competitive threats stemming from newly developed products of actual competitors. Product innovation projects go through multiple time consuming stages with several continuation\\/termination decisions. Hence, competitors can react to the threat before the new product is introduced and thereby may prevent or facilitate the product’s introduction. We consider a duopoly model

  14. The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Geers

    2010-01-01

    Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

  15. The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructures: Beyond Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Geers

    2009-01-01

    Adversary threats to critical infrastructures have always existed during times of conflict, but threat scenarios now include peacetime attacks from anonymous computer hackers. Current events, including examples from Israel and Estonia, prove that a certain level of real-world disorder can be achieved from hostile data packets alone. The astonishing achievements of cyber crime and cyber espionage – to which law

  16. Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro1,2 , Michel of security threat mitigation mecha- nisms in RFID systems, specially in low-cost RFID tags, are gaining great against low-cost RFID systems, are surveyed. Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Electronic

  17. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  18. Gender Identification Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on Women's Math Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Schmader

    2002-01-01

    This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender

  19. 3. THREATS TO CORAL SPECIES 3.1 Human Population

    E-print Network

    per capita resource demands are directly responsible for escalating atmospheric CO2 buildup threats, were important factors in our assessment of whether the key proximate threats (e.g., climate regions and demographic sectors, the growth of consumption is emerging as the dominant factor increasing

  20. Efficient Secrecy: Public versus Private Threats in Crisis Diplomacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHUHEI KURIZAKI

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores when and why political leaders choose to communicate secretly in international disputes. I examine a crisis bargaining game with two-sided domestic audiences, where a challenger can make a threat either in public or in private. When a threat is issued privately, the challenger cannot enhance its credibility by tying its hands because domestic audiences cannot observe the

  1. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  2. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  3. Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

  4. Climate change as the ‘new’ security threat: implications for Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLI BROWN; ANNE HAMMILL; ROBERT MCLEMAN

    2007-01-01

    Once it was an environmental issue, then an energy problem, now climate change is being recast as a security threat. So far, the debate has focused on creating a security ‘hook’, illustrated by anecdote, to invest climate negotiations with a greater sense of urgency. Political momentum behind the idea of climate change as a security threat has progressed quickly, even

  5. Attention Bias toward Threat in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amy Krain; Vasa, Roma A.; Bruck, Maggie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sweeney, Michael; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Attention bias towards threat faces is examined for a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using visual probe task. The results showed that anxious individuals showed a selective bias towards threat due to perturbation in neural mechanisms that control vigilance.

  6. AVALANCHE THREATS AND MITIGATION MEASURES IN CANADA Cam Campbell1,*

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    AVALANCHE THREATS AND MITIGATION MEASURES IN CANADA Cam Campbell1,* , Laura Bakermans2 , Bruce Jamieson2 , Chris Stethem3 1 Canadian Avalanche Centre 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University commissioned report to inventory current and predict future trends in avalanche threats and mitigation programs

  7. A Developmental Perspective on the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    The Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines were developed to help multidisciplinary school-based teams use a decision tree to evaluate student threats and take appropriate preventive action. A main goal of this approach is to allow school-based teams to recognize and respond to the developmental complexities of children and adolescents…

  8. Student Threat Assessment in Memphis City Schools: A Descriptive Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Ken; Cornell, Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Threat assessment has been widely recommended as a violence prevention approach for schools, but there are few reports of its implementation. Memphis City Schools adapted the Virginia threat assessment guidelines (Cornell & Sheras, 2006) for use by a centralized team serving 194 schools and a student population of 118,000. This article describes…

  9. Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cecil Max

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

  10. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  11. Investigating Hypervigilance for Social Threat of Lonely Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…

  12. Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2005-01-01

    Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

  13. University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    University of New Orleans Bomb Threat Response Procedure Updated August 2004 Individual receiving call will take the following steps: Remain calm and complete the attached Bomb Threat Report. Keep by the person. If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation, ask

  14. Hindrances are not threats: Advancing the multidimensionality of work stress.

    PubMed

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Searle, Ben J; Boyd, Carolyn M; Winefield, Anthony H; Winefield, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has proved useful for explaining inconsistencies in relationships between work stressors and important outcomes. By introducing the distinction between threat and hindrance to this framework, we capture the potential for personal harm or loss (threat) associated with stressors, as distinct from the potential to block goal attainment (hindrance) or promote gain (challenge). In Study 1, survey data were collected from 609 retail workers, 220 of whom responded 6 months later. The results supported a 3-factor threat-hindrance-challenge stressor structure and showed that threat stressors are associated with increased psychological distress and emotional exhaustion, and reduced dedication, whereas hindrance stressors undermine dedication but may not be related to distress or exhaustion with threats included in the model. Study 2 utilized a diary study design, with data collected from 207 workers over 3 workdays. Findings revealed that the threat, hindrance, and challenge appraisals of individual workers are statistically distinct, and associated with stressors and well-being as anticipated: threats with role conflict and anxiety, hindrances with organizational constraints and fatigue, and challenges with skill demands and enthusiasm. Overall, moving to a 3-dimensional challenge-hindrance-threat framework for stressors and stress appraisals will support a more accurate picture regarding the nature, processes, and effects of stressors on individuals and organizations, and ensure prevention efforts are not misguided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25365630

  15. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat. PMID:24006898

  16. Unhealthy Interactions: The Role of Stereotype Threat in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M.; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors. PMID:23153125

  17. A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B.; Maner, Jon K.

    2009-01-01

    To attain and maintain social acceptance, people may attend to cues of possible social rejection or exclusion. Attention to such cues can be influenced by social anxiety. Two competing theories address social anxiety and attention: hypervigilance to versus avoidance of negative social cues. We propose a synthesis of these models such that, in the absence of social exclusion, socially anxious people may be hypervigilant to negative social cues. However, after experiencing social exclusion, they may avoid negative cues in favor of cues signaling social acceptance. Eyetracking was used to examine attention to negative, happy, and neutral faces after social exclusion threat or a non-exclusion threat (N = 27, 69.2% female). Fear of negative evaluation, a core component of social anxiety, was assessed using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale (Leary 1983). Among individuals with high BFNE, non-exclusion threat elicited greater attention toward negative faces than did social exclusion threat. However, social exclusion threat relative to non-exclusion threat was related to greater attention to positive faces among those with high BFNE. These effects were not observed among those with low BFNE. Thus, data provide preliminary support for a synthesized model. PMID:20877581

  18. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

  19. Logistic regression Weakly informative priors

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Logistic regression Weakly informative priors Conclusions Bayesian generalized linear models default p #12;Logistic regression Weakly informative priors Conclusions Classical logistic regression The problem of separation Bayesian solution Logistic regression -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0.00.20.40.60.81.0 y = logit

  20. A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

    Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

  1. Weak Values are Interference Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Justin Dressel

    2015-02-26

    Weak values arise experimentally as conditioned averages of weak (noisy) observable measurements that minimally disturb an initial quantum state, and also as dynamical variables for reduced quantum state evolution even in the absence of measurement. These averages can exceed the eigenvalue range of the observable ostensibly being estimated, which has prompted considerable debate regarding their interpretation. Classical conditioned averages of noisy signals only show such anomalies if the quantity being measured is also disturbed prior to conditioning. This fact has recently been rediscovered, along with the question whether anomalous weak values are merely classical disturbance effects. Here we carefully review the role of the weak value as both a conditioned observable estimation and a dynamical variable, and clarify why classical disturbance models will be insufficient to explain the weak value unless they can also simulate other quantum interference phenomena.

  2. Weak values as interference phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Weak values arise experimentally as conditioned averages of weak (noisy) observable measurements that minimally disturb an initial quantum state, and also as dynamical variables for reduced quantum state evolution even in the absence of measurement. These averages can exceed the eigenvalue range of the observable ostensibly being estimated, which has prompted considerable debate regarding their interpretation. Classical conditioned averages of noisy signals only show such anomalies if the quantity being measured is also disturbed prior to conditioning. This fact has recently been rediscovered, along with the question whether anomalous weak values are merely classical disturbance effects. Here we carefully review the role of the weak value as both a conditioned observable estimation and a dynamical variable, and clarify why classical disturbance models will be insufficient to explain the weak value unless they can also simulate other quantum interference phenomena.

  3. Weak Separation and Plabic Graphs

    E-print Network

    Oh, Suho; Speyer, David E

    2011-01-01

    Leclerc and Zelevinsky described quasicommuting families of quantum minors in terms of a certain combinatorial condition, called weak separation. They conjectured that all maximal by inclusion weakly separated collections of minors have the same cardinality, and that they can be related to each other by a sequence of mutations. On the other hand, Postnikov studied total positivity on the Grassmannian. He described a stratification of the totally nonnegative Grassmannian into positroid strata, and constructed their parametrization using plabic graphs. In this paper we link the study of weak separation to plabeic graphs. We extend the notion of weak separation to positroids. We generalize the conjectures of Leclerc and Zelevinsky, and related ones of Scott, and prove them. We show that the maximal weakly separated collections in a positroid are in bijective correspondence with the plabic graphs. This correspondence allows us to use the combinatorial techniques of positroids and plabic graphs to prove the (gener...

  4. Self-consistent Mean Field theory in weakly ionized media

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Leprovost; Eun-Jin Kim

    2007-10-10

    We present a self-consistent mean field theory of the dynamo in 3D and turbulent diffusion in 2D in weakly ionized gas. We find that in 3D, the backreaction does not alter the beta effect while it suppresses the alpha effect when the strength of a mean magnetic field exceeds a critical value. These results suggest that a mean field dynamo operates much more efficiently in weakly ionized gas compared to the fully ionized gas. Furthermore, we show that in 2D, the turbulent diffusion is suppressed by back reaction when a mean magnetic field reaches the same critical strength, with the upper bound on turbulent diffusion given by its kinematic value. Astrophysical implications are discussed.

  5. Composite weak bosons and structure of weak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A new approach to weak interactions is presented where possible similarities between weak and nuclear forces are exploited in a composite model of quarks and leptons. A new hypercolor dynamics, similar to quantum chromodynamics, but with a scale of order one TeV is postulated to act on the constituents of quarks and leptons and provide the binding mechanism. This leads to a composite picture of the W-bosons and provides an explanation of the origin of the Fermi constant. Understanding the large value of the weak mixing angle sin theta/sub W/ seems to impose a constraint on the electric charge structure of the constituents.

  6. Integrated optic chip for laser threat identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2010-04-01

    In this conference last year, we proposed free-space gratings, Fizeau interferometers and wavefront estimation for detecting the different lasers deployed in the battlefield for range finding, target designation, communications, dazzle, location of targets, munitions guidance, and destruction. Since last year, advanced laser weapons of the electron cyclotron type, are in development, such as the free-electron laser, that are tunable and can, unlike conventional bound-electron state lasers, be used at any wavelength from microwaves to soft X-rays. We list the characteristics of the nine dominant laser weapons because we assume that the free-electron lasers will initially use one of the current threat wavelengths because of availability of components and instrumentation. In this paper we replace the free-space grating with a higher performing array waveguide grating integrated optic chip, similar to that used in telecommunications, because integrated circuits are more robust and less expensive. It consists of a star coupler that fans out amongst waveguides of different length followed by a star coupler that focuses different wavelengths to different outputs in order to separate them. Design equations are derived to cover a range of frequencies at specific frequency spacing relevant to this application.

  7. Countering GPS jamming and EW threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-09-01

    Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

  8. Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

  9. Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Kerr, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. An overview of significant MMOD impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the RCC regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it s role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

  10. Superluminous supernovae: no threat from eta Carinae.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Melott, Adrian L; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of approximately 10(44) Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to eta Carinae, which resides in our own Galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. eta Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given that its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a gamma-ray burst oriented toward Earth, eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We have found that, given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over approximately 10(4) y and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae-e-ndocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous" for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, eta Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree. PMID:18199005

  11. Proliferation in Europe: Sizing up the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Since the dawn of the atomic age, the world has lived with the ominous threat that unstable and even diabolical forces could steal fissile materials or technology and build a nuclear bomb. That possibility has always evoked a visceral though somewhat abstract fear in the mind of the public. However, recent developments have thrust those fears into glaring reality. Keeping track of plutonium and other fissile materials is a monumental job. By the end of 1992 spent oxide fuel with more than 17,000 tonnes of heavy metal had been shipped from European nuclear power plants to European reprocessing plants. Of this spent fuel, considerable amounts of plutonium had been recovered and shipped to fuel fabrication facilities in Belgium, France and Germany, where they had been manufactured into plutonium-bearing fuel [fast breeder fuel or MOX fuel for thermal recycling]. Thus, plutonium has been transported in various forms via road, rail, sea and even in Europe and overseas. This article examines proliferation in Europe and its effect so far on the nuclear industry.

  12. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat.

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2014-07-30

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  13. Twelve Ways to Incorporate Strengths-Based Planning into the IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weishaar, Phillip M.

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004 (IDEA) requires public schools to assure that parents of students with disabilities have the opportunity to participate in Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. Strengths-based IEPs focus on student strengths and abilities, rather than weaknesses and disabilities, in…

  14. Unambiguous discrimination of extremely similar states by a weak measurement

    E-print Network

    Chang Qiao; Shengjun Wu; Zeng-Bing Chen

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, we propose a method to discriminate two extremely similar quantum states via a weak measurement. For the two states with equal prior probabilities, the optimum discrimination probability given by Ivanovic-Dieks-Peres limit can be achieved by our protocol with an appropriate choice of the interaction strength. However, compared with the conventional method for state discrimination, our approach shows the advantage of error-tolerance by achieving a better ratio of the success probability to the probability of error.

  15. Phase Behaviour and Structure of Weakly Perturbed Liquid Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Gerli?; Samo Kralj; Vlad Popa-Nita

    2006-01-01

    We study influence of a weak disorder on 1st and 2nd order phase transitions in which a continuous symmetry is broken. As illustrative cases we choose the isotropic-nematic (I-N) and nematic-smectic A (N-SmA) liquid crystal phase transitions. We yield an explanation for the established domain pattern and estimate the phase behaviour as a function of the disorder strength.

  16. POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive to the academic, research and operational functions of

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    POLICY RELATED TO THREATS OF CAMPUS DISRUPTION Bomb threats and similar situations are disruptive. Policy Any bomb threat or incident of a suspected explosive device shall be considered as valid by all the lives and safety of all concerned. II. Procedures A. Any person who receives a bomb threat or has

  17. Role of orbital dynamics in spin relaxation and weak antilocalization in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Oleg; Frustaglia, Diego; Richter, Klaus

    2005-01-21

    We develop a semiclassical theory for spin-dependent quantum transport to describe weak (anti)localization in quantum dots with spin-orbit coupling. This allows us to distinguish different types of spin relaxation in systems with chaotic, regular, and diffusive orbital classical dynamics. We find, in particular, that for typical Rashba spin-orbit coupling strengths, integrable ballistic systems can exhibit weak localization, while corresponding chaotic systems show weak antilocalization. We further calculate the magnetoconductance and analyze how the weak antilocalization is suppressed with decreasing quantum dot size and increasing additional in-plane magnetic field. PMID:15698215

  18. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-10-01

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  19. Use of modified threat reduction assessments to estimate success of conservation measures within and adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Brandon P

    2008-12-01

    The importance of biodiversity as natural capital for economic development and sustaining human welfare is well documented. Nevertheless, resource degradation rates and persistent deterioration of human welfare in developing countries is increasingly worrisome. Developing effective monitoring and evaluation schemes and measuring biodiversity loss continue to pose unique challenges, particularly when there is a paucity of historical data. Threat reduction assessment (TRA) has been proposed as a method to measure conservation success and as a proxy measurement of conservation impact, monitoring threats to resources rather than changes to biological parameters themselves. This tool is considered a quick, practical alternative to more cost- and time-intensive approaches, but has inherent weaknesses. I conducted TRAs to evaluate the effectiveness of Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province, South Africa, in mitigating threats to biodiversity from 1994 to 2004 in 4 geographical areas. I calculated TRA index values in these TRAs by using the original scoring developed by Margoluis and Salafsky (2001)and a modified scoring system that assigned negative mitigation values to incorporate new or worsening threats. Threats were standardized to allow comparisons across the sites. Modified TRA index values were significantly lower than values derived from the original scoring exercise. Five of the 11 standardized threats were present in all 4 assessment areas, 2 were restricted to KNP, 2 to Limpopo Province, and 2 only to Malamulele municipality. These results indicate, first, the need to integrate negative mitigation values into TRA scoring. By including negative values, investigators will be afforded a more accurate picture of biodiversity threats and of temporal and spatial trends across sites. Where the original TRA scoring was used to measure conservation success, reevaluation of these cases with the modified scoring is recommended. Second, practitioners must carefully consider the need and consequences of generalizing threats into generic categories for comparative assessments. Finally, continued refinement of the methodology and its extension to facilitate the transfer of successful conservation strategies is needed. PMID:18759776

  20. Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

    2009-03-23

    This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

  1. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

  2. Cardiac threat appraisal and depression after first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vögele, Claus; Christ, Oliver; Spaderna, Heike

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated cardiac threat appraisal and its association with depression after first myocardial infarction (MI). A semi-structured interview allowing for DSM-IV-axis I diagnoses was administered to 36 patients after first MI. Patients completed self-reports 5-15?days after the MI (time 1), 6-8?weeks later (time 2), and again 6?months later (time 3). Assessments at time 1 included indices of cardiac threat appraisal, locus of control, coping, and depression while at time 2 and time 3 only measures of depression were obtained. Cardiac threat appraisal was significantly correlated with depression at time 1, but was unrelated to depression scores at time 2 and time 3. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse association between cardiac threat appraisal and the subscales "search for affiliation" and "threat minimization" of the coping questionnaire. Additionally, "search for affiliation" correlated negatively with depression scores at time 1 and time 3, and "threat minimization" negatively with depression scores at time 1 and time 2. These results suggest a significant association between cardiac threat appraisal and depressive symptoms shortly after MI. Practical implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:23060834

  3. Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B; Coffee, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance. PMID:25036595

  4. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  5. 'MYNI's orthosis': a self-adjustable, dynamic knee extension orthosis for quadriceps weakness in haemophilia rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, C; Bedford, E; Kumar, S; Nathan, V; Peter, B K; Premkumar, J Charles

    2004-11-01

    In developing countries like India, where walking is the primary, preferred and feasible mode of transport, the implications following quadriceps weakness poses a serious threat to ones functional independence. This has been a challenge for professionals while ambulating individuals with haemophilia, where quadriceps weakness is very common. Although external splinting has been understood for many years, as a means of support in haemophilia, there is still a dearth of knowledge in making an appropriate splint to assist or to take over the weak quadriceps during ambulation. This newly designed 'MYNI's orthosis' helps in versatile ways in addition to assisting the weak quadriceps. It provides prolonged stretch to contracted tissue, allows for being used as a serial cast in improving the knee range and is cosmetically acceptable. Above all, it is user-friendly, thus enhancing compliance and superior outcome in haemophilic knee rehabilitation. PMID:15569171

  6. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  7. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  8. Resisting Weakness of the Will

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil

    2012-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

  9. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  10. Geometry of Weak Stability Boundaries

    E-print Network

    Edward Belbruno; Marian Gidea; Francesco Topputo

    2012-04-06

    The notion of a weak stability boundary has been successfully used to design low energy trajectories from the Earth to the Moon. The structure of this boundary has been investigated in a number of studies, where partial results have been obtained. We propose a generalization of the weak stability boundary. We prove analytically that, in the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, under certain conditions on the mass ratio of the primaries and on the energy, the weak stability boundary about the heavier primary coincides with a branch of the global stable manifold of the Lyapunov orbit about one of the Lagrange points.

  11. Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jennifer Y.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Nelson, Eric E.; Angold, Adrian; Ernst, Monique; Goldwin, Michelle; Grillon, Christian; Leibenluft, Ellen; Lissek, Shmuel; Norcross, Maxine; Shiffrin, Nina; Pine, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Most teenage fears subside with age, a change that may reflect brain maturation in the service of refined fear learning. Whereas adults clearly demarcate safe situations from real dangers, attenuating fear to the former but not the latter, adolescents’ immaturity in prefrontal cortex function may limit their ability to form clear-cut threat categories, allowing pervasive fears to manifest. Here we developed a discrimination learning paradigm that assesses the ability to categorize threat from safety cues to test these hypotheses on age differences in neurodevelopment. In experiment 1, we first demonstrated the capacity of this paradigm to generate threat/safety discrimination learning in both adolescents and adults. Next, in experiment 2, we used this paradigm to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of threat/safety discrimination learning in adolescents and adults using functional MRI. This second experiment yielded three sets of findings. First, when labeling threats online, adolescents reported less discrimination between threat and safety cues than adults. Second, adolescents were more likely than adults to engage early-maturing subcortical structures during threat/safety discrimination learning. Third, adults’ but not adolescents’ engagement of late-maturing prefrontal cortex regions correlated positively with fear ratings during threat/safety discrimination learning. These data are consistent with the role of dorsolateral regions during category learning, particularly when differences between stimuli are subtle [Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167–202]. These findings suggest that maturational differences in subcortical and prefrontal regions between adolescent and adult brains may relate to age-related differences in threat/safety discrimination. PMID:21368210

  12. Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing reduces working memory interference

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Robert; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM) task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modeling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesized that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat-related interference. PMID:23750133

  13. What controls the strength and brittleness of shale rocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, Erik; Reinicke, Andreas; Meier, Tobias; Makasi, Masline; Dresen, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With respect to the productivity of gas shales, in petroleum science the mechanical behavior of shales is often classified into rock types of high and low 'brittleness', sometimes also referred to as 'fraccability'. The term brittleness is not well defined and different definitions exist, associated with elastic properties (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), with strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength), frictional properties (cohesion, friction coefficient), hardness (indentation), or with the strain or energy budget (ratio of reversible to the total strain or energy, respectively). Shales containing a high amount of clay and organic matter are usually considered as less brittle. Similarly, the strength of shales is usually assumed to be low if they contain a high fraction of weak phases. We performed mechanical tests on a series of shales with different mineralogical compositions, varying porosity, and low to high maturity. Using cylindrical samples, we determined the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, static Young's modulus, the tensile strength, and Mode I fracture toughness. The results show that in general the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) linearly increases with increasing Young's modulus (E) and both parameters increase with decreasing porosity. However, the strength and elastic modulus is not uniquely correlated with the mineral content. For shales with a relatively low quartz and high carbonate content, UCS and E increase with increasing quartz content, whereas for shales with a relatively low amount for carbonates, but high quartz content, both parameters increase with decreasing fraction of the weak phases (clays, kerogen). In contrast, the average tensile strength of all shale-types appears to increase with increasing quartz fraction. The internal friction coefficient of all investigated shales decreases with increasing pressure and may approach rather high values (up to ? 1). Therefore, the mechanical strength and elasticity of shales is not simply related to the total clay and kerogen content, but depends mainly on porosity and overall composition, including mechanically strong (quartz, pyrite), intermediate (calcite) and weak (clay, organics) minerals. The investigated shales show typical semibrittle behaviour with increasing ductility with increasing pressure and temperature and decreasing strain rate. Under similar conditions, the mechanical behavior is mainly controlled by porosity and - within the investigated range of pressure and temperature - less affected by mineral content. We conclude that the correlation between brittle strength and mineralogy is strongly formation depended, but high porosity generally promotes ductile creep at lower strength. Complete shale constitutive laws are required to allow extrapolation of the test results to the production timespan of unconventional reservoirs.

  14. 76 FR 22878 - Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (Hereafter...Contact Mr. William Hostyn, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725...

  15. 78 FR 60863 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the...Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction...

  16. 77 FR 2710 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter...William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725...

  17. 77 FR 19006 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter...William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725...

  18. 76 FR 52319 - Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (Hereafter...CONTACT: Mr. William Hostyn, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725...

  19. 75 FR 68330 - Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (Hereafter...CONTACT: Contact Mr. Eric Wright, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/AST, 8725 John...

  20. 77 FR 69807 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter...Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction...

  1. 78 FR 29334 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the...Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction...

  2. 75 FR 64711 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Correction...an October 21, 2010, meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee in Chantilly...of Contact: Mr. Eric Wright, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/AST, 8725 John...

  3. 78 FR 32380 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...announcing a June 12-13, 2013 meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee. This notice announces that the Department of Defense Threat Reduction Advisory Committee meeting...

  4. 75 FR 20578 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), DoD. ACTION...Senior Procurement Analyst, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/BC-BCP, 8725...

  5. 78 FR 77663 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice...Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the...Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction...

  6. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of certified... Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel of certified...and their alternates. (b) Security threat assessment. Before a certified...

  7. Small threat and contraband detection with TNA-based systems.

    PubMed

    Shaw, T J; Brown, D; D'Arcy, J; Liu, F; Shea, P; Sivakumar, M; Gozani, T

    2005-01-01

    The detection of small threats, such as explosives, drugs, and chemical weapons, concealed or encased in surrounding material, is a major concern in areas from security checkpoints to UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance. Techniques such as X-ray and trace detection are often ineffectual in these applications. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) provides an effective method for detecting concealed threats. This paper shows the effectiveness of Ancore's SPEDS, based on TNA, in detecting concealed liquid threats and differentiating live from inert mortar shells. PMID:16026994

  8. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:12053717

  9. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  10. Babesiosis and heartwater: threats without boundaries.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G Gale; Holman, Patricia; Waghela, Surya

    2002-11-01

    Suppose one of your clients from southern Florida starts talking about cattle egrets while you are vaccinating her cat. It seems she found a nearly dead egret near the cattle pen a few days ago, picked it up, and noticed a number of what looked like small ticks on the legs. Or, suppose you are called out to a small dairy in central Texas to look at some cows that are feverish and anemic. The first animal you examine has a few brown ticks attached just under the tail. Finally, perhaps you are looking at a lame tortoise for a reptile fancier, a new client, and find a large, colorful tick on a hind leg, well up under the shell. Ring any bells? Egrets are great hosts for the immature stages of Amblyomma ticks and have been captured and marked in the eastern Caribbean, then recaptured in the Florida Keys. Those cattle ticks in Texas might be acaricide-resistant Boophilus ticks that originated in Mexico. The Amblyomma tick on the tortoise could well have "hitch-hiked" all the way from South Africa. By now you remember that both Amblyomma and Boophilus ticks are efficient vectors of two tickborne diseases in this hemisphere, heartwater (in the case of Amblyomma) and babesiosis (transmitted by Boophilus ticks). Both of these diseases are exotic to the United States, and because our livestock are considered to be totally susceptible, an introduced infection could result in high initial death losses (approximately 70%); thus, both the ticks and the diseases pose immediate threats to the health and economic security of United States animal industries. Most importantly, you, whether as a small animal or large animal practitioner, are the first line of defense against such exotic diseases and their vectors. PMID:12442575

  11. Strength and texture of Pt compressed to 63 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Susannah M.; Shieh, Sean R.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2015-02-01

    Angle- and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments in a radial geometry were performed in the diamond anvil cell on polycrystalline platinum samples at pressures up to 63 GPa. Observed yield strength and texture depend on grain size. For samples with 70-300-nm particle size, the yield strength is 5-6 GPa at ˜60 GPa. Coarse-grained (˜2-?m particles) Pt has a much lower yield strength of 1-1.5 GPa at ˜60 GPa. Face-centered cubic metals Pt and Au have lower strength to shear modulus ratio than body-centered cubic or hexagonal close-packed metals. While a 300-nm particle sample exhibits the <110> texture expected of face-centered-cubic metals under compression, smaller and larger particles show a weak mixed <110> and <100> texture under compression. Differences in texture development may also occur due to deviations from uniaxial stress under compression in the diamond anvil cell.

  12. Numerical simulation of microstructural damage and tensile strength of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmuller, Pascal; Theile, Thiemo C.; Schneebeli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This contribution uses finite-element analysis to simulate microstructural failure processes and the tensile strength of snow. The 3-D structure of snow was imaged by microtomography. Modeling procedures used the elastic properties of ice with bond fracture assumptions as inputs. The microstructure experiences combined tensile and compressive stresses in response to macroscopic tensile stress. The simulated nonlocalized failure of ice lattice bonds before or after reaching peak stress creates a pseudo-plastic yield curve. This explains the occurrence of acoustic events observed in advance of global failure. The measured and simulated average tensile strengths differed by 35%, a typical range for strength measurements in snow given its low Weibull modulus. The simulation successfully explains damage, fracture nucleation, and strength according to the geometry of the microstructure of snow and the mechanical properties of ice. This novel method can be applied to more complex snow structures including the weak layers that cause avalanches.

  13. The strength of regolith and rubble pile asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, P.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    We explore the hypothesis that, due to small van der Waals forces between constituent grains, small rubble pile asteroids have a small but nonzero cohesive strength. The nature of this model predicts that the cohesive strength should be constant independent of asteroid size, which creates a scale dependence with relative strength increasing as size decreases. This model counters classical theory that rubble pile asteroids should behave as scale-independent cohesionless collections of rocks. We explore a simple model for asteroid strength that is based on these weak forces, validate it through granular mechanics simulations and comparisons with properties of lunar regolith, and then explore its implications and ability to explain and predict observed properties of small asteroids in the NEA and Main Belt populations, and in particular of asteroid 2008 TC3. One conclusion is that the population of rapidly rotating asteroids could consist of both distributions of smaller grains (i.e., rubble piles) and of monolithic boulders.

  14. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) State Univ. of New York (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-02-19

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  16. Bone strength and its determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ammann; R. Rizzoli

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease defined by decreased bone mass and alteration of microarchitecture which results in increased bone fragility and increased risk of fracture. The major complication of osteoporosis, i.e., fracture, is due to a lower bone strength. Thus, any treatment of osteoporosis implies an improvement in bone strength. Bone strength is determined by bone geometry, cortical thickness and porosity,

  17. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  18. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-print Network

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  19. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  20. Bird Flu Spreads Across China, Posing Threat to People

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bird Flu Spreads Across China, Posing Threat to People: ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Animal Diseases and Your Health Bird Flu International Health WEDNESDAY, March 11, 2015 (HealthDay ...