Science.gov

Sample records for weather variability tides

  1. Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (? = 0.15, p-value < 0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (? = ?1.03, p-value = 0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention. PMID:16675420

  2. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  3. Tides and Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  4. Interannual and Intraseasonal Variability of the Diurnal Tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggin, D. M.; Ortland, D. A.; Lieberman, R. S.; Oberheide, J.; Murayama, Y.; Hocking, W. K.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Kumar, G. K.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal variations in the amplitude of the diurnal tide (DT) have been observed by radars with a seasonal dependence that is typically semiannual in the tropics. During some years the wind variation departs from the normal seasonal behavior with anomalously large amplitudes compared to most other years. This anomaly often takes the form of a greatly enhanced boreal spring equinoctal maximum. The boreal spring of 2008 is a example of this behavior. Diurnal amplitudes in the meridional winds are shown in the figure below for the first 6 months of 2008. Note that the diurnal tide undergoes a sharp increase in amplitude up to 80 ms-1 during this event. The characteristics of this event are diagnosed in a variety of global data sets. These include our own physics-based assimilation of SABER temperatures, and gridded analyses from the national weather services (NCAR/NCEP and ECMWF). Tidal amplitude variations are sometimes attributed to nonlinear interaction. However, this type of interaction would be expected to produce non-migrating tides, e.g., westward-2 or standing. SABER data show that the amplitude anomaly is mainly in the migrating DT. The global data sets allow us to explore properties of the anomaly, such as its origin, evolution in time, and associated momentum flux. In addition to this case study, we also investigate the general characteristics of DT interannual variability during the years of the SABER mission (2002-present). Diurnal tide momentum deposition plays a significant role in controlling the zonal mean wind in the mesosphere, We demonstrate its importance in driving the mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). Diurnal tide wind amplitudes in the meridional component observed at two radar sites, Rarotonga, Cook Islands (22.1°S, 159.8°W), and at Guanacaste, Costa Rica (10.3°N, 85.6°W).

  5. Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Luttrell, Karen; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We analyze intervals between eruptions (IBEs) data acquired between 2001 and 2011 at Daisy and Old Faithful geysers in Yellowstone National Park. We focus our statistical analysis on the response of these geysers to stress perturbations from within the solid earth (earthquakes and earth tides) and from weather (air pressure and temperature, precipitation, and wind). We conclude that (1) the IBEs of these geysers are insensitive to periodic stresses induced by solid earth tides and barometric pressure variations; (2) Daisy (pool geyser) IBEs lengthen by evaporation and heat loss in response to large wind storms and cold air; and (3) Old Faithful (cone geyser) IBEs are not modulated by air temperature and pressure variations, wind, and precipitation, suggesting that the subsurface water column is decoupled from the atmosphere. Dynamic stress changes of 0.1?0.2?MPa resulting from the 2002?M-7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake surface waves caused a statistically significant shortening of Daisy geyser's IBEs. Stresses induced by other large global earthquakes during the study period were at least an order of magnitude smaller. In contrast, dynamic stresses of >0.5?MPa from three large regional earthquakes in 1959, 1975, and 1983 caused lengthening of Old Faithful's IBEs. We infer that most subannual geyser IBE variability is dominated by internal processes and interaction with other geysers. The results of this study provide quantitative bounds on the sensitivity of hydrothermal systems to external stress perturbations and have implications for studying the triggering and modulation of volcanic eruptions by external forces.

  6. Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Luttrell, Karen; Manga, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We analyze intervals between eruptions (IBEs) data acquired between 2001 and 2011 at Daisy and Old Faithful geysers in Yellowstone National Park. We focus our statistical analysis on the response of these geysers to stress perturbations from within the solid earth (earthquakes and earth tides) and from weather (air pressure and temperature, precipitation, and wind). We conclude that (1) the IBEs of these geysers are insensitive to periodic stresses induced by solid earth tides and barometric pressure variations; (2) Daisy (pool geyser) IBEs lengthen by evaporation and heat loss in response to large wind storms and cold air; and (3) Old Faithful (cone geyser) IBEs are not modulated by air temperature and pressure variations, wind, and precipitation, suggesting that the subsurface water column is decoupled from the atmosphere. Dynamic stress changes of 0.1-0.2 MPa resulting from the 2002 M-7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake surface waves caused a statistically significant shortening of Daisy geyser's IBEs. Stresses induced by other large global earthquakes during the study period were at least an order of magnitude smaller. In contrast, dynamic stresses of >0.5 MPa from three large regional earthquakes in 1959, 1975, and 1983 caused lengthening of Old Faithful's IBEs. We infer that most subannual geyser IBE variability is dominated by internal processes and interaction with other geysers. The results of this study provide quantitative bounds on the sensitivity of hydrothermal systems to external stress perturbations and have implications for studying the triggering and modulation of volcanic eruptions by external forces.

  7. Variability of the diurnal tide in the equatorial MLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggin, Dennis M.; Lieberman, Ruth S.

    2013-09-01

    For many years the amplitude of the diurnal tide in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) has been known to be deeply modulated over a wide range of time scales. These time scales range from a few days, to seasonal dependencies, and up to interannual time scales. The causes of the variability have remained elusive, but can fall into two main categories. The first is source variability, the variability arising from variations in water vapor heating, latent heating, and ozone heating. The second potential cause is interaction of the diurnal tide with the background, including the effects of the zonal mean structure, planetary waves, gravity waves and turbulence. In this paper we focus on the second category of tidal variability. Measurements at the equator allow us to focus on particular mechanisms of tidal variability. We are close to the main sources driving the tide, equatorial convection and water vapor heating. The equatorial mean zonal winds are relatively weak so we also avoid the filtering of the tide due to the midlatitude jets. Although we cannot observe wave-mean and wave-wave interactions directly, a decadal climatology allows to diagnose how much tidal-background interaction might contribute to tidal variability. We make use of data from the SABER instrument, providing continuous temperature measurements and augment these with some equatorial radar wind observations. Two-month averages of SABER temperatures are required to unambiguously define migrating tidal temperature fields which confine our study mainly for variability on a seasonal time scale or longer. The temperature tide has a repeatable seasonal variation that is shown to stem directly from the sources and which can be observed as low as tropopause heights. Refraction and reflection are found to play an important role in the vertical structure of the tide and found to influence temporal variability in both amplitude and phase when the tide propagates into the mesosphere. An anti-symmetric migrating tidal mode was found to be present during some seasons of the year above 80 km.

  8. Solar variability, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of possible effects of solar variations on weather and climate are most likely to emerge by addressing the subject in terms of fundamental physical principles of atmospheric sciences and solar-terrestrial physis. The limits of variability of solar inputs to the atmosphere and the depth in the atmosphere to which these variations have significant effects are determined.

  9. Migrating diurnal tide variability induced by propagating planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Loren C.

    The migrating diurnal tide is one of the dominant dynamical features in the low latitudes of the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region, representing the atmospheric response to the largest component of solar forcing, propagating upwards from excitation regions in the lower atmosphere. Ground-based observations of the tide have resolved short term variations attributed to nonlinear interactions between the tide and planetary waves also in the region. However, the conditions, effects, and mechanisms of a planetary wave - tidal interaction are still unclear. These questions are addressed using the NCAR Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) to examine two types of planetary waves, known to attain significant amplitudes in the low latitude and equatorial region where the migrating diurnal tide is dominant. The quasi-two day wave (QTDW) can rapidly amplify to large amplitudes from the summer hemisphere during post-solstice periods, while ultra fast Kelvin (UFK) waves occur sporadically in the temperature and zonal wind fields of the equatorial lower thermosphere. While child waves resulting from a nonlinear interaction are resolved in both cases, the response of the tidal structure and amplitudes to the two planetary waves differs significantly. In the case of the QTDW, the migrating diurnal tide displays a general amplitude decrease of 20 - 40%, as well as a shortening of vertical wavelength by roughly 4 km. Nonlinear advection is found to result in energy transfer to and from the tide, resulting in latitudinal smoothing of the tidal structure. The QTDW also produces significant changes to the mean zonal winds in the equator and at summer mid to high latitudes that can also account for changes in tidal amplitude and vertical wavelength. Filtering of gravity waves by the altered mean winds can also result in changes to the zonal mean zonal winds in the tropics. However, gravity wave momentum forcing on the tide is smaller than the advective tendencies throughout most of the MLT region, and cannot iv directly account for the changes in the tide during the QTDW model simulation. In the case of the UFK wave, baseline tidal amplitudes are found to show much smaller changes of 10% or less, despite the larger amplitudes of the UFK wave in the lower thermosphere region compared to the QTDW. Analysis of the nonlinear advective tendencies shows smaller magnitudes than those in the the case of the QTDW, with interaction regions limited primarily to a smaller region in latitude and altitude. Increased tidal convergence in the tropical lower thermosphere is attributed to eastward forcing of the background zonal mean winds by the UFK wave. Increasing the UFK wave forcing by an order of magnitude, although unrealistic, results in changes to the tide comparable in magnitude to the case of the QTDW. While child waves generated by nonlinear advection are present with both of the propagating planetary waves examined, the QTDW produces much greater tidal variability through both nonlinear and linear advection due to its broader horizontal and vertical structure, compared to the UFK wave. Planetary wave induced background atmosphere changes can also drive tidal variability, suggesting that changes to the tidal response in the MLT can also result from this indirect coupling mechanism, in addition to nonlinear advection.

  10. Methods for analysis of internal-tide propagation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, T. F.; Lin, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    The strong variability of internal tidal phase with respect to tidal phase has been recently documented. The slowness of internal tidal propagation through evolving uncertain environmental conditions offers a simple descriptive explanation for this effect. Here, a method for analyzing the propagation of internal tides through the random medium is presented. The equations of motion for internal waves are recast into vertical and horizontal equations. The vertical equation is a generalization of the internal-wave modal equation and the Taylor-Goldstein equation. This equation takes into account the effects of two-dimensionally sheared currents into the normal mode wavelength and speed. The horizontal equation is the Helmholtz equation with an azimuthally variable (anisotropic) phase speed. Ray tracing methods for this anisotropic speed scenario are presented. Tehniques for solving the equations and some example results are shown. The method differs from other internal tide propagation analysis methods that use the long wave approximation normal modes and include current effects in the horizontal equations. The figure shows, at the right, phase speed as a function of azimuth for three M2-frequency internal-wave modes for the shear flow and stratification conditions shown at the left.

  11. Variability of mesospheric diurnal tides and tropospheric diurnal heating during 19971998

    E-print Network

    Nesbitt, Steve

    on interannual variations of diurnal tropospheric heating and the response in the mesosphere observed by radarsVariability of mesospheric diurnal tides and tropospheric diurnal heating during 1997­1998 R. S variables at low latitudes. Diurnal tides observed at Hawaii and Christmas Island exhibit a pronounced

  12. Solar variability and terrestrial weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The present review article indicates that the past four years have been very active in the field of sun-weather research in the U.S. Some quite specific questions which have arisen from recent research include the time variation of the VAL vs SB effect; the nature of the clear-air electric field; the relationship of the ionospheric potential to thunderstorm formation; and the constancy of the solar 'constant' both in terms of the total luminosity on the climatic time scale and for near UV radiation on the time scale of days to 11 years.

  13. Generation of internal tides: An interaction of tides with variable topography and coastal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Himansu K.; Rao, A. D.; Mohanty, Sachiko

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes tide-topography interaction with changeable width and angle of continental shelf. Experiments are designed with MITgcm over a study area representative of the western Bay of Bengal with an idealized bathymetry. As the actual coastline consists of an irregular configuration, the experiments are set with different coastline geometry. The tidal forcing is incorporated in the model to generate internal tides by adding tidal components in the momentum equations. The density stratification represents the region during May and is kept invariant for all the experiments. Spectral analysis suggests that semi-diurnal internal tides possess the maximum spectral estimate. The peak semi-diurnal estimate is computed to understand its variation over the shelfslope region. The analysis demonstrates that the estimate is smaller for wider shelves against narrow continental shelves. The peak estimate is observed close to 100m local depth over the shelf regardless of the angle and width. Experiments are further continued to distinguish the effect of rotation and geometry of the coast as the shelf width and shelf angle are kept constant. Comparison of spectral estimate is performed without and with rotation for three different coastline configurations: concave, convex and straight. The estimate is noticed maximum in the concave and minimum in the convex shape of the coast. Significant contribution of the rotational effect is seen as an increase in the semi-diurnal peak estimate towards the north of the domain. In order to confirm the effect of the rotation, a similar experiment is performed for the southern hemisphere revealing an enhancement of the estimate towards the south of the domain.

  14. Assessing the temporal variability in extreme storm-tide time series for coastal flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, N.; Lewis, M.; Wadey, M. P.; Haigh, I. D.

    2014-08-01

    The probability of extreme storm-tide events has been extensively studied; however, the variability within the duration of such events and implications to flood risk is less well understood. This research quantifies such variability during extreme storm-tide events (the combined elevation of the tide, surge, and their interactions) at 44 national tide gauges around the UK. Extreme storm-tide events were sampled from water level measurements taken every 15 min between 1993 and 2012. At each site, the variability in elevation at each time step, relative to a given event peak, was quantified. The magnitude of this time series variability was influenced both by gauge location (and hence the tidal and nontidal residual characteristics) and the time relative to high water. The potential influence of this variability on coastal inundation was assessed across all UK gauge sites, followed by a detailed case study of Portsmouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Portsmouth region was used to demonstrate that given a current 1 in 200 year storm-tide event, the predicted number of buildings inundated differed by more than 30% when contrasting simulations forced with the upper and lower bounds of the observed time series variability. The results indicate that variability in the time series of the storm-tide event can have considerable influence upon overflow volumes, hence with implications for coastal flood risk assessments. Therefore, further evaluating and representing this uncertainty in future flood risk assessments is vital, while the envelopes of variability defined in this research provides a valuable tool for coastal flood modelers.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability of the M2 Internal Tide Generation and Propagation on the Oregon Shelf

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Spatial and Temporal Variability of the M2 Internal Tide Generation and Propagation on the Oregon is implemented along the Oregon coast to study average characteristics and intermittency of the M2 internal tide the barotropic to baroclinic tide are computed from high-pass-filtered, harmonically analyzed model results

  16. Weather variability, climatic change, and grain production.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L M

    1975-05-01

    A cooling trend in the world's climate would have serious effects in the monsoon belts depending on whether or not the recent changes in snow and ice cover in the polar regions were responsible for the droughts in Africa and the failure of the monsoons over South Asia. The cooling and shrinking of the atmosphere at the higher latitudes is believed to have brought the subtropical anticyclones nearer to the tropical rainbelt and have caused a shifting of the monsoon belt. The regions that would be most severely affected by a continuation of the cooling trend to the year 2000 would be the higher latitudes (above 50 degrees) where spring wheat is grown and the warm band below 30 degrees latitude where rice is the principal grain crop. Weather variability is a much more important consideration in grain production than a cooling trend. Our highest yields are made when weather is near normal or slightly cooler than normal. It is when weather variables deviate greatly from normal that yields are lowest. Even if the weather does trend toward the coolness of a century ago yields will not be reduced significantly unless the weather becomes more varible. PMID:17740005

  17. Barometric Tides from ECMWF Operational Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. D.; Ponte, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    The solar diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in surface pressure are extracted from the the operational analysis product of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). For the semidiurnal tide this involves a special temporal interpolation, following Van den Dool and colleagues. The resulting tides are compared with a ground truth tide dataset, a compilation of well-determined tide estimates deduced from long time series of station barometer measurements. These comparisons show that the ECMWF tides are significantly more accurate than the tides deduced from two other widely available reanalysis products. Spectral analysis of ECMWF pressure series shows that the tides consist of sharp central peaks with modulating sidelines at integer multiples of 1 cycle/year, superimposed on a broad cusp of stochastic energy. The integrated energy in the cusp dominates that of the sidelines. This complicates development of a simple model that can characterize the full temporal variability of the tides.

  18. High-tide flight by wintering Dunlins (Calidris alpina): a weather-dependent trade-off between energy loss and predation risk

    E-print Network

    Falcons (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771), which captured 81 prey in 494 attacks. The maximum kill rate: Dunlins, Calidris alpina, high-tide flight, weather dependence, Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus

  19. On the Temporal Variability of Low-Mode Internal Tides in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2010-01-01

    In situ measurements of internal tides are typically characterized by high temporal variability, with strong dependence on stratification, mesoscale eddies, and background currents commonly observed. Thus, it is surprising to find phase-locked internal tides detectable by satellite altimetry. An important question is how much tidal variability is missed by altimetry. We address this question in several ways. We subset the altimetry by season and find only very small changes -- an important exception being internal tides in the South China Sea where we observe strong seasonal dependence. A wavenumber-domain analysis confirms that throughout most of the global ocean there is little temporal variability in altimetric internal-tide signals, at least in the first baroclinic mode, which is the mode that dominates surface elevation. The analysis shows higher order modes to be significantly more variable. The results of this study have important practical implications for the anticipated SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission, for which removal of internal tide signals is critical for observing non-tidal submesoscale phenomena.

  20. A Link between Variability of the Semidiurnal Tide and Planetary Waves in the Opposite Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Pancheva, Dora V.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal wind observations over four years from the meteor radar at Esrange (68 deg N) are analyzed to determine the variability of the semidiurnal tide. Simultaneous global observations of temperature and geopotential from the SABER satellite instrument are used to construct time series of planetary wave amplitudes and geostrophic mean zonal wind. During NH summer and fall, the temporal variability of the semidiurnal tide at Esrange is found to be well correlated with the amplitude of planetary wavenumber 1 in the stratosphere in high southern latitudes (i.e., in the opposite hemisphere). The correlations indicate that a significant part of the tidal variations at Esrange is due to dynamical interactions in the Southern Hemisphere. Other times of the year do not indicate a corresponding robust correlation pattern for the Esrange tides over multiple years.

  1. M2 baroclinic tide variability modulated by the ocean circulation south of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Sergey M.; Guo, Xinyu; Miyama, Toru; Ichikawa, Kaoru; Waseda, Takuji; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-05-01

    We analyze a concurrent simulation result of the ocean circulation and tidal currents using a data-assimilative ocean general circulation model covering the Western North Pacific with horizontal resolution of 1/36° to investigate possible interactions between them. Four sites of active M2 internal tide variability in open ocean (hot spots), such as Tokara Strait, Izu Ridge, Luzon Strait, and Ogasawara Ridge, are detected from both the satellite observation and the simulation. Energy cycle analysis of the simulated M2 baroclinic tide indicates two types of the hot spots: dissipation (Tokara Strait and Izu Ridge) and radiation (Luzon Strait and Ogasawara Ridge) dominant sites. Energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic M2 tides at the hot spots is modulated considerably by the lower-frequency changes in the density field. Modulation at the two spots (Tokara Strait and Izu Ridge) is affected by the Kuroshio path variation together with the seasonal variation of the shallow thermocline. At the other two sites, influence from changes in the relatively deep stratification through the Kuroshio intrusion into South China Sea (Luzon Strat) and mesoscale eddy activity (Ogasawara Ridge) is dominant in the modulation.

  2. Effects of Weather Variables on Pedestrian Volumes in Alameda County, California

    E-print Network

    Attaset, Vanvisa; Schneider, Robert J.; Arnold, Lindsay S.; Ragland, David R

    2010-01-01

    within 1/4?mile  Weather  Average hourly solar radiation 2 weather stations. Air temperature, precipitation, solarWeather Variables Binary dummy variables were used to capture possible non-linear effects of temperature, wind speed, solar

  3. A knearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables

    E-print Network

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    A k­nearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables Balaji simulation method is provided to generate random sequences of daily weather variables that "honor" the statistical properties of the historical data of the same weather variables at the site. A vector of weather

  4. Weather variability and adaptive management for rangeland restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inherent weather variability in upland rangeland systems requires relatively long-term goal setting, and contingency planning for partial success or failure in any given year. Rangeland plant communities are dynamic systems and successional planning is essential for achieving and maintaining system...

  5. Sea-level variability in tide-gauge and geological records: An empirical Bayesian analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.; Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Horton, B.; Kemp, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level varies at a range of temporal and spatial scales, and understanding all its significant sources of variability is crucial to building sea-level rise projections relevant to local decision-making. In the twentieth-century record, sites along the U.S. east coast have exhibited typical year-to-year variability of several centimeters. A faster-than-global increase in sea-level rise in the northeastern United States since about 1990 has led some to hypothesize a 'sea-level rise hot spot' in this region, perhaps driven by a trend in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation related to anthropogenic climate change [1]. However, such hypotheses must be evaluated in the context of natural variability, as revealed by observational and paleo-records. Bayesian and empirical Bayesian statistical approaches are well suited for assimilating data from diverse sources, such as tide-gauges and peats, with differing data availability and uncertainties, and for identifying regionally covarying patterns within these data. We present empirical Bayesian analyses of twentieth-century tide gauge data [2]. We find that the mid-Atlantic region of the United States has experienced a clear acceleration of sea level relative to the global average since about 1990, but this acceleration does not appear to be unprecedented in the twentieth-century record. The rate and extent of this acceleration instead appears comparable to an acceleration observed in the 1930s and 1940s. Both during the earlier episode of acceleration and today, the effect appears to be significantly positively correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and likely negatively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation [2]. The Holocene and Common Era database of geological sea-level rise proxies [3,4] may allow these relationships to be assessed beyond the span of the direct observational record. At a global scale, similar approaches can be employed to look for the spatial fingerprints of land ice melt [5]. We end by presenting preliminary results from such an analysis. [1] Sallenger et al. (2012), Nat. Clim. Change 2: 884-888. [2] Kopp (in press),Geophys. Res. Lett. [3] Engelhart and Horton (2011), Quat. Sci. Rev. 54: 12-25. [4] Kemp et al. (2011), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108: 11017-11022. [5] Hay et al. (2013). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110: 3692-3699.

  6. Dynamic and Regression Modeling of Ocean Variability in the Tide-Gauge Record at Seasonal and Longer Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Emma M.; Ponte, Rui M.; Davis, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of monthly mean tide-gauge time series to corresponding model time series based on a static inverted barometer (IB) for pressure-driven fluctuations and a ocean general circulation model (OM) reveals that the combined model successfully reproduces seasonal and interannual changes in relative sea level at many stations. Removal of the OM and IB from the tide-gauge record produces residual time series with a mean global variance reduction of 53%. The OM is mis-scaled for certain regions, and 68% of the residual time series contain a significant seasonal variability after removal of the OM and IB from the tide-gauge data. Including OM admittance parameters and seasonal coefficients in a regression model for each station, with IB also removed, produces residual time series with mean global variance reduction of 71%. Examination of the regional improvement in variance caused by scaling the OM, including seasonal terms, or both, indicates weakness in the model at predicting sea-level variation for constricted ocean regions. The model is particularly effective at reproducing sea-level variation for stations in North America, Europe, and Japan. The RMS residual for many stations in these areas is 25-35 mm. The production of "cleaner" tide-gauge time series, with oceanographic variability removed, is important for future analysis of nonsecular and regionally differing sea-level variations. Understanding the ocean model's strengths and weaknesses will allow for future improvements of the model.

  7. Understanding Space Weather: The Sun as a Variable Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith; Saba, Julia; Kucera, Therese

    2012-01-01

    The Sun is a complex system of systems and until recently, less than half of its surface was observable at any given time and then only from afar. New observational techniques and modeling capabilities are giving us a fresh perspective of the solar interior and how our Sun works as a variable star. This revolution in solar observations and modeling provides us with the exciting prospect of being able to use a vastly increased stream of solar data taken simultaneously from several different vantage points to produce more reliable and prompt space weather forecasts. Solar variations that cause identifiable space weather effects do not happen only on solar-cycle timescales from decades to centuries; there are also many shorter-term events that have their own unique space weather effects and a different set of challenges to understand and predict, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind variations.

  8. Understanding Space Weather: The Sun as a Variable Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith; Saba, Julia; Kucera, Therese

    2011-01-01

    The Sun is a complex system of systems and until recently, less than half of its surface was observable at any given time and then only from afar. New observational techniques and modeling capabilities are giving us a fresh perspective of the solar interior and how our Sun works as a variable star. This revolution in solar observations and modeling provides us with the exciting prospect of being able to use a vastly increased stream of solar data taken simultaneously from several different vantage points to produce more reliable and prompt space weather forecasts. Solar variations that cause identifiable space weather effects do not happen only on solar-cycle timescales from decades to centuries; there are also many shorter-term events that have their own unique space weather effects and a different set of challenges to understand and predict, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind variations

  9. Tide generator

    SciTech Connect

    Feltenberger, B.D.

    1981-06-16

    A tidewater power system consisting of a high tide reservoir and a low tide reservoir. The high tide reservoir has an inlet adapted to be supported at high tide level and an outlet with a water wheel and generator between the outlet of the high tide reservoir and the low tide reservoir. The low tide reservoir has an outlet at the low tide level. The outlet from the high tide reservoir is adjustable to control the flow rate and the high tide reservoir can be closed at high tide to retain water for use over a period of time.

  10. Aerosol variability and weather regimes over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Michou, Martine

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by the accumulation of aerosols from different sources: industrial and urban aerosols from Europe and North African towns, biomass burning, from Eastern Europe, dust aerosols from Africa, and marine particles from the sea. These aerosols show a strong spatio-temporal variability and a resulting large variety in aerosol optical properties over this basin. Maximal aerosol loads are observed in spring and summer, namely in the dry season favouring a longer residence time for atmospheric aerosols. Besides, dust outbreaks characterized by large plumes of Saharan desert dust particles, are more frequent in this season. This study realized in the framework of the ChArMEx initiative aims at explaining this aerosol variability and the relationship between aerosol loads and weather conditions. We consider here an approach based on weather regimes and regional modeling. From a multi-year (1979-2013) regional simulation carried out with the ALADIN-climate model (50 km resolution, ERA-Interim forcing) including an interactive aerosol scheme for the main species present in this region (desert dust, sea-salt, sulfates and carbonaceous particles), we have identified typical synoptic conditions that favour high aerosol loads over the Mediterranean, or on the contrary that are opposed to these high aerosol loads. These weather regimes are based on a statistical method of automated classification realized from surface pressure data. They are also related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this work, we characterize the presence of the different aerosol types over the Mediterranean for each weather regime, as well as their effects on climate. Thus, anomalies in the occurrence of the regimes favourable to high aerosol loads could explain the frequent dust outbreaks observed during the ChArMEx campaigns in 2012 and 2013.

  11. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    PubMed Central

    Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Marchand, Marion; Irbah, Abdenour; Quémerais, Éric; Bekki, Slimane; Foujols, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Cessateur, Gaël; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Kuzin, Sergey; Slemzin, Vladimir; Urnov, Alexander; Bogachev, Sergey; Merayo, José; Brauer, Peter; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Paschalis, Antonis; Mahrous, Ayman; Khaled, Safinaz; Ghitas, Ahmed; Marzouk, Besheir; Zaki, Amal; Hady, Ahmed A.; Kariyappa, Rangaiah

    2013-01-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018. PMID:25685424

  12. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission.

    PubMed

    Damé, Luc

    2013-05-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018. PMID:25685424

  13. On the variability of the diurnal tide and coupling with planetary waves in the MLT over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    Using meteor radar observations of four years in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) over a subtropical Brazilian station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W), the temporal variability characteristics of the diurnal tide have been studied. In addition to the semiannual, annual and interannual variations, the diurnal tide amplitude exhibits clear intermittent modulation at periods of planetary waves. The tidal amplitude exhibits clear seasonal pattern with largest amplitude in fall equinox. The dominant periods of modulation of the diurnal tide are found to be greater than 10 days in the MLT. The diurnal tide, as detected in the power spectra of the horizontal winds, shows a spread in period around the central period (24 h) which is an indication of nonlinear interactions between the diurnal tide and planetary waves. A bispectral analysis reveals prominent triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) confirming the interaction of the diurnal tide with planetary waves persistent over a broad spectral range. Also there is an indication of coupling of the diurnal tide with the intraseasonal oscillations at various times of the year.

  14. Variability of the equatorial electrojet: Its relations to the Sq current system and semidiurnal tides

    SciTech Connect

    Stening, R.J. )

    1991-11-01

    Average diurnal and seasonal variations of the horizontal geomagnetic element {Delta}H are examined. The semiannual variation in equatorial electrojet strength is found to disappear in afternoon hours. This may be related to changes in the latitude of the Sq current system focus during the day. This in turn may be caused by a superposed semidiurnal tide and may also explain {Delta}H variations at stations near the focus.

  15. Congruent responses to weather variability in high arctic herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Stien, Audun; Ims, Rolf A.; Albon, Steve D.; Fuglei, Eva; Irvine, R. Justin; Ropstad, Erik; Halvorsen, Odd; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif Egil; Veiberg, Vebjørn; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the role of weather in the dynamics of wildlife populations is a pressing task in the face of rapid environmental change. Rodents and ruminants are abundant herbivore species in most Arctic ecosystems, many of which are experiencing particularly rapid climate change. Their different life-history characteristics, with the exception of their trophic position, suggest that they should show different responses to environmental variation. Here we show that the only mammalian herbivores on the Arctic islands of Svalbard, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and sibling voles (Microtus levis), exhibit strong synchrony in population parameters. This synchrony is due to rain-on-snow events that cause ground ice and demonstrates that climate impacts can be similarly integrated and expressed in species with highly contrasting life histories. The finding suggests that responses of wildlife populations to climate variability and change might be more consistent in Polar regions than elsewhere owing to the strength of the climate impact and the simplicity of the ecosystem. PMID:23015455

  16. Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

    E-print Network

    John Michael Williams

    2001-02-21

    Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

  17. The impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical weathering

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    function and topographic controls on chemical weathering. We then present new major and trace element data and the chemical index of alteration (CIA), weathering indices used to determine chemical weathering ratesThe impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical

  18. Seasonal variability of the diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xian; Liu, Alan Z.; Oberheide, Jens; Wu, Qian; Li, Tao; Li, Zhenhua; Swenson, Gary R.; Franke, Steven J.

    2011-09-01

    The seasonal variability of the diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W), is investigated using meteor radar horizontal wind measurements from the years 2002 to 2007. The semiannual oscillation (SAO) of tidal amplitudes is dominant above ˜88 km, with amplitudes at equinoxes 2-3 times larger than at solstices. Below 88 km, the annual oscillation (AO) dominates, and its magnitude is smaller than the SAO. The AO dominates in the phase variation of the diurnal tide, which advances in winter and lags in summer as compared with equinoxes. The vertical wavelength also has a noticeable seasonal variation with shorter vertical wavelengths found at equinoxes. The reconstructed diurnal tide from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Doppler interferometer (TIDI) and Sounding the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) measurements is compared with the meteor radar observation, and a consistency is found in the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude. On the basis of the TIDI and SABER measurements, the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) is the dominant tidal component, while three other nonmigrating tides, DW2, DS0, and DE3, are nonnegligible. The seasonal variation of the diurnal tide is well captured by the global scale wave model and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, although important discrepancies still exist.

  19. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  20. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  1. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18. 6-year nodal tide

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, T.C. )

    1993-03-15

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60[degree]N, 149[degree]W) increased by more than 1[degree]C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated ([approx] 0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50[degree]. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of tide-induced salt flux in a partially mixed estuary

    E-print Network

    Engel, Patricia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the tidal component of salt flux in the Hudson River estuary are investigated using a 3D numerical model. Variations with river discharge, fortnightly tidal forcing, and along channel variability are explored. ...

  4. On the occurrence and variability of the terdiurnal tide in the equatorial mesosphere and lower thermosphere and a comparison with the Kyushu-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, N.; Tsuda, T.; Gurubaran, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the occurrence characteristics and variability of the terdiurnal tide (8 hour period) in the equatorial mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), using a meteor radar at Koto Tabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E) and MF radars at Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) and Pameungpeuk (7.4°S, 107.4°E). These locations, one being located right over the equator and the other two at conjugate points around the equator within ±10°, form a unique experimental setup to study equatorial MLT dynamics. The terdiurnal tide exists as a distinct wave signature at all three locations. While the daily amplitudes can be as large as 15 m s-1, the monthly mean amplitudes lie between 1 and 10 m s-1. The amplitude of the terdiurnal tide at Pameungpeuk is generally smaller than that observed at Tirunelveli and Koto Tabang. The seasonal variation in amplitude shows both annual and semiannual oscillations of ˜1 m s-1 at all three locations. The present observations combined with previous reports indicate that the timing of the primary maximum of the terdiurnal tide amplitude shifts from autumn to late spring and early summer as one moves from high latitudes to the equator (all with respect to the Northern Hemisphere). The amplitudes and seasonal variation in the present observations show good comparison with that simulated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) developed by Kyushu University, Japan. This study supports the occurrence of nonlinear interaction between diurnal and semidiurnal tides and shows that gravity waves play an important role in the generation of the terdiurnal tide.

  5. The pole tide and its effect on GRACE time-variable gravity measurements: Implications for estimates of surface mass variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, John; Nerem, R. Steven; Bettadpur, Srinivas V.

    2015-06-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides monthly solutions for the Earth's gravity field in the form of spherical harmonic coefficients. These can be used to infer changes in mass at the Earth's surface. The pole tide (the response of the Earth and oceans to polar motion) causes gravity signals dominated by harmonics of degree 2, order 1. If the pole tide is not removed from GRACE data, it affects the coefficients of those harmonics (C21, S21) and introduces errors when using those coefficients to determine surface mass variations. The pole tide is partially removed by GRACE processing centers before solving for the gravity field. But long-period pole tide signals are not usually included in the GRACE pole tide correction, and so those signals are still present in the GRACE coefficients. We discuss this issue from the standpoint of somebody who uses the GRACE gravity fields to infer changes in surface mass. We arrive at a recommendation for an optimal GRACE pole tide correction. We describe how to modify the C21, S21 coefficients provided by the processing centers, so that they conform with our recommendation. We discuss the size of the pole tide contributions to C21, S21, compared to those of the direct load-induced contributions. As an example, we show how an incompletely removed pole tide can impact GRACE results for the trend in ocean mass. We consider the impact of mantle anelasticity on long-period pole tide corrections and conclude that it is unlikely to affect those corrections by more than 20%.

  6. Physical mechanisms of solar variability influence on weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Numerous researches into correlation of weather and climate characteristics with solar and geomagnetic activity confirm that such correlation does exist. However there is some uncertainty in interpretation of the Sun-weather-climate relations. The paper considers the main causes of this uncertainty which are as follows - the lack of permanent monitoring data on ionizing solar EUV/X-ray radiation including periods of flares; and also the data on electron fluxes of keV energy precipitating from radiation belts first of all during geomagnetic storms; - multiplicity of Sun-weather-climate links; - the lack of understanding what are the mechanisms of solar-geomagnetic activity (flares and storms) influence on weather and climate characteristics; By now mainly the research on galactic cosmic rays (GSR) including Forbush effects and solar cosmic rays (SCR) influences on atmosphere transparence characteristics and further on climate-weather characteristics have been carried out. The GCR flux increase causes the growth of low (usually optically thick) cloudness and therefore produces in generally cooling effect on the mean surface air temperature. The appearance of SCR causes the reduction of stratospheric and tropospheric transparence and produces also usually cooling effect However these events are rare and corresponding variations of fluxes energy are small. At the same time such strong and frequent manifestations of solar activity as flares and magnetic storms are not so far taken into account since it is not known what physical mechanisms could be responsible for energy transfer from solar flares and magnetic storms to the lower atmosphere. The paper describes a novel radio-optical mechanism responsible for the solar-terrestrial links which acts as a three-stage trigger and which could be useful for solving the problem "Sun- weather-climate". This physical mechanism is based on taking into account the excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and molecules in generation of the ionospheric microwave radiation and in realization of the dissociative recombination of cluster ions in troposphere. The mechanism enables agents of solar and geomagnetic activities affect atmospheric processes with help the flux of microwaves from ionosphere. This first agent under consideration is variation of fluxes of solar EUV and X -ray radiation during flares. The second agent is fluxes of electrons and protons which precipitate from radiation belts as a result of geomagnetic storms.. Our novel radiooptical trigger mechanism of influence of solar and geomagnetic activity on the formation of weather and climate changes consists of three stages. The first stage is an increase in generation of the microwave radiation which penetrates from the ionosphere to the earth surface. The microwave radiation arises from the transitions between Rydberg states which are exited by the energetic ionospheric electrons namely photoelectrons, secondary electrons and Auger electrons. The second stage is a change in the proportion of water vapour to water clusters caused by increased microwave radiation. The third stage is a change of the atmosphere transparence in the absorption bands of water vapour and clusters and appearance of optically-thin clouds at high and middle altitudes. These clouds cause a net warming due to their relative transparency at short wavelengths but opacity in the IR region The atmosphere transparence determines the fluxes of solar irradiance coming down as well as flux of the thermal radiation coming out from the underlying surface. We emphasize that all stages of the proposed mechanism are experimentally confirmed: the microwave ionospheric emission, which intensifies during solar and magnetic storms, was detected; the regulation of humidity at altitude higher than 2 km by the solar microwave emission and during of solar flares was registered; a direct influence of solar flares and magnetic storms on the total cloudiness is distinctly registered at least in some geographic areas.

  7. WHU VHF radar observations of the diurnal tide and its variability in the lower atmosphere over Chongyang (114.14° E, 29.53° N), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, Q.; Yi, F.; Huang, K.; Gong, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gan, Q.

    2015-07-01

    The diurnal tide (DT) and its variability in the lower atmosphere over Chongyang (114.14° E, 29.53° N) were studied based on the newly established Wuhan University (WHU) VHF radar observations with the height intervals of 0.145 km (below 9 km) and 0.58 km (above 9 km) in the whole year of 2012. We find that the DT was the dominant tidal component and showed remarkable height and season variations. A prominent seasonally dependent height variability characteristic is that maximum DT amplitude usually occurs around 6 km in the winter and spring months, which might be due to the tidal wave energy concentration arising from the reflections from the strong eastward tropospheric jet around 13 km and the ground surface. Our results suggest that the background wind is a crucial cause for height variability and seasonal variability of DT. In April 2012, a notable strengthening of DT is observed. Meanwhile, the significant higher harmonics of tides, i.e., the semidiurnal, terdiurnal, and even quarterdiurnal tides, can also be observed, which has seldom been reported. Interestingly, these four tidal components displayed consistent short-term variability, implying that they were excited by the same dramatically varying tidal source. In addition, we identified two symptoms of the coupling of DT and planetary waves (PWs), which can also lead to the short-term DT variability. One is the sum and difference interactions between DT and PWs, causing the tidal amplitude short-term variability as a consequence of the energy exchange among the interacting waves. The other one is the modulation of DT by PWs, leading to that the amplitude of DT varies with the periods of the PWs.

  8. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

  9. Characterizing the Weather Band Variability of the Texas Coastal Current 

    E-print Network

    Zimmerle, Heather

    2014-07-17

    transport that occurs during reversals. The determined interannual variability of the Texas Coastal Current is imperative for understanding the surface transport of water and mitigating associated coastal hazards, including oil, harmful algal blooms...

  10. Variabilities of mesospheric tides during sudden stratospheric warming events of 2006 and 2009 and their relationship with ozone and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2012-04-01

    The present study demonstrates how the relationship between the high latitude northern hemispheric major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events of 2006 and 2009 and low-latitude mesospheric tidal variability in zonal winds observed by the MF radar at Tirunelveli (8.7°0N, 77.8°E) exists. It is found that the ozone mixing ratio increases at low latitudes during the SSW and it could probably be due to the SSW induced reversal of meridional circulation towards southward, which may aid the transport of ozone from high to low latitudes, but prevent the same from low to high latitudes. As semi-diurnal tide is produced due to solar insolation absorption of ozone and the increase in the ozone mixing ratio could be a reason for the increase in the semi-diurnal tidal amplitude. The variabilities of diurnal tide appear to be governed mostly by variation of specific humidity at 300 hPa over equator and intraseasonal variability dominates the variabilities in both the parameters.

  11. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed. PMID:24599495

  12. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  13. Simulating soybean canopy temperature as affected by weather variables and soil water potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of variables were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point temperatures were found to be the significant weather variables affecting the canopy temperatures. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy temperature for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point temperatures is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.

  14. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  15. Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin Multi-site generation of weather variables

    E-print Network

    Beersma, Jules

    Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin Multi-site generation of weather variables for the entire generator for the Rhine Basin 38 3 #12;Summary This is the final report of a project on the development of a rainfall generator for the Rhine basin. The request for this generator arose from the need to study

  16. ANALYZING SEASONAL TO INTERANNUAL EXTREME WEATHER AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY WITH THE EXTREMES TOOLKIT

    E-print Network

    Gilleland, Eric

    referred to as the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Figure 1 shows an example from having. In this paper, it will be demonstrated how extreme- value statistical analysis can be employed for study- ingP2.15 ANALYZING SEASONAL TO INTERANNUAL EXTREME WEATHER AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY WITH THE EXTREMES

  17. Weather data, site variability, and probabilities of success: a practical perspective on adaptive management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi-arid rangelands occupy over half of the earth’s surface and are characterized by high variability in seasonal and annual precipitation. Invasive plants compete for soil and water and exacerbate inherent weather limitations for desirable plant establishment. Management guidelines for ...

  18. Weather variability, ecological processes and optimization of soil micro-environment for rangeland restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi-arid rangelands occupy over half of the earth’s surface and are characterized by relatively high variability in seasonal and annual patterns of precipitation. Invasive plants compete for soil and water resources and exacerbate inherent weather limitations for native plant establishmen...

  19. A Distributed Lag Analysis of the Relationship Between Gibberella zeae Inoculum Density on Wheat Spikes and Weather Variables.

    PubMed

    Paul, P A; Lipps, P E; De Wolf, E; Shaner, G; Buechley, G; Adhikari, T; Ali, S; Stein, J; Osborne, L; Madden, L V

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT In an effort to characterize the association between weather variables and inoculum of Gibberella zeae in wheat canopies, spikes were sampled and assayed for pathogen propagules from plots established in Indiana, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and Manitoba between 1999 and 2005. Inoculum abundance was quantified as the daily number of colony forming units per spike (CFU/spike). A total of 49 individual weather variables for 24-h periods were generated from measurements of ambient weather data. Polynomial distributed lag regression analysis, followed by linear mixed model analysis, was used to (i) identify weather variables significantly related to log-transformed CFU/spike (the response variable; Y), (ii) determine the time window (i.e., lag length) over which each weather variable affected Y, (iii) determine the form of the relationship between each weather variable and Y (defined in terms of the polynomial degree for the relationship between the parameter weights for the weather variables and the time lag involved), and (iv) account for location-specific effects and random effects of years within locations on the response variable. Both location and year within location affected the magnitude of Y, but there was no consistent trend in Y over time. Y on each day was significantly and simultaneously related to weather variables on the day of sampling and on the 8 days prior to sampling (giving a 9-day time window). The structural relationship corresponded to polynomial degrees of 0, 1, or 2, generally showing a smooth change in the parameter weights and time lag. Moisture- (e.g., relative humidity-) related variables had the strongest relationship with Y, but air temperature- and rainfall-related variables also significantly affected Y. The overall marginal effect of each weather variable on Y was positive. Thus, local weather conditions can be utilized to improve estimates of spore density on wheat spikes around the time of flowering. PMID:18943722

  20. The Spatial Variability of Weathering Processes in a Peruvian River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; Ballew, N.; Clark, K.; West, A.

    2011-12-01

    The role of floodplains in the weathering of sediment exported from mountainous regions is poorly understood and has the potential to play a significant role in the overall weathering budget of large river systems. While high rates of floodplain weathering have been measured in the Himalayan system [1], there are conflicting results concerning the importance of floodplain weathering in the Amazon system [2-3]. To address this issue, the dissolved major element chemistry of the Kosñipata-Madre de Dios river system in Peru was measured monthly in nested catchments spanning the headwater-floodplain transition in order to determine spatially-resolved weathering rates and to examine any associated changes in weathering processes. Analysis of the dissolved major element data reveals a change in the dominant weathering process controlling the Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes associated with the headwater-floodplain transition. Based on (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios near 0.5, Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes in the floodplain are controlled by carbonate dissolution by carbonic acid. In the Andean catchments, variable (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios, (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / SO42- ratios near 1, and high SO42- concentrations suggest that either carbonate dissolution by sulfuric acid or sulfate mineral dissolution is the main control on Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes. This observed change is significant as it has important implications for the net consumption of CO2 by silicate weathering in this river system. [1] West, AJ et al, 2002, Geology 30: 355-358, [2] Gaillardet, J et al, 2006, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70: 189, [3] Moquet, J et al, 2011, Chem. Geol 287: 1-26

  1. Weather variability permitted within amphibian monitoring protocol and affects on calling Hylidae.

    PubMed

    Milne, Robert; Bennett, Lorne; Hoyle, Mathew

    2013-11-01

    Anuran populations are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and act as useful indicators. Presently, much information collected concerning frog populations comes from volunteers following the North American Amphibian Monitoring Protocol. Does weather variability allowed within protocol affect the abundance of calling frogs? For 10 years, Credit Valley Conservation (Ontario, Canada) has been collecting anuran data concerning nine frog species employing three frog monitoring runs. Records include frog abundance by protocol code and five weather variables. Antecedent precipitation and temperature were determined from the nearest weather station. Locations with large source populations of two Hylidae species were selected (spring peeper calling in April and gray tree frog in May). Spearman correlations suggested there were no significant relationships between calling abundance of Hylidae species and ambient wind speed or humidity. However, gray tree frogs were temperature sensitive and calling was significantly related to increased water and air temperatures as well as day time high temperatures over the previous 2 weeks. Both species of calling Hylidae were affected by the volume and timing of precipitation (though, in different ways). Gray tree frogs seem to prefer drier conditions (when temperatures are significantly warmer) while spring peepers prefer to call during, or closely following, precipitation. Monitors targeting gray tree frog should track local weather conditions and focus on evenings when it is (a) warmer than the minimum temperatures and (b) drier than suggested by the protocol. It is recommended that an additional monitoring run could be added to reduce detection variability of this species. PMID:23625355

  2. Interpreting and analyzing King Tide in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of sea-level rise has the potential to cause regional flooding in certain areas, and low-lying island countries are severely at risk. Tuvalu, an atoll country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, has been inundated by this regional flooding for decades. Tuvaluans call this regional flooding phenomenon King Tide, a term not clearly defined, blaming it for loss of life and property in announcing their intention to migrate. In this study, we clarified and interpreted King Tide, and analyzed the factors of King Tide in Tuvalu. Using tide gauge and topographical data, we estimated that 3.2 m could be considered the threshold of King Tide, which implied half of the island of Tuvalu was flooded with seawater. This threshold is consistent with the finding of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that King Tide events occur once or twice a year. We surveyed 28 King Tide events to analyze the factors of regional flooding. Tide gauge and satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2012 were cross-validated and indicated that the King Tide phenomenon is significantly related to the warm-water effect. Warm water contributed to the King Tide phenomenon by an average of 5.1% and a maximum of 7.8%. The height of King Tide is affected by the combined factors of spring tide, storm surge, climate variability, and, significantly, by the warm-water effect.

  3. Tropical Ocean Surface Energy Balance Variability: Linking Weather to Climate Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol Anne

    2013-01-01

    Radiative and turbulent surface exchanges of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. These fluxes are integral components to tropical ocean-atmosphere variability; they can drive ocean mixed layer variations and modify the atmospheric boundary layer properties including moist static stability, thereby influencing larger-scale tropical dynamics. Non-parametric cluster-based classification of atmospheric and ocean surface properties has shown an ability to identify coherent weather regimes, each typically associated with similar properties and processes. Using satellite-based observational radiative and turbulent energy flux products, this study investigates the relationship between these weather states and surface energy processes within the context of tropical climate variability. Investigations of surface energy variations accompanying intraseasonal and interannual tropical variability often use composite-based analyses of the mean quantities of interest. Here, a similar compositing technique is employed, but the focus is on the distribution of the heat and moisture fluxes within their weather regimes. Are the observed changes in surface energy components dominated by changes in the frequency of the weather regimes or through changes in the associated fluxes within those regimes? It is this question that the presented work intends to address. The distribution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes is evaluated for both normal and non-normal states. By examining both phases of the climatic oscillations, the symmetry of energy and water cycle responses are considered.

  4. The impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimsath, Arjun M.; Burke, Benjamin C.

    2013-10-01

    Soil-mantled upland landscapes are widespread across the habitable world, support extensive life, and are the interface between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere but typically are not cultivated. Soil found across such landscapes fits the conceptual framework of a physically mobile layer derived from the underlying parent material along with some locally derived organic content. The extent and persistence of these upland soils depend on the long-term balance between soil production and erosion. Here we briefly review methods used to quantify the physical and chemical processes of soil production and erosion and revisit three granitic study areas in southeastern Australia and northern California that enabled early quantification of the soil production function and topographic controls on chemical weathering. We then present new major and trace element data from 2-m by 2-m pits dug at each field site to quantify local variability of Zr concentrations and the chemical index of alteration (CIA), weathering indices used to determine chemical weathering rates and extents in soils and saprolites. Using both new and previously published data, we compare differences between local variability and regional, as well as intersite variability of these important indices. For each of the 2-m pits, we collected 25 samples and found that the simple mean and the 2? standard deviation best describe the local variation in the data. We also find that the variability in the 2-m pit data lies within variability observed in the same data from samples collected in individual soil pits across each of the field sites and that the differences between sites are consistent with previously published results. These observations highlight the importance of quantifying local scale variability in studies that use similar, multifaceted measurements to quantify hillslope soil production and erosion processes.

  5. WEATHER RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON, M.A.

    2007-04-16

    Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. All calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures.

  6. WEATHER RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON, M.A.

    2007-04-16

    Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. Calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures.

  7. Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

    1997-12-01

    Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

  8. Weather Variability Associated with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Dengue Vector) Oviposition Dynamics in Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estallo, Elizabet L.; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F.; Introini, María V.; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a forecasting model by assessing the weather variability associated with seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti oviposition dynamic at a city level in Orán, in northwestern Argentina. Oviposition dynamics were assessed by weekly monitoring of 90 ovitraps in the urban area during 2005-2007. Correlations were performed between the number of eggs collected weekly and weather variables (rainfall, photoperiod, vapor pressure of water, temperature, and relative humidity) with and without time lags (1 to 6 weeks). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the set of meteorological variables from the first year of study with the variables in the time lags that best correlated with the oviposition. Model validation was conducted using the data from the second year of study (October 2006- 2007). Minimum temperature and rainfall were the most important variables. No eggs were found at temperatures below 10°C. The most significant time lags were 3 weeks for minimum temperature and rains, 3 weeks for water vapor pressure, and 6 weeks for maximum temperature. Aedes aegypti could be expected in Orán three weeks after rains with adequate min temperatures. The best-fit forecasting model for the combined meteorological variables explained 70 % of the variance (adj. R2). The correlation between Ae. aegypti oviposition observed and estimated by the forecasting model resulted in rs = 0.80 (P < 0.05). The forecasting model developed would allow prediction of increases and decreases in the Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on meteorological data for Orán city and, according to the meteorological variables, vector activity can be predicted three or four weeks in advance. PMID:25993415

  9. Temporal and Spatial Variability in ENSO Teleconnections to Daily Weather Donditions in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, S. A.; Wise, E. K.; Csank, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Classic teleconnection analysis has focused on relationships between modes of variability and seasonal average conditions. Growing needs for seasonally specific planning, as well as an expanding body of research showing instability in teleconnections, suggest that there is a need to evaluate teleconnections over narrower seasonal windows and to investigate variables other than average temperature, snowpack, and total precipitation. Here, ENSO teleconnections to snow-fraction, wet-day frequency and temperature, and air-mass type (using Sheridan's synoptic classification), as well as to average temperature and precipitation, were evaluated at weather stations across the Pacific Northwest. The analysis was performed separately for early (October/November), middle (December/January) and late (February/March) portions of the cool-season. The stability of these relationships over time was also evaluated. Currently, ENSO has the strongest and most widespread influence on PNW weather late in the cool season, with some effect in the autumn, but little detectable impact in the mid-winter. Earlier in the 20th century, the autumn peak in ENSO influence was somewhat more pronounced and the spring somewhat less. There were also modest geographic differences in teleconnection patterns, such as a region-wide response in average February-March temperature, but more localized effects on wet-day temperature. Geographic and seasonal distinctions in teleconnections to weather and climate could drive important differences in ecological and hydrological outcomes. This type of daily-level analysis may be useful in meeting the needs of stakeholders interested in using teleconnections for seasonal planning, but who may need more seasonally specific information or non-standard variables. However, this study also demonstrates the need for a thorough understanding of teleconnection spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and temporal flexibility when they are being presented to stakeholders as a decision-making tool.

  10. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluation the Radiation Environment Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret; Howard, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Hardware design environments for NASA's Constellation Program-the Vision for Space Exploration program to design and build new vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit and the Moon and beyond-have been developed that are necessarily conservative in nature to assure robust hardware design and development required to build space systems which will meet operational goals in a wide range of space environments, This presentation will describe the rationale used to establish the space radiation and plasma design environments specified for a variety of applications including total ionizing radiation dose, dose rate effects, and spacecraft charging and will compare the design environments with "space weather" variability to evaluate the applicability of the design environments and potential vulnerabilities of the system to extreme space weather events.

  11. New Jersey Tide Telemetry System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    Each summer the population of the barrier-island communities of New Jersey increases by tens of thousands. When a coastal storm threatens these communities, the limited number of bridges and causeways that connect the islands with the mainland become overcrowded, making evacuations from the barrier islands to the mainland difficult. Timely evacuation depends on well-defined emergency evacuation plans used in conjunction with accurate flood forecasting and up to the minute (real-time) tide-level information. The 'Great Nor'easter' storm that struck the coastal areas of New Jersey on December 11, 1992, caused about $270 million in insured damages to public and private property (Dorr and others, 1995). Most of the damage was due to tidal flooding and storm surge, which were especially severe along the back bay areas. Comprehensive and reliable tide-level and meteorological data for the back bays was needed to make accurate flood forecasts. Collection of tidal data for the ocean and large bays was adequately covered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Ocean Service (NOAA's NOS), but in New Jersey little to no data are available for the back-bay areas. The back bays behave quite differently than the ocean as a result of the complex interaction between the winds and the geometry of the inlets and bays. A slow moving Nor'easter can keep tide levels in back bays several feet higher than the ocean tide by not allowing tides to recede, resulting in flooding of bridges and causeways that link the barrier islands to the mainland. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT), designed and installed the New Jersey Tide Telemetry System (NJTTS) with assistance from NOAA's NOS in 1997. This system is part of a statewide network of tide gages, weather stations, and stream gages that collect data in real time. The NJTTS supplies comprehensive, reliable real-time tide-level and meteorological data for flood-prone areas along the New Jersey shore and back bays. These data are transmitted to computer base stations located at offices of the National Weather Service, New Jersey State Police (NJSP), NJDOT, county emergency management agencies, other critical decision-making centers, and the World Wide Web (WWW). This fact sheet describes the NJTTS and identifies its benefits.

  12. Adaptability of free-floating green tide algae in the Yellow Sea to variable temperature and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianheng; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhou, Lingjie; Wu, Qing; Chen, Liping; Yu, Kefeng; He, Peimin

    2015-12-30

    In this study, the influence of temperature and light intensity on the growth of seedlings and adults of four species of green tide algae (Ulvaprolifera, Ulvacompressa, Ulva flexuosa and Ulvalinza) from the Yellow Sea was evaluated. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR) of seedlings was much higher than that of adults for the four species. The adaptability of U. prolifera is much wider: Adult daily SGRs were the highest among the four species at 15-20°C with 10-600?mol·m(-2)·s(-1) and 25-30°C with 200-600?mol·m(-2)·s(-1). SGRs were 1.5-3.5 times greater than the other three species at 15-25°C with 200-600?mol·m(-2)·s(-1). These results indicate that U. prolifera has better tolerance to high temperature and light intensity than the other three species, which may in part explain why only U. prolifera undergoes large-scale outbreaks and floats to the Qingdao coast while the other three species decline and disappear at the early stage of blooming. PMID:26573134

  13. Mechanism for the effects of variable solar activity on the weather. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The goal of the research was to help in identifying the most likely physical mechanisms for the effects of variable solar activity on the weather. The method of attack was largely empirical, and this method was chosen for the following reasons: (1) in order to tap the great pool of scientific talent that may be able to offer sound physical mechanisms, it is necessary to demonstrate that there are some important relationships to explain; and (2) if the experiments are carefully designed, they can be useful in eliminating certain mechanisms which seem to have a low probability of success, and picking out the mechanisms which look more promising. Some results are presented.

  14. Influence of seasonal weather and climate variability on crop yields in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain

    2013-07-01

    The climatic sensitivity of four important agriculture crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes) in a northern temperate bioclimatic region is investigated using national-level yield data for 1963-2005. The climate variables include monthly and annual meteorological data, derived bioclimatic metrics, and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Statistical analysis shows that significant relationships between yield and climate vary depending on the crop type and month but highlight the influence of precipitation (negative correlation) and sunshine duration (positive correlation) rather than temperature. Soil moisture deficit is shown to be a particular useful indicator of yield with drier summers providing the best yields for Scotland as a whole. It is also tentatively inferred that the sensitivity of these crops, particularly wheat and barley, to soil moisture deficits has increased in recent years. This suggests that improved crop yields are optimised for dry sunny years despite the continued prevalence of considerable inter-annual variability in seasonal weather.

  15. Relative Roles of Weather Variables and Change in Human Population in Malaria: Comparison over Different States of India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala

    2014-01-01

    Background Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. Method We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. Results For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. Conclusion The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria. PMID:24971510

  16. Circulation weather types and spatial variability of daily precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula %K circulation weather types, daily gridded precipitation, Iberian Peninsula, spatial variability, seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre; Cortesi, Nicola; Trigo, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The relationships between atmospheric circulation patterns and daily Iberian rainfall are here explored at high spatial resolution (0.2°) using the Jenkinson and Collison automated classification scheme with 26 Weather Types (WTs). The WTs were computed by means of the daily EMULATE Mean Sea Level Pressure dataset (EMSLP) while the high resolution precipitation database corresponds to the recent Iberia02 daily gridded precipitation dataset over the 1950-2003 period. Six monthly indexes relating the WTs and precipitation were analyzed: their Frequency, the Mean Precipitation, the Percentage Contribution, the Area of Influence, the Precipitation Intensity and Efficiency. Except for the Frequency of the WTs, all other indexes were evaluated studying their spatial distribution over the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on a WT and a month at time. A small number of WTs (7) was found to capture a high percentage (~70%) of monthly Iberian precipitation. The Westerly WT is the most influent one, followed by the Cyclonic, the Northwesterly and the Southwesterly WTs. Westerly flows, however, do not affect the Mediterranean fringe or the Cantabrian coast, which are dominated by the Easterly and Northerly WTs, respectively. Rainfall along the Mediterranean coastline and the Ebro basin depends on a variety of WTs, but their effects are confined to narrow areas and short temporal intervals, suggesting that local factors such as convective processes, orography and the proximity to a warm water body could play a major role in precipitation processes. We show that the use of daily gridded precipitation dataset holds the advantage of measuring the daily rainfall amount due to each WT directly instead to relying on the predicted values of the regression model as done in previous works.

  17. The effect of weather variability on hydrology and erosion in the Pamir Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Eric; Gloaguen, Richard; Andermann, Christoff; Fuchs, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The Pamir Mountains (Pamirs) provide a unique climatological and geomorphological setting to investigate processes of mountain shaping. The two main atmospheric circulation systems in this region, the Westerlies in the western part, and the Indian summer monsoon in the south-eastern part, provide variable amounts of moisture. Strong inter-annual variations in moisture supply in other key-meteorological parameters suggest a very variable climate. Deflection of winds at the orogene margins and advective precipitation results in a strong precipitation gradient with moist margins and an arid central and eastern part. This gradient is generally accompanied by higher glaciation and more incised valleys at the margins and weak glaciation and preserved plateaus in the central and eastern parts. These differences seem to indicate a strong influence of precipitation and glaciation on erosion and mountain shaping, especially in the north-western part. However, recent studies utilizing cosmogenic nuclide (CN) techniques to derive basin-wide erosion rates revealed only weak correlations of modern climate with basin-wide erosion rates (integrated over ~1000 years). Independent analyses of historical suspended sediment yield (SSY) data for several rivers in the Pamirs show a similar distribution of high and low erosion rates compared to the CN method. However, CN-based erosion shows factor 3 to 30 higher erosion rates than SSY. We address this discrepancy by adopting a distributed hydrological model that we feed with state-of-the-art regional climate model, and remote sensing data. The model provides us with daily high spatial-resolution data of individual water components that allow to investigate effects of weather and weather variability on water mobilization. Based on the SSY analysis we infer individual water components responsible for sediment mobilization. We combine these findings in a coupled hydrology-erosion model approach to elucidate the complex underlying mechanisms that drive mountain shaping from a short-term meteorological -rather than a climatological- point of view.

  18. Influence of Weather Variables and Plant Communities on Grasshopper Density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996–2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density, these weather variables and plant communities had differential influence on the dominant grasshopper species. PMID:22220572

  19. Squeezing of Particle Distributions by Expanding Magnetic Turbulence and Space Weather Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D. J.; Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Chuychai, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Among the space weather effects due to gradual solar storms, greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes can cause radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts, which motivates examination of the transport of high-energy solar ions to Earth orbit. Ions of low kinetic energy (up to ˜2sim 2 MeV/nucleon) from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes due to filamentation of magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that anisotropic, field-aligned magnetic flux tube-like structures persist to Earth orbit. By employing a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfv'enic (slab) and 2D magnetic fluctuations to trace simulated trajectories in the solar wind, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E?1Egeq1 GeV) protons from gradual solar events is squeezed toward magnetic flux structures with a specific polarity due to the conical shape of the flux structures, which results from the expanding flow of the solar wind. It is difficult to observationally determine what polarity of flux structure the Earth is in at a given time, so this transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund, a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, a Research Fellowship from the Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, the U.S. NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX08AI47G & NNX11AJ44G), and the Solar Probe Plus/ISIS project. KEYWORDS: [7807] SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS / Charged particle motion and acceleration, [7863] SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS / Turbulence, [2118] INTERPLANETARY PHYSICS / Energetic particles, solar, [7984] SPACE WEATHER / Space radiation environment

  20. Forecasting the Coastal Ocean: Resolution, Tide, and Operational Data in the South Atlantic Bight

    E-print Network

    Forecasting the Coastal Ocean: Resolution, Tide, and Operational Data in the South Atlantic Bight D on the shelf occurs in this mode, in the tide- and weather-bands. The former is completely a remotely agreement with oceanic tides over the whole East Coast; (ADCIRC 1995); and quality data along the coast (NOS

  1. Forecasting the Coastal Ocean: Resolution, Tide, and Operational Data in the South Atlantic Bight

    E-print Network

    Forecasting the Coastal Ocean: Resolution, Tide, and Operational Data in the South Atlantic Bight D motion on the shelf occurs in this mode, in the tide- and weather-bands. The former is completely agreement with oceanic tides over the whole East Coast; (ADCIRC 1995); and quality data along the coast (NOS

  2. Squeezing of particle distributions by expanding magnetic turbulence and space weather variability

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, D.; Seripienlert, A.; Tooprakai, P.; Chuychai, P.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: achara.ser@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: p.chuychai@sci.mfu.ac.th

    2013-12-10

    Among the space weather effects due to gradual solar storms, greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes contribute to radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts and dominate the hazards to air travelers, which motivates examination of the transport of high-energy solar ions to Earth's orbit. Ions of low kinetic energy (up to ?2 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes due to filamentation of the magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that anisotropic, field-aligned magnetic flux tubelike structures persist to Earth's orbit. By employing a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfvénic (slab) and two-dimensional magnetic fluctuations to trace simulated trajectories in the solar wind, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E ? 1 GeV) protons from gradual solar events is squeezed toward magnetic flux structures with a specific polarity because of the conical shape of the flux structures. Conical flux structures and the squeezing of energetic particle distributions should occur in any astrophysical wind or jet with expanding, magnetized, turbulent plasma. This transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction.

  3. Spatial variability of the characteristics of combined wet weather pollutant loads in Paris.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mounira; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R; Gromaire, M C; Chebbo, G

    2008-02-01

    An on-site observatory of urban pollutant loads in combined sewers has been created in Paris in order to investigate wet weather pollutant loads at different spatial scales. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering areas from 41 to 2581ha. For a wide range of parameters including suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs), this article serves to evaluate the potential scale effect on wet weather flow (WWF) quality. Although the extensive data set compiled herein has emphasized the high variability in WWF quality from one rain event to the next, no scale effect could be observed for a given rain event on pollutant concentrations, distributions between dissolved and particulate phases, pollutant contents and loads. Such results are of prime importance since they suggest (i) no spatial scale influence on WWF quality for the considered catchments and (ii) similar dominant sources and transfer processes at the various spatial scales. PMID:17822734

  4. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  5. Analysis of the influence of rainfall variables on urban effluents concentrations and fluxes in wet weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooré Bi, Eustache; Monette, Frédéric; Gasperi, Johnny

    2015-04-01

    Urban rainfall runoff has been a topic of increasing importance over the past years, a result of both the increase in impervious land area arising from constant urban growth and the effects of climate change on urban drainage. The main goal of the present study is to assess and analyze the correlations between rainfall variables and common indicators of urban water quality, namely event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event fluxes (EFs), in order to identify and explain the impacts of each of the main rainfall variables on the generation process of urban pollutants during wet periods. To perform this analysis, runoff from eight summer rainfall events that resulted in combined sewer overflow (CSO) was sampled simultaneously from two distinct catchment areas in order to quantify discharges at the respective outfalls. Pearson statistical analysis of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand at 5 days (CBOD5), total phosphorus (Ptot) and total kedjal nitrogen (N-TKN) showed significant correlations (? = 0.05) between dry antecedent time (DAT) and EMCs on one hand, and between total rainfall (TR) and the volume discharged (VD) during EFs, on the other. These results show that individual rainfall variables strongly affect either EMCs or EFs and are good predictors to consider when selecting variables for statistical modeling of urban runoff quality. The results also show that in a combined sewer network, there is a linear relationship between TSS event fluxes and COD, CBOD5, Ptot, and N-TKN event fluxes; this explains 97% of the variability of these pollutants which adsorb onto TSS during wet weather, which therefore act as tracers. Consequently, the technological solution selected for TSS removal will also lead to a reduction of these pollutants. Given the huge volumes involved, urban runoffs contribute substantially to pollutant levels in receiving water bodies, a situation which, in a climate change context, may get much worse as a result of more frequent, shorter, but more intense rainfall events.

  6. Effects of Weather Variables on Ascospore Discharge from Fusarium graminearum Perithecia

    PubMed Central

    Manstretta, Valentina; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a predominant component of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex of small grain cereals. Ascosporic infection plays a relevant role in the spread of the disease. A 3-year study was conducted on ascospore discharge. To separate the effect of weather on discharge from the effect of weather on the production and maturation of ascospores in perithecia, discharge was quantified with a volumetric spore sampler placed near maize stalk residues bearing perithecia with mature ascospores; the residues therefore served as a continuous source of ascospores. Ascospores were discharged from perithecia on 70% of 154 days. Rain (R) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were the variables that most affected ascospore discharge, with 84% of total discharges occurring on days with R?0.2 mm or VPD?11 hPa, and with 70% of total ascospore discharge peaks (? 30 ascospores/m3 air per day) occurring on days with R?0.2 mm and VPD?6.35 hPa. An ROC analysis using these criteria for R and VPD provided True Positive Proportion (TPP) = 0.84 and True Negative Proportion (TNP) = 0.63 for occurrence of ascospore discharge, and TPP = 0.70 and TNP = 0.89 for occurrence of peaks. Globally, 68 ascospores (2.5% of the total ascospores sampled) were trapped on the 17 days when no ascospores were erroneously predicted. When a discharge occurred, the numbers of F. graminearum ascospores sampled were predicted by a multiple regression model with R2 = 0.68. This model, which includes average and maximum temperature and VPD as predicting variables, slightly underestimated the real data and especially ascospore peaks. Numbers of ascospores in peaks were best predicted by wetness duration of the previous day, minimum temperature, and VPD, with R2 = 0.71. These results will help refine the epidemiological models used as decision aids in FHB management programs. PMID:26402063

  7. What Causes Tides?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of tides has a faraway source. This rise and fall of the water level over a period of several hours is a result of the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth's oceans. Tides exhibit predictable cycles on daily, monthly, and yearly scales. The magnitude of the tides is dependent on the position of the Earth and Moon in…

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Extreme Weather in The United States

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Cassandra J.

    2013-08-31

    in conjunction to daily weather. Teleconnection patterns that directly impact US weather are El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The use of wavelet analysis, including the continuous wavelet transform, the wavelet cross...

  9. The Amazon hydrometeorology: Climatology, variability and links to changes in weather patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Katia De Avila

    My thesis focuses on improving the quantification of the hydrological cycle and understanding the atmospheric processes that link weather to climate in the Amazon River basin. By using ERA40 and independent observations, I assess how well we can estimate the surface water budget in the Amazon River basin. I find that ERA40 basin wide annual precipitation (P) overall agrees with observations showing a slight underestimation of 10% in average, whereas runoff (R) is underestimated by a larger margin (˜25%). Observed residual of precipitation and runoff (denoted as P-R) is better estimated by ERA40 P-R than actual ET which includes soil moisture nudging. The causes for said discrepancies were found to partly relate to soil moisture nudging that needs to be applied during the dry season to produce realistic ET and compensate for the low soil moisture recharge during the previous wet season. Insufficient recharge may in part be caused by underestimation of rainfall amount and intensity; moreover the shallow root layer in the model does not represent the deep soil water reservoir characteristic of the Amazonian forest. Whether the hydrological cycle and weather patterns in the Amazon have changed during the past few decades is a highly debatable but central question for detecting climate change in the region. The second part of my thesis focus on the physical links between rainfall changes detected in observations, and changes of synoptic scale systems as represented by ERA40. My results suggest that an observed delayed wet season onset is consistent with a decreasing number of cold air incursion (CAI) days in southern Amazon for the period 1979--2001. The variability of CAI into southern Amazon is related to the variability of SST upstream of South America in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. A Singular Value Decomposition Analysis (SVD) between CAI days and global SST reveal three main modes of co-variability. The first mode describes the effect of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. During El Nino (La Nina) a strong (weak) subtropical jet stream over South America tends to prevent transient systems from moving to southern Amazon, resulting in decreased (increased) CAI days during SON. The second mode of co-variability shows an anomalously warm western Indian Ocean also related to strong subtropical jet stream, except the jet is positioned farther north in South America, which along with the absence of a well defined subpolar jet stream, favors the northward displacement of transient waves into central South America, but show little response in southern Amazon. The CAI days reconstructed from the first and second modes do not present any significant trend in southern Amazon. CAI days reconstructed from the third mode of co-variability on the other hand, reproduces the SON observed trend in almost its entirety. The third mode of co-variability describes negative (positive) anomalies in CAI days associated with cold (warm) SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific, anomalous wavetrain in the Southern Hemisphere and Walker Cell displacement that are unfavorable (favorable) to the incursion of CAI into southern Amazon. The temporal evolution of this mode correlates negatively with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, suggesting that the recent gradual shift in PDO polarity reflected on the interannual response of Southern Pacific atmospheric patterns, hence on the behavior of transients propagation. The negative PDO index and its related atmospheric patterns are in agreement with the reduced observed CAI days, which also related to a delayed wet season onset in the southern Amazon.

  10. Do weather changes influence pain levels in women with fibromyalgia, and can psychosocial variables moderate these influences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedslund, Geir; Eide, Hilde; Kristjansdottir, Ólöf Birna; Nes, Andrea Aparecida Gonçalves; Sexton, Harold; Fors, Egil A.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between fibromyalgia pain and weather, and to investigate whether psychosocial factors influence this relationship. Women with chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia ( N = 50) enrolled in a larger study, were recruited from a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program in Norway ( 2009-2010), and reported their pain and psychological factors up to three times per day (morning, afternoon, evening) for 5 weeks. These ratings were then related to the official local weather parameters. Barometric pressure recorded simultaneously impacted pain significantly while temperature, relative humidity, and solar flux did not. No psychological variables influenced the weather-pain interaction. No weather parameter predicted change in the subsequent pain measures. The magnitude of the inverse association between pain and barometric pressure was very small, and none of the psychological variables studied influenced the association between pain and barometric pressure. All in all, the evidence for a strong weather-pain association in fibromyalgia seems limited at best.

  11. European weather sensitivity to Barents-Kara sea-ice variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Paolo; Buizza, Roberto; Visconti, Guido

    2015-04-01

    The rapid decline of sea-ice cover in the Arctic has recently instilled great interest in the atmospheric dynamics community, who has been trying to understand the links between this region and the extra-tropical circulation. One of the aspects that has attracted attention has been the so-called Arctic Amplification mechanism linked to the sea ice variability over the Barents and Kara seas (B-K). In this work, we investigate this link and show that changes in the tropospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector can be associated with sea ice variability in B-K. The links between the local response in the surroundings of the B-K seas, expressed in terms of temperature and pressure anomalies, and atmospheric regimes in the North Atlantic, identified with a low-level jet index and a blocking index, are investigated looking at 16 years of winter weather reanalyses. It is found that cooling over Western Europe can be caused, or at least enhanced, by the atmosphere dynamics response to low B-K sea ice conditions. Reanalyses of the 100 hPa heat flux and of the intensity of the stratospheric polar vortex suggest that a two-way coupling troposphere-stratosphere is one of the key physical mechanisms linking the B-K seas and the Euro-Atlantic variability. Years with low ice cover are found to be associated with enhanced high-latitude blocking activity in the North Atlantic, with increased occurrence of low-latitude jet events that induce cold-air advection over Europe. In this framework, blocking events can be interpreted both as the cause and the consequence of the intense coupling between the lower and the upper atmosphere by means of vertical propagation of planetary waves. The impact of B-K sea ice variability over Europe thus appears to be associated with a positive feedback between high latitude blocking and changes in the stratospheric circulation. Although the variability of early winter B-K sea ice is probably only one of factors driving the coupling, we speculate that it has a potential role in the predictability of a class of severe events in Europe.

  12. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  13. Climate Variability and Weather Extremes: Model-Simulated and Historical Data. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Lim, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Extremes in weather and climate encompass a wide array of phenomena including tropical storms, mesoscale convective systems, snowstorms, floods, heat waves, and drought. Understanding how such extremes might change in the future requires an understanding of their past behavior including their connections to large-scale climate variability and trends. Previous studies suggest that the most robust findings concerning changes in short-term extremes are those that can be most directly (though not completely) tied to the increase in the global mean temperatures. These include the findings that (IPCC 2007): There has been a widespread reduction in the number of frost days in mid-latitude regions in recent decades, an increase in the number of warm extremes, particularly warm nights, and a reduction in the number of cold extremes, particularly cold nights. For North America in particular (CCSP SAP 3.3, 2008): There are fewer unusually cold days during the last few decades. The last 10 years have seen a lower number of severe cold waves than for any other 10-year period in the historical record that dates back to 1895. There has been a decrease in the number of frost days and a lengthening of the frost-free season, particularly in the western part of North America. Other aspects of extremes such as the changes in storminess have a less clear signature of long term change, with considerable interannual, and decadal variability that can obscure any climate change signal. Nevertheless, regarding extratropical storms (CCSP SAP 3.3, 2008): The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a northward shift in the tracks of strong low pressure systems (storms) in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. For North America: Regional analyses suggest that there has been a decrease in snowstorms in the South and lower Midwest of the United States, and an increase in snowstorms in the upper Midwest and Northeast. Despite the progress already made, our understanding of the basic mechanisms by which extremes vary is incomplete. As noted in IPCC (2007), Incomplete global data sets and remaining model uncertainties still restrict understanding of changes in extremes and attribution of changes to causes, although understanding of changes in the intensity, frequency and risk of extremes has improved. Separating decadal and other shorter-term variability from climate change impacts on extremes requires a better understanding of the processes responsible for the changes. In particular, the physical processes linking sea surface temperature changes to regional climate changes, and a basic understanding of the inherent variability in weather extremes and how that is impacted by atmospheric circulation changes at subseasonal to decadal and longer time scales, are still inadequately understood. Given the fundamental limitations in the time span and quality of global observations, substantial progress on these issues will rely increasingly on improvements in models, with observations continuing to play a critical role, though less as a detection tool, and more as a tool for addressing physical processes, and to insure the quality of the climate models and the verisimilitude of the simulations (CCSP SAP 1.3, 2008).

  14. Temporal Variability of Fair-Weather Cumulus Statistics at the ACRF SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.

    2008-07-01

    Continental fair-weather cumuli exhibit significant diurnal, day-to-day, and year-to-year variability. This study describes the climatology of cloud macroscale properties, including the cloud-base height, cloud-top height, cloud thickness, and cloud chord length over the U.S. Department of Energy¹s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARCF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The diurnal cycle of cloud fraction, cloud-base height, and cloud-thickness were well defined. The cloud fraction reached its maximum value near 14:00 CST. The average cloud-base height increased throughout the day, while the average cloud thickness decreased with time. In contrast to the other cloud properties, the average cloud-chord length remained nearly constant throughout the day. The sensitivity of the cloud properties to the year-to-year variability and to changes in low-level moisture were compared. The cloud-base height was found to be sensitive to both the year and the low-level moisture, the cloud thickness was much more sensitive to the year then to the low-level moisture, and the cloud fraction and cloud chord length were more sensitive to the low-level moisture than to the year. Distributions of the cloud-chord length over the ARCF SGP site were computed and were well fit by an exponential distribution. The contribution of clouds of each cloud-chord length to the total cloud fraction was computed, and it was found the clouds with a chord length of about 1 km contributed the most to the observed cloud fraction.

  15. Tide operated power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, H. Z.

    1981-02-03

    An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

  16. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology called parametric Dynamic Experiments for Estimating Preferences developed at Columbia University to measure three prospect theory parameters using an adaptive survey tool installed on a tablet PC. Our work is the first to use an adaptive survey tool to measure risk preferences and to combine these measures with both panel data on agricultural investments and beliefs about climate change using scenarios. Despite the need for better understanding of how farmer preferences over time and risk might influence technology adoption and production decisions made by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical gap in research about this topic. Whether and how vulnerability to climate change has entered the mind frame of farmers is explored with a scenario setup, in which farmers are asked to provide advice to a hypothetical farmer facing low yields due to a prolonged drought. Farmer responses to the scenarios give us information about both the channel through which farmers receive information about agriculture and adaptation and primary factors mentioned to be important agricultural strategies in the face of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. This research offers insights to understand decision-making process of smallholder farmers, who face adverse effects of weather variability and the present problem of low soil fertility.

  17. Dynamics of ocean tides

    SciTech Connect

    Maarchuk, G.I.; Kagan, B.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Ocean tide information can solve vital problems in oceanology and geophysics. Elastic properties of the Earth's crust, tidal gravity variations and deviations in trajectories of artificial satellites can be studied from the dynamics of ocean tides. This book contains mathematical models and applications on several problems related to ocean tide dynamics. The first part serves as an introduction to studies of tidal dynamics equations and the application in experimental studies. Specific problems like free oscillations and forced tidal oscillations in the oceans and the ocean-shelf system are discussed. The book deals with tidal flow in the bottom boundary layer. Data and models are presented and experimental and theoretical results are compared.

  18. Tides and tsunamis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zetler, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Although tides and tsunamis are both shallow water waves, it does not follow that they are equally amenable to an observational program using an orbiting altimeter on a satellite. A numerical feasibility investigation using a hypothetical satellite orbit, real tide observations, and sequentially increased levels of white noise has been conducted to study the degradation of the tidal harmonic constants caused by adding noise to the tide data. Tsunami waves, possibly a foot high and one hundred miles long, must be measured in individual orbits, thus requiring high relative resolution.

  19. A variable data rate satellite user terminal for multimedia communication able to react against weather impairments (DASIA 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bux, W.; Ferrari, M.; D'Ambrosio, A.

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of Ground Segment products LABEN - a Finmeccanica Company - is developing an advanced Satellite User Terminal for Multimedia Communication able to react against weather impairments. LABEN has been responsible during the Phase B for the design of the Resource Sharing Experiment (RSE) Earth Terminal of the DAVID Program (ASI). The RSE shall demonstrate conceptual and operational feasibility of the variable data rate link with a LEO satellite (DAVID). This abstract wants to provide a brief description of the proposed system and to outline the near future evolution of these Multimedia Earth Terminals linked to new services and applications.

  20. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-01-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation. PMID:11359686

  1. Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1999-04-01

    Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing conditions. In order to simulate substantial reaction progress over geologic time, one can benefit from the quasi-stationary state (QSS) approximation. A significant saving of computing time using QSS is demonstrated through the example. In addition, changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation are also addressed in some degree. Even though oxidative weathering is sensitive to many factors, this work demonstrates that our model provides a comprehensive suite of process modeling capabilities, which could serve as a prototype for oxidative weathering processes with broad significance for geoscientific, engineering, and environmental applications.

  2. The Role of Gravity Waves in Modulating Atmospheric Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss results for the diurnal and semidiurnal tides obtained from our 3-D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NMS), extending from the ground up into the thermosphere, which incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization of small scale gravity waves (GW). In the DSP, GW momentum (and energy) are conserved as the waves modulate the background flow and are filtered by the flow.As a consequence, the GW interaction tightly couples the dynamic components of the middle atmosphere with strong non-linear interactions between mean zonal circulation, tides and planetary waves to produce complicated patterns of variability much like those observed. The major conclusions are: (1) Since GW momentum is deposited in the altitude regime of increasing winds, the amplitude of the diurnal tide is amplified and its vertical wavelength is reduced at altitudes between 80 and 120 km. Wave filtering by the mean zonal circulation (with peak velocities during solstice) causes the GW flux to peak during equinox, and this produces a large semi-annual variation in the tide that has been observed on UARS. (2) Without the diurnal tide, the semidiurnal tide would also be modulated in this way. But the diurnal tide filters out the GW preferentially during equinox, so that the semidiurnal tide, at higher altitudes, tends to peak during solstice. (3) Under the influence of GW, the tides are modulated also significantly by planetary waves, with periods between 2 and 30 days, which are generated preferentially during solstice in part due to baroclinic instability.

  3. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  4. Contribution of sand-associated enterococci to dry weather water quality.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Elizabeth; Ralston, David K; Gast, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Culturable enterococci and a suite of environmental variables were collected during a predominantly dry summer at a beach impacted by nonpoint source pollution. These data were used to evaluate sands as a source of enterococci to nearshore waters, and to assess the relationship between environmental factors and dry-weather enterococci abundance. Best-fit multiple linear regressions used environmental variables to explain more than half of the observed variation in enterococci in water and dry sands. Notably, during dry weather the abundance of enterococci in dry sands at the mean high-tide line was significantly positively related to sand moisture content (ranging from <1-4%), and the daily mean ENT in water could be predicted by a linear regression with turbidity alone. Temperature was also positively correlated with ENT abundance in this study, which may indicate an important role of seasonal warming in temperate regions. Inundation by spring tides was the primary rewetting mechanism that sustained culturable enterococci populations in high-tide sands. Tidal forcing modulated the abundance of enterococci in the water, as both turbidity and enterococci were elevated during ebb and flood tides. The probability of samples violating the single-sample maximum was significantly greater when collected during periods with increased tidal range: spring ebb and flood tides. Tidal forcing also affected groundwater mixing zones, mobilizing enterococci from sand to water. These data show that routine monitoring programs using discrete enterococci measurements may be biased by tides and other environmental factors, providing a flawed basis for beach closure decisions. PMID:25479559

  5. Contribution of Sand-Associated Enterococci to Dry Weather Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Culturable enterococci and a suite of environmental variables were collected during a predominantly dry summer at a beach impacted by nonpoint source pollution. These data were used to evaluate sands as a source of enterococci to nearshore waters, and to assess the relationship between environmental factors and dry-weather enterococci abundance. Best-fit multiple linear regressions used environmental variables to explain more than half of the observed variation in enterococci in water and dry sands. Notably, during dry weather the abundance of enterococci in dry sands at the mean high-tide line was significantly positively related to sand moisture content (ranging from <1–4%), and the daily mean ENT in water could be predicted by a linear regression with turbidity alone. Temperature was also positively correlated with ENT abundance in this study, which may indicate an important role of seasonal warming in temperate regions. Inundation by spring tides was the primary rewetting mechanism that sustained culturable enterococci populations in high-tide sands. Tidal forcing modulated the abundance of enterococci in the water, as both turbidity and enterococci were elevated during ebb and flood tides. The probability of samples violating the single-sample maximum was significantly greater when collected during periods with increased tidal range: spring ebb and flood tides. Tidal forcing also affected groundwater mixing zones, mobilizing enterococci from sand to water. These data show that routine monitoring programs using discrete enterococci measurements may be biased by tides and other environmental factors, providing a flawed basis for beach closure decisions. PMID:25479559

  6. Performance of weather research and forecasting model with variable horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Ojha, Satya P.; Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed with three different horizontal grid spacings (45, 15 and 5 km) to assess the impact of horizontal resolution on short-range weather forecast. Simulations are carried out daily at 0000 UTC over the Indian region during the entire month of July 2011. A rigorous validation is performed against surface observations, radiosonde measurements and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 merged rainfall product. Results show that horizontal resolution has a substantial impact on the WRF model forecast, particularly on the near surface temperature, moisture, winds and rainfall forecasts. Relative to 45-km horizontal grid spacing, 24-h forecasts of near surface temperature, moisture and winds are improved by ˜15, 9 and 4 %, respectively, when horizontal grid spacing is reduced to 5 km. Noteworthy improvement is also seen in the 24-h rainfall forecasts of the WRF model as the horizontal grid spacing decreased from 45 to 5 km. Larger improvements are observed over the Western Ghats and northeastern part of India compared to central India, which demonstrate the importance of finer resolution over the mountainous terrain compared to plains.

  7. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  8. Role of asymptomatic carriers and weather variables in persistent transmission of malaria in an endemic district of Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nani Gopal; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, Pranab Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is perennial in the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh interstate border areas in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India. A yearlong study was carried out on the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria and the role of asymptomatic malaria carriers in persistent transmission of the disease. The relationships between malaria incidence and weather parameters were also investigated. Methods Active and mass blood surveys were conducted on a monthly basis in Bengenajuli, Sapairaumari Pathar, and Nigam villages near the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh border. Epidemiological indices were estimated for malaria-positive cases. Multiple linear regression between monthly malaria incidence and monthly average temperature, and relative humidity along with monthly total rainfall was carried out. The known malaria vectors collected in CDC light traps were identified and recorded. Results Slide positivity rate (SPR) and Plasmodium falciparum percent (Pf%) for symptomatic malaria were 26.1 and 79.8, respectively. Prevalence of malaria vectors was observed throughout the year with varying density. Anopheles philippinensis/nivipes and A. annularis were predominant among the seven known vector species recorded currently. Asymptomatic parasitemia was detected throughout the year with SPR ranging from 4.8 to 5.3. Monthly rainfall with 1-month lag had the highest correlation (r=0.92) with SPR. The relationship between SPR and weather factors was established as SPR=?114.22+0.58 T min+1.38 RH+0.03 RF (R 2=0.89; p=0.00). Conclusion Low and relatively constant levels of asymptomatic parasitemia was present in the study area. High malaria vector density and presence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers were responsible for persistent malaria transmission in the region. This study concludes that passive detection and prompt treatment of asymptomatic carriers is essential for preventing persistent disease transmission. Rainfall along with some other weather variables may be used for predicting the malaria epidemics in the region. The predictive information could be useful to target resources more effectively. PMID:25595688

  9. A complete spherical harmonic approach to luni-solar tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a spherical harmonic theory of ocean tides is presented. The theory is based on Laplace tide equations modified to include turbulence with constant eddy viscosity, linearized bottom friction, and oceanic loading and self-gravitation. Variable bathymetry is also treated in harmonic terms, and no-flow boundary conditions are applied at continental coastlines. The tide and boundary constraint equations are reduced to matrix form and solved by a weighted least-squares procedure. Five zonal luni-solar tides, ranging in period from 14 days to 18.6 yr, are investigated using the theory; such tides have typically been difficult to compute using traditional numerical approaches. The polar motion and changes in the length of day induced by these long-period tides are calculated. Tidal solutions are compared extensively with results from other tidal theories and from recent satellite and sea-level observations. The greatest limitation to accurate prediction of zonal tides - for any theory - appears to be the marginal failure of all tide theories to conserve mass globally; the use of additional mass constraints may be warranted.

  10. Tides and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.

    2014-04-01

    The relatively low luminosities of M dwarfs, white dwarfs, and brown dwarfs result in habitable zones that are close enough in for strong tidal processes between the planet and its host to occur. As is well known, tidal despinning can result in slow or synchronous rotation for close-in planets, but recent investigations have revealed that tides impact habitability in other ways. Tides can drive planetary obliquity to 0, eliminating seasons and creating strong cold traps at the poles. Tides can force a migration of the semi-major axis, possibly removing planets from the habitable zone. Tidal despinning and orbital evolution produces internal heating that can alter both the interior and the atmosphere. For modest eccentricities, tidal heating can be comparable to the modern Earth's (non-tidal) energy sources, changing the thermal profile in the planet and possibly quenching dynamo generation. For larger eccentricities tidal heating can be orders of magnitude larger, suggesting some super-Earths are actually "super-Ios." In extreme cases tidal heating could trigger a runaway greenhouse for hundreds of millions of years, threatening permanent sterilization. Tides damp eccentricity, which lowers the heating rate, but companion planets can perturb orbits and maintain non-zero eccentricities. In some cases, tidal heating sustained by companions could power geochemical cycles that permit habitability for trillions of years.

  11. Ocean tide energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Rainey, D.E.

    1980-06-24

    A tide motor energy source includes a tidal piston with a valved chamber. The piston drives a hydraulic ram to generate electrical power through a pressure accumulator and hydraulic motor. The ram can be locked hydraulically to enable the tidal piston to be held fixed at a desired elevation and the valves in the chamber permit it to be filled with water or air. The piston with its chamber filled with air at its low tide position and then released for controlled ascent while submerged acts as a submerged float for driving the ram upwardly while the tide runs in during one phase of its operation. The piston with its chamber filled with water while locked at its highest position as the tide begins to run out, and then released to fall under control, acts as a weight suspended in air after the water level drops below the piston for driving the ram downwardly during the second phase of its operation. The rising and falling motion of the tidal piston is used as the energy source.

  12. Tides in Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Nicole J.

    1997-01-01

    Tides raised in Titan by Saturn give rise to a static and a periodic deformation; both will be measured with Doppler tracking during the CASSINI Tour of the Saturnian System. The latter deformation is due to the significant eccentricity of Titan's orbit and has a frequency equal to the orbital angular velocity of Titan.

  13. Integrating interannual climate variability forecasts into weather-indexed crop insurance. The case of Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicarelli, M.; Giannini, A.; Osgood, D.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we explore the potential for re-insurance schemes built on regional climatic forecasts. We focus on micro-insurance contracts indexed on precipitation in 9 villages in Kenya, Tanzania (Eastern Africa) and Malawi (Southern Africa), and analyze the precipitation patterns and payouts resulting from El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inability to manage future climate risk represents a “poverty trap” for several African regions. Weather shocks can potentially destabilize not only household, but also entire countries. Governments in drought-prone countries, donors and relief agencies are becoming aware of the importance to develop an ex-ante risk management framework for weather risk. Joint efforts to develop innovative mechanisms to spread and pool risk such as microinsurance and microcredit are currently being designed in several developing countries. While ENSO is an important component in modulating the rainfall regime in tropical Africa, the micro-insurance experiments currently under development to address drought risk among smallholder farmers in this region do not take into account ENSO monitoring or forecasting yet. ENSO forecasts could be integrated in the contracts and reinsurance schemes could be designed at the continental scale taking advantage of the different impact of ENSO on different regions. ENSO is associated to a bipolar precipitation pattern in Southern and Eastern Africa. La Niña years (i.e. Cold ENSO Episodes) are characterized by dry climate in Eastern Africa and wet climate in Southern Africa. During El Niño (or Warm Episode) the precipitation dipole is inverted, and Eastern Africa experiences increased probability for above normal rainfall (Halpert and Ropelewski, 1992, Journal of Climate). Our study represents the first exercise in trying to include ENSO forecasts in micro weather index insurance contract design. We analyzed the contracts payouts with respect to climate variability. In particular (i) we simulated possible payouts using historical precipitation data and analyzed the differences between years with different ENSO states from 1961 to 2005; (ii) we applied Monte Carlo methods to simulate precipitation distributions in each location and calculated the mean and variance of payouts associated to different ENSO states. The results obtained from historical precipitation data indicate that more abundant rainfall reduces payouts and the risk of loan default during La Niña in southern Kenya and Malawi, during El Niño in Tanzania. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations confirm our findings. Our results suggest that re-insurance schemes could be successfully designed to exploit the anti-correlation patterns related to interannual climate variability for different regions in Africa. Moreover, the exploratory framework presented can potentially be refined applied to other regions (e.g. Central and Latin America).

  14. Abstract We examined cellular immunity of adult tree swallows feeding nestlings under variable weather con-

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Peter O.

    Abstract We examined cellular immunity of adult tree swallows feeding nestlings under variable between the immune re- sponse and the number of nestlings in the brood (range 3­6 young) which suggests that parental effort suppres- ses the immune function. However, there was also a strong effect of ambient

  15. A Sensitive Search for Variability in Late L Dwarfs: The Quest for Weather

    E-print Network

    M. Morales-Calderon; J. R. Stauffer; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; S. Carey; C. R. Gelino; D. Barrado y Navascues; L. Rebull; P. Lowrance; M. S. Marley; D. Charbonneau; B. M. Patten; S. T. Megeath; D. Buzasi

    2006-07-24

    We have conducted a photometric monitoring program of 3 field late-L brown dwarfs looking for evidence of non-axisymmetric structure or temporal variability in their photospheres. The observations were performed using Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 and 8 micron bandpasses and were designed to cover at least one rotational period of each object. One-sigma RMS (root mean squared) uncertainties of less than 3 mmag at 4.5 micron and around 9 mmag at 8 micron were achieved. Two out of the three objects studied exhibit some modulation in their light curves at 4.5 micron - but not 8 micron - with periods of 7.4 hr and 4.6 hr and peak-to-peak amplitudes of 10 mmag and 8 mmag. Although the lack of detectable 8 micron variation suggests an instrumental origin for the detected variations, the data may nevertheless still be consistent with intrinsic variability since the shorter wavelength IRAC bandpasses probe more deeply into late L dwarf atmospheres than the longer wavelengths. A cloud feature occupying a small percentage (1-2 %) of the visible hemisphere could account for the observed amplitude of variation. If, instead, the variability is indeed instrumental in origin, then our non-variable L dwarfs could be either completely covered with clouds or objects whose clouds are smaller and uniformly distributed. Such scenarios would lead to very small photometric variations. Followup IRAC photometry at 3.6 and 5.8 micron bandpasses should distinguish between the two cases. In any event, the present observations provide the most sensitive search to date for structure in the photospheres of late-L dwarfs at mid-IR wavelengths, and our photometry provides stringent upper limits to the extent to which the photospheres of these transition L dwarfs are structured.

  16. Climate Variability, Weather and Enteric Disease Incidence in New Zealand: Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Aparna; Ikeda, Takayoshi; French, Nigel; Baker, Michael G.; Hales, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. Objectives To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. Methods Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis) were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models. Results No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (??=? 0.130, SE?=? 0.060, p <0.01) and inversely related to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) two months previously (??=? ?0.008, SE?=? 0.004, p <0.05). By contrast, salmonellosis was positively associated with temperature (? ?=?0.110, SE?=?0.020, p<0.001) of the current month and SOI of the current (? ?=?0.005, SE?=?0.002, p<0.050) and previous month (? ?=?0.005, SE?=?0.002, p<0.05). Forecasting accuracy of the multivariate models for cryptosporidiosis and salmonellosis were significantly higher. Conclusions Although spatial heterogeneity in the observed patterns could not be assessed, these results suggest that temporally lagged relationships between climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems. PMID:24376707

  17. Assessing the cumulative effect of the weather variability on wetlands and the hydrological connection between wetlands and downstream waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M. W.; Lee, S.; Mccarty, G.; Peng, Y.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are crucial ecosystem features that provide important ecological benefits to improve water quality and reduce the climate change impact. This ecosystem functioning of wetlands is largely dependent upon their hydrological characteristics and linkage to the downstream waters. However, the cumulative impacts of the climate on wetlands and the hydrological connection between wetlands and downstream waters have been rarely quantified at the landscape scale. This study reports findings from time series satellite observation that can illustrate the changes in extent of wetland inundation at a high spatial resolution (30-m) over the period 1985-2010. This remote sensing based observation provides crucial information to gain insights onto inter-annual variability of inundation dynamics, and we analyze this product with the drought indices, streamflows, the USFS NWI-hydrologic modifier. This study focuses on natural palustrine wetlands, densely distributed in the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). We observe inundation patterns change in response to the weather variability, and it is proportionally related to the downstream flow discharge. While those wetlands with a longer hydro-period (i.e., permanently ponded wetlands during the growing season) show the strongest relationship with stream discharge (including baseflow, contributed from the shallow groundwater), inundation patterns of headwater/isolated wetlands are also strongly related to stream discharge. It shows the strong relationship between wetlands and downstream water regardless of geographic isolation and their mutual reliance on groundwater. The study provides the support for the conservation of wetlands through section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  19. Weather variability influences color and phenolic content of pigmented baby leaf lettuces throughout the season.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alicia; Ferreres, Federico; Barberá, Gonzalo G; Gil, María I

    2015-02-18

    The lack of consistency in homogeneous color throughout the season of pigmented baby leaf lettuce is a problem for growers because of the rejection of the product and consequently the economic loss. Changes in color as well as individual and total phenolic composition and content as a response to the climatic variables were studied following the analysis of three pigmented baby leaf lettuces over 16 consecutive weeks from February to May, which corresponded to the most important production season in winter in Europe. Color and phenolic content were significantly (P ? 0.001) affected by cultivar, harvest week, and climatic variables that occurred in the last week before harvest. Radiation and temperature showed positive correlations with the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids that increased in all three cultivars as the season progressed. Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-glucoside content showed positive correlations with temperature and radiation but only in Batavia cultivars whereas in red oak leaf the correlation was with cold temperatures. Regarding hue angle, a positive correlation was shown with the number of hours at temperatures lower than 7 °C. A relationship between hue angle and the content of anthocyanins was not possible to establish. These results suggest that the colorimetric measurement of color cannot be used as a good indicator of anthocyanin accumulation because other pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids may contribute as well to the leaf color of pigmented lettuce. This study provides information about the impact of genotype and environment interactions on the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds to explain the variability in the leaf color and product appearance. PMID:25650715

  20. Altimetry, Orbits and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.

  1. Time Series Analyses of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Integrating Weather Variables

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanbin; Wang, Fan; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Huiping; Liu, Sai; Ramirez, Oscar; Zeng, Qiyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade witnessed an increment in the incidence of hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific Asian region; specifically, in Guangzhou China. This emphasized the requirement of an early warning system designed to allow the medical community to better prepare for outbreaks and thus minimize the number of fatalities. Methods Samples from 1,556 inpatients (hospitalized) and 11,004 outpatients (non-admitted) diagnosed with HFMD were collected in this study from January 2009 to October 2013. Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied to establish high predictive model for inpatients and outpatient as well as three viral serotypes (EV71, Pan-EV and CA16). To integrate climate variables in the data analyses, data from eight climate variables were simultaneously obtained during this period. Significant climate variable identified by correlation analyses was executed to improve time series modeling as external repressors. Results Among inpatients with HFMD, 248 (15.9%) were affected by EV71, 137 (8.8%) were affected by Pan-EV+, and 436 (28.0%) were affected by CA16. Optimal Univariate SARIMA model was identified: (2,0,3)(1,0,0)52 for inpatients, (0,1,0)(0,0,2)52 for outpatients as well as three serotypes (EV71, (1,0,1)(0,0,1)52; CA16, (1,0,1)(0,0,0)52; Pan-EV, (1,0,1)(0,0,0)52). Using climate as our independent variable, precipitation (PP) was first identified to be associated with inpatients (r = 0.211, P = 0.001), CA16-serotype (r = 0.171, P = 0.007) and outpatients (r = 0.214, P = 0.01) in partial correlation analyses, and was then shown a significant lag in cross-autocorrelation analyses. However, inclusion of PP [lag -3 week] as external repressor showed a moderate impact on the predictive performance of the SARIMA model described here-in. Conclusion Climate patterns and HFMD incidences have been shown to be strongly correlated. The SARIMA model developed here can be a helpful tool in developing an early warning system for HFMD. PMID:25729897

  2. AMS Symposium "Observing and Understanding the Variability of Water in Weather and Climate" 1.5 WATER VAPOR VARIATIONS IN ECHO PLUMES IN THE CONVECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Geerts, Bart

    ; · to show that bug plumes contain more water vapor than the interstitial CBL airAMS Symposium "Observing and Understanding the Variability of Water in Weather and Climate" 1.5 WATER VAPOR VARIATIONS IN ECHO PLUMES IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER Bart Geerts1 and Qun Miao

  3. Deep sea tides determination from GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Yanaway, A.

    1978-01-01

    GEOS 3 altimeter data in a 5 degree X 5 degree square centered at 30 deg N, 70 deg W were analyzed to evaluate deep sea tide determination from a spacecraft. The signal to noise ratio of known tidal variability to altimeter measurement of sea level above the ellipsoid was 0.1. A sample was obtained in a 5 deg x 5 deg area approximately once every four days. The randomly spaced time series was analyzed using two independent least squares techniques.

  4. The effects of daily weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable daily meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether daily meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and temperature) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for temperature, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed.

  5. Tides of the Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kjerfve, B.

    1981-05-20

    Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

  6. Characteristics that Help Households Weather Climate Variability, Now and in the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. G.; Seth, A.

    2002-05-01

    A number of characteristics of rural livelihood management are directly related to improving resilience against the impacts of seasonal variability in climate, such as diversification of crops or income strategies. However, traditional strategies that confer resilience to the household may be difficult to sustain in the modern era. Additionally, the frequency and distribution of extreme rainfall events or seasons may change as the composition of the atmosphere is altered. In order to reverse a potential negative trend in the ability of developing country households to handle climate shocks, we suggest that three key components of the system will need to be strengthened. The first is baseline resilience, which we suggest is primarily a function of a) diversification of income opportunities, and b) storage capacity for consumption smoothing (water reservoirs, soil moisture holding capacity, mechanisms for saving wealth from season to season such as granaries, animals, or bank accounts). The second is access to, and ability to effectively utilize, new information. The third is a supportive economic and policy environment such as access to crop insurance, functional markets, credit. By improving climate information systems and building skills to comprehend and utilize climate information in decision-making, adjustments at the seasonal time scale will add to the ability to withstand climate shocks and take advantage of opportunities. The combination of baseline resilience and ability to respond to new information will contribute substantially to rural households' ability to adapt to changing climate conditions in the next century. Experiences from East and Southern Africa will be used to illustrate these points.

  7. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to the winter precipitation amount, observed on a daily basis. On the other hand, the three wettest WTs, namely the Cyclonic (C), South-westerly (SW) and Westerly (W) types, together representing roughly a third of all winter days, do account for more than 60% of the observed daily precipitation. It is shown that the large inter-annual variability of precipitation in both cities is highly related with the corresponding inter-annual variability of the wet WTs. Ansell, T. J. et al. (2006) Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European - North Atlantic region for the period 1850-2003, Journal of Climate, 19, 2717-2742, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3775.1 Huth R., Beck C., Philipp A., Demuzere M, Ustrnul Z, Cahynová M., Kyselý J., Tveito O.E. (2008) Classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns: recent advances and applications. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1146:, 105-152 Jones, P. D. , M. Hulme , K. R. Briffa. (1993) A comparison of Lamb circulation types with an objective classification scheme. Int. J. Climatol. 13: 655- 663. Lorenzo M.N., Taboada J.J. and Gimeno L. (2008) Links between circulation weather types and teleconnection patterns and their influence on precipitation patterns in Galicia (NW Spain). Int. J. Climatol. Published Online: Nov 12 2007 5:30AM DOI: 10.1002/joc.1646. Trigo R.M. and Da Camara C.C. (2000) Circulation weather types and their influence on the precipitation regime in Portugal. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  8. The ultimate high tide

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible coastal impacts of a rise in sea level. Control measures that are available to coastal communities are emphasized, including pumping of seawater into the ground, replenishing beach sand, protection or moving of potable-water intakes, elevating roadways, and building dikes. Economics will determine which, if any, measures are reasonable at a particular site. There is an upward trend in the mean CO{sub 2} concentration and predictions about the greenhouse effect are creating a rising tide of concern.

  9. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value? (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (?) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while ? reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  10. Interactions between climatological variables and sheltering behavior of pastoral beef cattle during sunny weather in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Rosselle, L; Permentier, L; Verbeke, G; Driessen, B; Geers, R

    2013-02-01

    Concerns in regard to thermal discomfort experienced by cattle are increasing, especially in the summer time. It is important to determine whether or not pastured beef cattle would make use of shade during sunny circumstances in a temperate climate. If so, scientifically based guidelines may need to be formulated for translation into legislation aiming to protect animal welfare. Approximately 255 beef cattle on 18 pastures were observed from July 2010 through November 2010 in central Belgium. Pastures having either natural or artificial shelter for animal protection but similar with respect to agricultural and climatological characteristics were included in the study. The analysis of data focused on the effect of weather conditions on sheltering behavior of cattle, with pasture as a random factor. During sunny weather, ambient temperature had a significant influence on the use of shade (P < 0.0001): the greater the environmental temperature was, the more cattle on a pasture were located in a shaded area. Ambient temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) both tended to have a positive relation with shade use. However, the expected impact of their combined effect was not found, probably because of the strong negative correlation between RH and Ta (r = -0.7122) in the studied region. Greater wind speed (WS) reduced the need for shade, even at a greater Ta (P < 0.0001). Both Ta and solar radiation (RAD) influenced use of shade, but the interaction or combined effect was not significant. The variability of shade use between the pastures in this study could be explained by the surface of shade present on the pasture. It is rather self-evident that cows made more use of shade when a greater percentage of the surface area was shaded, but the presence of remaining nonshaded area kept the alternative choice reliable. On the basis of the fact that more cattle being observed in a shaded area was associated with a higher dry air temperature, it can be concluded that providing shelter could also be valuable for pastured cattle living in a temperate region. PMID:23230123

  11. Tides: A Scientific History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Duncan

    If you ask most oceanographers what a Proudman function or a Doodson number is, you are likely to be met with blank looks—and yet these are terms central to the oldest concern of oceanography, the tides. Indeed, at one time tidal science was sufficiently prominent that those who studied it were called “tidalists,” a term coined by the same person (William Whewell) who invented the term “scientist,” and who was himself a tidalist.The long and varied history of this part of geophysics has been examined by its leading expert, David Cartwright, in a narrative that extends from ancient Greek and Chinese ideas (already based on an impressive amount of empirical knowledge) to the latest results from satellite altimetry. As Cartwright points out, satellite data have essentially solved the long-standing problem of mapping the global ocean tides, and thus have in some ways brought tidal studies, if not to an end, to a point from which a retrospective look is appropriate.

  12. Europa Tide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Europa Tide Movie

    In this movie Europa is seen in a cutaway view through two cycles of its 3.5 day orbit about the giant planet Jupiter. Like Earth, Europa is thought to have an iron core, a rocky mantle and a surface ocean of salty water. Unlike on Earth, however, this ocean is deep enough to cover the whole moon, and being far from the sun, the ocean surface is globally frozen over. Europa's orbit is eccentric, which means as it travels around Jupiter, large tides, raised by Jupiter, rise and fall. Jupiter's position relative to Europa is also seen to librate, or wobble, with the same period. This tidal kneading causes frictional heating within Europa, much in the same way a paper clip bent back and forth can get hot to the touch, as illustrated by the red glow in the interior of Europa's rocky mantle and in the lower, warmer part of its ice shell. This tidal heating is what keeps Europa's ocean liquid and could prove critical to the survival of simple organisms within the ocean, if they exist.

  13. Relative sea level trend and variability in the central Mediterranean in the time span 1872-2014 from tide gauge data: implications for future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    We used tidal data collected in the time span 1872-2014 from a set of historical and modern stations located in the central Mediterranean, along the coasts of Italy, France, Slovenia and Croatia. The longest records span across the last two or three centuries for the tidal stations of Genova, Marseille, Trieste and Venice. While data from Bakar, Dubrovink, Rovinji and Split, all located along the coast of the Adriatic sea, provide valid records for a time span about 50 years long. In addition to these stations, since 1998 become available for the Italian region new sea level data from the dense national tidal network (www.mareografico.it). These digital stations are collecting data continuously at 10 minute sampling interval with a nominal accuracy at 1 mm. Therefore, in addition to the historical stations, we have the opportunity to analyze a sea level data set that cover about the last 16 years. In this study we show and discuss the results of our analysis of sea level data for the central Mediterranean, providing new insights on sea level trend and variability for about the past 140 years. Finally, based on sea level data and IPCC reports, we provide future sea level projections for this region for the year 2100 with implications for coastal flooding of lowland areas.

  14. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  15. Temporal and spatial variability of Fe and Mn in perched groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flowing through weathered bedrock dictates the runoff chemistry to streams in many catchments yet; its chemical evolution has been rarely documented. In particular, observations of Fe and Mn dynamics in groundwater are extremely challenging due to their high reactivity. To preserve the sample integrity for these elements we have developed a new sampling scheme that is applicable to autosamplers; a gravitational filtration system (GFS). GFS is capable of filtering samples by gravity within 30 minutes after the sampling. The GFS samples showed a good agreement with reference samples, which were collected following the standard sampling method for trace metals (i.e. immediate filtration and acidification). Since October 2011, GFS has been employed to monitor Fe and Mn in perched groundwater that moves through weathered argillite in an intensively instrumented hillslope (Rivendell), in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve. The study site is located at the headwaters of the Eel River, northern California, characterized by a typical coastal Californian Mediterranean climate. We collected groundwater samples at 3 wells along the hillslope (upslope (W10), mid-slope (W3) and near the creek (W1)) with 1-3 day intervals. Additionally, rainwater and throughfall samples were collected at a meadow near the hillslope and at the middle of the hillslope, respectively. The results from our observations indicate that Fe and Mn exhibit distinct spatial and temporal behavior under variable hydrologic conditions. The concentrations of Fe in throughfall vs. rainwater were similar (0.45?M vs. 0.49?M), but Mn in throughfall was 10-fold higher than that in rainwater (1.2 ?M vs. 0.1 ?M). In the early rainy season, W10's water table was deep (-18m) and Fe and Mn in W10 were 30-150 nM and 1-2 ?M, respectively. As the rainy season proceeds, W10's water table rose by 4-6m, indicating the arrival of new water. At this time, Mn in W10 decreased to ~0.1 ?M, synchronizing with the water table rise, and remained unchanged throughout the season. In contrast, Fe slowly declined to <10nM for this high water table regime. During the summer recession limb, Fe and Mn concentrations in W10 began to increase. During the dry summer, the concentrations of Fe and Mn at W3 were 2-3?M and 15-20 ?M, respectively. At the beginning of the rainy seasons, the W3 water table slowly rose (<1 m) and both Fe and Mn decreased by 10-fold. The concentrations of Fe and Mn decreased to 20-70nM and 0.1 ?M, respectively, when W3's water table became highly dynamic and fluctuated about 4 m. At W1, Fe and Mn remained in the 50-100nM and 5-10 ?M ranges, respectively; however, the water table was extremely responsive to rainfall inputs. Mn in W1 was briefly diluted to <0.1 ?M during large rainstorms and rebounded within several days. In the late summer of 2012, Fe and Mn in W1 increased up to 2-6 ?M and 80 ?M, respectively. These high-frequency observations of Fe and Mn will provide insight into the biogeochemical cycles of redox sensitive elements in upland terrains, allowing for better quantitative estimation of these elemental fluxes.

  16. Preliminary Report HURRICANE KATRINA storm tide summary

    E-print Network

    Preliminary Report HURRICANE KATRINA storm tide summary *For the purpose of timely release, data the highest observed water levels, referred to as the storm tide, which is the sum of the storm surge and the astronomic tide. It also provides the difference between observed water levels and predicted astronomic tides

  17. M2 world ocean tide from tide gauge measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, O.; Mazzega, P. )

    1991-06-01

    An empirical model of the M2 oceanic tide has been computed form the harmonic constants of a subset of deep sea and coastal tide gauge measurements. The optimal interpolation of these data based on inverse theory' uses a priori covariance functions deduced from a global hydrodynamical model. The inverse solution, produced with its associated error maps and samples of error spectra, is surprisingly good when compared to in situ data and to a hydrodynamical model.

  18. Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Robin

    Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA Robin Robertson, Laurie of baroclinic tides. Model results indicate that tides play a significant role in the circulation and heat flux in the Weddell Sea. We discuss the influence of tides on mean flow through the modified effective bot- tom drag

  19. Nonlinear coupling between quasi 2 day wave and tides based on meteor radar observations at Maui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai Ming; Liu, Alan Z.; Lu, Xian; Li, Zhenhua; Gan, Quan; Gong, Yun; Huang, Chun Ming; Yi, Fan; Zhang, Shao Dong

    2013-10-01

    observational study of nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) and the diurnal and semidiurnal tides from meteor radar measurements at Maui is reported. The diurnal and semidiurnal tides show a short-term variation with the QTDW activity. The variation of amplitude of the semidiurnal tide is opposite to that of the QTDW. The minimum amplitudes of the diurnal tide appear several days later than the maximum amplitudes of the QTDW, and the diurnal tide obviously strengthens when the QTDW drops to small amplitudes. The bispectrum analysis shows significant nonlinear interactions among the QDTW and the tidal components. The two quasi 16 h modes with periods of 16.2 h and 15.8 h generated in the interactions of the QTDW with the diurnal and semidiurnal tides can clearly be distinguished because of the slight deviation of the QTDW period from 48 h. The bicoherence spectrum demonstrates that the QTDW and the semidiurnal tide have quite strong levels of coherence, indicating that the nonlinear interaction is a mechanism responsible for the variability of the semidiurnal tide. Although there is also some interaction between the QTDW and the diurnal tide, their coherence level is low. When the QTDW drops to very weak amplitudes, the background wind decreases and reverses. During this time, the diurnal tide holds large amplitudes. These results support the notion that the variability of the diurnal tide is mainly attributable to the strong QTDW-induced changes in the background atmosphere, which was shown in the modeling study by Chang et al. (2011). Hence, both the nonlinear interaction and the background flow changes are responsible for the observed variation of the diurnal tide.

  20. Tides in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    2015-11-01

    The arrival of Juno at Jupiter in less than a year necessitates analysis of what we can learn from the gravitational signal due to tides raised on the planet by satellites (especially Io but also Europa). In the existing literature, there is extensive work on static tidal theory (the response of the planet to a tidal potential whose time dependence is ignored) and this is what is usually quoted when people refer to tidal Love numbers. If this were correct then there would be almost no new information content in the measurement of tidally induced gravity field, since the perturbation is of the same kind as the response to rotation (i.e., the measurement of J2, a well-known quantity). However, tides are dynamic (that is, k2 is frequency dependent) and so there is new information in the frequency dependent part. There is also (highly important) information in the imaginary part (more commonly expressed as tidal Q) but there is no prospect of direct detection of this by Juno since that quadrature signal is so small. The difference between what we expect to measure and what we can already calculate directly from J2 is easily shown to be of order the square of tidal frequency over the lowest order normal mode frequency, and thus of order 10%. However, the governing equations are not simple (not separable) because of the Coriolis force. An approximate solution has been obtained for the n =1 polytrope showing that the correction to k2 is even smaller, typically a few percent, because the tidal frequency is not very different from twice the rotation frequency. Moreover, it is not highly sensitive to structure in standard models. However, the deep interior of the planet may be stably stratified because of a compositional gradient and this modifies the tidal flow amplitude, changing the dynamic k2 but not the static k2. This raises the exciting possibility that we can use the determination of k2 to set bounds on the extent of static stability, if any. There is also the slight possibility that the tidal frequency is coincidentally close to some resonance, as would be required if (as some have suggested) the tidal Q is currently small (e.g., a few thousand or less). Predictions and detectability for Juno will be presented.

  1. Solar heating using the tide

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinal, D.E.

    1980-04-08

    A fixed tank is disposed in the sea adjacent a floating solar still, with a flexible conduit extending between a lower portion of the tank and the interior of the still. A one-way check valve disposed in the lower portion of the tank permits sea water to enter the tank and fill it as the tide rises. As the tide lowers, water flows from the tank through a restriction in the conduit to the solar still.

  2. Tides and Modern Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In modem high-precision geodesy, and especially in modem space geodesy, every measurement that one makes contains tidal signals. Generally these signals are considered noise and must somehow be eliminated. The stringent requirements of the latest space geodetic missions place severe demands on tidal models. On the other hand, these missions provide the strongest data for improving tidal models. In particular, TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and LAGEOS laser ranging have improved models to such an extent that new geophysical information about the ocean and the solid Earth are coming to light. Presumably GRACE intersatellite ranging data will also add to this information. This paper discusses several of these new geophysical results, with special emphasis given to the dissipation of tidal energy. Strong constraints have recently been placed on the partitioning of energy dissipation among the ocean, atmosphere, and solid earth and between the deep and shallow ocean. The dissipation in deep water is associated with internal tides and has potentially important implications for understanding the ocean's thermohaline circulation.

  3. Rock Weathering and Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, G. D.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    Weathering of rock surfaces is often associated with a surface dissolution process. Chemical interactions occur on grain boundaries where diffusion is the controlling process. A dissolution boundary layer (rind) develops adjacent to the weathering surface. We quantify the extent of dissolution by introducing a damage variable f; f = 0 for pristine rock and when f = f0, the rock disintegrates. We assume that the variations of the damage variable are given by the diffusion equation. We solve two problems. The first is for the structure of the transient dissolution boundary layer prior to surface disintegration. We find an incubation time ti before active weathering (disintegration) begins. The second is the solution for steady-state weathering with a constant weathering velocity vw. Our results are entirely consistent with weathering studies on Carrera marble gravestones in the United Kingdom.

  4. Weathering and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2002-10-01

    Weathering of rock surfaces is often associated with a surface dissolution process. Chemical interactions occur on grain boundaries and diffusion is the controlling process. A dissolution boundary layer (rind) develops adjacent to the weathering surface. We quantify the extent of dissolution by introducing a damage variable f, f = 0 for pristine rock, and when f = f0 the rock disintegrates. We assume that the variations of the damage variable are given by the diffusion equation. We solve two problems. The first is for the structure of the transient dissolution boundary layer prior to surface disintegration. We find an incubation time ti before active weathering (disintegration) begins. The second is the solution for steady state weathering with a constant weathering velocity vw. Our results are entirely consistent with weathering studies on Carrera marble gravestones in the United Kingdom.

  5. How Can Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Build Resilience to Climate and Weather Induced Water Supply Variability?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reser...

  6. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. Seasonal and Day-to-day Variations of Thermospheric Tides and Dynamo Fields Studied with a Long-term Whole Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupled Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Shinagawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Day-to-day and longer variations of ionospheric electron density, which affect various space weather applications, are caused originally from the solar activity variations and the rotation of the sun as well as the lower atmospheric activity. For the latter source, atmospheric waves such as tides and planetary waves are generated in the moist convection, which propagate through the middle atmosphere affected by various dynamical processes such as their interactions with the mean zonal wind and other waves, and reach the lower thermosphere where they induce dynamo electric fields. According to the recent satellite and ground-based observations, the characteristics of tides and planetary waves in the lower thermosphere are becoming known more clearly, such as the seasonal and latitude variations of major tides, planetary wave-like oscillations, and irregular variations during stratospheric sudden warming, and so on. In this paper, we use a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model called GAIA, and have carried out a simulation from 1996 to 2013 with realistic forcing from the lower atmosphere by nudging the meteorological reanalysis (JRA) into the model. By analyzing the long-term model data, we investigate how the tidal variability and planetary waves in the lower thermosphere produce the seasonal and day-to-day variations in the dynamo electric field as well as the origin of the variations in the lower and middle atmospheres.

  8. Evaluation of a global internal-tide resolving and submesoscale admitting ocean simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubelmann, C.; Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.; Zhao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We will present ongoing evaluation of a global ocean and sea ice configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) that has 0.75 to 2.2 km horizontal grid spacing and 1-m thick vertical levels near the surface. Surface boundary conditions are from the 0.14-degree European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric operational model analysis, starting in 2011, including atmospheric pressure forcing. The simulation also includes tidal forcing. A unique feature of this simulation is that we save hourly output of full 3-dimensional model prognostic variables, making it a remarkable tool for the study of ocean processes and for the simulation of satellite observations. Although this initial simulation was run without ocean data constraints, it already presents very interesting features and interactions between an exceptionally wide range of scales. The simulation resolves geostrophic eddies and internal tides and admits submesoscale variability and unbalanced dynamics such as internal waves at non-tidal frequencies.We will present some evaluation of these different components based on altimetry observations and moorings. As a first result, the internal tides for the major tidal components have overall realistic amplitudes and spatial patterns compared to independent analyses from altimetry, although some discrepancies arise in equatorial regions. Despite discrepancies with observations, this simulation already constitutes an extremely useful tool for ocean process studies and for satellite observation system experiments, for example, in preparation for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. As a preliminary exercise, the simulation has been tested in the SWOT simulator developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Fu et al., in this session). Some illustrations of the challenges will be presented.

  9. Improved estimation of heavy rainfall by weather radar after reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z-k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the disdrometer information, the best results were obtained in case no differentiation between precipitation type (convective, stratiform and undefined) was made, increasing the event accumulations to more than 80% of those observed by gauges. For the randomly optimized procedure, radar precipitation estimates further improve and closely resemble observations in case one differentiates between precipitation type. However, the optimal parameter sets are very different from those derived from disdrometer observations. It is therefore questionable if single disdrometer observations are suitable for large-scale quantitative precipitation estimation, especially if the disdrometer is located relatively far away from the main rain event, which was the case in this study. In conclusion, this study shows the benefit of applying detailed error correction methods to improve the quality of the weather radar product, but also confirms the need to be cautious using locally obtained disdrometer measurements.

  10. Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child-care centers within a single county of Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play-policies in child-care centers, and to determine if they are associated with center demographic characteristics Design Telephone survey—the Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey (ELEPhANTS) Setting Child-care centers in Hamilton County (Cincinnati area), Ohio, 2008–9. Participants Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County. Outcome Measures Descriptive measures of center playground and indoor physical activity environments, and weather-related outdoor-play policies. Results 162 (88%) centers responded. Most (93%) centers reported an on-site playground, but only half reported their playgrounds as large, at least 1/3rd covered in shade, or having a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross-motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 20% of centers allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F, and 43% of centers reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percent of children receiving tuition-assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical-activity promoting practices. Conclusion We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor playground offerings among child-care centers, even within a single county of Ohio. Per center policy and limited inside options, children’s active opportunities are curtailed due to sub-freezing temperatures or light rain. Policy change and parent/teacher education may be needed to ensure children achieve ample opportunity for daily physical activity. PMID:21199969

  11. Solar weather/climate predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Goldberg, R. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Olson, R.; Schaefer, J.; Silverman, S.; Wilcox, J.; Williams, G.

    1979-01-01

    Solar variability influences upon terrestrial weather and climate are addressed. Both the positive and negative findings are included and specific predictions, areas of further study, and recommendations listed.

  12. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  13. Secular Changes in the Solar Semidiurnal Tide of the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of twentieth century tide gauge records reveals that the solar semidiurnal tide S, has been decreasing in amplitude along the eastern coast of North America and at the mid-ocean site Bermuda. In relative terms the observed rates are unusually large, of order 10% per century. Periods of greatest change, however, are inconsistent among the stations, and roughly half the stations show increasing amplitude since the late 1990s. Excepting the Gulf of Maine, lunar tides are either static or slightly increasing in amplitude; a few stations show decreases. Large changes in solar, but not lunar, tides suggest causes related to variable radiational forcing, but the hypothesis is at present unproven. Citation: Ray, R. D. (2009), Secular changes in the solar semidiurnal tide of the western North Atlantic Ocean

  14. Brevetoxin & Florida Red Tides Source of Brevetoxin (BTX): Red tides in Florida are caused by annual

    E-print Network

    Brevetoxin & Florida Red Tides Source of Brevetoxin (BTX): Red tides in Florida are caused. Karenia brevis is principally distributed throughout the Gulf of Mexico, with occasional red tides. brevis red tide that originated off the Florida west coast was transported to North Carolina waters

  15. ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS OF INTERNAL TIDES ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS OF INTERNAL TIDES ON SHALLOW WATER

    E-print Network

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS OF INTERNAL TIDES ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS OF INTERNAL TIDES ON SHALLOW WATER tides on the acoustic propagation. A towed broadband acoustic source and a 4-hydro- phone vertical array of the environment, including bottom influence, source range and depth and internal tides effects, can be clearly

  16. Awaiting High Tide to Set Block Nets

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sampling fish within the intertidal zone of a mangrove forest requires setting a block net at the interface between forest and river at high tide, then retrieving the net at low tide.  Here researchers await high tide to set the nets seen in the boat. ...

  17. TIDE: A Generic Debugging Framework --Tool Demonstration --

    E-print Network

    Zaidman, Andy

    TIDE: A Generic Debugging Framework -- Tool Demonstration -- M.G.J. van den Brand 1 Department environment. We present applications of TIDE: a generic debugging framework that is related to the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment. TIDE can be applied to different levels of debugging that occur in language design

  18. COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve

    E-print Network

    COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

  19. Tuesday, September 9, 2003 Florida Red Tide

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    Tuesday, September 9, 2003 Florida Red Tide: A Whiff, A Sniff and A Sneeze Dr. Daniel Baden #12;Florida Red Tide: A Whiff, A Sniff and A Sneeze with Dr. Daniel G. Baden Please join us for the first seminar in the 2003-2004 series: Florida Red Tide: A Whiff, A Sniff and A Sneeze with Dr. Daniel G. Baden

  20. tides 8/16/2007 1 2.3 Fitting the tide

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    tides 8/16/2007 1 2.3 Fitting the tide Find a vertical pier at the edge of the sea, put a scale tides, a resonance effect caused by the funneling shape of the basin. As you can see from the graph, the amplitude of these tides is almost 6 meters whereas on the ocean, tides are a third or a quarter of that

  1. The magnetic tides of Honolulu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, Erin Joshua

    2013-01-01

    We review the phenomenon of time-stationary, periodic quiet-time geomagnetic tides. These are generated by the ionospheric and oceanic dynamos, and, to a lesser-extent, by the quiet-time magnetosphere, and they are affected by currents induced in the Earth's electrically conducting interior. We examine historical time series of hourly magnetic-vector measurements made at the Honolulu observatory. We construct high-resolution, frequency-domain Lomb-periodogram and maximum-entropy power spectra that reveal a panorama of stationary harmonics across periods from 0.1 to 10000.0-d, including harmonics that result from amplitude and phase modulation. We identify solar-diurnal tides and their annual and solar-cycle sideband modulations, lunar semi-diurnal tides and their solar-diurnal sidebands, and tides due to precession of lunar eccentricity and nodes. We provide evidence that a method intended for separating the ionospheric and oceanic dynamo signals by midnight subsampling of observatory data time series is prone to frequency-domain aliasing. The tidal signals we summarize in this review can be used to test our fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the quiet-time ionosphere and magnetosphere, induction in the ocean and in the electrically conducting interior of the Earth, and they are useful for defining a quiet-time baseline against which magnetospheric-storm intensity is measured.

  2. Barometric and Earth Tide Correction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-10

    BETCO corrects for barometric and earth tide effects in long-term water level records. A regression deconvolution method is used ot solve a series of linear equations to determine an impulse response function for the well pressure head. Using the response function, a pressure head correction is calculated and applied.

  3. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  4. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  5. Trapped diurnal internal tides, propagating semidiurnal internal tides, and mixing estimates in the California Current System from sustained glider observations, 2006-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, T. M. Shaun; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2015-02-01

    From 2006-2012, along 3 repeated cross-shore transects (California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations lines 66.7, 80, and 90) in the California Current System, 33 609 shear and 39 737 strain profiles from 66 glider missions are used to estimate mixing via finescale parameterizations from a dataset containing over 52 000 profiles. Elevated diffusivity estimates and energetic diurnal (D1) and semidiurnal (D2) internal tides are found: (a) within 100 km of the coast on lines 66.7 and 80 and (b) over the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge (SRCR) in the Southern California Bight (SCB) on line 90. While finding elevated mixing near topography and associated with internal tides is not novel, the combination of resolution and extent in this ongoing data collection is unmatched in the coastal ocean to our knowledge. Both D1 and D2 internal tides are energy sources for mixing. At these latitudes, the D1 internal tide is subinertial. On line 90, D1 and D2 tides are equally energetic over the SRCR, the main site of elevated mixing within the SCB. Numerous sources of internal tides at the rough topography in the SCB produce standing and/or partially-standing waves. On lines 66.7 and 80, the dominant energy source below about 100 m for mixing is the D1 internal tide, which has an energy density of the D2 internal tide. On line 80, estimated diffusivity, estimated dissipation, and D1 energy density peak in summer. The D1 energy density shows an increasing trend from 2006 to 2012. Its amplitude and phase are mostly consistent with topographically-trapped D1 internal tides traveling with the topography on their right. The observed offshore decay of the diffusivity estimates is consistent with the exponential decay of a trapped wave with a mode-1 Rossby radius of 20-30 km. Despite the variable mesoscale, it is remarkable that coherent internal tidal phase is found.

  6. SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X simulations of ionospheric variability during northern winter 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    We have performed simulations using the Naval Research Laboratory's physics-based model of the ionosphere, Sami3 is A Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3), to illustrate how neutral wind dynamics is responsible for day-to-day variability of the ionosphere. We have used neutral winds specified from the extended version of the specified dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM-X), in which meteorology below 92 km is constrained by atmospheric specifications from an operational weather forecast model and reanalysis. To assess the realism of the simulations against observations, we have carried out a case study during January-February 2009, a dynamically disturbed time characterized by a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) commencing 24 January 2009. Model results are compared with total electron content (TEC) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory global ionospheric maps. We show that SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X captures longitudinal variability in the equatorial ionization anomaly associated with nonmigrating tides, with strongest contributions coming from the diurnal eastward wave number 2 (DE2) and DE3. Both migrating and nonmigrating tides contribute to significant day-to-day variability, with TEC varying up to 16%. Our simulation during the SSW period reveals that at the Jicamarca longitude (285°E) on 27 January 2009 nonmigrating tides contribute to an enhancement of the electron density in the morning followed by a decrease in the afternoon. An enhancement of the semidiurnal eastward wave number 2 (SE2) and SE3 nonmigrating tides, likely associated with the appearance of the SSW, suggests that these tides increase the longitudinal variability of the SSW impact on the ionosphere. The conclusion is that realistic meteorology propagating upward from the lower atmosphere influences the dynamo region and reproduces aspects of the observed variability in the ionosphere.

  7. Sources of interannual yield variability in JULES-crop and implications for forcing with seasonal weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. E.; Falloon, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    JULES-crop is a parametrisation of crops in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). We investigate the sources of the interannual variability in the modelled maize yield, using global runs driven by reanalysis data, with a view to understanding the impact of various approximations in the driving data and initialisation. The standard forcing dataset for JULES consists of a combination of meteorological variables describing precipitation, radiation, temperature, pressure, specific humidity and wind, at subdaily time resolution. We find that the main characteristics of the modelled yield can be reproduced with a subset of these variables and using daily forcing, with internal disaggregation to the model timestep. This has implications in particular for the use of the model with seasonal forcing data, which may not have been provided at subdaily resolution for all required driving variables. We also investigate the effect on annual yield of initialising the model with climatology on the sowing date. This approximation has the potential to considerably simplify the use of the model with seasonal forecasts, since obtaining observations or reanalysis output for all the initialisation variables required by JULES for the start date of the seasonal forecast would present significant practical challenges.

  8. WEATHER ON THE NEAREST BROWN DWARFS: RESOLVED SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-WAVELENGTH VARIABILITY MONITORING OF WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, Beth A.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Mancini, Luigi; Ciceri, Simona; Kopytova, Taisiya G.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Deacon, Niall R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Buenzli, Esther; Brandner, Wolfgang; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Henning, Thomas; Goldman, Bertrand; Southworth, John; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Freytag, Bernd; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-11-20

    We present two epochs of MPG/ESO 2.2 m GROND simultaneous six-band (r'i'z' JHK) photometric monitoring of the closest known L/T transition brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB. We report here the first resolved variability monitoring of both the T0.5 and L7.5 components. We obtained 4 hr of focused observations on the night of 2013 April 22 (UT), as well as 4 hr of defocused (unresolved) observations on the night of 2013 April 16 (UT). We note a number of robust trends in our light curves. The r' and i' light curves appear to be anti-correlated with z' and H for the T0.5 component and in the unresolved light curve. In the defocused dataset, J appears correlated with z' and H and anti-correlated with r' and i', while in the focused dataset we measure no variability for J at the level of our photometric precision, likely due to evolving weather phenomena. In our focused T0.5 component light curve, the K band light curve displays a significant phase offset relative to both H and z'. We argue that the measured phase offsets are correlated with atmospheric pressure probed at each band, as estimated from one-dimensional atmospheric models. We also report low-amplitude variability in i' and z' intrinsic to the L7.5 component.

  9. Seasonal variations in Antarctic non-migrating tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Jarvis, M. J.; McDonald, A.; Riggin, D. M.; Tsutsumi, M.; Vincent, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric radars operated in Antarctica by Australia (Davis), Japan (Syowa), the United Kingdom and the United States of America (Rothera) and New Zealand (Scott Base) form a network of observing sites that allow decomposition of tidal wind variations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT, 70-100km) into three westward and one standing wavenumber. These tides exhibit variations on both seasonal and multi-day time scales. In the case of the semidiurnal westward-one tide, there is evidence that the summertime short term variability is due to changes in their forcing and that this forcing occurs in the opposite (northern) hemisphere. Less is known about the variations at other wavenumbers. Data obtained between 2002 and the present have allowed the compilation of a climatology of southern polar MLT tides. Strong seasonal variations are apparent in a number of the extracted wavenumbers for both the diurnal and the semidiurnal tides. The nature of these seasonal variations will be described and discussed. The relationship between the global planetary wave field (from assimilated data sets) and the short-term variations in tidal amplitude and phase will also be considered.

  10. Stratospheric Tides and Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, R.; Orris, R. L.; Wu, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    In the upper stratosphere, the atmosphere exhibits significant diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal variations, with typical amplitude of about 2K in mid-latitudes. In this paper we examine how well the tidal variations in temperature are represented by the Goddard Geodesic Earth Orbiting Satellite (GEOS-2) data assimilation system. We show that the GEOS-2 atmospheric model is quite successful at simulating the tidal temperature variations. However, the assimilation of satellite temperature soundings significantly damps the simulated tides. The reason is because the tides are not well represented by the satellite retrievals used by the assimilation system (which have a typical tidal amplitude of around 1K). As a result of this study, we suggest improvements that should be made to the treatment of satellite soundings by the assimilation system.

  11. Biting behaviour of Tabanidae on cattle in mountainous summer pastures, Pyrenees, France, and effects of weather variables.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, F; Puech, L; Manon, S; Hertzog, Lionel R; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-08-01

    In France, during the summer, cattle in mountainous pastures can be highly exposed to tabanid bites. The persistent biting behaviour of tabanids not only causes disturbance, but is also responsible for transmitting diseases, such as bovine besnoitiosis. The purpose of this study was to better identify the level of tabanid annoyance on cattle by means of insect trapping and direct observation of cows. Tabanids were active during the entire daily observation period (10:00-16:00), except for Haematopota sp., which were less active in the morning. The tabanids collected in Nzi traps were generally representative of those that landed on cattle, except for Haematopota sp., as Nzi traps were not very effective for these species. The preferred feeding sites for most species appeared to be cow's legs or udder. Leg stamping was the defensive reaction most related to a tabanid alighting on a host. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the parameters associated with tabanid landings on hosts were related to weather and altitude, but not to landscape structure. Increased landings were mostly associated with the higher temperatures and lower wind speeds at midday, but some differences were observed between species. The results indicate that cattle-protection measures should be taken during the peak of tabanid abundance when climatic conditions favour intense biting activity. Nzi traps set close to livestock were very effective to catch tabanids and could help in reducing the annoyance caused by horse flies. PMID:24622151

  12. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.

  13. oceanservice.noaa.gov/education Tides Subject Review

    E-print Network

    . Gravity, Inertia, and the Two Bulges 10. What is inertia? 11. How does the moon create a bulge? 12. What? Tides Subject Review #12;Subject Review Tides Frequency of Tides - The Lunar Day 15. Compare spring and neap tides occur in a lunar month? 20. How are tide-generating forces affected when the moon

  14. Tide effects removed from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A.; Vik, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

  15. Variable Strength of Forest Stand Attributes and Weather Conditions on the Questing Activity of Ixodes ricinus Ticks over Years in Managed Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B.; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008–2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming. PMID:23372852

  16. Meteor radar observations of short-term variability of quasi 2 day waves and their interaction with tides and planetary waves in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, Veena; Kishore Kumar, Karanam; John, Sherine R.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramkumar, Geetha

    2011-08-01

    Meteor radar measurements of zonal and meridional winds over a low-latitude station, Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E), during March 2006 to March 2009 are used to study the quasi 2 day wave structure in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Emphasis is placed on the study of the day-to-day variations of quasi 2 day waves and their interaction with diurnal tides and planetary waves. The seasonal variation of quasi 2 day waves showed two maxima, one during summer and the other during winter, coinciding with the strong eastward winds in the MLT region along with a distinct peak during the month of October. Subsequent analysis of TIMED/SABER observations during October revealed the presence of a westward propagating quasi 2 day wave with zonal wave number 3 over the present latitude. The seasonal variation of quasi 2 day wave is also discussed with respect to the Stratospheric Semiannual Oscillation (SSAO), and we found that the quasi 2 day wave activity peaks in the MLT region during the phase transition of SSAO as well as during the eastward phase. Wavelet and subsequent bispectral analysis confirmed the wave-wave interactions of quasi 2 day wave and planetary waves with periods of 5-10 and 15-20 days. The 16 h oscillation, which is believed to be generated by interaction of quasi 2 day wave and diurnal tide, showed an excellent correlation with quasi 2 day wave activity. Apart from reporting day-to-day variation of quasi 2 day wave for the first time over this latitude, there are two new results from the present study: (1) a consistent peak in quasi 2 day activity during October, which has never been reported and has been observed for the first time over low latitudes, and (2) the relation between SSAO and quasi 2 day wave activity.

  17. The "Dirty Weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early Colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for Northern New Zealand, 1839-1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, A. M.; Chappell, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a Colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the rare manuscripts archive at the Auckland City Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 timespan that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 AM and noon temperatures and mid-day pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as `station data'. The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data requirements for the longest historical reanalysis - the 20th Century Reanalysis Project (20CR). Thus these new data will help extend surface pressure-based re-analysis reconstructions of past weather covering New Zealand within the data-sparse Southern Hemisphere.

  18. Red Tide is a concern for our coastal com-munities and visitors alike. Red tide is an ex-

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Red Tide is a concern for our coastal com- munities and visitors alike. Red tide is an ex- ample for Florida red tide is Karenia brevis, pic- tured here. Red tide in Florida is a natural phenomenon, origi a particular combination of biology, chemistry, and phys- ics, however it is unclear what causes the red tide

  19. River-tide dynamics: Exploration of nonstationary and nonlinear tidal behavior in the Yangtze River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Leicheng; van der Wegen, Mick; Jay, David A.; Matte, Pascal; Wang, Zheng Bing; Roelvink, Dano; He, Qing

    2015-05-01

    River-tide dynamics remain poorly understood, in part because conventional harmonic analysis (HA) does not cope effectively with nonstationary signals. To explore nonstationary behavior of river tides and the modulation effects of river discharge, this work analyzes tidal signals in the Yangtze River estuary using both HA in a nonstationary mode and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT). The Yangtze is an excellent natural laboratory to analyze river tides because of its high and variable flow, its length, and the fact that there are do dams or reflecting barriers within the tidal part of the system. Analysis of tidal frequencies by CWT and analysis of subtidal water level and tidal ranges reveal a broad range of subtidal variations over fortnightly, monthly, semiannual, and annual frequencies driven by subtidal variations in friction and by variable river discharges. We employ HA in a nonstationary mode (NSHA) by segregating data within defined flow ranges into separate analyses. NSHA quantifies the decay of the principal tides and the modulation of M4 tide with increasing river discharges. M4 amplitudes decrease far upriver (landward portion of the estuary) and conversely increase close to the ocean as river discharge increases. The fortnightly frequencies reach an amplitude maximum upriver of that for over tide frequencies, due to the longer wavelength of the fortnightly constituents. These methods and findings should be applicable to large tidal rivers globally and have broad implications regarding management of navigation channels and ecosystems in tidal rivers.

  20. ASEN6519: Tides and Planetary Waves Spring, 2015

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    ASEN6519: Tides and Planetary Waves Spring, 2015 The primary mechanism of waves, including gravity waves, planetary waves, and solar and lunar tides will emphasize tides and planetary waves at Earth, keeping in mind that many

  1. Assessing the role of spatial rainfall variability on watersheds response using weather radar A case study in the Gard region, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraheni, Evi; Payrastre, Olivier; Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Herve

    2014-05-01

    The consideration of spatial rainfall variability in hydrological modeling is not only an important scientific issue but also, with the current development of high resolution rainfall data from weather radars, an increasing request from managers of sewerage networks and from flood forecasting services. Although the literature on this topic is already significant, at this time the conclusions remain contrasted. The impact of spatial rainfall variability on the hydrological responses appears to highly depend both on the organization of rainfall fields and on the watershed characteristics. The objective of the study presented here is to confirm and analyze the high impact of spatial rainfall variability in the specific context of flash floods. The case study presented is located in the Gard region in south east of France and focuses on four events which occurred on 13 different watersheds in 2008. The hydrological behaviors of these watersheds have been represented by the distributed rainfall - runoff model CINECAR, which already proved to well represent the hydrological responses in this region (Naulin et al., 2013). The influence of spatial rainfall variability has been studied here by considering two different rainfall inputs: radar data with a resolution of 1 km x 1 km and the spatial average rainfall over the catchment. First, the comparison between simulated and measured hydrographs confirms the good performances of the model for intense rainfall events, independently of the level of spatial rainfall variability of these events. Secondly, the simulated hydrographs obtained from radar data are taken as reference and compared to those obtained from the average rainfall inputs by computing two values: the time difference and the difference of magnitude between the simulated peaks discharge. The results highly depend on the rainfall event considered, and on the level of organization of the spatial rainfall variability. According to the model, the behavior of the studied watersheds may sometimes remain very similar with a homogeneous rainfall input, whereas for some cases the differences in the peak discharges can reach up to 80%. A detailed analysis illustrates the possible role of the watershed in enhancing the effect of rainfall spatial variability. In a further step, the objective is to test the ability of four rainfall variability indicators to identify the situations for which spatial rainfall variability has the greatest influence on the watershed response. The selected indicators include those of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), and all rely on a detailed analysis of spatial rainfall organization in function of hydrological distances (i.e. the distances measured along the stream network from one point of the watershed to the outlet). The analysis of the links between these indicators and the hydrological behaviors identified is currently in progress. Reference: Naulin, J.P., Payrastre, O., Gaume, E., 2013. Spatially distributed flood forecasting in flash flood prone areas: Application to road network supervision in Southern France. Journal of Hydrology, 486, 88-99, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.044 Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B., Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394, 148-161

  2. Tides and Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This paper examines changes in American higher education, using the metaphor of ocean tides. The tides of change in the 1980s included public demands for assessment and accountability; fairness and credibility in advantages and benefits; improved quality of education; effectiveness and efficiency; assurance that college graduates were personally…

  3. Bottom Pressure Tides Along a Line in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean and Comparisons with Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Byrne, Deidre A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor pressure records, collected at 11 stations aligned along a single ground track of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellites, are analyzed for their tidal content. With very low background noise levels and approximately 27 months of high-quality records, tidal constituents can be estimated with unusually high precision. This includes many high-frequency lines up through the seventh-diurnal band. The station deployment provides a unique opportunity to compare with tides estimated from satellite altimetry, point by point along the satellite track, in a region of moderately high mesoscale variability. That variability can significantly corrupt altimeter-based tide estimates, even with 17 years of data. A method to improve the along-track altimeter estimates by correcting the data for nontidal variability is found to yield much better agreement with the bottom-pressure data. The technique should prove useful in certain demanding applications, such as altimetric studies of internal tides.

  4. Impact of tidal density variability on orbital and reentry predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Born, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first satellites entered Earth orbit in the late 1950's and early 1960's, the influences of solar and geomagnetic variability on the satellite drag environment have been studied, and parameterized in empirical density models with increasing sophistication. However, only within the past 5 years has the realization emerged that "troposphere weather" contributes significantly to the "space weather" of the thermosphere, especially during solar minimum conditions. Much of the attendant variability is attributable to upward-propagating solar tides excited by latent heating due to deep tropical convection, and solar radiation absorption primarily by water vapor and ozone in the stratosphere and mesosphere, respectively. We know that this tidal spectrum significantly modifies the orbital (>200 km) and reentry (60-150 km) drag environments, and that these tidal components induce longitude variability not yet emulated in empirical density models. Yet, current requirements for improvements in orbital prediction make clear that further refinements to density models are needed. In this paper, the operational consequences of longitude-dependent tides are quantitatively assessed through a series of orbital and reentry predictions. We find that in-track prediction differences incurred by tidal effects are typically of order 200 ± 100 m for satellites in 400-km circular orbits and 15 ± 10 km for satellites in 200-km circular orbits for a 24-hour prediction. For an initial 200-km circular orbit, surface impact differences of order 15° ± 15° latitude are incurred. For operational problems with similar accuracy needs, a density model that includes a climatological representation of longitude-dependent tides should significantly reduce errors due to this source.

  5. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  6. The Art of Red Tide Science

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  7. Baroclinic tides in the Indonesian seas: Tidal fields and comparisons to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Robin; Ffield, Amy

    2008-07-01

    Barotropic and baroclinic tides were simulated for the Indonesia Seas using a primitive equation, terrain-following coordinate model, the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with four tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, and O1). The region's intricate topography as well as interactions between the Pacific and Indian Ocean tides within the Indonesian Seas resulted in complex barotropic and baroclinic tidal fields. The semidiurnal tides entered from both the Pacific and Indian oceans converging in Makassar Strait and the Ceram Sea with an amphidromic point forming in the Timor Sea. Diurnal tides were dominated by the Pacific Ocean tide. The model successfully replicated the observed tidal elevation fields as determined from TOPEX/POSEIDON crossovers with better performance for the semidiurnal constituents, RMS differences of 4-6 cm, than the diurnal constituents, RMS differences of 7-10 cm. A baroclinic response was apparent in the elevations, and the locations of the observed baroclinic elevation response in TOPEX/POSEIDON data agreed with that of the model. Velocities were baroclinic for all constituents with high spatial variability, particularly near sills and in straits. Extensive interactions occurred in the internal tidal fields: between a beam and its own reflections, between internal tides generated at different locations (i.e., different sides of a channel, or beams generated nearby), and between the barotropic and baroclinic tidal beams. Owing to propagation, even regions >100 km from sills showed significant vertical and horizontal variability resulting from internal tides. This resulted in extremely complex internal tidal fields with high variability, both spatially and temporally during a tidal cycle.

  8. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  9. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. I. DETECTION OF PERIODIC VARIABILITY IN THE L3 DWARF DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 WITH PRECISE MULTI-WAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir; Apai, Daniel; Flateau, Davin; Kurtev, Radostin; Marley, Mark; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J.; Artigau, Etienne; Plavchan, Peter E-mail: stanimir.metchev@stonybrook.edu

    2013-04-20

    Photometric monitoring from warm Spitzer reveals that the L3 dwarf DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 varies sinusoidally in brightness with a period of 4.25{sup +0.26}{sub -0.16} hr and an amplitude of 0.388% {+-} 0.043% (peak-to-valley) in the 3.6 {mu}m band, confirming the reality of a 4.31 {+-} 0.31 hr periodicity detected in J-band photometry from the SOAR telescope. The J-band variations are a factor of 2.17 {+-} 0.35 larger in amplitude than those at 3.6 {mu}m, while 4.5 {mu}m Spitzer observations yield a 4.5 {mu}m/3.6 {mu}m amplitude ratio of only 0.23 {+-} 0.15, consistent with zero 4.5 {mu}m variability. This wide range in amplitudes indicates rotationally modulated variability due to magnetic phenomena and/or inhomogeneous cloud cover. Weak H{alpha} emission indicates some magnetic activity, but it is difficult to explain the observed amplitudes by magnetic phenomena unless they are combined with cloud inhomogeneities (which might have a magnetic cause). However, inhomogeneous cloud cover alone can explain all our observations, and our data align with theory in requiring that the regions with the thickest clouds also have the lowest effective temperature. Combined with published vsin (i) results, our rotation period yields a 95% confidence lower limit of R{sub *} {>=} 0.111 R{sub Sun }, suggesting upper limits of 320 Myr and 0.055 M{sub Sun} on the age and mass. These limits should be regarded cautiously because of {approx}3{sigma} inconsistencies with other data; however, a lower limit of 45 Degree-Sign on the inclination is more secure. DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 is only the first of nearly two dozen low-amplitude variables discovered and analyzed by the Weather on Other Worlds project.

  10. Pole tide triggering of seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of the pole tide (PT) on intensity of seismic process is searched on base of Harvard Centroid-moment tensors catalogue (CMT). The normal and shear stresses excited by PT were calculated for each earthquake (EQ) from CMT (32.3 thousands of EQ events after for- and aftershock declustering). There was revealed that there are two maxima of PT influence on weak (less 5.5 magnitudes) thrust-slip EQ near the both extrema (min and max) of shear stress. This influence has 95 % level of statistical significance by Schuster and ?^2 criteria and could explain the 0.6-year periodicity in seismic intensity spectrum. The PT influence on seismicity becomes negligible when PT variations decrease up to 100~mas. This could explain 6-7 years periodicity in seismic intensity spectrum.

  11. Possible forcing of global temperature by the oceanic?tides

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Charles D.; Whorf, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    An approximately decadal periodicity in surface air temperature is discernable in global observations from A.D. 1855 to 1900 and since A.D. 1945, but with a periodicity of only about 6 years during the intervening period. Changes in solar irradiance related to the sunspot cycle have been proposed to account for the former, but cannot account for the latter. To explain both by a single mechanism, we propose that extreme oceanic tides may produce changes in sea surface temperature at repeat periods, which alternate between approximately one-third and one-half of the lunar nodal cycle of 18.6 years. These alternations, recurring at nearly 90-year intervals, reflect varying slight degrees of misalignment and departures from the closest approach of the Earth with the Moon and Sun at times of extreme tide raising forces. Strong forcing, consistent with observed temperature periodicities, occurred at 9-year intervals close to perihelion (solar perigee) for several decades centered on A.D. 1881 and 1974, but at 6-year intervals for several decades centered on A.D. 1923. As a physical explanation for tidal forcing of temperature we propose that the dissipation of extreme tides increases vertical mixing of sea water, thereby causing episodic cooling near the sea surface. If this mechanism correctly explains near-decadal temperature periodicities, it may also apply to variability in temperature and climate on other times-scales, even millennial and longer. PMID:11607740

  12. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  13. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  14. Bottom friction optimization for a better barotropic tide modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, Martial; Lathuilière, Cyril; Son Hoang, Hong; Baraille, Rémy

    2015-04-01

    At a regional scale, barotropic tides are the dominant source of variability of currents and water heights. A precise representation of these processes is essential because of their great impacts on human activities (submersion risks, marine renewable energies, ...). Identified sources of error for tide modelling at a regional scale are the followings: bathymetry, boundary forcing and dissipation due to bottom friction. Nevertheless, bathymetric databases are nowadays known with a good accuracy, especially over shelves, and global tide models performances are better than ever. The most promising improvement is thus the bottom friction representation. The method used to estimate bottom friction is the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) which consists in the approximation of the gradient based on a fixed number of cost function measurements, regardless of the dimension of the vector to be estimated. Indeed, each cost function measurement is obtained by randomly perturbing every component of the parameter vector. An important feature of SPSA is its relative ease of implementation. In particular, the method does not require the development of tangent linear and adjoint version of the circulation model. Experiments are carried out to estimate bottom friction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) in barotropic mode (one isopycnal layer). The study area is the Northeastern Atlantic margin which is characterized by strong currents and an intense dissipation. Bottom friction is parameterized with a quadratic term and friction coefficient is computed with the water height and the bottom roughness. The latter parameter is the one to be estimated. Assimilated data are the available tide gauge observations. First, the bottom roughness is estimated taking into account bottom sediment natures and bathymetric ranges. Then, it is estimated with geographical degrees of freedom. Finally, the impact of the estimation of a mixed quadratic/linear friction is evaluated.

  15. Diurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical model with a space grid of about 14 km is applied to calculate diurnal tidal constituents K(1) and O(1) in the Arctic Ocean. Calculated corange and cotidal charts show that along the continental slope, local regions of increased sea level amplitude, highly variable phase and enhanced currents occur. It is shown that in these local regions, shelf waves (topographic waves) of tidal origin are generated. In the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean more than 30 regions of enhanced currents are identified. To prove the near-resonant interaction of the diurnal tides with the local bottom topography, the natural periods of oscillations for all regions have been calculated. The flux of energy averaged over the tidal period depicts the gyres of semitrapped energy, suggesting that the shelf waves are partially trapped over the irregularities of the bottom topography. It is shown that the occurrence of near-resonance phenomenon changes the energy flow in the tidal waves. First, the flux of energy from the astronomical sources is amplified in the shelf wave regions, and afterwards the tidal energy is strongly dissipated in the same regions.

  16. Nonlinear harmonic generation by diurnal tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Recent observations from the South China Sea have demonstrated that semi-diurnal tides sometimes generate a double-frequency harmonic. Similar harmonic generation has been found in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of internal wave beams refracting into a pycnocline. Here, a weakly nonlinear theory of internal wave refraction is applied to oceanic internal tides in an idealized stratification profile. The steady state harmonic amplitude is calculated as a function of the tidal frequency and the pycnocline characteristics. The results indicate that harmonic generation by nonlinear refraction of semi-diurnal tides is consistent with the South China Sea observations.

  17. Using TIDE to Debug ASF+SDF on Multiple Levels

    E-print Network

    Zaidman, Andy

    Using TIDE to Debug ASF+SDF on Multiple Levels Bas Cornelissen December 2004 Master's thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 The TIDE framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.5.3 The TIDE mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3 Using TIDE to debug ASF

  18. LECTURES ON TIDES UNIS, Longyearbyen, 26 -30 Sept. 2011

    E-print Network

    Gjevik, Bjørn

    LECTURES ON TIDES UNIS, Longyearbyen, 26 - 30 Sept. 2011 by B. Gjevik Department of Mathematics Introduction 3 2 Tide generating force 5 3 Harmonic decomposition of the tide generating force 10 4 Ocean closely associated with the flow of time as the very name tides indicates. When Newton (1697) first

  19. Tide: Achieving Self-Scaling in Virtualized Datacenter Management Middleware

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ling

    Tide: Achieving Self-Scaling in Virtualized Datacenter Management Middleware Shicong Meng, Ling Liu of Tide, a self-scaling framework for virtu- alized datacenter management. A salient feature of Tide middleware. We eval- uate the effectiveness of Tide with both synthetic and real world workloads. Our results

  20. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide

    E-print Network

    21 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes Marine Biological, Donald L. McKernan, Director Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes causing Red-Tide blooms as deduced from field observations 2 Red- Tide research at the Florida State

  1. Interacting effects of elevated CO2 and weather variability on photosynthesis of mature boreal Norway spruce agree with biochemical model predictions.

    PubMed

    Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2012-12-01

    According to well-known biochemical and biophysical mechanisms, the stimulation of C(3) photosynthesis by elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is strongly modified by changes in temperature and radiation. In order to investigate whether a static parameterization of the commonly used Farquhar et al. model of photosynthesis (i.e., without CO(2)-induced seasonal or thermal acclimation of photosynthetic capacity) can accurately predict these interactions in mature boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) during the frost-free part of the growing season, shoot gas exchange was continuously measured on trees during their second/third year of exposure to ambient or doubled [CO(2)] inside whole-tree chambers. The relative CO(2)-induced enhancement of net photosynthesis (A(n)) at a given temperature remained stable over the study period, but increased strongly with temperature and radiation, in agreement with predictions by the model. Light-saturated A(n) (+67% at 20 °C), dark respiration (+36%) and intercellular to ambient [CO(2)] ratio (c(i)/c(a); +27%) were significantly increased by CO(2) treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was not significantly affected. Our results demonstrate that the Farquhar et al. model of photosynthesis has the capability to predict interactions between [CO(2)] and seasonal weather variability on A(n) in Norway spruce during the non-frost growing season without accounting for CO(2)-induced seasonal and/or thermal photosynthetic acclimation. However, stomatal model assumptions of reduced g(s) and constant c(i)/c(a) under rising atmospheric [CO(2)] did not hold. PMID:23042768

  2. QBO Generated Inter-annual Variations of the Diurnal Tide in the Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, John G.

    2004-01-01

    We report results from a study with the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which produces in the d i d tide significant inter-annual variations. Applying Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DPS), small-scale gravity waves (GW) drive the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) and Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO). With a GW source that peaks at the equator and is taken to be isotropic and independent of season, the NSM generates a QBO with variable periods around 27 months and zonal wind amplitudes close to 20 m/s at 30 lan, As reported earlier, the NSM reproduces the observed equinoctial maxima in the diurnal tide at altitudes around 95 km. In the present paper it is shown that the QBO modulates the tide such that the seasonal amplitude maxima can vary from one year to another by as much as 30%. Since the period of the QBO is variable, its phase relative to the seasonal cycle changes. The magnitude of the QBO modulation of the tide thus varies considerably as our long-term model simulation shows. To shed light on the underlying mechanisms, we discuss (a) the relative importance of the linearized advection terms that involve the meridional and vertical winds of the diurnal tide and (b) the effects momentum deposition from GWs filtered by the QBO.

  3. QBO Generated Inter-annual Variations of the Diurnal Tide in the Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, John G.

    2004-01-01

    We report results from a study with the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which produces in the mesosphere significant inter-annual variations in the diurnal tide. Applying Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization (DPS), small-scale gravity waves (GW) drive the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) and Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO). With a GW source that peaks at the equator and is taken to be isotropic and independent of season, the NSM generates near the equator a QBO with variable periods around 27 months and zonal wind amplitudes close to 20 m / s at 30 Ism. As reported earlier, the NSM reproduces the observed equinoctial maxima in the diurnal tide at altitudes around 95 km. In the present paper it is shown that the QBO modulates the tide such that the seasonal amplitude maxima can vary from one year to another by as much as 30%. Since the period of the QBO is variable, its phase relative to the seasonal cycle changes. The magnitude of the QBO modulation of the tide thus varies considerably as our long-term model simulation shows. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, the relative importance of the linearized advection terms are discussed that involve the meridional and vertical winds of the diurnal tide.

  4. Nonlinear tides in close binary systems

    E-print Network

    Weinberg, Nevin N.

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: ...

  5. Internal tide generation by tall ocean ridges

    E-print Network

    Echeverri Mondragón, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Internal tides are internal waves of tidal period generated by tidal currents flowing over submarine topography. Tall ridges that are nominally two-dimensional (2-D) are sites of particularly strong generation. The subsequent ...

  6. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  7. The Tides--A Neglected Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Finds that computer simulations can be used to visualize the processes involved with lunar tides. Technology adds value, thus opening new paths for a more distinct analysis and increased learning results. (Author/CCM)

  8. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  9. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  10. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  11. Mapping hurricane rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.; Mason, R.R., Jr.; Blanchard, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of affected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-h intervals from midnight (00:00 hours) through noon (12:00 hours) on 24 September 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared with the extent of flood inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. NOAA National Ocean Service Education: Tides and Water Levels NOS home NOS education home site index

    E-print Network

    the hull of their vessel. It became stranded on a sandbar following a rapidly receding tide. NOAA are Tides? What Causes Tides? Gravity, Inertia, and Bulges Changing Angles and Tides The Frequency of Tides are Tides Measured ? Pt. I How are Tides Measured? Pt. II References Revised January 26, 2005 | Questions

  13. Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather

    E-print Network

    on the Power Grid Space Weather and the Aurora Borealis What are Solar Flares? What are Coronal Mass Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather Please help the NWS spread these important safety build a WeatherReady Nation. New Space Weather Safety Page What is Space Weather and What

  14. Tides in asynchronous binary systems

    E-print Network

    Oswaldo Toledano; Edmundo Moreno; Gloria Koenigsberger; R. Detmers; Norbert Langer

    2006-10-18

    Stellar oscillations are excited in non-synchronously rotating stars in binary systems due to the tidal forces. Tangential components of the tides can drive a shear flow which behaves as a differentially forced rotating structure in a stratified outer medium. In this paper we show that our single-layer approximation for the calculation of the forced oscillations yields results that are consistent with the predictions for the synchronization timescales in circular orbits. In addition, calibrating our model results to fit Zahn's relationship between synchronization timescales and orbital separation, we are able to constrain the value of the kinematical viscosity parameter. For the 4Mo+5Mo binary modeled in this paper, the kinematical viscosity is in the range 0.0015 -- 0.0043 Ro^2/d for orbital periods in the range 2.5 -- 25 d. Furthermore, the energy dissipation rate due to the shear flow is found to decrease by ~2 orders of magnitude as synchronization is approached, implying that binary systems may approach synchronization relatively quickly but that it takes a much longer timescale to actually attain this condition. Our model can be used to calculate the energy dissipation rates throughout the orbital cycle for arbitrary values of eccentricity and stellar rotational velocity. We suggest that the asymmetric distribution of energy dissipation over the stellar surface may lead to the appearance of localized regions of enhanced surface activity.

  15. Wind Forcing of the North Sea Pole Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, W.; Chao, B. F.; Zheng, D. W.; Au, Z. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The Chandler wobble of the earth's rotation has a period near 14 months and sets up the 0.5 cm amplitude pole tide in the deep oceans, However, the pole tide is anomalously large in the North Sea, where the amplitude increases sharply up to 3 cm along the continental coast. It is shown here that the sea levels are well correlated with winds at the pole tide frequency. The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the response of the North Sea to wind forcing. The barotropic numerical ocean model depicts realistic coastlines and bathymetry at 5 ft x 5 ft resolution, with 97 x 73 grid points. The monthly mean wind fields for the 40-year period (1958-1997) from the National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis were used to force the model. The winds were converted to stress with a neutral drag coefficient that varied linearly with windspeed (instead of using the NCEP windstress). A 5-day simulation was made for each month until the resulting flow regime came into equilibrium, and model water levels at various station locations were saved for comparison with tidal-gauge observed sea levels from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). The comparison is made for 10 North Sea stations with high quality tide gauge data. We find: (1) good agreement in annual and semi-annual phases and in the trend of amplitude w.r.t. latitude; (2) more importantly for this study, the model-predicted and observed non-seasonal sea level variations show a very significant temporal correlation as well as spectral coherence. However, a large amplitude difference exists between the two sets -- the overall amplitude variability of the observed is generally a factor of 2-3 larger than the model prediction (this same phenomenon has been reported in ocean circulation studies, although the cause is not yet clear.) Our results indicate that the wind forcing is the main cause of the observed large pole tide in the North Sea.

  16. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  17. Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Thompson, LuAnne

    . The horizontal forces are: acceleration + Coriolis force = pressure gradient force + tractive force. As we, the relevant force, the tractive force, is the projection of the tide producing force onto the local horizontal) and the tractive force, and propagates like a Kelvin wave. Tides can be predicted using a numerical ocean tidal

  18. Acoustic observations of internal tides and tidal currents in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Altan; Mignerey, Peter C; Goldstein, David J; Schindall, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-01

    Significant acoustic travel-time variability and frequency shifts of acoustic intensity level curves in broadband signal spectrograms were measured in the East China Sea during the summer of 2008. The broadband pulses (270-330 Hz) were transmitted from a fixed source and received at a bottomed horizontal array, located at the 33 km range. The acoustic intensity level curves of the received signals indicate regular frequency shifts that are well correlated with the measured internal tides. Similarly, regular travel-time shifts of the acoustic mode arrivals correlate well with the barotropic tides and can be explained by tidal currents along the acoustic propagation track. These observations indicate the potential of monitoring internal tides and tidal currents using low-frequency acoustic signals propagating at long ranges. PMID:23556568

  19. A climate-related continental strain tide identified from PBO borehole strainmeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    We perform an analysis of tidal signals recorded in the strainmeters of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in the United States of America. The original strain data are decomposed into various components of tide signal and other terms of a trend, air pressure response and random noise, using BAYTAP, a program that applies a Bayesian modeling procedure to analyze the strainmeter data. The extracted tidal amplitudes and phase delays of some of the Sun-related tides (P1, S1K1, S2 and K2) exhibit obvious annual cycles of variation, with some of the amplitude variations reaching 30% and phase delays 30° respectively, while those of the Moon-related tides (Q1, N2 and M2) do not show annul cycles. The inferred annual cycles of the Sun-related tides cannot be explained by the inaccuracies of relative Earth-Sun positions at different seasons. Neither can they be explained by the annual variations of sea water loading. They can be best explained by existence of an additional climate-related strain tide induced by a combination of annual and daily changes of climatological variables (e.g. temperature and hydrology) in the continental areas.

  20. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  1. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  2. Substructure Formation Induced by Gravitational Tides?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Theis, C.; Naab, T.; Boily, C. M.

    2010-06-01

    Physics lectures always refer to the tides as a disruptive effect. However, tides can also be compressive. When the potential of two galaxies overlap, as happens during a merger, fully compressive tides can develop and have a strong impact on the dynamics of substructures such as star clusters or tidal dwarf galaxies. Using N-body simulations of a large set of mergers, we noticed the importance of these tidal modes at cluster scale. With a model of the Antennae galaxies, we conclude that the positions and timescales of these tidal modes match the actual distribution of young clusters. A detailed study of the statistics of the compressive tides shows a stunning correlation between this purely gravitational effect and the observed properties of the star clusters. In this contribution, we introduce the concept of compressive tide and show its relevance in the special case of the Antennae galaxies. We extend our conclusions to a broad range of parameters and discuss their implications on several critical points such as infant mortality, multiple star formation epochs in clusters or the age distribution.

  3. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  4. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  5. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR TIDES AND CURRENTS WITH FIELD APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    A finite element model, based upon the shallow water equations, is used to calculate tidal amplitudes and currents for two field-scale test problems. Because tides are characterized by line spectra, the governing equations are subjected to harmonic decomposition. Thus the solution variables are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of sea level and velocity rather than a time series of these variables. The time series is recovered through synthesis. This scheme, coupled with a modified form of the governing equations, leads to high computational efficiency and freedom from excessive numerical noise. Two test-cases are presented. The first is a solution for eleven tidal constituents in the English Channel and southern North Sea, and three constituents are discussed. The second is an analysis of the frequency response and tidal harmonics for south San Francisco Bay.

  6. The IERS Special Bureau for Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Geophysical Fluids Center of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) comprises 8 special bureaus, one of which is the Special Bureau for Tides. Its purpose is to facilitate studies related to tidal effects in earth rotation. To that end it collects various relevant datasets and distributes them, primarily through its website at bowie.gsfc.nasa.gov/ggfc/tides. Example datasets include tabulations of tidal variations in angular momentum and in earth rotation as estimated from numerical ocean tide models and from meteorological reanalysis products. The web site also features an interactive tidal prediction "machine" which generates tidal predictions (e.g., of UT1) from lists of harmonic constants. The Special Bureau relies on the tidal and earth-rotation communities to build and enlarge its datasets; further contributions from this community are most welcome.

  7. The Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tides, oscillations in meteorological fields occurring at subharmonics of a solar or lunar day, comprise a major component of middle atmosphere global dynamics. The purpose of the 1982 to 1986 Atmospheric Tides Atmosphere Program (ATMAP) was to foster an interaction between experimentalists, data analysts, and theoreticians and modelers, in order to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tides and their relationships to other scales of motion, and to thereby explain features of observed tidal structures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The ATMAP consisted of seven observational campaigns, five workshops and a climatological study. A historical perspective is provided along with a summary of major results, conclusions, and recommendations for future study which have emerged from the ATMAP.

  8. Tide: The Integrated Development Environment for Tropomi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, J.; Plevier, C.; Beerthuizen, P.

    2009-05-01

    TIDE (formerly named IDEE) is an instrument performance evaluation tool computing Level 2 products for TROPOMI (Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument). TROPOMI is a trace gas spectrograph in the UV-SWIR wavelength range meant to detect a.o. NO2, CH4, CO and O3, for ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Next to measuring development of the stratospheric ozone, the instrument is especially suitable to measure boundary layer trace gases because of the high sensitivity to low altitudes for these wavelengths. The TROPOMI Integrated Development Environment (TIDE) enables System Engineering trade-offs up to Level 2 products. Because these trade-offs include several partners, they are conventionally quite time consuming. TIDE makes this process much more efficient. It thereby opens the possibility to optimize Level 1b of instrument hardware requirements during the development cycle. We do not expect these requirements will be skipped but it is possible to more rationally and more efficiently discuss and decide on them.

  9. The Role of Tide-induced Vertical Mixing in Modulating the Decadal Change of El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    The El Nino-South Oscillation (ENSO) is an important phenomenon occurring every 3-7 years in the tropical Pacific Ocean and plays a role in the regional and global climate changeThe conventional El Nino is characterized by the maximum sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies located at the eastern tropical Pacific. Recent studies have suggested that a different type of El Nino, characterized by a westward shift of the maximum SST anomalies to the central Pacific and thus called central Pacific (CP) El Nino, has occurred more frequently since 1990s and has different weather /climate impacts on the countries surrounding the Pacific However, the mechanism of this decadal change of El Nino is still elusive. In this study, we first report evidence that the tide energy has decreased over the past several decades as observed by the tidal stations at western Pacific, which is consistent with the weakening of the lunar tidal forcing during the same period as determined by the relative position of the moon, the earth and the sun. We then hypothesize that the decrease of tidal energy is responsible for the more frequent occurrence of CP El Nino through the role of tidal mixing in the ocean during the past several decades. The GFDL coupled model is employed to test this hypothesis through sensitivity experiments on the change of tidal mixing. The experimental results as well as the corresponding analysis demonstrate that the weakening of the tidal mixing does lead to the more frequent occurrence of CP El Nino. This finding makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of decadal variability of El Nino observed in recent decades and the future projection of the decadal change of El Nino.

  10. Internal tide generation by arbitrary two-dimensional topography

    E-print Network

    Peacock, Thomas

    To date, analytical models of internal tide generation by two-dimensional ridges have considered only idealized shapes. Here, we advance the Green function approach to address the generation of internal tides by two-dimensional ...

  11. Long-term increase in New York Harbor storm tides, 1844-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.; Jay, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Eight of the largest twenty recorded water levels in the New York Harbor region recorded since 1821 occurred after 1990, and three of the 10 largest have occurred since 2010 (March 2010, August 2011, and October 2012). Archival research and numerical modeling indicates, however, that the storm surge during an 1821 hurricane exceeded that from hurricane Sandy (~3.5m vs. 2.8m). To investigate flood risk we recover archival tide gauge data back to 1844 and evaluate whether the recent cluster of extreme water levels is random, driven solely by sea-level rise, or is caused by changes to storm tides (the sum of storm surge and tidal effects). Results indicate both long term trends and decadal variability in the annual maximum storm tide (AMST). Approximately half of long-term AMST variability is explained by a long term increase in storm tides, while the remainder is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation. The magnitude of the 10 year return period storm tide has increased by 0.28m. Combined with a 0.44m increase in local sea level since 1856, the 10 year flood level has increased by approximately 0.72 ± 0.25m, and magnified the annual probability of overtopping the nominal Manhattan seawall from less than 1% to about 20-25%. Further, including the 1821 event in extreme value analysis suggests that the return period of hurricane Sandy storm tides is much smaller than other estimates. Though the cause of the long-term AMST trend is unclear, analysis of tidal properties indicates that long-wave propagation in New York harbor has shifted since the 1850s. Because storm surge is also a long-wave with a component in the tidal band, at least a portion of changed storm-tide hazard is likely driven by local anthropogenic alterations of the region's waterways. Along with sea-level rise, local development and climate-induced shifts to the North Atlantic Oscillation may continue to affect the New York harbor storm tide hazard in the future.

  12. Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1

    E-print Network

    Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1 and Roger H. J. Grimshaw2 1 The disintegration of a first-mode internal tide into shorter solitary-like waves is considered. Because observations frequently show both tides and waves with amplitudes beyond the re- strictions of weakly nonlinear theory

  13. COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED

    E-print Network

    455: COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM F. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED-TIDE Acknowledgment 4 Literature cited 5 Explanation of column headings 7 Station data 7 iii #12;#12;COUNTS OF RED-TIDE

  14. COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND

    E-print Network

    369: COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROMKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST COAST, 1957

  15. From Tides to Mixing Along the Hawaiian Ridge

    E-print Network

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    From Tides to Mixing Along the Hawaiian Ridge Daniel L. Rudnick,1 * Timothy J. Boyd,2 Russell E tides to turbulence has been hypothesized to serve as a major energy pathway for ocean mixing. We of internal tidal energy flux observed at the ridge agrees with the predictions of internal tide models. Large

  16. New Miscellaneous Results in Tides from Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G.; Cartwright, D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of new results concerning ocean tides that have been derived from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Most of these results are based on new tidal solutions employing nearly 8 years of data. The topics covered include internal tides and long-period tides.

  17. Body tides of a convecting, laterally heterogeneous, and aspherical Earth

    E-print Network

    Metivier, Laurent

    Body tides of a convecting, laterally heterogeneous, and aspherical Earth Laurent Me´tivier1 November 2008. [1] Precise knowledge of Earth's body tides is crucial for correcting geodetic positioning, body tides are generally computed assuming a radially (or elliptically) stratified Earth. However

  18. Weather control

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1980-09-05

    Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

  19. Parents Who Moved against the Tide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perske, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article recounts the historical discrimination against children with mental retardation and the extraordinary efforts made by parents of children with disabilities to speak out against the tide that dehumanized their children. The growth of national, state, and local Arcs and parent advocacy efforts are discussed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  20. Semidiurnal solar tides in the mountain atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

    1994-09-01

    Harmonic analysis of Doppler radar wind profiler data west of the Rocky Mountains has identified a coherent semidiurnal wind system above the wintertime boundary layer at multiple sites in the region. The unusual characteristics of this mountain wind system (its semidiurnal frequency, amplitude, phase, and direction of rotation) suggest that is is a semidiurnal solar tide. Such tides have not been previously documented in the mountain atmosphere or in the troposphere generally but, because semidiurnal signatures are well known in surface barometric traces, and large amplitude semidiurnal tides are known in the upper atmosphere, they are not unexpected. Our future research on this semidiurnal cordilleran wind system will focus on obtaining sufficient data to resolve further the vertical structure, seasonal variation, and spatial variations of the wind system. Of particular interest is the role of the Rocky Mountains and other cordilleras in modifying the global tides. It remains to be seen whether semidiurnal cordilleran circulations will be of sufficient magnitude to be observed across major arcuate-shaped east-west-oriented mountain massifs such as the Alps. There, wind systems may develop in response to pressure gradients (Frei and Davies, 1993) that form across the Alps due to differences in the amplitudes and phases of semidiurnal and diurnal pressure oscillations on the north and south sides of the mountain barrier.

  1. Weather Effects on European Agricultural Output 1850-1913

    E-print Network

    Solomou, Solomos; Wu, Weike

    2004-06-16

    yield variations we find that growing period weather information dominates annual weather information as an explanatory variable. However, when explaining aggregate production (which is a 2 Tim Atkinson kindly...

  2. The impact of reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-11-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z - R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z - k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the disdrometer information, the best results were obtained in case no differentiation between precipitation type (convective, stratiform and undefined) was made, increasing the event accumulations to more than 80% of those observed by gauges. For the randomly optimized procedure, radar precipitation estimates further improve and closely resemble observations in case one differentiates between precipitation type. However, the optimal parameter sets are very different from those derived from disdrometer observations. It is therefore questionable if single disdrometer observations are suitable for large-scale quantitative precipitation estimation, especially if the disdrometer is located relatively far away from the main rain event, which was the case in this study. In conclusion, this study shows the benefit of applying detailed error correction methods to improve the quality of the weather radar product, but also confirms the need to be cautious using locally obtained disdrometer measurements.

  3. A tide prediction and tide height control system for laboratory mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental mesocosm studies of rocky shore and estuarine intertidal systems may benefit from the application of natural tide cycles to better replicate variation in immersion time, water depth, and attendant fluctuations in abiotic and edaphic conditions. Here we describe a stand-alone microcontroller tide prediction open-source software program, coupled with a mechanical tidal elevation control system, which allows continuous adjustment of aquarium water depths in synchrony with local tide cycles. We used this system to monitor the growth of Spartina foliosa marsh cordgrass and scale insect herbivores at three simulated shore elevations in laboratory mesocosms. Plant growth decreased with increasing shore elevation, while scale insect population growth on the plants was not strongly affected by immersion time. This system shows promise for a range of laboratory mesocosm studies where natural tide cycling could impact organism performance or behavior, while the tide prediction system could additionally be utilized in field experiments where treatments need to be applied at certain stages of the tide cycle. PMID:26623195

  4. A tide prediction and tide height control system for laboratory mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Luke P; Long, Jeremy D

    2015-01-01

    Experimental mesocosm studies of rocky shore and estuarine intertidal systems may benefit from the application of natural tide cycles to better replicate variation in immersion time, water depth, and attendant fluctuations in abiotic and edaphic conditions. Here we describe a stand-alone microcontroller tide prediction open-source software program, coupled with a mechanical tidal elevation control system, which allows continuous adjustment of aquarium water depths in synchrony with local tide cycles. We used this system to monitor the growth of Spartina foliosa marsh cordgrass and scale insect herbivores at three simulated shore elevations in laboratory mesocosms. Plant growth decreased with increasing shore elevation, while scale insect population growth on the plants was not strongly affected by immersion time. This system shows promise for a range of laboratory mesocosm studies where natural tide cycling could impact organism performance or behavior, while the tide prediction system could additionally be utilized in field experiments where treatments need to be applied at certain stages of the tide cycle. PMID:26623195

  5. The interaction between Gravity Waves and Solar Tides: results from 4D Ray Tracing coupled to a Linear Tidal Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, Bruno; Achatz, Ulrich; fabian, Senf

    2015-04-01

    Internal gravity waves contribute to an important part in the variability of the Stratosphere - Mesosphere - lower - Thermosphere. Numerous General Circulation Model do not present (for exemple) a Quasi-biennale Oscillation. Moreover, Internal gravity waves parameterizations often neglect time and horizontal dependence of the background flow ('column approximation'). Interactions between internal gravity waves and large scale flow, specially Solar tide waves, are studied here. Thermally driven global scaled waves, Solar tides describe the large-scale modulation (at sub-daily period) of all middle atmosphere fields. Gravity waves propagate in a time and spatially varying background flow, composed by a climatological mean, stationary planetary waves and diurnal Solar tides. Global three-dimensional propagation of internal gravity waves is performed by a new W. K. B. gravity wave model (ray tracer scheme), where waves propagate in position-wavenumber phase-space in order to prevent the crossing of rays. Propagation of Solar tides is modeled by linearising a General Circulation Model over a climatological mean and a stationnary planetary waves reference. Gravity wave deposition of momentum and buoyancy are calculated. Characterizing the daily evolution, Rayleigh-friction and temperature-relaxation coefficients are calculated. They approximately describe the internal gravity wave forcing on the diurnal Solar tides propagation and are so used for it. The extracted diurnal Solar tides are then used for a new computation of the gravity wave fluxes. This is iterated a few times to obtain a converged result on gravity wave deposition and on tidal field. Internal gravity waves are shown to influence both Solar tides amplitude and phase. Seasonal cycle of migrating and non-migrating tidal components is studied, as it is the seasonal cycle of gravity wave deposition. Gravity wave deposition and tidal fields are also obtained under the 'column approximation'. They show a clear rise in gravity wave deposition. ____________________________________________________ Key words: Middle-Atmosphere dynamics, Solar Tides, Internal Gravity Waves ____________________________________________________

  6. Nighttime variability in the thermosphere forced from below: Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmaev, R. A.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wu, F.; Meriwether, J. W.; Makela, J. J.; Scherliess, L.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    A new generation of numerical weather and climate models connecting the lower and upper atmosphere has emerged over the last decade. With applications to space weather prediction in mind, WAM is built on National Weather Service's operational weather prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) extended from its nominal top altitude of 62 km to about 600 km. The model extension into a domain of highly variable composition, high temperatures, and very low density requires certain generalization of the common meteorological model framework. It incorporates relevant physical processes including those responsible for the generation of tidal and planetary waves in the troposphere and stratosphere. In the absence of artificial boundaries within the model domain these waves freely propagate into the upper atmosphere, exponentially growing in amplitude to eventually dissipate by ion drag, viscosity, and heat conduction. Interactions of tides with ion drag in particular play an important role in the formation of long observed phenomena such as the midnight temperature and density maxima (MTM and MDM) and the attendant wind variability. Model diagnostics and simulations will be presented and compared with recent observational climatologies.

  7. Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather

    E-print Network

    Weather Check out this video on how space weather impacts communications: https://youtu.be/7vFGTl_Cp6I://www.swpc.noaa.gov/impacts/spaceweatherandgpssystems #SpaceWeather Check out this video on how space weather impacts GPS: https

  8. UNH Sport Club Weather Guidelines Cold Weather*

    E-print Network

    1 UNH Sport Club Weather Guidelines Cold Weather* *All temperatures are with wind during the cold weather months. Be sure to provide plenty of opportunities for re: Modify activity to limit exposure to weather and allow more frequent chances to re

  9. On modeling migrating solar tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, M. E.; Forbes, J. M.; Vial, F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent updates and extensions to a steady-state two-dimensional linearized model of global-scale atmospheric waves have facilitated improved calculations of those which are subharmonics of a solar day and propagate with the apparent motion of the sun. The model improvements are briefly described and some updated predictions of the migrating solar diurnal component are highlighted. The latter represent the first numerical modeling effort to examining the seasonal variability of the migrating diurnal harmonic as it propagates into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  10. Titan's Exotic Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.

    2006-09-01

    Images of Titan, taken during the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini-Huygens mission, invoke a feeling of familiarity: washes wind downhill to damp lakebeds; massive cumuli form and quickly dissipate, suggestive of rain; and dark oval regions resemble lakes. These features arise from Titan's unique similarity with Earth: both cycle liquid between their surfaces and atmospheres, but in Titan's cool atmosphere it is methane that exists as a gas, liquid, and ice. While Titan enticingly resembles Earth, its atmosphere is 10 times thicker, so that its radiative time constant near the surface exceeds a Titan year, and prohibits large thermal gradients and seasonal surface temperature variations exceeding 3K. Titan also lacks oceans - central to Earth's climate - and instead stores much of its condensible in its atmosphere. As a result, Titan's weather differs remarkably from Earth's. Evidence for this difference appears in the location of Titan's large clouds, which frequent a narrow band at 40S latitude and a region within 30 latitude of the S. Pole. Ground-based and Cassini observations, combined with thermodynamic considerations, indicate that we are seeing large convective cloud systems. Detailed cloud models and general circulation models further suggest that these are severe rain storms, which will migrate with the change in season. Outside these migrating "gypsy" cloud bands, the atmosphere appears to be calm, humid and thus frequented by thin stratiform clouds. An intriguingly alien environment is predicted. Yet, the combined effects of Titan's patchy wet surface, atmospheric tides, possible ice volcanoes, and detailed seasonal variations remain unclear as we have witnessed only one season so far. This talk will review observations of Titan's lower atmosphere and modeling efforts to explain the observations, and explore the questions that still elude us.

  11. Apparent Relations Between Solar Activity and Solar Tides Caused by the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2007-01-01

    A solar storm is a storm of ions and electrons from the Sun. Large solar storms are usually preceded by solar flares, phenomena that can be characterized quantitatively from Earth. Twenty-five of the thirty-eight largest known solar flares were observed to start when one or more tide-producing planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter) were either nearly above the event positions (less than 10 deg. longitude) or at the opposing side of the Sun. The probability for this to happen at random is 0.039 percent. This supports the hypothesis that the force or momentum balance (between the solar atmospheric pressure, the gravity field, and magnetic field) on plasma in the looping magnetic field lines in solar corona could be disturbed by tides, resulting in magnetic field reconnection, solar flares, and solar storms. Separately, from the daily position data of Venus, Earth, and Jupiter, an 11-year planet alignment cycle is observed to approximately match the sunspot cycle. This observation supports the hypothesis that the resonance and beat between the solar tide cycle and nontidal solar activity cycle influences the sunspot cycle and its varying magnitudes. The above relations between the unpredictable solar flares and the predictable solar tidal effects could be used and further developed to forecast the dangerous space weather and therefore reduce its destructive power against the humans in space and satellites controlling mobile phones and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems.

  12. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Isaac along the Gulf Coast of the United States, August 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; McGee, Benton D.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Runner, Michael S.; Painter, Jaime A.; Frantz, Eric R.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of water-level and barometric pressure sensors at 127 locations along the gulf coast from Alabama to Louisiana to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Isaac. This deployment was undertaken as part of a coordinated federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Storm tide, as defined by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm. Hurricane Isaac initially made landfall on the coast of Louisiana in Plaquemines Parish on August 28, 2012, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (National Weather Service, 1974) and then stalled over southern Louisiana for several days, causing prolonged storm-tide impacts. A total of 188 water-level and wave-height sensors were deployed at 127 locations during August 27–28 prior to landfall. More than 90 percent of the sensors and all high-water marks (HWMs) were recovered and surveyed to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) within 7 days of the Isaac landfall. Only a handful of sensors in the Plaquemines Parish area of Louisiana could not be retrieved until weeks later due to prolonged flooding in the area. Data collected from this event can be used to evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

  13. Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

  14. Tide-influenced sedimentary environments and facies

    SciTech Connect

    De Boer, P.L.; Van Gelder, A.; Nio, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains examples of recent as well as fossil tide-influenced sedimentary facies. Studies of recent tidal processes and sediments provide an insight into the way in which tidal facies and sequences develop, and into the processes which are active. The studies performed on fossil rocks give information on one-to-one scale model experiments that have been executed by nature both relatively recently and in the distant past. In this work, the parallel presentation of papers on recent and fossil examples of tide-influenced sedimentary facies and environments follows the philosophy of comparative sedimentology, aiming at an understanding of both the past and the present, with the aim also, of forecasting future developments.

  15. Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety

    E-print Network

    Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety NOAA/NWS Winter Weather Safety Seasonal Campaign www.weather.gov #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Hazards Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

  16. Predicting the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association Payout for Commercial Property Loss Due to Ike Based on Weather, Geographical, and Building Variables 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Kehui

    2013-04-04

    hurricane – induced Texas Windstorm Insurance Association (TWIA) payout or TWIA payout ratio using independent variables that could affect the hurricane intensity, including distance from the coastline, distance from the hurricane track, distance from...

  17. Improving Coastal Tide Forecasts with Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaron, E. D.; Smith, S. R.; Martin, P.

    2012-12-01

    A model of the Yellow Sea is used as a prototype for improving tidal water levels in coastal ocean models. An incremental variational data assimilation method has been implemented in which a linear data-assimilative tidal model, OTIS, is used to compute model forcing corrections for a non-linear regional model derived from POM. Both OTIS and the POM-derived model are configured with identical 8km-resolution grids, and OTIS uses a bottom drag formulation linearized around the prior POM solution. Assimilated data consist of satellite altimeter data as well as harmonically analyzed tide gauge data, where half of the latter are withheld for parameter calibration. It is found that M2 tide error is reduced from 21cm to 12cm in the regional model, which compares favorably with the 11cm error for the linear OTIS solution. Smaller constituents are also improved to a lesser degree. In contrast, the alternative approach of using OTIS to provide boundary conditions for the POM-derived model yields M2 tides with an error of 20 to 40cm, depending on the version of the OTIS solution used.

  18. Global charts of ocean tide loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, O.; Mazzega, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Global ocean tide loading charts of the radial displacement, the potential divided by g (gravity acceleration), and the gravity effect have been computed using the 11 constituents M{sub 2}, S{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, K{sub 2}K{sub 1}, O{sub 1}, P{sub 1}, Q{sub 1}, M{sub f}, M{sub m}, S{sub s a} of Schwiderski's tidal model. These new charts have a resolution of 1{degree}{times}1{degree} on the continents as well as on the oceanic area. A description of Farrell's convolution method to compute the loading effects is given, and an estimate of the numerical errors leads to the conclusion that these global charts have a precision better than 2.5% independent of the accuracy of Schwiderski's maps. The current approximation of the loading effects by a proportionality relation with the local oceanic tides is also compared with Farrell's convolution method. Departures of several centimeters systematically appear, in particular over the continental shelves. The authors then show that the maps of the oceanic tides deduced from satellite altimetry could be corrected for the loading effect by an iterative computational procedure based on their algorithm of Farrell's convolution.

  19. Tides and the Evolution of Planetary Habitability

    E-print Network

    Rory Barnes; Sean N. Raymond; Brian Jackson; Richard Greenberg

    2008-07-04

    Tides raised on a planet by its host star's gravity can reduce a planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close-in and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars (<0.35 M_Sun). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently-discovered, ~5 M_Earth planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when we include constraints derived from the additional companions, we see that most parameter choices that predict past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable.

  20. Variability of O2, H2S, and pH in intertidal sediments measured on a highly resolved spatial and temporal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpersdorf, E.; Werner, U.; Bird, P.; de Beer, D.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the variability of O_2, pH, and H_2S in intertidal sediments to assess the time- and spatial scales of changes in environmental conditions and their effects on bacterial activities. Measurements were performed over the tidal cycle and at different seasons by the use of microsensors attached to an autonomous in-situ measuring device. This study was carried out at a sand- and a mixed flat in the backbarrier area of Spiekeroog (Germany) within the frame of the DFG research group "Biogeochemistry of the Wadden Sea". Results showed that O_2 variability was not pronounced in the coastal mixed flat, where only extreme weather conditions could increase O_2 penetration. In contrast, strong dynamics in O_2 availability, pH and maximum penetration depths of several cm were found at the sandflat. In these highly permeable sediments, we directly observed tidal pumping: at high tide O_2-rich water was forced into the plate and at low tide anoxic porewater drained off the sediment. From the lower part of the plate where organic rich clayey layers were embedded in the sediment anoxic water containing H_2S leaked out during low tide. Thus advective processes, driven by the tidal pump, waves and currents, control O_2 penetration and depth distribution of H_2S and pH. The effects of the resulting porewater exchange on mineralization rates and microbial activities will be discussed.

  1. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12400 A rigid and weathered ice shell on Titan

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12400 A rigid and weathered ice shell on Titan D. Hemingway1 , F. Nimmo1 , H. Zebker2 & L. Iess3 Several lines of evidence suggest that Saturn's largest moon, Titan, has to wavelengths that are controlled by tides and rotation, we suggest that Titan's moment of inertia may be even

  2. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-06-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' {approx}> 10-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} at orbital periods P Almost-Equal-To 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P {approx}< 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 3}[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of Almost-Equal-To N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P {approx}< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing; this coupling appears particularly efficient at draining energy out of the dynamical tide and may be more important than either wave breaking or parametric resonance at determining the nonlinear dissipation of the dynamical tide.

  3. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  4. Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  5. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  6. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  7. The tides of the planet earth /2nd edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, P.

    Results of studies of the earth's tides are synthesized, the methods of the research are explained, and recommendations for future studies are made. The major topics covered include: tidal potential; the relation between the tidal theory and the precession-nutation theory; Love numbers and the description of tidal deformations; Kelvin's and Herglotz's theories of earth tides; reduction of the problem of elastic deformations of a sphere to a system of six differential equations of the first order; the liquid-core dynamic theory; tidal analysis; and measurement of the earth's tilt. Other major subjects addressed include: measurement of gravity tide; extensometry; deformations and indirect effects of a radially symmetric earth by surface loads; local perturbations in earth tide observations; general comparisons of experimental and theoretical results; tidal effects in astronomy; earth tides, satellite orbits, and space navigation; solid tides on the moon's surface; and tidal triggering of earthquakes, volcanoes, and geyser activity.

  8. Mapping M2 Internal Tides Using a Data-Assimilative Reduced Gravity Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Erofeeva, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed data assimilation methods for mapping low-mode phase-locked internal tides from altimetry data, using a reduced gravity (RG) approach. Dynamical equations are derived following the approach of Griffiths and Grimshaw (2007), with the vertical dependence of pressure and velocities in the linear Boussinesq 3D equations expanded in basis functions derived from local 1D modes for a stratified ocean. This results in a system of coupled 2D PDEs for the coefficients of the modal expansion. Excluding coupling terms between modes (which arise in the presence of variable bottomt opography) the resulting equations for each mode are analogous to the usual shallow water equations for the barotropic tide. With modest changes to the OSU tidal inversion software (OTIS) an assimilation scheme for this linear model is readily implemented. The coupling terms can be used to derive the forcing (by the barotropic tide), and also can be used to quantify the component of model error associated with unmodeled topographic scattering. Because the inversion yields currents as well as elevations, mode energy fluxes can obtained with minimal further calculation. Relatively high spatial resolution (at least 1/30 degree) is required for the RG dynamical model, so the inversion must be done in modest sized overlapping patches, which can then be merged to obtain global maps of phase-locked low-mode internal tides. To obtain reliable results some care with preliminary data processing has proved necessary, including correction for lower frequency SSH variations in areas of strong mesoscale activity, and filtering to reduce Long wavelength error, especially in ERS/Envisat data. Because the assimilation essentially derives dynamically consistent spatio-temporal basis functions for data fitting, the RG scheme may also provide a means to better quantify at least slowly varying incoherent internal tides.

  9. Long-period perturbations in Starlette orbit and tide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.K.; Shum, C.K.; Eanes, R.J.; Schutz, B.E.; Tapley, B.D. )

    1990-06-10

    Continuous and dynamically consistent orbits have been computed using satellite laser ranging (SLR) data to Starlette for one-year period during 1976 and 1977 and the three-year period from 1983 through 1985. A low degree and order ocean tide solution, consisting of a total of 66 tidal parameters from 14 tidal constituents, was obtained in a combined solution using both the one-and three-year Starlette orbits. Yearly values for the second-degree annual tides, S{sub a}, which produce seasonal variations on the Starlette node, were obtained also. These variations were found to have year-to-year fluctuations of more than 25% about the mean value and produced significant long-period perturbations in the Starlette orbit. The Starlette tide solution is in good agreement with the Schwiderski tide solutions and with other satellite solutions, including multi-satellite tide solutions. The average uncertainties are approximately 0.1 cm for the estimated semidiurnal and diurnal tides and 0.4 cm for the long-period tides. The discrepancies of effective k{sub 2} inferred from the Starlette tide solution and other tide solutions are less than 0.01. The tide solutions were evaluated using orbit fits of a three-year LAGEOS and a one-year Starlette long arc. The results indicate that the Starlette tide solution produces significantly improved orbit fits for both LAGEOS and Starlette. The uncertainties for the estimated tide model coefficients were used to predict tidal errors for the LAGEOS orbit and were found to be consistent with the apparent tidal errors present in this orbit. The computed secular change in the Moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation is {minus}24.8 {plus minus} 0.8 arc second/century{sup 2}, which is in good agreement with the results obtained from other investigations.

  10. Internal tides and turbulent mixing observed in the Bussol Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Osafune, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takahiro; Nishioka, Jun; Volkov, Yuri N.

    2014-08-01

    Repeated observations with a period of about 24 h of hydrography, current velocity, and microstructures were performed at three stations surrounding a seamount in the middle of the Bussol Strait, the deepest and widest one of the Kuril Straits, to reveal spatial and temporal variability of internal tides and associated turbulent mixing. It is found that isopycnal displacements are dominated by diurnal tidal components, which show phase differences (namely, time lags) between the three stations that can be explained by a first mode topographically trapped wave (TTW) propagating clockwise around the seamount. Furthermore, at the station located near the center of the strait where energy dissipation rates are largest, diurnal variations of isopycnals and velocities are amplified toward the ocean bottom, consistent with the vertical structure of the first mode TTW. At that station, vigorous turbulent mixing with the energy dissipation rate exceeding 10-6 m2 s-3 and diapycnal diffusivity exceeding 10-1 m2 s-1 was observed in deep layers when the diurnal tidal current consisting of the first mode TTW flows from the Okhotsk Sea to the North Pacific, enhancing the mean current. These spatial and temporal variation patterns are confirmed to be reproduced by a previous numerical model successfully for the isopycnals and velocities, and partially for the turbulent mixing. The total energy dissipation rate is, however, by up to a factor of 3-10 smaller than predicted by the numerical model although the observations were performed during spring tides, suggesting that the actual diapycnal mixing is overall weaker than the previous model estimate and/or that extremely strong mixing occurs within highly localized areas.

  11. Adaptive Grids for Weather and Climate Models C. Jablonowski

    E-print Network

    Stout, Quentin F.

    Adaptive Grids for Weather and Climate Models C. Jablonowski National Center for Atmospheric have been discussed in the literature. Nested-grid approaches are widely used at National Weather.: ADAPTIVE GRIDS FOR WEATHER AND CLIMATE MODELS two grids coincide. Other variable-resolution models

  12. Oceanic tide maps and spherical harmonic coefficients from Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. E.; Ray, R. D.; Sanchez, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    Maps and tables for the global ocean tides, 69 degree N to 68 degree S, derived from two years of Geosat altimetry are presented. Global maps of local and Greenwich admittance of the (altimetric) ocean tide, and maps of amplitude and Greenwich phase lag of the ocean tide are shown for M(sub 2), S(sub 2), N(sub 2), O(sub 1), and K(sub 1). Larger scale maps of amplitude and phases are also shown for regional areas of special interest. Spherical harmonic coefficients of the ocean tide through degree and order 8 are tabulated for the six major constituents.

  13. Precise Comparisons of Bottom-Pressure and Altimetric Ocean Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A new set of pelagic tide determinations is constructed from seafloor pressure measurements obtained at 151 sites in the deep ocean. To maximize precision of estimated tides, only stations with long time series are used; median time series length is 567 days. Geographical coverage is considerably improved by use of the international tsunami network, but coverage in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific is still weak. As a tool for assessing global ocean tide models, the data set is considerably more reliable than older data sets : the root-mean-square difference with a recent altimetric tide model is approximately 5 mm for the M2 constituent. Precision is sufficiently high to allow secondary effects in altimetric and bottom-pressure tide differences to be studied. The atmospheric tide in bottom pressure is clearly detected at the S1, S2, and T2 frequencies. The altimetric tide model is improved if satellite altimetry is corrected for crustal loading by the atmospheric tide. Models of the solid body tide can also be constrained. The free corenutation effect in the K1 Love number is easily detected, but the overall estimates are not as accurate as a recent determination with very long baseline interferometry.

  14. Prospects for Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Subseasonal (2-Week to 2-Month) Times Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Dole, Randall; vandenDool, Huug; Suarez, Max; Waliser, Duane

    2002-01-01

    This workshop, held in April 2002, brought together various Earth Sciences experts to focus on the subseasonal prediction problem. While substantial advances have occurred over the last few decades in both weather and seasonal prediction, progress in improving predictions on these intermediate time scales (time scales ranging from about two weeks to two months) has been slow. The goals of the workshop were to get an assessment of the "state of the art" in predictive skill on these time scales, to determine the potential sources of "untapped" predictive skill, and to make recommendations for a course of action that will accelerate progress in this area. One of the key conclusions of the workshop was that there is compelling evidence for predictability at forecast lead times substantially longer than two weeks. Tropical diabatic heating and soil wetness were singled out as particularly important processes affecting predictability on these time scales. Predictability was also linked to various low-frequency atmospheric "phenomena" such as the annular modes in high latitudes (including their connections to the stratosphere), the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, and the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The latter, in particular, was highlighted as a key source of untapped predictability in the tropics and subtropics, including the Asian and Australian monsoon regions.

  15. Numerical simulation of tides in Ontario Lacus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Ozgür

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons liquid filled lakes has been recently detected on Titan's surface. Most of these lakes are located in the northern latitudes but there is a substantial lake in the southern latitudes: Ontario Lacus. This lake gets our attention because of possible shoreline changes suggested by Cassini flybys over Ontario Lacus between September 2005 (T7) et January 2010 (T65). The shoreline changes could be due to evaporation-precipitation processes but could also be a consequence of tides. Previous studies showed that the maximal tidal amplitudes of Ontario Lacus would be about 0.2m (for an uniform bathymetry of 20m). In this study we simulate tidal amplitude and currents with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, http://sites.uclouvain.be/slim/ ) which resolves 2D shallow water equation on an unstructured mesh. Unstructured mesh prevents problems like mesh discontinuities at poles and allows higher accuracy at some place like coast or straits without drastically increasing computing costs. The tide generating force modeled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to titan's obliquity and titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). The uncertain input parameters such as the wind direction and amplitude, bottom friction and thermo-physical properties of hydrocarbons liquids are varied within their expected ranges. SAR data analysis can result in different bathymetry according to the method. We proceed simulations for different bathymetries: tidal amplitudes doesn't change but this is not the case for tidal currents. Using a recent bathymetry deduced from most recent RADAR/SAR observations and a finer mesh, the peak-to peak tidal amplitudes are calculated to be up to 0.6 m. which is more than a factor two larger than the previous results. The maximal offshore tidal currents magnitude is about 0.06 m/s.

  16. Tides and the evolution of planetary habitability.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars ( less or similar to 0.35 M(circle)). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating, and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet that is detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently discovered, approximately 5 M(circle) planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when constraints derived from the additional companions are included, most parameter choices that indicate past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable. PMID:18598142

  17. PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY OF THE T2.5 BROWN DWARF SIMP J013656.5+093347: EVIDENCE FOR EVOLVING WEATHER PATTERNS

    SciTech Connect

    Artigau, Etienne; Bouchard, Sandie; Doyon, Rene; Lafreniere, David E-mail: bouchard@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: lafreniere@astro.utoronto.ca

    2009-08-20

    We report the discovery of a photometric variability in the bright T2.5 brown dwarf (BD) SIMP J013656.57+093347.3. Continuous J-band photometry has been obtained for several hours on four different nights. The light curves show a periodic modulation with a period of {approx}2.4 hr, a peak-to-peak amplitude of {approx}50 mmag and significant night-to-night evolution. We suggest that the light curve modulation is due to the BD's rotation and that the longer term variations come from surface features evolution and/or differential rotation. We obtained complementary observations over a single night in the J and K {sub s} bands; the object displays correlated photometric variability in both bands, albeit with smaller K {sub s}-band amplitude. The ratio of the K {sub s} and J variability amplitudes puts strong constraints on the physical mechanisms at play. Based on theoretical models of BD atmospheres, our results suggest that the atmosphere of SIMP0136 is comprised of both grain-free and colder (by {approx}100 K) grain-bearing cloudy regions. This discovery, and its interpretation, provide a natural explanation of the so-called J-band brightening.

  18. Tide Prediction Error for the United States Stations The accuracy of NOAA, National Ocean Service tide predictions is determined through a

    E-print Network

    Tide Prediction Error for the United States Stations The accuracy of NOAA, National Ocean Service tide predictions is determined through a comparison of the predicted tides and observed water levels for all stations. Comparisons are made of the times and heights of high and low tides as well as hourly

  19. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  20. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  1. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. TIDE: Lightweight Device Composition for Enhancing Tabletop Environments with Smartphone Applications

    E-print Network

    TIDE: Lightweight Device Composition for Enhancing Tabletop Environments with Smartphone of applications. This paper pre- sents TIDE, a lightweight device composition middleware to bring existing smartphone applications onto the tabletop. Through TIDE, applications running on the smartphone are displayed

  3. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  4. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  5. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  6. Weather on Other Worlds I: Detection of Periodic Variability in the L3 Dwarf DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 with Precise Multi-Wavelength Photometry

    E-print Network

    Heinze, Aren N; Apai, Daniel; Flateau, Davin; Marley, Mark; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J; Artigau, Étienne; Plavchan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Photometric monitoring from warm Spitzer reveals that the L3 dwarf DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 varies sinusoidally in brightness with a period of 4.25 +0.26/-0.16 hours and an amplitude of 0.388 +/- 0.043% (peak-to-valley) in the 3.6 micron band, confirming the reality of a 4.31 +/- 0.31 hour periodicity detected in J-band photometry from the SOAR telescope. The J-band variations are a factor of 2.17 +/- 0.35 larger in amplitude than those at 3.6 microns, while 4.5 micron Spitzer observations yield a 4.5 micron/3.6 micron amplitude ratio of only 0.23 +/- 0.15, consistent with zero 4.5 micron variability. This wide range in amplitudes indicates rotationally modulated variability due to magnetic phenomena and/or inhomogeneous cloud cover. Weak H-alpha emission indicates some magnetic activity, but it is difficult to explain the observed amplitudes by magnetic phenomena unless they are combined with cloud inhomogeneities (which might have a magnetic cause). However, inhomogenous cloudcover alone can explain all our obs...

  7. Research-Based Teaching Unit on the Tides. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viiri, Jouni; Saari, Heikki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new research-based learning unit for tides to be used in lower secondary schools. The learning unit was based on the scientific theory of tides, textbooks, and also an analysis of students' conceptions. Descriptions are included of the content and the teaching-learning activities of the unit. The teacher talk…

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A RUBBER "DUCK BILL" TIDE GATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A unique 54 in. diameter "duckbill" rubber tide gate (RTG) was designed, fabricated, and installed in a typical New York City tide gate chamber. The operation of the RTG was observed over two years. The RTG was very effective in preventing the inflow of tidal waters and generally...

  9. A dynamical picture of the oceanic tides Eugene I. Butikova)

    E-print Network

    Butikov, Eugene

    A dynamical picture of the oceanic tides Eugene I. Butikova) Department of Physics, St. Petersburg to support the analytical treatment.10 The simulation gives a dynamical picture of the forces and the tidal picture. The purely theoret- ical quantitative description of tides for a given location on the earth

  10. Diurnal tides at low latitudes: Radar, satellite, and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore Kumar, G.; Singer, W.; Oberheide, J.; Grieger, N.; Batista, P. P.; Riggin, D. M.; Schmidt, H.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2014-10-01

    Mean winds and tidal signatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region are derived from meteor radar observations at three sites around 22°S acquired in 2005. The observed differences of mean winds and tides are discussed in relation to the meteorological situation in the lower atmosphere and the possible generation of non-migrating tides. The longitudinally well separated radar sites allowed the evaluation of the migrating tidal component. The seasonal variation of signatures of the diurnal tide derived from ground-based radar observations, TIDI measurements aboard TIMED satellite, and model results obtained with HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere) are compared. The ground-based, satellite, and model results of the total diurnal tide are in good agreement. The same is true for the migrating diurnal tide obtained from the radar observations, TIDI observations and from the model studies of HAMMONIA and GSWM00 (Global Scale Wave Model).

  11. Ocean tide models for satellite geodesy and Earth rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    A theory is presented which predicts tides in turbulent, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing linearized bottom friction, realistic bathymetry, and continents (at coastal boundaries no-flow conditions are imposed). The theory is phrased in terms of spherical harmonics, which allows the tide equations to be reduced to linear matrix equations. This approach also allows an ocean-wide mass conservation constraint to be applied. Solutions were obtained for 32 long and short period luni-solar tidal constituents (and the pole tide), including the tidal velocities in addition to the tide height. Calibrating the intensity of bottom friction produces reasonable phase lags for all constituents; however, tidal amplitudes compare well with those from observation and other theories only for long-period constituents. In the most recent stage of grant research, traditional theory (Liouville equations) for determining the effects of angular momentum exchange on Earth's rotation were extended to encompass high-frequency excitations (such as short-period tides).

  12. Orthogonal stack of global tide gauge sea level data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trupin, A.; Wahr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Yearly and monthly tide gauge sea level data from around the globe are fitted to numerically generated equilibrium tidal data to search for the 18.6 year lunar tide and 14 month pole tide. Both tides are clearly evident in the results, and their amplitudes and phases are found to be consistent with a global equilibrium response. Global, monthly sea level data from outside the Baltic sea and Gulf of Bothnia are fitted to global atmospheric pressure data to study the response of the ocean to pressure fluctuations. The response is found to be inverted barometer at periods greater than two months. Global averages of tide gauge data, after correcting for the effects of post glacial rebound on individual station records, reveal an increase in sea level over the last 80 years of between 1.1 mm/yr and 1.9 mm/yr.

  13. Building a Weather-Ready Nation Fall Weather Safety

    E-print Network

    Building a Weather-Ready Nation Fall Weather Safety www.weather.gov/safety Wildfire ­ Drought ­ Hurricanes ­ Wind ­ Early Season Winter ­ Flood #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Wildfire Safety smoking materials. weather.gov/wildfire www.weather.gov/safety #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation

  14. TIGA Tide Gauge Data Reprocessing at GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhiguo; Schöne, Tilo; Gendt, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tide gauge measurements for the purpose of global long-term sea level change research a well-defined absolute reference frame is required by oceanographic community. To create such frame the data from a global GNSS network located at or near tide gauges are processed. For analyzing the GNSS data on a preferably continuous basis the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring Working Group (TIGA-WG) is responsible. As one of the TIGA Analysis Centers the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) is contributing to the IGS TIGA Reprocessing Campaign. The solutions of the TIGA Reprocessing Campaign will also contribute to 2nd IGS Data Reprocessing Campaign with GFZ IGS reprocessing solution. After the first IGS reprocessing finished in 2010 some improvements were implemented into the latest GFZ software version EPOS.P8: reference frame IGb08 based on ITRF2008, antenna calibration igs08.atx, geopotential model (EGM2008), higher-order ionospheric effects, new a priori meteorological model (GPT2), VMF mapping function, and other minor improvements. GPS data of the globally distributed tracking network of 794 stations for the time span from 1994 until end of 2012 are used for the TIGA reprocessing. To handle such large network a new processing strategy is developed and described in detail. In the TIGA reprocessing the GPS@TIGA data are processed in precise point positioning (PPP) mode to clean data using the IGS reprocessing orbit and clock products. To validate the quality of the PPP coordinate results the rates of 80 GPS@TIGA station vertical movement are estimated from the PPP results using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. The rates are compared with the solution of University of LaRochelle Consortium (ULR) (named ULR5). 56 of the 80 stations have a difference of the vertical velocities below 1 mm/yr. The error bars of PPP rates are significant larger than those of ULR5, which indicates large time correlated noise in the PPP solutions.

  15. Cultural Implications of Out-of-Phase Weather across northern Alaska after 500 CE: Regional Variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, O. K.; Alix, C. M.; Bigelow, N. H.; Hoffecker, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    From a global perspective, a diverse mélange of paleoclimate data reveal that Northwest Alaska is partially out of phase with northwest Europe, witnessing cooler periods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly ca. CE 1000 and warmer conditions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The search for climatic forcers in northern Alaska relies on integration of data drawn from tree-rings, lacustrine varves and moraines, diatoms, beach ridges and dunes. At Cape Espenberg, northern Seward Peninsula, a 1500-year reconstruction of settlement, landscape evolution and climatic variability employs >100 14C ages from accreting dunes with shell-laden storm beds, intercalated driftwood and superimposed soils, archaeological sites and marsh peats within swale ponds. Large storms occurred along the Chukchi Sea from Cape Espenberg and Deering (Kotzebue Sound) to Point Barrow prior to 1000 CE, and at decadal intervals during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1300 to 1700. Architecural driftwood logs from several excavated houses capped by sand dunes yield several 14C dated floating chronologies covering intervals from 700 to 1700, suggest the identification of cooler intervals 800 to 1000 and intermittently after 1300. Peat aggradation followed isolation from the sea from 500 onward, and was interrupted by two pulses of fresh water, one ca. 1300 and a second ca. 1800, with diatoms suggesting relative aridity during the LIA. The occupation history of Cape Espenberg generally follows dune growth, and may be inversely related to cooler temperatures.

  16. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Validating satellite altimeter measurements of internal tides with long-term TAO/TRITON buoy observations at 2°S-156°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Dong-Ping; Chen, Dake

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is regularly used to map the global distribution of mode-1 internal tides. Validating altimeter measurements of internal tides with in situ data is difficult as the mooring observations typically are too short compared with the altimetry. Here taking advantage of the long-term (since 1999) Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) buoy observations at 2°S-156°E located at a TOPEX/Poseidon crossover in a region of strong internal tides, direct comparisons are made between altimeter and in situ measurements over a common 15 year period. The hourly buoy data are decimated every 9.9 day to emulate altimeter measurements. The altimeter and decimated buoy data are highly coherent at the aliased semidiurnal period (~60 day), and they agree well for the stationary semidiurnal internal tide. For the nonstationary internal tide, which consists of a significant annual cycle, the demodulated amplitude from the altimeter appears to be contaminated by nontidal signals. The demodulated amplitude from the decimated buoy data, on the other hand, is capable of resolving the temporal variability. This suggests the potential of mapping nonstationary internal tides from satellites.

  18. Mars mesosphere and thermosphere coupling - Semidiurnal tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Fesen, C. G.; Ridley, E. C.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars thermospheric general circulation model (MTGCM) is modified to examine the impact of a prescribed semidiurnal tidal wave upon Martian thermospheric fields corresponding to near solar minimum (Mariner 9) and solar maximum (Mariner 6-7) observational periods. The effects of upward propagating tides are introduced into the Mars Thermospheric General circulation Model (MTGCM) by appropriately specifying its lower boundary condition according to classical tidal theory. Estimates of the amplitude and phase of the likely dominant semidiurnal (2,2) mode at the mesopause (about 100 km) are specified for a range of possible lower atmosphere dust conditions. MTGCM simulations contrasting tidally driven fields with solar-only forced ones exhibit a dramatic change in the horizontal and vertical wind patterns, whereby the global temperature and oxygen distributions are also modified significantly.

  19. Irrigation as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change: The Relative Influence of Groundwater and Canal Irrigation on Winter Crop Production and its Sensitivity to Weather Variability in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Fishman, R.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; Naeem, S.; Modi, V.; DeFries, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is a hotspot for food security issues over the upcoming decades, due to increasing population pressures, groundwater depletion, and climate change. Investing in additional irrigation infrastructure may bolster food security, however, the relative influence of different types of irrigation (e.g. groundwater versus canal) on agricultural production remains unclear. One reason that the relative impact of different irrigation strategies on agricultural production has not been analyzed across India is because national-scale data on crop production and the types of irrigation technologies used are typically available at too coarse of spatial and temporal resolutions to answer this question adequately. Thus, we develop a novel algorithm to map cropped area across India at a 1 x 1 km scale using MODIS satellite data, and link these high-resolution cropped area maps with village-level data (n = 600,000) on irrigation. This allowed us to assess the relative impact of groundwater (i.e. dug, shallow, and deep wells) and canal irrigation (i.e. surface lift and flow canals) on winter cropped area and its sensitivity to rainfall across India at the village-scale from 2000 to 2006. We find that deep well irrigation is both associated with the greatest amount of winter cropped area, and is also the least sensitive to monsoon and winter rainfall variability. However, the effectiveness of deep well irrigation varies across India, with the greatest benefits seen in the regions that are most at risk for losing groundwater as a possible source of irrigation over the upcoming decades (e.g. Northwest India). This work highlights the need to develop ways to use remaining groundwater more efficiently (e.g. drip irrigation, less water-intensive crops) given that canal irrigation is not an adequate substitute, particularly in the regions that are facing the greatest levels of groundwater depletion.

  20. Bifurcation analysis of brown tide by reaction-diffusion equation using finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Mutsuto; Ding, Yan

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze the bifurcation of a biodynamics system in a two-dimensional domain by virtue of reaction-diffusion equations. The discretization method in space is the finite element method. The computational algorithm for an eigenspectrum is described in detail. On the basis of an analysis of eigenspectra according to Helmholtz`s equation, the discrete spectra in regards to the physical variables are numerically obtained in two-dimensional space. In order to investigate this mathematical model in regards to its practical use, we analyzed the stability of two cases, i.e., hydranth regeneration in the marine hydroid Tubularia and a brown tide in a harbor in Japan. By evaluating the stability according to the linearized stability definition, the critical parameters for outbreaks of brown tide can be theoretically determined. In addition, results for the linear combination of eigenspectrum coincide with the distribution of the observed brown tide. Its periodic characteristic was also verified. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores.

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E; Franklin, Erik C; Smith, Celia M; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as 'intertidal', whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ? tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ? wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional "intertidal zone". We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic. PMID:24109544

  2. The lunar tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, A. R.; Batista, P. P.; Lima, L. M.; Clemesha, B. R.; Buriti, R. A.; Schuch, N.

    2015-10-01

    Meteor radar observations at São João do Cariri (7.4°S; 36.5°W), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S; 45°W) and Santa Maria (29.7°S; 53.7°W) have permitted estimates to be made of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) over the Brazilian sector simultaneously. Using horizontal winds the semidiurnal lunar tide is determined from January 2005 to December 2008 for these three sites. The lunar tide is observed to reach amplitudes as large as 8 m/s. In general, the amplitude increases with height and the phase decreases with height, corresponding to an upwardly-propagating tide. The estimated vertical wavelengths are variable for some month, like December at Cachoeira Paulista for northward wind, April and June at Santa Maria for eastward wind, which indicates possible mode coupling and reflection. Characteristics similar to those seen in the Northern Hemisphere have been observed in June and October at São João do Cariri, in December at Cachoeira Paulista, in March at Santa Maria and in August at all observation sites, which suggest the presence of antisymmetric modes. Different behavior has been observed in the amplitudes, phases and vertical wavelengths at each station, indicating latitudinal variation even from the low to the equatorial region.

  3. Dynamical Tides in Rotating Binary Stars

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1997-04-14

    We study the effect of rotation on the excitation of internal oscillation modes of a star by the external gravitational potential of its companion. Unlike the nonrotating case, there are difficulties with the usual mode decomposition for rotating stars because of the asymmetry between modes propagating in the direction of rotation and those propagating opposite to it. For an eccentric binary system, we derive general expressions for the energy transfer $\\Delta E_s$ and the corresponding angular momentum transfer $\\Delta J_s$ in a periastron passage when there is no initial oscillation present in the star. Except when a nearly precise orbital resonance occurs (i.e., the mode frequency equals multiple of the orbital frequency), $\\Delta E_s$ is very close to the steady-state mode energy in the tide in the presence of dissipation. It is shown that stellar rotation can change the strength of dynamical tide significantly. In particular, retrograde rotation with respect to the orbit increases the energy transfer by bringing lower-order g-modes (or f-mode for convective stars), which couple more strongly to the tidal potential, into closer resonances with the orbital motion of the companion. We apply our general formalism to the problems of tidal capture binary formation and the orbital evolution of PSR J0045-7319/B-star binary. Stellar rotation changes the critical impact parameter for binary capture. Although the enhancement (by retrograde rotation) in the capture cross section is at most $\\sim 20%$, the probability that the captured system survives disruption/merging and therefore becomes a binary can be significantly larger. It is found that in order to explain the observed rapid orbital decay of the PSR J0045-7319 binary system, retrograde rotation in the B-star is required.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of global tide gauge sea level data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trupin, A.; Wahr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Yearly and monthly global tide-gage sea-level data are fitted to numerically generated tidal data in order to search for the 18.6-yr lunar nodal tide and 14-month pole tide. Both of these tides are clearly evident, with amplitudes and phases that are consistent with a global equilibrium response. The ocean's response to atmospheric pressure is studied with the least-squares fit technique. Consideration is given to the global rise in sea level, the effects of postglacial rebound, and the possible causes of the enhanced pole tides in the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Gulf of Bothnia. The results support O'Connor's (1986) suggestion that the enhanced pole tide in these regions is due to meteorological forcing rather than a basin-scale resonance. Also, the global average of the tide-gage data show an increase in sea level over tha last 80 yr of between 1.1 and 1.9 mm/yr.

  5. The weathering of stones due to dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, G.; Turcotte, D.

    2003-04-01

    We hypothesize that the weathering of building stones can be attributed to surface dissolution processes. We assume that chemical interactions occur on grain boundaries and that diffusion is the controlling process. A dissolution boundary layer (rind) develops adjacent to the weathering surface. We quantify the extent of dissolution by introducing a damage variable f, f = 0 for pristine rock, and when f = f0 the rock disintegrates. We assume that the variations of the damage variable are given by the diffusion equation. We solve two problems. The first is for the structure of the transient dissolution boundary layer prior to surface disintegration. We find an incubation time ti before active weathering (disintegration) begins. The second is the solution for steady state weathering with a constant weathering velocity vw. Our results are entirely consistent with weathering studies on Carrera marble gravestones in the United Kingdom. Typical incubation times are 20--30 yr and typical steady-state weathering velocities 5--10 ?m yr-1.

  6. GRAVITATIONAI,TIDE IN THE ATMOSPHEREOF TITAN Ralph D Lorenz

    E-print Network

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    119 GRAVITATIONAI,TIDE IN THE ATMOSPHEREOF TITAN Ralph D Lorenz YoungG r aduat e,Hu yg e n sPro je ' s 1i q u i d s e a s i s t h e m o s t we11-known, althouqh solid body and at mo sp h e ric tides al ) was the first to at.tempt to detect an atmospheric tide, namelythe diur nal pr essur e var iat ion d u e

  7. The shaping of continental slopes by internal tides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Ogston, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The angles of energy propagation of semidiurnal internal tides may determine the average gradient of continental slopes in ocean basins (???2 to 4 degrees). Intensification of near-bottom water velocities and bottom shear stresses caused by reflection of semi-diurnal internal tides affects sedimentation patterns and bottom gradients, as indicated by recent studies of continental slopes off northern California and New Jersey. Estimates of bottom shear velocities caused by semi-diurnal internal tides are high enough to inhibit deposition of fine-grained sediment onto the slopes.

  8. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  9. National Weather Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tornadoes Space Weather Sun (Ultraviolet Radiation) Safety Campaigns Wind Drought Winter Weather Fog INFORMATION Owlie's Kids Page ... Advisory For Rough Bar Small Craft Advisory Brisk Wind Advisory Wind Advisory Frost Advisory Beach Hazards Statement ...

  10. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... related health problems. More Information: Hypothermia Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  11. Winter Weather: Hypothermia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be successfully resuscitated. More Information: Frostbite Disasters & Severe Weather ... Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  12. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  13. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  14. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance 

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

  15. Long-Range Propagation of the Semidiurnal Internal Tide from the Hawaiian Ridge ZHONGXIANG ZHAO

    E-print Network

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    Long-Range Propagation of the Semidiurnal Internal Tide from the Hawaiian Ridge ZHONGXIANG ZHAO internal tide from French Frigate Shoals (FFS), Hawaii, is studied with an array of six simultaneous tide's coherent portion. Together these two approaches provide a unique view of the internal tide

  16. Amphipods and isopods in the rocky intertidal: dispersal and movements during high tide

    E-print Network

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    Amphipods and isopods in the rocky intertidal: dispersal and movements during high tide Received patterns is, however, almost exclusively based on surveys made during low tide, when many animals Iceland, both by traditional sampling at low tide as well as by sampling during high tide

  17. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  18. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  20. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  1. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  2. Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety

    E-print Network

    Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety Snow & Ice ­ Blizzards ­ Freezing Rain & Sleet ­ Cold Temperatures ­ Wind ­ Flooding ­ Fog www.weather.gov/safety #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Hazards Winter Weather Safety · Snow & Ice · Blizzards · Freezing Rain & Sleet

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Improving NOAA's Tides and Currents Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, DeNeice C.

    2006-01-01

    The Nation uses water-level data for a variety of practical purposes, including hydrography, nautical charting, maritime navigation, coastal engineering, and tsunami and storm surge warnings (NOAA, 2002; Digby et al., 1999). Long-term applications include marine boundary determinations, tidal predictions, sea-level trend monitoring, oceanographic research, and climate research. Accurate and timely information concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean current is needed to understand their impact on coastal management, disaster management, and public health. Satellite altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and to improve scientists understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) National Ocean Service has been monitoring sea-level variations for many years (NOAA, 2006). NOAA s Tides & Currents DST (decision support tool, managed by the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, is the portal to a vast collection of oceanographic and meteorological data (historical and real-time), predictions, and nowcasts and forecasts. This report assesses the capacity of NASA s satellite altimeter data to meet societal decision support needs through incorporation into NOAA s Tides & Currents.

  4. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  5. Tide- and wind-driven flushing of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The flushing of Boston Harbor, a shallow, tidally dominated embayment with little fresh water input, is investigated using a depth-averaged model. The modeled tidal currents exhibit strong spatial variability and ebb/flood asymmetry due to complex topography and coastline geometry and were verified by shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements. At the inlets to the harbor, the asymmetry between flood and ebb gives rise to a net exchange of water, which acts over successive tidal cycles to flush the harbor. The flushing is examined by tracking water that starts out in Boston Harbor for 40 M2 tidal cycles. The tidal flushing is very efficient at mixing water in the vicinity of the inlets over several tidal cycles, but efficiency decreases with time as ``tidal mixing regions'' form on either side of the harbor inlets. When wind forcing is included, the wind-driven currents act to flush the tidal mixing regions, giving rise to more efficient flushing. The exception is when the wind is from the southwest, which confines the jet-like ebb flow from the harbor and therefore reduces the flushing efficiency. In general, flushing is shown to be a two-step process: (1) rapid exchange due to tides over a large region in the vicinity of the harbor inlets and (2) flushing of this region by wind-driven flow. The model also demonstrates that flushing is not uniform over the entire harbor but occurs rapidly in the deep tidal channels and slowly in the regions of weak tidal currents around the harbor periphery. Although the depth-averaged approach to flushing is appropriate over most of the harbor due to the harbor's shallow depth and broad depth distribution, the lack of bathymetric variability and the presence of locally important density driven currents in the Boston Inner Harbor indicates that flushing of this localized area must be approached with a three-dimensional model.

  6. Riser tensioning wave and tide compensating system for a floating platform

    SciTech Connect

    Heeres, C.J.; Larsen, C.H.

    1980-09-16

    A riser tensioner cylinder is provided with a hollow piston rod which forms a second cylinder in which a ram is reciprocated. The free end of the ram is connected to a link which in turn is connected to the end of the riser for providing tension on the riser. The ram reciprocates in the second cylinder under constant pressure to compensate for wave action on the floating platform and the second cylinder is automatically positioned within the first cylinder for adjustment for tide, vessel offset or other infrequent but variable factors.

  7. Seasonal variations in Pluto's atmospheric tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Richard G.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Hansen, Candice J.; Young, Leslie A.; Sicardy, Bruno; Dias-Oliveira, Alex; Guzewich, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Pluto's tenuous atmosphere exhibits remarkable seasonal change as a result of the planet's substantial obliquity and highly eccentric orbit. Over the past two decades, occultations have revealed that the atmospheric pressure on Pluto has increased substantially, perhaps by a factor as large as 2 to 4, as the planet has moved from equinox towards solstice conditions. These data have also shown variations in the strength of the dynamical activity in the atmosphere, as revealed by the varying abundance and amplitude of spikes in the occultation light curves resulting from refractive focussing by atmospheric waves. Toigo et al. (Toigo et al. [2010]. Icarus, 208, 402-411) explored the possibility that these waves are caused by solar-induced sublimation and diurnal deposition from N2 frost patches, driven by weak vertical winds resulting from the rising and sinking gas as it is released from or deposited onto the surface. Here, we extend this model to account explicitly for seasonal variations in average insolation and for the significant damping of vertical wave propagation by kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity (Hubbard et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 284-289). Damping is extremely effective in suppressing vertical propagation of waves with vertical wavelengths of a few kilometers or less, and the dominant surviving tidal modes have characteristic vertical wavelengths ? ? 10-13 km . We estimate the expected strength and regional characteristics of atmospheric tides over the course of Pluto's orbit for a variety of assumed spatial distributions of surface frost and atmospheric surface pressure. We compute the predicted strength of tide-induced wave activity based on the actual frost distribution observed on Pluto from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations (Stern et al. [1997]. Astron. J., 113, 827; Buie et al. [2010]. Astron. J., 139, 1128-1143), and compare the results to calculations for volatile transport models of Young (Young [2013]. Astrophys. J., 766, L22) and Hansen et al. (Hansen et al. [2015]. Icarus, 246, 183-191). We develop simple scaling rules to estimate the variation of the strength of tidal activity with surface pressure PS and solar declination ?? , and show that the maximum expected temperature perturbation at an atmospheric pressure of P = 0.1 Pa scales as dTmax ? cos?? /?{PS } . Wave activity is strongest in the near-equatorial region (latitude | ? | ? 30 °), being only weakly dependent on the detailed frost distribution. Using a 3-D time-dependent geometric optics ray-tracing code, we compute model light curves for the geometric circumstances of three high-SNR occultations (2002 August 21, 2006 June 12, and 2012 July 18), taking into account the detailed three-dimensional characteristics of the tides as different regions of the atmosphere are probed over the course of each occultation chord. We compare the strength and abundance of the scintillations in the models with those seen in the data, using both the HST frost maps and the volatile transport model predictions. The striking asymmetries in the strengths of spikes between ingress and egress seen in some events are reproduced in the tidal model simulations, due primarily to the latitudes probed during the occultation: occultations at high northern or southern latitudes uniformly have much weaker wave activity than more equatorial events. A surface pressure range of PS = 1-2 Pa provides the best match between models and observations. With the impending arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto in 2015, we predict that wave activity in the upper atmosphere will be strongest at equatorial regions, and controlled in amplitude primarily by the surface pressure and damping effects, rather than by the detailed frost distribution. If Pluto's atmosphere begins to collapse in the coming decades, we expect that future stellar occultations will provide evidence for greatly enhanced atmospheric wave activity.

  8. Catching the Tide: A Review of Tidal Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing energy from the tides is a much-promoted but rarely realised way of generating electricity. This article examines some of the systems that are currently in use or under development, and outlines their economic, environmental and technical implications.

  9. 4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. Energy Dissipation by Tides and Librations in Synchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.; Ray, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy dissipation associated with physical librations of large synchronous satellites may be important for maintaining internal fluid layers. Depending on the depth and viscosity of the fluid layer, viscous heating from librations may exceeed that from tides.

  12. Atmospheric Tides in the Latest Generation of Climate Models

    E-print Network

    Covey, Curt

    For atmospheric tides driven by solar heating, the database of climate model output used in the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms and extends the authors’ earlier ...

  13. Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides

    E-print Network

    Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

  14. Numerical Study for Baroclinic Tides Modified By an Oblique Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. A.; Jan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Previous investigations suggest that when the internal waves throughout a northwest - southeast background flow, its amplitudes, propagation path, phase speed might be changed. The process occurring when internal tides meet a background geostrophic current at an angle rather than perpendicular to the current in a zonal channel is investigated using a numerical model with simplified forcing, topography and hydrographic setting. We compared numerical results of two different background conditions: (1) no background flow and (2) oblique background flow. Results indicate that the westward baroclinic energy flux tends to increase when internal tides pass through the background geostrophic flow. Different oblique angles of the background flow also cause different responses on the propagation of internal tides. The energy exchange between the internal tides and background flow is analyzed using an energy balance equation as well as the numerical results.

  15. Planetary surface weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The weathering of planetary surfaces is treated. Both physical and chemical weathering (reactions between minerals or mineraloids and planetary volatiles through oxidation, hydration, carbonation, or solution processes) are discussed. Venus, earth, and Mars all possess permanent atmospheres such that weathering should be expected to significantly affect their respective surfaces. In contrast, Mercury and the moon lack permanent atmospheres but conceivably could experience surface weathering in response to transient atmospheres generated by volcanic or impact cratering events. Weathering processes can be postulated for other rocky objects including Io, Titan, asteroids, and comets.

  16. TIDE Observations of Cusp and Cleft Multiple Ion Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    The southern pole pass of Polar/TIDe at 5000 km allows a study of the distributions of the cusp and cleft. We discuss observations of TIDE (Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment) as it passes the southern pole on March 29, 1999. A mixture of several cold outflowing ions (0.3-10 eV) are measured simultaneously with magnetospheric precipitation (greater than 100 eV). We will show a study of these multiple plasma distributions, their source, and their interaction.

  17. Effects of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.; Chao, Ben F.; Desai, Shailen D.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of polar motion excitation functions exhibit enhanced power in the fortnightly tidal band. This enhanced power is attributed to ocean tidal excitation. Ocean tide models predict polar motion excitation effects that differ with each other, and with observations, by factors as large as 2-3. There is a need for inproved models for the effect of long-period ocean tides on Earth's rotation.

  18. Ocean tide loading effects on new gravity tide measurements made at south of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoso, Jose; Benavent, Maite; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.

    2010-05-01

    Tidal gravity observations have been made recently in Algodonales (ALG) site located in the region of Andalucía, at the south of Spain. Other former gravity tide observations around this region were made in Granada and San Fernando (Vieira et al., 1983), which are 165 km northeast and 85 km southwest distant from ALG, respectively. It is planned to make shortly new gravity measurements in Melilla, which is a Spanish city placed at the other side of the Strait of Gibraltar (north of Morocco). In this way, we will dispose of an interesting gravity profile for studying the elastic response of the Earth at tidal periods in this important area of geodynamic activity. In fact, this broad region is situated around the interaction area of the Eurasia and Africa plates, where various geological structures are present, as the Alboran Sea basin, the Betico-Rifean chain, the Gulf of Cádiz and the Atlas mountain range. Also, the area is affected by occurrence of moderate magnitude earthquakes, mostly focused at shallow and intermediate depths (< 40 km) although exist records of very deep earthquakes located at the south of Granada. The two tectonic plates that interact have different movements slightly, which originates an accumulation of efforts in the fault line, that contributes to the earthquake occurrence in the zone (see e.g. Stich et al., 2006; Buforn et al., 2004; Fullea et al., 2006). The gravity observations made in ALG site, which is situated about 55km far from the coast, are considerably affected by ocean tide loading produced by the effect of the nearest Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Thus, the gravity effect induced by the ocean masses contributes up to 9% of the observed signal, for the main tidal constituents. The ocean loading effects have been calculated following the Farrell's (1972) procedure through the convolution between gravity Green's functions and the ocean tide distribution given by global oceanic models (TPXO7.1, FES2004, GOT00, GOT4.7,..). To improve the loading predictions in the area, we have used the recently developed regional oceanic model named IBER01 (Benavent et al., 2009). The model was constructed by assimilating satellite altimeter data and tide gauge measurements into a hydrodynamic model and is extended through the domain given by 48° .0N to 34° .0N and 6° .0E to 16° .0W, having a resolution of 5'×5'. Thus, the contribution of IBER01 to the tidal loading calculated at ALG site represents about 72% and 55% of the total load for semidiurnal and diurnal waves, respectively. Results obtained show that precise calculations of ocean tide loading improves the interpretation of the gravity tide models obtained in the area and also allow us to assess the efficiency of the global oceanic models around the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters converge.

  19. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  20. Panic anxiety, under the weather?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbena, A.; Pailhez, G.; Aceña, R.; Cunillera, J.; Rius, A.; Garcia-Ribera, C.; Gutiérrez, J.; Rojo, C.

    2005-03-01

    The relationship between weather conditions and psychiatric disorders has been a continuous subject of speculation due to contradictory findings. This study attempts to further clarify this relationship by focussing on specific conditions such as panic attacks and non-panic anxiety in relation to specific meteorological variables. All psychiatric emergencies attended at a general hospital in Barcelona (Spain) during 2002 with anxiety as main complaint were classified as panic or non-panic anxiety according to strict independent and retrospective criteria. Both groups were assessed and compared with meteorological data (wind speed and direction, daily rainfall, temperature, humidity and solar radiation). Seasons and weekend days were also included as independent variables. Non-parametric statistics were used throughout since most variables do not follow a normal distribution. Logistic regression models were applied to predict days with and without the clinical condition. Episodes of panic were three times more common with the poniente wind (hot wind), twice less often with rainfall, and one and a half times more common in autumn than in other seasons. These three trends (hot wind, rainfall and autumn) were accumulative for panic episodes in a logistic regression formula. Significant reduction of episodes on weekends was found only for non-panic episodes. Panic attacks, unlike other anxiety episodes, in a psychiatric emergency department in Barcelona seem to show significant meteorotropism. Assessing specific disorders instead of overall emergencies or other variables of a more general quality could shed new light on the relationship between weather conditions and behaviour.

  1. Fortnightly Earth Rotation, Ocean Tides, and Mantle Anelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained accurate measurements of earth rotation are one of the prime goals of Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). We here concentrate on the fortnightly (Mf) tidal component of earth-rotation data to obtain new results concerning anelasticity of the mantle at this period. The study comprises three parts: (1) a new determination of the Mf component of polar motion and length-of-day from a multi-decade time series of space-geodetic data; (2) the use of the polar-motion determination as one constraint in the development of a hydrodynamic ocean model of the Mf tide; and (3) the use of these results to place new constraints on mantle anelasticity. Our model of the Mf ocean tide assimilates more than fourteen years of altimeter data from the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellites. The polar motion data, plus tide-gauge data and independent altimeter data, give useful additional information, with only the polar motion putting constraints on tidal current velocities. The resulting ocean-tide model, plus the dominant elastic body tide, leaves a small residual in observed length-of-day caused by mantle anelasticity. The inferred effective tidal 0 of the anelastic body tide is 90 and is in line with a omega-alpha frequency dependence with alpha in the range 0.2--0.3.

  2. Fortnightly Ocean Tides, Earth Rotation, and Mantle Anelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard; Egbert, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The fortnightly Mf ocean tide is the largest of the long-period tides (periods between 1 week and 18.6 years), but Mf is still very small, generally 2 cm or less. All long-period tides are thought to be near equilibrium with the astronomical tidal potential, with an almost pure zonal structure. However, several lines of evidence point to Mf having a significant dynamic response to forcing. We use a combination of numerical modeling, satellite altimetry, and observations of polar motion to determine the Mf ocean tide and to place constraints on certain global properties, such as angular momentum. Polar motion provides the only constraints on Mf tidal currents. With a model of the Mf ocean tide in hand, we use it to remove the effects of the ocean from estimates of fortnightly variations in length-of-day. The latter is dominated by the earth's body tide, but a small residual allows us to place new constraints on the anelasticity of the earth's mantle. The result gives the first experimental confirmation of theoretical predictions made by Wahr and Bergen in 1986.

  3. Geodynamic Effects of Ocean Tides: Progress and Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ray

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry, particularly Topex/Poseidon, has markedly improved our knowledge of global tides, thereby allowing significant progress on some longstanding problems in geodynamics. This paper reviews some of that progress. Emphasis is given to global-scale problems, particularly those falling within the mandate of the new IERS Special Bureau for Tides: angular momentum, gravitational field, geocenter motion. For this discussion I use primarily the new ocean tide solutions GOT99.2, CSR4.0, and TPXO.4 (for which G. Egbert has computed inverse-theoretic error estimates), and I concentrate on new results in angular momentum and gravity and their solid-earth implications. One example is a new estimate of the effective tidal Q at the M_2 frequency, based on combining these ocean models with tidal estimates from satellite laser ranging. Three especially intractable problems are also addressed: (1) determining long-period tides in the Arctic [large unknown effect on the inertia tensor, particularly for Mf]; (2) determining the global psi_l tide [large unknown effect on interpretations of gravimetry for the near-diurnal free wobble]; and (3) determining radiational tides [large unknown temporal variations at important frequencies]. Problems (2) and (3) are related.

  4. Lunar and Solar Torques on the Oceanic Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Bills, Bruce G.; Chao, Benjamin Fong

    1998-01-01

    A general framework for calculating lunar and solar torques on the oceanic tides is developed in terms of harmonic constituents. Axial torques and their associated angular momentum and earth-rotation variations are deduced from recent satellite-altimeter and satellite-tracking tide solutions. Torques on the prograde components of the tide produce the familiar secular braking of the rotation rate. The estimated secular acceleration is approximately -1300 sec/century(sup 2) (less 4% after including atmospheric tides); the implied rate of change in the length of day is 2.28 milliseconds/century. Torques on the retrograde components of the tide produce periodic rotation variations at twice the tidal frequency. Interaction torques, e.g. solar torques on lunar tides, generate a large suite of rotation-rate variations at sums and differences of the original tidal frequencies. These are estimated for periods from 18.6 years to quarter-diurnal. At subdaily periods the angular momentum variations are 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the variations caused by ocean tidal currents.

  5. Sea level reconstruction from satellite altimetry and tide gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, P. L.; Andersen, O. B.; Nielsen, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean satellite altimetry has provided global sets of sea level data for the last two decades, allowing determination of spatial patterns in global sea level. For reconstructions going back further than this period, tide gauge data can be used as a proxy. We examine different methods of combining satellite altimetry and tide gauge data using optimal weighting of tide gauge data, linear regression and EOFs, including automatic quality checks of the tide gauge time series. We attempt to augment the model using various proxies such as climate indices like the NAO and PDO, and investigate alternative transformations such as maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF), which better take into account the spatio-temporal structure of the variation. Rather than trying to maximize the amount of variance explained, the MAF transform considers noise to be uncorrelated with a spatially or temporally shifted version of itself, whereas the desired signal will exhibit autocorrelation. This will be applied to a global dataset, necessitating wrap-around consideration of spatial shifts. Our focus is a timescale going back approximately 50 years, allowing reasonable global availability of tide gauge data. This allows for better sensitivity analysis with respect to spatial distribution, and tide gauge data are available around the Arctic Ocean, which may be important for a later high-latitude reconstruction.

  6. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  7. DYNAMICAL TIDES IN ROTATING PLANETS AND STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.; Lackner, C.

    2009-05-10

    Tidal dissipation may be important for the internal evolution as well as the orbits of short-period massive planets-hot Jupiters. We revisit a mechanism proposed by Ogilvie and Lin for tidal forcing of inertial waves, which are short-wavelength, low-frequency disturbances restored primarily by Coriolis rather than buoyancy forces. This mechanism is of particular interest for hot Jupiters, because it relies upon a rocky core, and because these bodies are otherwise largely convective. Compared to waves excited at the base of the stratified, externally heated atmosphere, waves excited at the core are more likely to deposit heat in the convective region and thereby affect the planetary radius. However, Ogilvie and Lin's results were numerical, and the manner of the wave excitation was not clear. Using WKB methods, we demonstrate the production of short waves by scattering of the equilibrium tide off the core at critical latitudes. The tidal dissipation rate associated with these waves scales as the fifth power of the core radius, and the implied tidal Q is of order ten million for nominal values of the planet's mass, radius, orbital period, and core size. We comment upon an alternative proposal by Wu for exciting inertial waves in an unstratified fluid body by means of compressibility rather than a core. We also find that even a core of rock is unlikely to be rigid. But Ogilvie and Lin's mechanism should still operate if the core is substantially denser than its immediate surroundings.

  8. Statistical Sampling of Tide Heights Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the heights and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, height measurements alone would suffice), and that the height measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.

  9. Dynamical Tides in Rotating Planets and Stars

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Goodman; Claire Lackner

    2008-12-04

    Tidal dissipation may be important for the internal evolution as well as the orbits of short-period massive planets--hot Jupiters. We revisit a mechanism proposed by Ogilvie and Lin for tidal forcing of inertial waves, which are short-wavelength, low-frequency disturbances restored primarily by Coriolis rather than buoyancy forces. This mechanism is of particular interest for hot Jupiters because it relies upon a rocky core, and because these bodies are otherwise largely convective. Compared to waves excited at the base of the stratified, externally heated atmosphere, waves excited at the core are more likely to deposit heat in the convective region and thereby affect the planetary radius. However, Ogilvie and Lin's results were numerical, and the manner of the wave excitation was not clear. Using WKB methods, we demonstrate the production of short waves by scattering of the equilibrium tide off the core at critical latitudes. The tidal dissipation rate associated with these waves scales as the fifth power of the core radius, and the implied tidal $Q$ is of order ten million for nominal values of the planet's mass, radius, orbital period, and core size. We comment upon an alternative proposal by Wu for exciting inertial waves in an unstratified fluid body by means of compressibility rather than a core. We also find that even a core of rock is unlikely to be rigid. But Ogilvie and Lin's mechanism should still operate if the core is substantially denser than its immediate surroundings.

  10. Global ocean tides. Part V. The diurnal principal lunar tide (O1), atlas of tidal charts and maps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiderski, E.W.

    1981-05-20

    In Part I of this report (AD-A060 913), a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel method has been applied to construct the diurnal principal lunar (O1) ocean tide with a relative accuracy of better than 5 cm anywhere in the open oceans. The resulting tidal amplitudes and phases are tabulated on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid system in an atlas of 42 deg x 71 deg overlapping charts covering the whole oceanic globe. A corresponding atlas of global corange and cotidal maps is included to provide the reader with a quick general overview of the major tidal phenomena. The specifying hydrodynamical parameters of the model are listed along with quoted sources of empirical tide data, and significant tidal features are explained and discussed. The diurnal O1 ocean tide is found to resemble closely the diurnal K1 tide and qualitatively also the semidiurnal S2 and M2 tides which were presented in Parts IV, III, and II of this report, respectively (AD's A104 334, A104 333, and A084 694).

  11. Global ocean tides. Part VII. The diurnal principal solar tide (P1), atlas of tidal charts and maps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiderski, E.W.

    1981-05-01

    In Part I (Schwiderski, 1978a) of this report, a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel method has been applied to construct the diurnal principal solar (P1) ocean tide with a relative accuracy of better than 5 cm anywhere in the open oceans. The resulting tidal amplitudes and phases are tabulated on a 1 deg X 1 deg grid system in an atlas of 42 deg X 71 deg overlapping charts covering the whole oceanic globe. A corresponding atlas of global corange and cotidal maps is included to provide the reader with a quick general overview of the major tidal phenomena. The specifying hydrodynamical parameters of the model are listed along with quoted sources of empirical tide data, and significant tidal features are explained and discussed. As expected, since the periods of the diurnal tides P1 (24.07h) and K1 (23.93 h) differ by only 0.14 h, these two tides resemble very closely each other (compare Part IV). Significant differences occur only in regions of rapid tidal variations. Of course, P1 resembles also the diurnal 01 tide but to a visibly lesser degree (see Part V).

  12. Improved Estimates of Temporally Coherent Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Satellite altimetry has opened a surprising new avenue to observing internal tides in the open ocean. The tidal surface signatures are very small, a few cm at most, but in many areas they are robust, owing to averaging over many years. By employing a simplified two dimensional wave fitting to the surface elevations in combination with climatological hydrography to define the relation between the surface height and the current and pressure at depth, we may obtain rough estimates of internal tide energy fluxes. Initial results near Hawaii with Topex/Poseidon (T/P) data show good agreement with detailed 3D (three dimensional) numerical models, but the altimeter picture is somewhat blurred owing to the widely spaced T/P tracks. The resolution may be enhanced somewhat by using data from the ERS-1 (ESA (European Space Agency) Remote Sensing) and ERS-2 satellite altimeters. The ERS satellite tracks are much more closely spaced (0.72 deg longitude vs. 2.83 deg for T/P), but the tidal estimates are less accurate than those for T/P. All altimeter estimates are also severely affected by noise in regions of high mesoscale variability, and we have obtained some success in reducing this contamination by employing a prior correction for mesoscale variability based on ten day detailed sea surface height maps developed by Le Traon and colleagues. These improvements allow us to more clearly define the internal tide surface field and the corresponding energy fluxes. Results from throughout the global ocean will be presented.

  13. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  14. Blending of satellite and tide gauge sea level observations and its assimilation in a storm surge model of the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Fu, Weiwei; Donlon, Craig

    2015-09-01

    Coastal storm surge forecasts are typically derived from dedicated hydrodynamic model systems, relying on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) inputs. Uncertainty in the NWP wind field affects both the preconditioning and the forecast of sea level. Traditionally, tide gauge data have been used to limit preconditioning errors, providing point information. Here we utilize coastal satellite altimetry sea level observations. Careful processing techniques allow data to be retrieved up to 3 km from the coast, combining 1 Hz and 20 Hz data. The use of satellite altimetry directly is limited to times when the satellite passes over the area of interest. Instead, we use a stationary blending method developed by Madsen et al. (2007) to relate the coastal satellite altimetry with corresponding tide gauge measurements, allowing generation of sea level maps whenever tide gauge data are available. We apply the method in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, including the coastal zone, and test it for operational nowcasting and hindcasting of the sea level. The feasibility to assimilate the blended product into a hydrodynamic model is assessed, using the ensemble optimal interpolation method. A 2 year test simulation shows decreased sea level root mean square error of 7-43% and improved correlation by 1-23% in all modeled areas, when validated against independent tide gauges, indicating the feasibility to limit preconditioning errors for storm surge forecasting, using a relatively cost effective assimilation scheme.

  15. Short-term variations in mesozooplankton, ichthyoplankton, and nutrients associated with semi-diurnal tides in a patagonian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, L. R.; Cáceres, M. A.; Silva, N.; Muñoz, M. I.; León, R.; Landaeta, M. F.; Soto-Mendoza, S.

    2011-03-01

    The relationships between the distribution of different zooplankton and ichthyoplankton stages and physical and chemical variables were studied using samples and data (CTD profiles, ADCP and current meter measurements, nutrients, mesozooplankton, ichthyoplankton) obtained from different strata during two 24-h cycles at two oceanographic stations in a Chilean Patagonian gulf during the CIMAR 10-Fiordos cruise (November, 2004). A station located at the Chacao Channel was dominated by tidal mixing and small increments in surface stratification during high tides, leading to decreased nutrient availability. This agreed with short periods of increased phytoplankton abundance during slack waters at the end of flood currents. Increases in larval density for all zooplankton and ichthyoplankton taxa corresponded to the flooding phases of the tidal cycle. When the larval density data were fit to a sinusoidal model, the regression coefficients were high, suggesting that tides are important features that modulate short-term variations in plankton abundance. All larvae did not vary synchronously with the tidal phase; rather, time lags were observed among species. The abundances of older individuals of the copepodite Rhincalanus nasutus and all zoea stages of the squat lobster Munida gregaria increased during night flood tides, whereas younger stages increased during daytime flood tides. At a station located at the Queullin Pass, which was dominated by vertical stratification patterns, the variations in peak larval density were better fitted to the semi-diurnal sea level fluctuations. Other evidence indicated internal tides below the pycnocline, which could promote larval transport in deeper layers. In the overall picture that emerges from this study, planktonic organisms from different habitats and phylogenetic origins seem to respond to the local tidal regimes. In some cases, this response might be beneficial, transporting these individuals inshore to areas that are rich in food during the peak biological production season.

  16. Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed semidiurnal/diurnal tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzieko, Nicholas J.

    2010-08-01

    Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed, mainly semidiurnal tides arises from both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within the estuary. The duration asymmetry in rise and fall of water level caused by principal tides on the west coast of the continental United States is ebb-dominant, and so the tide entering estuaries is also ebb-dominant, prior to any internal distortions within the estuary. The interaction of higher harmonics with principal constituents either augments or cancels the duration asymmetry in the principal tides. In estuaries where tidal elevation and velocity phase are near quadrature (90° out of phase), the duration asymmetry in tidal elevation leads to asymmetries in tidal current magnitude. Asymmetry can be conveniently quantified in terms of the sample skewness, ?1, the normalized third sample moment about the mean. An analytic approximation to the skewness shows that traditional metrics of asymmetry, namely the ratio of constituent amplitudes and the relative constituent phase difference, arise from calculating the third sample moment. Observations from three California estuaries of different morphologies are presented as an illustration of how skewness can be used to quantify asymmetry in real systems. As in semidiurnal systems, morphology is a good predictor of whether higher harmonics engender ebb-dominance or flood-dominance, however asymmetry imposed by principal tides at the mouth must first be overcome and so there is a spatial evolution in the total asymmetry. Quantifying observations via skewness should be considered in addition to traditional metrics in estuaries with mixed tides.

  17. Interpretation of earth tide response of three deep, confined aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Kanehiro, B.Y.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1984-03-10

    The response of a confined, areally infinite aquifer to external loads imposed by earth tides is examined. Because the gravitational influence of celestial objects occurs over large areas of the earth, the confined aquifer is assumed to respond in an undrained fashion. Since undrained response is controlled by water compressibility, earth tide response can be directly used only to evaluate porous medium compressibility if porosity is known. Moreover, since specific storage S/sub s/ quantifies a drained behavior of the porous medium, one cannot directly estimate S/sub s/from earth tide response. Except for the fact that barometric changes act both on the water surface in the well and on the aquifer as a whole while stress changes associated with earth tides act only in the aquifer, the two phenomena influence the confined aquifer in much the same way. In other words, barometric response contains only as much information on the elastic properties of the aquifer as the earth tide response does. Factors such as well bore storage, aquifer transmissivity, and storage coefficient contribute to time lag and damping of the aquifer response as observed in the well. Analysis shows that the observation of fluid pressure changes alone, without concurrent measurement of external stress changes, is sufficient to interpret uniquely earth tide response. In the present work, change in external stress is estimated from dilatation by assuming a reasonable value for bulk modulus. Earth tide response of geothermal aquifers from Marysville, Montana. East Mesa, California; and Raft River Valley, Idaho, were analyzed, and the ratio of S/sub 3/ to porosity was estimated. Comparison of these estimates with independent pumping tests show reasonable agreement.

  18. A weather generator for hydrological, ecological, and agricultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Bras, Rafael L.; Curtis, David C.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a weather generator that allows simulation of hydrometeorological variables representative of a given geographic location: precipitation, total cloud cover, incoming shortwave radiation, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The approach captures the essential relationships among the quantities of interest, while modeling the diurnal variation of weather conditions at the hourly scale. Precipitation is considered to be the key driver of simulated hydrometeorological conditions, which leads to a consistent covariation of the weather variables. The generator was calibrated and validated with data from three meteorological stations located in New Mexico, Arizona, and Oklahoma. The set of variables reproduced by the weather generator can serve as input to a number of models of environmental systems, involving hydrological, ecological, water resources, and agricultural applications. The model is also suitable for creating scenarios of climate regimes (e.g., dry versus wet climates) useful in sensitivity studies. The source codes of the weather generator, manual, and test applications are publicly available.

  19. Tales of future weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-02-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

  20. Role of tides on the formation of the Antarctic Slope Front at the Weddell-Scotia Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexas, M. M.; Schodlok, M. P.; Padman, L.; Menemenlis, D.; Orsi, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    The structure of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) and the associated Antarctic Slope Current (ASC) on the Scotia Sea side of the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) is described using data from a hydrographic survey and three 1 year long moorings across the continental slope. The ASC in this region flows westward along isobaths with an annual mean speed of ˜0.2 m s-1, with time variability dominated by the K1 and O1 tidal diurnal constituents, a narrowband oscillation with ˜2-week period attributable to the spring/neap tidal cycle, and seasonal variability. Realistic and idealized high-resolution numerical simulations are used to determine the contribution of tides to the structure of the ASF and the speed of the ASC. Two simulations forced by realistic atmospheric forcing and boundary conditions integrated with and without tidal forcing show that tidal forcing is essential to reproduce the measured ASF/ASC cross-slope structure, the time variability at our moorings, and the reduced stratification within the WSC. Two idealized simulations run with tide-only forcing, one with a homogeneous ocean and the other with initial vertical stratification that is laterally homogeneous, show that tides can generate the ASC and ASF through volume flux convergence along the slope initiated by effects including the Lagrangian component of tidal rectification and mixing at the seabed and in the stratified ocean interior. Climate models that exclude the effects of tides will not correctly represent the ASF and ASC or their influence on the injection of intermediate and dense waters from the WSC to the deep ocean.

  1. On the use of SAR Interferometry for assessing tide gauge stability for long term sea-level estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raucoules, Daniel; Cozannet, Gonéri; Woppelmann, Guy

    2015-04-01

    One of the important consequences of climate change is the global sea level rise of 20cm since the end of the 19th century. This process is very likely to continue and accelerate in the future. Future projections of global sea level rise range from about 30cm to 80cm by 2100 with significant regional variability). Local and regional vertical ground motions are one of the important sources of uncertainties to consider in sea level rise impact assessments. However, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate them without observations due to their complex causes and evolution in space and time. Consequently, a first motivation to accurately characterize vertical ground motions in large coastal cities is to reduce the uncertainties of sea level rise impact assessments. A second challenge motivating a precise characterization of vertical ground motions in coastal cities is to reconcile sea level estimates for the 20th century: over this period, there is a slight disagreement between (1) observations of sea level rise obtained from the available tide gauge data sets, and (2) the sum of contributions from each process causing sea level rise. Accurate knowledge about the ground motions affecting tide gauges is thus highly desirable, especially in regions poorly covered by tide gauges. Indeed, one of the possible explanations of the 20th century sea level budget imbalance is an inappropriate spatial sampling of historical tide gauges along the oceans' coastlines, most being located in Europe and in the United States. In addition, noteworthy is the fact that Tide Gauges with long Time Series are generally located in urbanized areas. Growing of urbanizations in development during the last century can result in local changes of ground surface level (in particular: groundwater extraction produces subsidence phenomena). In this perspective, we propose the use of Differential SAR interferometry techniques for characterizing the ground surface deformation in the neighborhood of the Tide-Gauges. The objective is therefore to qualify the relevancy of a given Tide Gauge time series over the last decades/century to contribute to the global sea-level estimation. In addition, in certain cases a correction to the Time Series can be derived from such surface deformation mapping. This utilization of DInSAR is illustrated by three test cases that correspond to different ground surface deformation characteristics (slight regular displacements, dm/yr irregular motions, negligible motion) and data acquisition conditions (available data amount, sensors). The test areas are located in Alexandria (Egypt), Manila (Philippines) and Dakar (Senegal).

  2. Tides stir up deep Arctic heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Rippeth, Tom; Lincoln, Ben; Lenn, Yueng; Bacon, Sheldon; Sundfjord, Arild

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet. One of the largest sources of heat to the Arctic Ocean is the warm salty Atlantic water (AW) which enters through the Fram Strait and circulates at intermediate depth round the Arctic basin. The heat contained in the AW is sufficient to entirely melt the Arctic sea ice but is insulated from the surface by a layer of colder fresher water. Across much of the Arctic Ocean there is insufficient turbulence to drive vertical mixing, and so heat fluxes are a result of double diffusion (DD) and are consequently weak (< 0.1 W m-2). Here we present a new pan-Arctic series of direct measurements of TKE dissipation rate. The new measurements show enhanced turbulent mixing, and hence heat fluxes, over much of the continental slope around the Arctic boundary. The rate of TKE dissipation is found to increase with the bathymetric slope and vary longitudinally with the largest values to the north of Svalbard resulting in enhanced diapycnal heat fluxes over this region (20 W m-2). The observed 2-order of magnitude longitudinal variation in TKE dissipation rate correlates with the rate of dissipation of tidal energy, estimated from the local difference between the work done by the tide generating force and the tidal energy flux divergence from the TPXO8 inverse tidal solution. This correlation leads to the conclusion that the enhanced mixing observed over the continental shelf break north of Svalbard is a result of tidal processes.

  3. The Anelastic Equilibrium Tide in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Francoise; Mathis, S.; Zahn, J.; Lainey, V.

    2012-10-01

    Once a planetary system is formed, its dynamical evolution is governed by gravitational interactions between its components, be it a star-planet or planet-satellite interaction. By converting kinetic energy into heat, the tides pertub their orbital and rotational properties. The rate at which the system evolves depends on the physical properties of tidal dissipation. Therefore, to understand the past history and predict the fate of a binary system, one has to identify the dissipative processes that achieve this conversion of energy. Planetary systems display a large diversity of planets by their composition. Since tidal mechanism is closely related with the internal structure of the perturbed body, one has to investigate its effects on either its fluid and solid layers. Studies have been carried out on tidal effects in fluid bodies such as stars and envelopes of giant planets. However, the planetary solid regions may also contribute to tidal dissipation, be it the mantles of Earth-like planets that have been investigated by many works, or the cores of giant planets. The purpose of our study is to determine the tidal dissipation in the solid central regions of giant planets, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope. We derive the different Love numbers that describe the anelastic deformation and discuss the dependence of the quality factor Q on the rheological parameters and the size of the core. Taking plausible values for these parameters, and discussing the frequency-dependence of the solid dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. Finally, we present the way to implement the results in the equations that describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.

  4. Tides on Self-gravitating, Compressible Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Greenberg, R.

    2001-11-01

    Most modern derivations of tidal amplitude follow the approach presented by Love [1]. Love's analysis for a homogeneous sphere assumed an incompressible material, which required introduction of a non-rigorously justified pressure term. We have solved the more general case of arbitrary compressibility, which allows for a more straightforward derivation [2,3]. We find the h2 love number of a body of radius R, density ? , by solving the deformation equation [4], ? ? 2 u = ? ?U - (? + ? ) ? (? ? u) where ? is the rigidity of the body and ? the Lamé constant. The potential U is the sum of (a) the tide raising potential, (b) the potential of surface mass shifted above or below the spherical surface, (c) potential due to the internal density changes and (d) the change in potential of each bit of volume due to its displacement u. A self-consistent solution can be obtained with U = \\sum_{q=0}^{\\infty} b_{(2+2q)} r^{(2+2q)} ( {3}/{2} \\cos2 \\theta - {1}/{2} ). In [1] and [3] only the r2 term was considered, which was valid only if compressibility is small or elasticity governs deformation (i.e. ? g R << (? + 2 ? )). The solution with only the r2 term reduces to Love's [1] solution in the limit of zero compressibility (? = ? ). However, for rock ? ~ ? [4], in which case h2 is enhanced by ~ 3 %, and solutions for greater compressibility give up to 8 % enhancement of tidal amplitude. If ? g R is significant, higher order r(2q+2) terms are important and even greater corrections are required to the classical tidal amplitude. [1] Love, A.E.H., New York Dover Publications, 1944 [2] Hurford, T.A. and R. Greenberg, Lunar Plan. Sci. XXXII 1741, 2001 [3] Hurford, T.A. and R. Greenberg, 2001 DDA meeting, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. in press [4] Kaula, W.M., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1968

  5. Semidiurnal internal tides in a Patagonian fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, L.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Schneider, W.

    2014-12-01

    The fjords of central Chilean Patagonia (47°S) receive fresh water from both precipitation and the Baker River. This buoyancy input generates a two layer hydrographic system characterized by strong salinity stratification (?30 g kg-1 over a depth range of 7-15 m), which favors baroclinic conditions in the fjord. Hourly current velocity profiles were collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moored at a depth of 40 m during March-April 2009, and complemented by 11 CTD profiles and hourly sea level time series. These data allowed the detection of semidiurnal internal tidal waves for the first time in this region. Wavelength and horizontal phase speeds were determined by the dynamical mode 1 for internal waves. Maximum wavelength was 52 km, travelling at a horizontal phase speed of ?1.16 m s-1. Wavelet, spectral and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis techniques applied to the echo anomaly signal and to the baroclinic velocity showed largest semidiurnal amplitudes near the pycnocline. Out of three modes obtained from the EOF analysis, two modes displayed a two- or three-layer flow structure with flow direction reversing at the pycnocline. The semidiurnal internal waves were found as fluctuations near the pycnocline in sporadic packets correlated to high discharge pulses of the Baker River (r2 = 0.77). Additionally, internal Froude number calculations at the mouth of the Baker River indicated critical flow conditions, which allowed for generation of internal waves at the plume front. These waves are separated from the river plume after internal wave phase speeds surpassed frontal speeds. This suggests that the internal waves were modulated by pulses in high river discharge rather than the interaction of barotropic tide with bathymetry (a sill). An implication of these internal waves would be to increase vertical mixing of nutrients toward the surface, through shear instabilities, which would favor primary production.

  6. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  7. Setups for Weathering Tests 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    quickly transform into a raindrop heavy enough to fall to the ground. Texas has a rather extensive weather modifica- tion program. ? The first statewide program, the Colorado River Municipal Water District, is one of the oldest weather modification... programs in the world. Established in 1971 to generate runoff into Lake Thomas and E.V. Spence Reservoir on the Colorado River, this program covers 2.6 million acres between Lubbock and Midland. ? The West Texas Weather Modification Association...

  8. Stochastic Weather Generator Based Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraway, N.; Werner, K.; Rajagopalan, B.; Wood, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Efficient water resources management owes considerably to skillful basin wide streamflow forecasts at both short (1-2 weeks) and long (seasonal and longer) time scales. The skillful projection of the streamflow probability density function (PDF) is especially of interest. Presently, the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach is used by River Forecasting Centers such as the Colorado Basin River Forecasting Center (CBRFC) with their hydrologic model to produce ensembles and thus the PDF. The main drawback of this is that the number of ensembles is limited to the number of years of the historical data, which is often quite small. CBRFC currently maintains a 30 year calibration period. Furthermore, if seasonal forecast information is included through a use of a subset of these years, the ensemble size decreases substantially, further degrading the resolution of the estimated PDF. To improve on this, we propose a stochastic weather generator based approach coupled to the hydrologic modeling system. The weather generator uses a Markov Chain to simulate the precipitation state of a day (wet or dry) and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) resampling approach to simulate the daily weather vector. This stochastic weather generator can also produce daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal categorical climate forecasts such as those issued by NOAA/CPC, as well as sequences at multiple locations across the basin. Daily weather sequences for a desired time horizon (1-2 weeks or seasonal) are produced using the K-NN weather generator; these are then driven through the hydrologic model to produce an ensemble forecast of streamflow. The weather generator's ability to produce a rich variety of daily weather sequences enables increased resolution and more accurate estimation of the streamflow PDF. We demonstrate this approach to San Juan River Basin and present preliminary findings. First, results from the stochastic weather generator are presented showing that the generated sequences capture the historic variability across multiple locations in the basin quite well. We also show that the weather sequences the PDF of the weather attributes appropriately based on seasonal climate forecast. CBRFC's new Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) was used in conjunction with the generated weather sequences to produce ensembles of streamflow. The skills from these simulations are compared with the existing ESP forecasting approach.

  9. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  10. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  11. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Interannual variations in fire weather, fire extent,

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Alan

    patterns (ENSO, PDO, PNA) on fire-climate interactions is evident in contemporary fire data sets and in pre-Euroamerican tree-ring-based fire records. We investigated how interannual variability in two fire weather indicesORIGINAL PAPER Interannual variations in fire weather, fire extent, and synoptic-scale circulation

  13. Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    on the impact of space weather on the electric grid, seeking to understand 1) the current status of solar-Induced Currents (GICs) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.5 Solar Storms and VariabilityImpacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid JASON The MITRE Corporation 7515 Colshire

  14. The role of tides in beach cusp development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, Tom K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2004-04-01

    Field measurements of morphology and swash flow during three episodes of beach cusp development indicate that tides modulate the height and cross-shore position of beach cusps. During rising tide, beach cusp height decreases as embayments accrete more than horns and the cross-shore extent of beach cusps decreases. During falling tide, beach cusp height increases as embayments erode more than horns and cross-shore extent increases. A numerical model for beach cusp formation based on self-organization, extended to include the effects of morphological smoothing seaward of the swash front and infiltration into the beach, reproduces the observed spacing, position, and tidal modulation. During rising tide, water particles simulating swash infiltrate, preferentially in embayments, causing enhanced deposition. During falling tide, exfiltration of water particles combined with diversion of swash from horns causes enhanced erosion in embayments. Smoothing of beach morphology in the swash zone seaward of the swash front and in the shallow surf zone accounts for most of the observed tidal modulation, even in the absence of infiltration and exfiltration. Despite the qualitative, and in some cases quantitative, agreement of the model and measurements, the model fails to reproduce observed large deviations of horn orientation from shore normal, some aspects of beach cusp shape, and deviations from the basic tidal modulation, possibly because of the simplified parameterization of cross-shore sediment transport and the neglect of the effects of sea surface gradients on flow.

  15. Revisiting the pole tide for and from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shailen; Wahr, John; Beckley, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Satellite altimeter sea surface height observations include the geocentric displacements caused by the pole tide, namely the response of the solid Earth and oceans to polar motion. Most users of these data remove these effects using a model that was developed more than 20 years ago. We describe two improvements to the pole tide model for satellite altimeter measurements. Firstly, we recommend an approach that improves the model for the response of the oceans by including the effects of self-gravitation, loading, and mass conservation. Our recommended approach also specifically includes the previously ignored displacement of the solid Earth due to the load of the ocean response, and includes the effects of geocenter motion. Altogether, this improvement amplifies the modeled geocentric pole tide by 15 %, or up to 2 mm of sea surface height displacement. We validate this improvement using two decades of satellite altimeter measurements. Secondly, we recommend that the altimetry pole tide model exclude geocentric sea surface displacements resulting from the long-term drift in polar motion. The response to this particular component of polar motion requires a more rigorous approach than is used by conventional models. We show that erroneously including the response to this component of polar motion in the pole tide model impacts interpretation of regional sea level rise by ± 0.25 mm/year.

  16. Lunar and Solar Torques on the Oceanic Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Bills, Bruce G.; Chao, Benjamin F.

    1998-01-01

    Brosche and Seiler recently suggested that direct lunar and solar tidal torques on the oceanic tides play a significant role in the earth's short-period angular momentum balance ("short-period" here meaning daily and sub-daily). We reexamine that suggestion here, concentrating on axial torques and hence on variations in rotation rate. Only those spherical harmonic components of the ocean tide having the same degree and order as the tidal potential induce nonzero torques. Prograde components (those moving in the same direction as the tide-generating body) produce the familiar secular braking of the earth's rotation. Retrograde components, however, produce rapid variations in UTI at twice the tidal frequency. There also exist interaction torques between tidal constituents, e.g. solar torques on lunar tides. They generate UTI variations at frequencies equal to the sums and differences of the original tidal frequencies. We give estimates of the torques and angular momentum variations for each of the important regimes, secular to quarter-diurnal. For the M(sub 2) potential acting on the M(sub 2) ocean tide, we find an associated angular momentum variation of amplitude 3 x 10(exp 19) N m. This is 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the angular momentum variations associated with tidal currents. We conclude that these torques do not play a significant role in the short-period angular momentum balance.

  17. Sunspots, Space Weather and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred years ago this year the telescope was first used for astronomical observations. Within a year, Galileo in Italy and Harriot in England reported seeing spots on the surface of the Sun. Yet, it took over 230 years of observations before a Swiss amateur astronomer noticed that the sunspots increased and decreased in number over a period of about 11 years. Within 15 years of this discovery of the sunspot cycle astronomers made the first observations of a flare on the surface of the Sun. In the 150 years since that discovery we have learned much about sunspots, the sunspot cycle, and the Sun s explosive events - solar flares, prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections that usually accompany the sunspots. These events produce what is called Space Weather. The conditions in space are dramatically affected by these events. Space Weather can damage our satellites, harm our astronauts, and affect our lives here on the surface of planet Earth. Long term changes in the sunspot cycle have been linked to changes in our climate as well. In this public lecture I will give an introduction to sunspots, the sunspot cycle, space weather, and the possible impact of solar variability on our climate.

  18. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  19. Local time variation of gravity wave momentum fluxes and their relationship with the tides derived from LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agner, Ryan; Liu, Alan Z.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity waves and atmospheric tides have strong interactions in the mesopause region and are major contributors to the large variabilities in this region. How these two large perturbations interact with each other is not well understood. Wind and temperature measurements from a Na LIDAR at the Starfire Optical Range (35.0°N, 106.5°W), New Mexico from 24 nights between 1998 and 2000 are used to derive local time variations of gravity wave momentum flux and corresponding local time tidal variation of the background wind. The diurnal component of the momentum flux shows a clear modulation by the tide. The gravity wave forcing on the diurnal tidal amplitudes is shown to have an altitudinal and directional dependence.

  20. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  1. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  2. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  3. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  4. Weather Cardboard Carpentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerome E.

    1977-01-01

    Included are instructions and diagrams for building weather instruments (wind vane, Celsius temperature scale, and anemometer) from simple tools and Tri-Wall, a triple-thick corrugated cardboard. Ordering sources for Tri-Wall are listed. Additional weather instruments that can be constructed are suggested. (CS)

  5. Weathering warming in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the results of a field experiment heating patches of a subalpine meadow in the Rocky Mountains to determine what will weather and what will weather under projected global warming. The problems with actually measuring the feedback is discussed, along with the changes which come as the meadow is heated.

  6. People and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  7. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  8. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  9. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  10. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  12. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  13. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  14. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  15. Weatherizing a Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with weatherizing a structure. Its objective is for the student to be able to analyze factors related to specific structures that indicate need for weatherizing activities and to determine steps to correct defects in structures that…

  16. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  17. Tides and tidal stress: Applications to Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, Terry Anthony, Jr.

    A review of analytical techniques and documentation of previously inaccessible mathematical formulations is applied to study of Jupiter's satellite Europa. Compared with numerical codes that are commonly used to model global tidal effects, analytical models of tidal deformation give deeper insight into the mechanics of tides, and can better reveal the nature of the dependence of observable effects on key parameters. I develop analytical models for tidal deformation of multi-layered bodies. Previous studies of Europa, based on numerical computation, only to show isolated examples from parameter space. My results show a systematic dependence of tidal response on the thicknesses and material parameters of Europa's core, rocky mantle, liquid water ocean, and outer layer of ice. As in the earlier work, I restrict these studies to incompressible materials. Any set of Love numbers h 2 and k 2 which describe a planet's tidal deformation, could be fit by a range of ice thickness values, by adjusting other parameters such as mantle rigidity or core size, an important result for mission planning. Inclusion of compression into multilayer models has been addressed analytically, uncovering several issues that are not explicit in the literature. Full evaluation with compression is here restricted to a uniform sphere. A set of singularities in the classical solution, which correspond to instabilities due to self-gravity has been identified and mapped in parameter space. The analytical models of tidal response yield the stresses anywhere within the body, including on its surface. Crack patterns (such as cycloids) on Europa are probably controlled by these stresses. However, in contrast to previous studies which used a thin shell approximation of the tidal stress, I consider how other tidal models compare with the observed tectonic features. In this way the relationship between Europa's surface tectonics and the global tidal distortion can be constrained. While large-scale tidal deformations probe internal structure deep within a body, small-scale deformations can probe internal structure at shallower depths. I have used photoclinometry to obtain topographic profiles across terrain adjacent to Europan ridges to detect the effects of loading on the lithosphere. Lithospheric thicknesses have been determined and correlated with types and ages of terrain.

  18. Asymmetry in the interhemispheric planetary wave-tide link between the two hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Drummond, J. R.; Riggin, D. M.; Hall, C. M.; Hibbins, R. E.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2009-12-01

    This study assesses the relation between the year-to-year variability of the semidiurnal tides (SDT) observed at high latitudes of both hemispheres and the global stratospheric stationary planetary wave (SPW) with zonal wavenumber S=1 (SPW1) derived from the UKMO temperature data. No significant positive correlation can be identified between the interannual variability of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) SDT and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) SPW1 for austral late-winter months. In contrast, a good consistency is evident for the interannual variations between the SDT observed at Rothera (68°S, 68°W) and the Arctic SPW1 for NH mid-winter months. Since it has been observed that during austral summer the non-migrating SDT often plays a significant role at the latitude of Rothera, a physical link between the SH SDT and the NH SPW is suggested. This asymmetry in the interhemispheric link is also noted in a recent study.

  19. Midlatitude seasonal behavior of tides near the mesopause level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.; Zhovty, E. I.

    1989-01-01

    Wind measurements near the mesopause level were provided in Badary (Eastern Siberia, USSR) by the D1 method using a low frequency (200 kHz) radio transmitter during 1976 to 1986. The seasonal variations of wind level are analyzed and compared with other midlatitude wind measurements and with some theoretical preditions. It is shown that tidal parameters depend not only on latitude but on the longitude as well. The annual variation of diurnal and semidurnal tide (zonal and meridional) have maxima in summer and minima in winter. There are significant differences between annual variations of phases for diurnal and semidiurnal tides. These differences are especially distinct for summer and autumn. There is no systematic seasonal variation of the phase of the semidiurnal tide (average value similar to 6 hours).

  20. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

  1. Tsunami-tide interaction in 1964 Prince William Sound tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Witter, Robert C.; Priest, George R.

    We conduct a comprehensive modeling study of the impact of the 1964 Prince William Sound tsunami on the US Pacific Northwest coast. A 3D unstructured grid model, SELFE, is applied in its 2D spherical coordinate configuration. Simulations are conducted with and without dynamic tides to elucidate their influence. We compare numerical results with tide gauge records, maximum wave heights, runups, and inundation extents at several locations in the region. Detailed inundation patterns at Coos Bay and Cannon Beach, Oregon are compared to field estimates. The model results are shown to be in very good agreement with field observations. The results demonstrate that while negligible at the open coast, the tide-tsunami interaction is solely responsible for inundation around some estuaries and rivers.

  2. Global ocean tides. Part III. The semidiurnal principal solar tide (S2), atlas of tidal charts and maps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiderski, E.W.

    1981-03-15

    In Part I of this report (AD-A060 913), a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel method has been applied to construct the semidiurnal principal solar (S2) ocean tide with a relative accuracy of better than 5 cm anywhere in the open oceans. The resulting tidal amplitudes and phases are tabulated on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid system in an atlas of 42 deg x 71 deg overlapping charts covering the whole oceanic globe. A corresponding atlas of global corange and cotidal maps is included to provide the reader with a quick general overview of the major tidal phenomena. The specifying hydrodynamical parameters of the model are listed along with quoted sources of empirical tide data, and significant tidal features are explained and discussed. The S2 ocean tide is found to resemble closely the corresponding lunar M2 tide presented in Part II of this report (AD-A084 694).

  3. Linking Europa's plume activity to tides, tectonics, and liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A.; Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    Much of the geologic activity preserved on Europa's icy surface has been attributed to tidal deformation, mainly due to Europa's eccentric orbit. Although the surface is geologically young (30-80 Myr), there is little information as to whether tidally-driven surface processes are ongoing. However, a recent detection of water vapor near Europa's south pole suggests that it may be geologically active. Initial observations indicated that Europa's plume eruptions are time-variable and may be linked to its tidal cycle. Saturn's moon, Enceladus, which shares many similar traits with Europa, displays tidally-modulated plume eruptions, which bolstered this interpretation. However, additional observations of Europa at the same time in its orbit failed to yield a plume detection, casting doubt on the tidal control hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the timing of plume eruptions within the context of Europa's tidal cycle to determine whether such a link exists and examine the inferred similarities and differences between plume activity on Europa and Enceladus. To do this, we determine the locations and orientations of hypothetical tidally-driven fractures that best match the temporal variability of the plumes observed at Europa. Specifically, we identify model faults that are in tension at the time in Europa's orbit when a plume was detected and in compression at times when the plume was not detected. We find that tidal stress driven solely by eccentricity is incompatible with the observations unless additional mechanisms are controlling the eruption timing or restricting the longevity of the plumes. The addition of obliquity tides, and corresponding precession of the spin pole, can generate a number of model faults that are consistent with the pattern of plume detections. The locations and orientations of these hypothetical source fractures are robust across a broad range of precession rates and spin pole directions. Analysis of the stress variations across the fractures suggests that the plumes would be best observed earlier in the orbit (true anomaly ?120°). Our results indicate that Europa's plumes, if confirmed, differ in many respects from the Enceladean plumes and that either active fractures or volatile sources are rare.

  4. Successfully Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  5. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tide Propagation Through Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Hong, S.; Mulcan, A.; Brisco, B.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal wetlands including mangrove forests and saltwater marshes are considered among the most valuable ecosystems on earth, yet their existence is presently being threatened by climate change (sea-level rise) and human interference (e.g. infrastructure development). These fragile ecosystems depend on a continuous water and nutrient replenishment by ocean tidal flow. While ocean tides are well known and forecasted, tidal flow movements through coastal wetlands are poorly known due to the fact that vegetation resists the flow and delays both inland and seaward flow at rising and subsiding tide conditions, respectively. Thus far, most observations on tide propagation through coastal wetlands have been obtained from stage (water level) measurements within the vegetated tidal zone. These stage measurements possess high temporal resolution observations, but acquired at a limited number of measurement points. Wetland InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observations provide a new complementary source of information for detecting tidal flow in coastal wetlands, by supplying high spatial resolution maps of water level changes between two SAR acquisition times. In this study, we use InSAR observations to detect surface water level changes in response to ocean tide propagation through the coastal Everglades' mangrove forests. Interferometric processing of the data show that the highest rate of water level changes occurs near channels, as the Shark Valley River (Fig 1., center of image). These high water level gradients reflect rapid horizontal flow into and from the channel during low and high tide conditions, respectively. The high spatial resolution wetland InSAR observations provide important constraints for detailed coastal wetland flow models. RADARSAT-2 interferogram of western south Florida showing tide-induced water level changes along the transition between the saltwater mangrove marsh in the southwest and freshwater swamp in the northeast.

  6. The signature of atmospheric tides in sub-daily variations of Earth rotation as unveiled by globally-gridded atmospheric angular momentum functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    Thermally-driven atmospheric tides provide a small but distinct contribution to shortperiod variations of Earth rotation parameters (ERP). The effect of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, commonly denoted as S1 and S2, respectively, is in the range of 2 - 10 uas for polar motion and 2 - 10 uas for changes in length-of-day (LOD). Even though ocean tides represent a much more dominant driving agent for ERP fluctuations at short time scales, high-frequency atmospheric effects are non-negligible, particularly given the prospective measurement accuracy of space geodetic techniques. However, previous studies, such as Brzezinski et al. (2002), de Viron et al. (2005) or Schindelegger et al. (2011), have been noticeably inconclusive on the exact amplitude and phase values of S1 and S2 atmospheric excitation signals. This study aims at shedding light on the origin of these uncertainties with respect to the axial component of Earth's rotation vector by investigating times series of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) functions that are given on global grids and computed from three-hourly meteorological data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The signature of diurnal and semi-diurnal atmospheric tides is clearly visible in the gridded axial AAM functions, revealing a distinct spatial and temporal phase difference between pressure and wind tidal constituents of about ± ?. It is shown that due to this counterbalance and the explicit axisymmetric spatial structure of S1 and S2, the net effect in sub-diurnal AAM (which is calculated from the global sum of gridded AAM functions) is always a small quantity, particularly sensitive to minor differences between the analysis fields of numerical weather models.

  7. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  8. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  9. Storm surge and tide interaction: a complete paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, Kevin; Williams, Jane; Proctor, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Globally, 200 million people live on coastal floodplains and about 1 trillion worth of assets lie within 1 metre of mean sea level. Any change in the statistics of flood frequency or severity would impact on economic and social systems. It is therefore crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges, and to have confidence in datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. Much previous research has focussed on the process of tide-surge interaction, and it is now widely accepted that the physical basis of tide-surge interaction is that a phase shift of the tidal signal represents the effect of the surge on the tide. The second aspect of interaction is that shallow water momentum considerations imply that differing tidal states should modulate surge generation: wind stress should have greater surge-generating potential on lower tides. This has been shown previously by analytical models but not as yet confirmed by fully non-linear models of the continental shelf. We present results from an operational model of the European shelf that demonstrate that tidal range does have an effect on the surges generated. The cycle-integrated effects of wind stress (i.e. the skew surge) are generally greater when tidal range is low. Our results contradict the absence of any such correlation observed in the complete record of UK tide gauge data. This suggests that whilst the modulating effect of the tide on the skew surge (the time-independent difference between peak prediction and observations) is significant, the difference between individual storms is dominant. This implies that forecasting systems must predict salient detail of the most intense storms. A further implication is that operational models need to simulate tides with acceptable accuracy at all coastal locations. We extend our model analysis to show that the same modulation of storm surges (by tidal conditions) applies to tropical cyclones. We conduct simulations using a mature operational storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal with tropical cyclones from the IBTrACs database; we demonstrate that - just as with the extra-tropical case - higher storm surges on the Bangladesh coastline are generated during smaller tides.

  10. Storm Surge and Tide Interaction: A Complete Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, K.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates show that in 2005, in the largest 136 coastal cities, there were 40 million people and 3,000 billion of assets exposed to 1 in 100 year coastal flood events. Mean sea level rise will increase this exposure to 150 million people and 35,000 billion of assets by 2070. Any further change in the statistics of flood frequency or severity would impact severely on economic and social systems. It is therefore crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges, and to have confidence in datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. Much previous research has focussed on the process of tide-surge interaction, and it is now widely accepted that the physical basis of tide-surge interaction is that a phase shift of the tidal signal represents the effect of the surge on the tide. The second aspect of interaction is that shallow water momentum considerations imply that differing tidal states should modulate surge generation: wind stress should have greater surge-generating potential on lower tides. We present results from a storm surge model of the European shelf that demonstrate that tidal range does have an effect on the surges generated. The cycle-integrated effects of wind stress (i.e. the skew surge) are greater when tidal range is low. Our results contradict the absence of any such correlation in tide gauge records. This suggests that whilst the modulating effect of the tide on the skew surge (the time-independent difference between peak prediction and observations) is significant, the difference between individual storms is dominant. This implies that forecasting systems must predict salient detail of the most intense storms. A further implication is that flood forecasting models need to simulate tides with acceptable accuracy at all coastal locations. We extend our model analysis to show that the same modulation of storm surges (by tidal conditions) applies to tropical cyclones. We conduct simulations using a mature operational storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal with tropical cyclones from the IBTrACs database; we demonstrate that - just as with the extra-tropical case - higher storm surges on the Bangladesh coastline are generated during smaller tides.

  11. The Role of Tides in Known Multi-Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet system, upsilon Andromedae, was discovered in 1999. The number of stars known to possess more than one planet has been growing rapidly since then. The dynamical interactions among such planets can be quite strong. These interactions can excite the orbital eccentricities of planets, even planets orbiting very close to their stars. Stellar tides can damp the eccentricities of such close-in planets, removing dynamical energy from the system and ultimately affecting the motions of all of the planets. These and other effects of tides in extrasolar multi-planet systems will be discussed.

  12. Tide Corrections for Coastal Altimetry: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of global oceanic tides has markedly advanced over the last two decades, in no small part because of the near-global measurements provided by satellite altimeters, and especially the long and precise Topex/Poseidon time series e.g. [2]. Satellite altimetry in turn places very severe demands on the accuracy of tidal models. The reason is clear: tides are by far the largest contributor to the variance of sea-surface elevation, so any study of non-tidal ocean signals requires removal of this dominant tidal component. Efforts toward improving models for altimetric tide corrections have understandably focused on deep-water, open-ocean regions. These efforts have produced models thought to be generally accurate to about 2 cm rms. Corresponding tide predictions in shelf and near-coastal regions, however, are far less accurate. This paper discusses the status of our current abilities to provide near-global tidal predictions in shelf and near-coastal waters, highlights some of the difficulties that must be overcome, and attempts to divine a path toward some degree of progress. There are, of course, many groups worldwide who model tides over fairly localized shallow-water regions, and such work is extremely valuable for any altimeter study limited to those regions, but this paper considers the more global models necessary for the general user. There have indeed been efforts to patch local and global models together, but such work is difficult to maintain over many updates and can often encounter problems of proprietary or political nature. Such a path, however, might yet prove the most fruitful, and there are now new plans afoot to try again. As is well known, tides in shallow waters tend to be large, possibly nonlinear, and high wavenumber. The short spatial scales mean that current mapping capabilities with (multiple) nadir-oriented altimeters often yield inadequate coverage. This necessitates added reliance on numerical hydrodynamic models and data assimilation, which in turn necessitates very accurate bathymetry with high spatial resolution. Nonlinearity means that many additional compound tides and overtides must be accounted for in our predictions, which increases the degree of modeling effort and increases the amounts of data required to disentangle closely aliased tides.

  13. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  14. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  15. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  16. The radial velocity signature of tides raised in stars hosting exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Arras, Phil

    Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted RVs in the observed ...

  17. Turning the Tide Against Aids | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Turning the Tide Against AIDS Turning the Tide Against AIDS Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents A ... What is the current state of the HIV/AIDS epidemic? Globally, more than 34 million people are ...

  18. Solar structure and terrestrial weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

  19. Coal weathering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.; Barriocanal, C.; Casal, M.D.; Diez, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.I.; Pis, J.J.; Canga, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Weathering studies were carried out on coal/blend piles stored in the open yard at the INCAR facilities. Firstly, a typical and complex coal blend used by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA, prepared and ground at industrial scale, was stored. Several methods have been applied for detecting weathering in coals, Gieseler maximum fluidity being the most sensitive indicator of the loss of thermoplastic properties. Carbonization tests were carried out in a semi-industrial and a movable-wall ovens available at the INCAR Coking Test Plant. In addition to the measurements of internal gas pressure and cooling pressure, laboratory tests to measure expansion/contraction behavior of coals were performed. There is a clear decrease in internal gas pressure with weathering, measured in the semi-industrial oven. A decrease in wall pressure after two months of weathering followed by a period of stabilization lasting practically ten months were observed. As regards coke quality, no significant changes were produced over a storing period of ten months, but after this date impairment was observed. The behavior of selected individual coals stored without grinding, which are components of the blend, was rather different. Some coals showed a maximum wall pressure through the weathering period. Coke quality improved with some coals and was impaired with others due to weathering. It should be pointed out that slight weathering improved coke quality not only in high-volatile and fluid coals but also in medium-volatile coals.

  20. Baroclinic tides in the Indonesian seas: Tidal fields and comparisons to observations

    E-print Network

    Ffield, Amy

    in Makassar Strait and the Ceram Sea with an amphidromic point forming in the Timor Sea. Diurnal tides wereBaroclinic tides in the Indonesian seas: Tidal fields and comparisons to observations Robin; published 22 July 2008. [1] Barotropic and baroclinic tides were simulated for the Indonesia Seas using

  1. PROJECT SUMMARY Impact of Nonlinear Barotropic Tides in the North Pacific -D. Luther, U. H.

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    shelves (which are all forced by the pelagic tides) result in a flow of energy back into the open ocean. The work to be accomplished under this proposal will ultimately result in improved open ocean tide models. Overview. The daily surface tides in the ocean, forced by gravitational perturbations arising from

  2. An empirical investigation of nonlinear energy transfer from the M2 internal tide to diurnal

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    An empirical investigation of nonlinear energy transfer from the M2 internal tide to diurnal wave for evidence of nonlinear energy transfers from the M2 internal tide to diurnal waves. The 6 month records at the diurnal tides O1 and K1, with a minimum at the intermediate M2 subharmonic, M2/2. The ratio of velocity

  3. Internal tide generation at the continental shelf modelled using a modal decomposition

    E-print Network

    Internal tide generation at the continental shelf modelled using a modal decomposition: two are required. Using this formulation, we calculate the internal tide generated by a time-periodic barotropic fluxes associated with the internal tide. For the uniformly stratified case, we study numerically how

  4. Barotropic tides in the South Atlantic Bight Brian O. Blanton,1

    E-print Network

    Barotropic tides in the South Atlantic Bight Brian O. Blanton,1 Francisco E. Werner,1 Harvey E tides are examined for the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) of the eastern United States coast. We combine dissipative and affects the regional energy balance of the semidiurnal tides. Nearshore, inner, and midshelf

  5. Journal of Geodynamics 41 (2006) 128132 Advances in Southern Ocean tide modeling

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Geodynamics 41 (2006) 128­132 Advances in Southern Ocean tide modeling Yuchan Yia,, Koji Kingdom Accepted 30 August 2005 Abstract Tides in the polar region play a major role in the dynamics of sea ice and floating glacial ice shelves. Existing ocean tide models are much less accurate in coastal

  6. NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF TIDE-POOL FISHES FROM KADIAK ISLAND By CLOUDSLEY RUTTER,

    E-print Network

    NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF TIDE-POOL FISHES FROM KADIAK ISLAND IN ALASKA. By CLOUDSLEY RUTTER, there being no harbor. In some places the tide recedes .as much as 100 yards, in which case there are a few true tide pools. Most of the fishes, however, were obtained among the bowlders. Just west of Karluk

  7. OBLIQUE INTERNAL TIDE GENERATION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    OBLIQUE INTERNAL TIDE GENERATION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY results from the generation of baroclinic tides at seamounts and ridges. A nonlinear hydrostatic model velocity when the Coriolis parameter is zero and the model is forced with a rectilinear tide. This energy

  8. Internal tides and baroclinicity in the southern Weddell Sea 1. Model description

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Robin

    Internal tides and baroclinicity in the southern Weddell Sea 1. Model description Robin Robertson mechanisms, such as internal tides, have the potential to mix these water masses and form Antarctic Bottom fields generated by the interaction of the M2 barotropic tide with topography for transects across

  9. A laboratory study of low-mode internal tide scattering by finite-amplitude topography

    E-print Network

    Dauxois, Thierry

    A laboratory study of low-mode internal tide scattering by finite-amplitude topography Thomas concerning the scattering of a low-mode internal tide by finite-amplitude Gaussian topography. Experiments produces significant reflection of the internal tide and transfer of energy from low to high modes. © 2009

  10. Effect of atmospheric tides on the morphology of the quiet time, postsunset equatorial ionospheric anomaly

    E-print Network

    Mende, Stephen B.

    Effect of atmospheric tides on the morphology of the quiet time, postsunset equatorial ionospheric,it isshownthatthepredictedmodulationofthedaysidethermosphericwindsandtemperaturesat E region altitudes created by non-migrating diurnal tides can explain the modulation understanding of atmospheric tides on a global scale. Citation: England, S. L., T. J. Immel, E. Sagawa, S. B

  11. TIDE: A User-Centric Tool for Identifying Energy Hungry Applications on Smartphones

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Srikanth

    TIDE: A User-Centric Tool for Identifying Energy Hungry Applications on Smartphones Tuan Dao energy, on her phone. Towards addressing this need, we present TIDE, a tool to detect high energy apps on any particular smartphone. TIDE's key characteristic is that it accounts for usage-centric information

  12. Longitudinal variation of the E-region electric fields caused by atmospheric tides

    E-print Network

    Mende, Stephen B.

    Longitudinal variation of the E-region electric fields caused by atmospheric tides S. L. England,1 with the longitudinal variation in the strength of diurnal tides that drive the E-region dynamo. This indicates a strong by atmospheric tides, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21105, doi:10.1029/2006GL027465. 1. Introduction [2] While

  13. Solar Semidiurnal Tide in the Dusty Atmosphere of Mars JEFFREY M. FORBES

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    Solar Semidiurnal Tide in the Dusty Atmosphere of Mars JEFFREY M. FORBES Department of Aerospace November 2005) ABSTRACT Vertical coupling due to the solar semidiurnal tide in Mars's atmosphere km. Breaking (convective instability) of the semidiurnal tide is parameterized using a linear

  14. Morphological modeling of a nourished bayside beach with a low tide terrace

    E-print Network

    Kirby, James T.

    Morphological modeling of a nourished bayside beach with a low tide terrace Fengyan Shi a, , Feng 2013 Accepted 18 March 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Morphological model Bayside beach Low tide­long term beach profile evolution of a bayside beach with a low tide terrace. Bayside beaches

  15. STORM TIDE SIMULATIONS FOR HURRICANE HUGO (1989): ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INCLUDING INLAND FLOODING AREAS

    E-print Network

    Central Florida, University of

    1989-01-01

    STORM TIDE SIMULATIONS FOR HURRICANE HUGO (1989): ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INCLUDING INLAND FLOODING Florida Orlando, Florida Summer Term 2004 #12;ABSTRACT In this study, storm tides are simulated element models with triangular elements are applied in order to simulate the storm tides, allow

  16. A Review of Internal Tide Observations by Acoustic Tomography and Altimetry Brian Dushaw

    E-print Network

    Dushaw, Brian

    A Review of Internal Tide Observations by Acoustic Tomography and Altimetry Brian Dushaw Applied@apl.washington.edu Internal-tide waves that travel great distances from their origin at ocean topographic features have been that low-mode internal tides can travel great distances. The MODE array consisted of 16 moorings

  17. Hurricane CHARLEY Preliminary Water Levels Tide gauges (yellow) within the path (orange) of Hurricane Charley

    E-print Network

    Hurricane CHARLEY Preliminary Water Levels Report Tide gauges (yellow) within the path (orange #12;CO-OPS Tide Gauge Data for Hurricane Charley NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) maintains a network of tide gauges along the Gulf Coast of the United States from

  18. Direct breaking of the internal tide near topography: Kaena Ridge, Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Klymak, Jody M.

    Direct breaking of the internal tide near topography: Kaena Ridge, Hawaii JODY M. KLYMAK1, ROBERT. During spring tides the waves are non-linear and exhibit convective instabilities on their leading edge cannot be expected to work. #12;APRIL 2007 3 1. Introduction As the barotropic tide forces stratified

  19. Structure of the Baroclinic Tide Generated at Kaena Ridge, Hawaii JONATHAN D. NASH

    E-print Network

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    Structure of the Baroclinic Tide Generated at Kaena Ridge, Hawaii JONATHAN D. NASH College-depth density and velocity are used to quantify generation and radiation of the semidiurnal internal tide from. Introduction Interest in internal tides has been revived by recog- nition that up to one-third of the surface

  20. Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans

    E-print Network

    Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans Benjamin are common for zonal (east-west propagating) internal tides in the deep oceans. Inclusion of the full that turning depths cannot occur for meridional and near-meridional internal tides, but the `non

  1. Impact of solid Earth tide models on GPS coordinate and tropospheric time series

    E-print Network

    Tregoning, Paul

    Impact of solid Earth tide models on GPS coordinate and tropospheric time series C. Watson,1 P modelled signals in the geodetic analysis. In this study, we use two solid Earth tide models (IERS2003, and R. Coleman (2006), Impact of solid Earth tide models on GPS coordinate and tropospheric time series

  2. Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography

    E-print Network

    535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

  3. 75 FR 20371 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel LEBOUEF TIDE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... LEBOUEF TIDE. The horizontal distance between the forward and aft masthead lights may be 25 -9 ....

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Internal Tide Generation by Two-Dimensional THOMAS PEACOCK AND PAULA ECHEVERRI

    E-print Network

    Balmforth, Neil

    An Experimental Investigation of Internal Tide Generation by Two-Dimensional Topography THOMAS December 2006, in final form 23 February 2007) ABSTRACT Experimental results of internal tide generation-dimensional (2D) ridges are considered to be the strongest generators of baroclinic (internal) tides because

  5. IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection

    E-print Network

    Larson, Kristine

    IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection Case Study from records from a traditional tide gauge at Seldovia Harbor, 30 km away. The GPS and Seldovia differences in the tide over 30 km as it propagates up Kachemak Bay. For daily mean sea levels the agreement

  6. Internaltide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides S. M. Kelly1

    E-print Network

    Internaltide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides S. M. Kelly1 and J. D. Nash1. [1] Internaltide generation is usually predicted from local topography, surface tides, and stratification. However, internal tides are often observed to be unrelated to local springneap forcing, appearing

  7. 75 FR 20371 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...for the offshore supply vessel LEBOUEF TIDE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c...for the offshore supply vessel LEBOUEF TIDE. The horizontal distance between the...

  8. Modeling internal tides and mixing over ocean ridges Donald N. Slinn1

    E-print Network

    Slinn, Donald

    Modeling internal tides and mixing over ocean ridges Donald N. Slinn1 and Murray D. Levine2 1 during spring tides in a region above a steep slope. To study possible mixing mechanisms, we utilize the large-scale thermo-haline circulation are not well understood but it is thought that internal tides play

  9. Singularly perturbed degenerated parabolic equations and application to seabed morphodynamics in tided environment

    E-print Network

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    in tided environment Ibrahima FAYE Emmanuel FRENOD Diaraf SECK May 12, 2010 Abstract In this paper we build 209, IRD, France. dseck@ucad.sn 1 #12;1 Introduction and results 2 within tide-influenced environment is essentially not efficient. The reason why is that tide oscillation generally prompts a coming and going

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL TIDES IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS BY THE SPICAM INSTRUMENT.

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL TIDES IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS BY THE SPICAM INSTRUMENT. P. Withers, such as density, pressure and temperature, that are driven by periodic solar forcing are known as thermal tides (Chapman and Lindzen, 1970; Forbes, 1995). Thermal tides are particularly prominent on Mars due to its

  11. 21. A LOW TIDE VIEW OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. A LOW TIDE VIEW OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL'S CHANNEL FACING STONEWORK, LOOKING EAST FROM THE POINT WHERE MODERN RIPRAP BEGINS TO COVER THE WALL, ABOUT 2,000 FEET FROM THE WEST END. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Oceanography for Divers: Waves, Tides, and Currents. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    To dive safely, it is suggested that the diver have a working knowledge of waves, tides, currents, and water quality. Lack of understanding and respect for ocean currents and surf can be of serious consequence to the diver. This paper on the diving environment is designed to provide the diver with a general understanding of the physical…

  13. Nonlinear interactions of waves and tides in a subterranean estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Wang, Shen S. J.; Lu, Chunhui; Robinson, Clare; Li, Ling

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed hysteretic behavior in subterranean estuaries in response to intensified wave conditions caused by offshore storm events, showing dependence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and subsurface salt distribution on historic wave conditions. Although most shorelines worldwide are also exposed to tidal fluctuations, it is unclear how tides moderate wave-induced SGD and salinity distribution in subterranean estuaries. This study presents numerical simulations that explore the combined influence of intensified wave conditions and tides on groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary. The results show that tides weaken the hysteretic wave effect on SGD, suggesting that a tidally influenced subterranean estuary is less sensitive to intensified wave conditions with respect to the water fluxes across the aquifer-sea interface. However, due to enhancement of salt-freshwater mixing, tides strengthen the hysteretic wave effect on the salt fluxes across the aquifer-sea interface, prolonging the recovery of salt distribution in the subterranean estuary to the prestorm state. These findings reveal the nonlinear, coupling nature of processes driven by oceanic oscillations at different time scales in subterranean estuaries.

  14. 5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing the lining of the bottom of the marsh, with dam in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. TOPOGRAPHICALLYCONTROLLED THERMAL TIDES IN THE MARTIAN UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    30 CHAPTER 2 TOPOGRAPHICALLY­CONTROLLED THERMAL TIDES IN THE MARTIAN UPPER ATMOSPHERE 2.1 Abstract Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer observations of the martian upper atmosphere have revealed large of large variations in density with longitude observed in the martian upper atmosphere with the Mars Global

  16. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST ACROSS THE RIVER AT LOW TIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST ACROSS THE RIVER AT LOW TIDE, FROM JUST BELOW THE CIDER PRESS. NOTE THE FOUNDATIONS AND PILINGS OF A FORMER BOATHOUSE STRUCTURE VISIBLE IN THE FOREGROUND - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. How Tidal Forces Cause Ocean Tides in the Equilibrium Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2015-01-01

    We analyse why it is erroneous to think that a tidal bulge is formed by pulling the water surface directly up by a local vertical tidal force. In fact, ocean tides are caused by the global effect of the horizontal components of the tidal forces.

  18. 1620 Geographos and 433 Eros: Shaped by Planetary Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottke, William F., Jr.; Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Love, Stanley G.

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, most asteroids were thought to be solid bodies whose shapes were determined largely by collisions with other asteroids. It now seems that many asteroids are little more than rubble piles, held together by self-gravity; this means that their shapes may be strongly affected by tides during close encounters with planets.

  19. Wind Stress Forcing of the North Sea "Pole Tide"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, William P.; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Zheng, Dawei; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted numerical simulations of the wind-forcing of the sea level variations in the North Sea using a barotropic ocean model with realistic geography, bathymetry, and boundary conditions, to examine the forcing of the 14-month "pole tide" which is known to be strong along the Denmark- Netherlands coast. The simulation input is the monthly-mean surface wind stress field from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the 40-year period 1958-1997. The output sea level response was then compared with 10 coastal tide gauge records from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Besides the strong seasonal variations, several prominent quasi-periodicities exist at around 7 years, 3 years, 14 months, 9 months, and 6.5 months. Correlation and spectral analyses show remarkable agreement between the model output and the observations, particularly in the 14-month, or Chandler period band. The latter indicates that the enhanced pole tide found in the North Sea along the Denmark-Netherlands coast is actually the coastal setup response to wind stress forcing with a periodicity of 14 months. We find no need to invoke a geophysical explanation involving resonance-enhancement of pole tide in the North Sea to explain the observations.

  20. NOAA's National Weather Service Building a Weather-Ready Nation

    E-print Network

    NOAA's National Weather Service Building a Weather-Ready Nation For more information, please visit: www.noaa.gov and www.nws.noaa.gov NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) is the Nation's official source for weather and water data, forecasts, and warnings. From information accessed on your smartphone

  1. CHEMICAL WEATHERING AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN ACID FOREST SOILS: DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF SOIL TYPE, BIOTIC PROCESSES, AND H+ DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the investigation, weathering rates were calculated for three eastern North American forest soils using five separate estimation techniques. In addition, leaching experiments were performed to examine the influence of selected environmental variables on the weathering process....

  2. Earth tides of an ellipsoidal, inelastic, and laterally heterogeneous Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Shibuya, K.

    2012-12-01

    We used five stations covering a range of latitudes from 60°N to 70°S: METSÄHOVI, STRASBOURG, SUTHERLAND, CANBERRA, and SYOWA with Superconducting Gravimeter with sufficiently high-resolution data available for durations of at least five years to validate theoretical estimation based on an existing method. For the Earth model, we selected the model of Dehant et al. (1999) to validate the latitude dependency and inelasticity of gravimetric factor. We also used the model of Métivier and Conrad (2008) to validate the lateral heterogeneity of gravity observation. For the correction of ocean loading effect, we tested recent four global ocean tide models (TPXO7-atlas, EOT11a, DTU10, and HAMTIDE11a) as well as old ocean tide models. We estimated the misfit between the observed loading effect and the modeled ocean loading effect for the three main waves (O1, K1, and M2) at each station. Anomalous discrepancies at METSÄHOVI and SYOWA based on old ocean tide models were diminished by the use of recent ocean tide models. Gravimetric factors for K1, corrected using optimum recent ocean tide models, showed the possibility of obtaining parameters conforming to the prediction curve of model of inelastic non-hydrostatic Earth. Gravimetric factors corrected using optimum ocean tide models at METSÄHOVI, STRASBOURG, and CANBERRA showed tendencies towards the theoretical values for latitude dependence. However, at SUTHERLAND and SYOWA, large offsets from theoretical values were observed. These stations show the remaining misfits, 0.0733 and 0.0847 microGal, respectively. We think the portion of the anomaly could not be explained by the perturbation from the mantle convection, because the amplitude of gravity perturbation at these stations is very small. For example, at SUTHERLAND, the final residual for K1 band is 85 nanoGal but gravity perturbation by lateral heterogeneity is just ~0.81 nanoGal: Gravity perturbations up to 120 nanoGal for all bands come from mostly in Indonesia and South America. Thus, we conclude that the validation of latitude dependence and inelasticity of gravimetric factor could be done using actually 2-D model (Dehant et al., 1999) and that the origin of most of anomaly is still the inaccuracy of calibration factor and ocean tide model.

  3. Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Red tides Paralytic shellfish poisoning Cluster analysis CART modeling association between Alexandrium abundance and shell- fish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass

  4. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  5. Weather Information Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  6. Weathering of Martian Evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as huskies and other dogs bred for colder climates, are more tolerant of cold weather; but no ... the winter to generate enough body heat and energy to keep them warm – talk to your veterinarian ...

  8. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  9. Neighborhood Weatherization, Houston 

    E-print Network

    Fowler, M.

    2011-01-01

    . Referrals http://www.click2houston.com/video/24501979/index.html 2010 CLEAResult. All rights reserved. Milestone Celebration 2010 CLEAResult. All rights reserved. 10,000 Homes Weatherized 2010 CLEAResult. All rights reserved. CATEE...

  10. Weathering in a Cup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadum, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

  11. Standing internal tides in the Tasman Sea observed by gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Low-mode internal tides are generated at tall submarine ridges, propagate across the open ocean with little attenuation, and possibly shoal at or reflect from distant continental slopes. Such a semidiurnal internal tide beam emanates from the Macquarie Ridge, south of New Zealand, crosses the Tasman Sea, and impinges on the Tasmanian slope. The beam is identified in previous altimetric observations and modelling. Spatial surveys by two autonomous underwater gliders with maximum profile depths of 500-1000 m estimate the mode-1 incident and reflected flux magnitudes to be 1-2 kW/m. Uncertainties on the glider-measured mode-1 flux magnitude are 40-90% (arising from both a limited profiling depth and angular resolution of the gliders' survey pattern, which is treated as an internal wave antenna). The direction of the incident internal tides are consistent with altimetry and modelling, while the reflected tide is consistent with specular reflection from a straight coastline. Refraction by the offshore East Tasman Plateau may focus the incident waves on the steepest part of the slope. The steep slope reflects almost all of the incident energy flux into a reflected wave to form a standing wave. Reflectivity is 0.8-1 at the steep slope in the beam (i.e., the area with greatest energy density), with the remaining fraction (0-0.2) of the incident energy either lost to mixing at this steep slope or transmitted onto the shelf. Starting from the slope and moving offshore by a half wavelength, kinetic energy density displays a node-antinode-node structure, while potential energy density shows an antinode-node-antinode structure. Observations of standing internal tides are few in number.

  12. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    PubMed

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. PMID:25972565

  13. Seasonal habitat-use patterns of nekton in a tide-restricted and unrestricted New England salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many New England salt marshes remain tide-restricted or are undergoing tidal restoration. Hydrologic manipulation of salt marshes affects marsh biogeochemistry and vegetation patterns, but responses by fishes and decapod crustaceans (nekton) remain unclear, This study examines nekton habitat-use patterns in the tide-restricted Hatches Harbor salt marsh (Provincetown, Massachusetts) relative to a downstream, unrestricted marsh. Nekton assemblages were sampled in tidal creek, marsh pool, and salt marsh surface habitats. Pools and creeks were sampled every two weeks for one year to account for seasonal variability, and the marsh surface was sampled at two-week intervals in summer and fall. Density, richness, and community composition of nekton in creek and marsh surface habitats were similar between the unrestricted and restricted marsh, but use of pools differed drastically on the two sides of the tide-restricting dike. In 95% of the cases tested, restricted marsh habitats provided equal or greater habitat value for nekton than the same habitat in the unrestricted marsh (based on density), suggesting that the restricted marsh did not provide a degraded habitat for most species. For some species, the restricted marsh provided nursery, breeding, and overwintering habitat during different seasons, and tidal restoration of this salt marsh must be approached with care to prevent losses of these valuable marsh functions.

  14. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  15. Fortnightly atmospheric tides forced by spring and neap tides in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Miyao, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on atmospheric processes over the open ocean has been well documented. However, atmospheric responses to SST in coastal waters are poorly understood. Oceanic stratification (and consequently, SST) in coastal waters largely depends on the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle, because of variations in vertical tidal mixing. Here we investigate how changes in SST during the fortnightly tidal cycle affect the lower-level atmosphere over the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We use a combination of in situ measurements, satellite observations and a regional atmospheric model. We find that the SST in summer shows cool (warm) anomalies over most of the inland sea during spring (neap) tides. Additionally, surface air temperature is positively correlated with the SST as it varies during the fortnightly tidal cycle. Moreover, the fortnightly spring-neap cycle also influences the surface wind speed because the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stabilized or destabilized in response to the difference between air temperature and SST. PMID:25984948

  16. Fortnightly atmospheric tides forced by spring and neap tides in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Miyao, Yasuyuki

    2015-05-01

    The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on atmospheric processes over the open ocean has been well documented. However, atmospheric responses to SST in coastal waters are poorly understood. Oceanic stratification (and consequently, SST) in coastal waters largely depends on the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle, because of variations in vertical tidal mixing. Here we investigate how changes in SST during the fortnightly tidal cycle affect the lower-level atmosphere over the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We use a combination of in situ measurements, satellite observations and a regional atmospheric model. We find that the SST in summer shows cool (warm) anomalies over most of the inland sea during spring (neap) tides. Additionally, surface air temperature is positively correlated with the SST as it varies during the fortnightly tidal cycle. Moreover, the fortnightly spring-neap cycle also influences the surface wind speed because the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stabilized or destabilized in response to the difference between air temperature and SST.

  17. Fortnightly atmospheric tides forced by spring and neap tides in coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Miyao, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on atmospheric processes over the open ocean has been well documented. However, atmospheric responses to SST in coastal waters are poorly understood. Oceanic stratification (and consequently, SST) in coastal waters largely depends on the fortnightly spring–neap tidal cycle, because of variations in vertical tidal mixing. Here we investigate how changes in SST during the fortnightly tidal cycle affect the lower-level atmosphere over the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We use a combination of in situ measurements, satellite observations and a regional atmospheric model. We find that the SST in summer shows cool (warm) anomalies over most of the inland sea during spring (neap) tides. Additionally, surface air temperature is positively correlated with the SST as it varies during the fortnightly tidal cycle. Moreover, the fortnightly spring–neap cycle also influences the surface wind speed because the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stabilized or destabilized in response to the difference between air temperature and SST. PMID:25984948

  18. Hazardous Weather Plan Support Document

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    StormReady Hazardous Weather Plan Support Document Annex A Warning #12;ii Ver. 3.0 05/2014 RECORD OF CHANGES StormReady Hazardous Weather Plan Support Document 12 to Annex A Warning Change # Date of Change. REPORTING DAMAGE TO THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE.....................6 VIII. GLOSSARY OF WEATHER TERMS

  19. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gathering events have not been fully researched. This review examines these events and aims to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering disasters due to weather or environmental hazards leading to participant death, injury or illness were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring due to crowd variables were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 20 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters relating directly to weather or environmental hazards from 1988 – 2011, with only 17 cases found within peer-review literature. Two events grey literature from 2011 are due to undergo further inquiry while one article reviews an event originally occurring in 1922. Analysis of cases were categorised in to heat and cold-related events, lightning and storms and disease outbreak. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, Prior health resource and environmental planning for heat & cold-related illness, lightning & storms, and disease outbreak can advance emergency preparedness and response to potential disasters. Citation: Soomaroo L, Murray V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 31 Keywords: Mass Gatherings, Disasters, Sporting Events, Festivals, Concerts, Storm, Lightning, Cyclone, Hot-weather illness, Cold-weather illness, Disease, Public Health, Syndromic Surveillance Abbreviations: ALS – Advance Life support; BLS – Basic Life support; ED – Emergency Department; EMS – Emergency Medical Services; PPR – Patient Presentation Rate PMID:22953242

  20. Linking storm surge activity and circulation variability along the Spanish coast through a synoptic pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; Garcia Codrón, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The potentially negative consequences resulting from the estimations of global sea level rising along the current century are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. Most of the negative consequences of the sea level variability, such as flooding or erosion, are linked to episodic events of strong atmospheric forcing represented by deep atmospheric disturbances, especially if they combine with extreme astronomical high tides. Moreover, the interaction between the prevailing flows during such events and the actual orientation of the coast line might accelerate or mitigate such impacts. This contribution analyses sea surge variations measured at five tide-gauge stations located around the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with regional scale circulation patterns with local-scale winds. Its aim is to improve the knowledge of surge related-coastal-risks by analysing the relationship between surges and their atmospheric forcing factors at different spatial scales. The oceanographic data set consists of hourly data from 5 tide gauge stations (Santander, Vigo, Bonanza, Málaga, Valencia and Barcelona) disseminated along the Spanish coastline, provided by Puertos del Estado. To explore the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the sign and magnitude of sea surges, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) were combined with a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks over the Atlantic and local information (synop reports) obtained from the closest meteorological stations to the tide gauges. The synoptic catalogue was obtained following a procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the circulation types. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis, while storm tracks and cyclone statistics were extracted from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). The second task was to evaluate the performance of each circulation type on the spatial patterns of a daily fire danger risk index (Canadian Fire Weather Index, FWI). Finally, anomaly maps of several surface and low level climate variables, corresponding to the dates of ignition of the very large forest fires within each synoptic pattern, were calculated to provide insight of the specific conditions associated to those extreme events. A principal component analysis upon 6 hourly residuals highlighted the homogeneous behaviour of the tide gauges and provided a regional quantitative index to identify the largest storm surges. The leading PCA displayed a homogeneous spatial pattern, describing the low frequency variability along the entire coast, in spite of different orientations of the coast, accounting for more than 80% of the total variability. The second PCA displayed opposite phases between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the results suggest that surges are a regional rather than local phenomenon, probably related to the same single physical forcing. The comparison between extreme surge events and circulation patterns highlighted that single physical mechanism is represented by extratropical cyclonic disturbances located at the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, responsible for an environment characterized by low pressure readings and westerly-southwesterly winds. That wind pattern acquires an onshore component in the Atlantic coast, but becomes offshore in the Mediterranean. So, the main mechanism responsible for those storm surges is the inverse barometer effect, being the wind dragging secondary. The main physical forcing of the storm surges, the extratropical cyclones, have experience a reduction of this frequency and a marked reduction in their strength since 1950, replaced by stable circulations. Both conditions suggest a long term reduction of the frequency and the magnitude of storm surges.

  1. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

  2. Simulation and video animation of canal flushing created by a tide gate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A tide-gate algorithm was added to a one-dimensional unsteady flow model that was calibrated, verified, and used to determine the locations of as many as five tide gates that would maximize flushing in two canal systems. Results from the flow model were used to run a branched Lagrangian transport model to simulate the flushing of a conservative constituent from the canal systems both with and without tide gates. A tide gate produces a part-time riverine flow through the canal system that improves flushing along the flow path created by the tide gate. Flushing with no tide gates and with a single optimally located tide gate are shown with a video animation.

  3. Numerical Internal Tide Scattering, Diffraction, and Dissipation on the Tasman Continental Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymak, J. M.; Simmons, H. L.; MacKinnon, J. A.; Alford, M. H.; Pinkel, R.

    2014-12-01

    Internal tides generated at steep topography tend to propagate far from their source with little local mixing. Where does this energy dissipate? One candidate is via reflection on continental slopes. The upcoming Tasmanian Internal Tide Experiment aims to look at the reflection of internal tide generated near New Zealand and track its reflection from the Tasmanian Continental Slope. Here we consider numerical studies to track the propagation of the internal tide onto this slope and its dissipation. We find a strong interference patterns sets up, as expected from a reflecting tide. The pattern is complicated by the ``Tasman Rise'' positioned near the center of the incoming internal tide beam, causing a diffraction pattern to focus and defocus the tide along the slope. Dissipative mechanisms on the slope include turbulent lee waves from small cross-slope ridges, and along-slope lee-waves trapped and breaking in corrugations in the slope.

  4. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-10-01

    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  5. Equilibrium Tides Along with surface gravity waves, the predictable rise and fall of sea level at the coast are

    E-print Network

    Thompson, LuAnne

    of the barotropic tides with topography can then also generate baroclinic internal gravity waves, as we have seen, and the tides propagate as Poincare (inertia-gravity) waves and Kelvin waves. Observations of tides The methods of various frequencies. These components are called partial tides or tidal constituents. For example, if we

  6. Internal tides and baroclinicity in the Southern Weddell Sea 2. Effects of the critical latitude and stratification

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Robin

    1 Internal tides and baroclinicity in the Southern Weddell Sea 2. Effects of the critical latitude front was absent, generation of internal tides was negligible. Generation of internal tides was greatest to significantly enhance internal tide generation and/or the benthic effects. 1. Introduction Tidal dynamics

  7. 75 FR 32450 - TideWorks, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TideWorks, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...: January 15, 2010. d. Applicant: TideWorks, LLC. e. Name of Project: TideWorks Project. f. Location: On the... requested additional information from TideWorks, LLC including project operation, water velocity,...

  8. 75 FR 5070 - TideWorks, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TideWorks, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: TideWorks, LLC. e. Name of Project: TideWorks Project. f. Location: On the Sasanoa River adjacent... for environmental analysis at this time. n. Description of Project: The TideWorks Project...

  9. Observations of Internal Tides on the Oregon Continental Slope KIM I. MARTINI, MATTHEW H. ALFORD, AND ERIC KUNZE

    E-print Network

    Observations of Internal Tides on the Oregon Continental Slope KIM I. MARTINI, MATTHEW H. ALFORD A complex superposition of locally forced and shoaling remotely generated semidiurnal internal tides occurs neap tides, during which the proportions of the locally and remotely forced internal tides vary

  10. Measurements of salinity, temperature, and tides in south San Francisco Bay, California, at Dumbarton Bridge; 1990-93 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures salinity, temperature, and water levels (tides) in southern San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton Bridge as part of a cooperative program with the California State Department of Water Resources. During water years 1990-93, measurements were made at 15-minute intervals with electonic sensors located approximately one meter above the substrate in approximately six meters of water (at mean water level). During March and April of 1991 and 1992, salinity and temperature also were measured with a self-contained system floating one meter below the surface of the water. Sections of the data set were selected to illustrate influences of tidal currents, weather events, and seasonal and interannual variations in climate on salinity, temperature, and water levels at this location. The edited data are provided on high-density disks in comma-delimited, ASCII text files.

  11. Observation of internal wave polarity conversion generated by a rising tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lan; Wang, Caixia; Grimshaw, Roger

    2015-05-01

    The observations reported here are based on time series of in situ observation data in Laoshan Bay off the Qingdao coast. A chain of thermistors (T-chain) at a fixed location recorded a sequence of elevation internal waves followed by depression internal waves passing by over an elapsed time of about 1 h. This observed polarity conversion at a fixed location is caused by the vertical stratification variation mainly induced by the rising tide, which is believed to be the first reported observation of this kind. The process of an elevation internal wave train converting to a depression wave train is simulated using the variable-coefficient extended Korteweg-de Vries (veKdV) equation, which also provides a further comparison between theory and the reported observations.

  12. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  13. GPS estimates of ocean tide loading in NW-France: determination of ocean tide loading constituents and comparison with a recent ocean tide model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergnolle, M.; Bouin, M.-N.; Morel, L.; Masson, F.; Durand, S.; Nicolas, J.; Melachroinos, S. A.

    2008-05-01

    Ocean loading effects cause 3-D displacements large enough to affect space geodesy measurements either at the subdiurnal periods or at longer time scales by the means of spurious signals. GPS measurements, in turn, could provide local improvements of the models in coastal areas if their ability to precisely monitor such rapid displacements is assessed. In this paper, we use 105 days of continuous GPS measurements collected in 2004 in the French Brittany and Cotentin region to investigate: (1) the precision achieved by the GPS analysis on measuring 3-D subdiurnal displacements and amplitude and phase of the tidal constituents, (2) the quality of the most recent ocean tide model FES2004 in such a complex coastal context. Indeed, in this area, tide amplitudes are among the largest in the world (up to 16 cm of loading displacements on the vertical component) and are believed to show strong shallow-water tides. From a state of the art GPS analysis using the scientific GAMIT software over 2-h sessions, we test two independent strategies for the realization of the reference frame. The position time series are then compared with the displacements predicted by the FES2004 model applied on an elastic Earth model. The two sets of results are consistent with each other at the same level of agreement than with the predicted displacements, namely 3-5 mm on the horizontal components, 10 mm on the vertical. This assesses the capability of this technique for measuring 3-D ocean tide loading deformation. We validate the FES2004 model in the Brittany area, even though it slightly (2-7 mm) underestimates the three components amplitudes. With a harmonic analysis of the observed position time series, we obtain nevertheless an agreement at a submillimetre level for the M2, N2, O1, Q1 tidal constituents and at a millimetre level for the K1 and S2 tidal constituents. Moreover, we can extract a significant M4 load signal at the 95 per cent confidence level from the GPS time series at the stations located in the Mont St Michel area. The detection of other shallow-water constituents would be helpful to understand the amplitude deficit between the FES2004 predicted and GPS observed displacements.

  14. Does lunisolar gravitational tide affect the activity of animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2010-12-01

    Multiyear time series obtained by the continuous instrumental monitoring of the electrical activity (EA) of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and the motor activity (MA) of the freshwater catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum and the cockroach Blaberus craniifer are compared to the parameters of the lunisolar gravitational tide. These curves are observed to be very similar for a large number of time intervals. However, a more detailed analysis shows this to be only a superficial resemblance caused by the closeness of the periods of diurnal and semidiurnal rhythms of bioindicator activity (the dominant rhythms in EA and MA patterns) and the periods of main gravitational tidal waves. It is concluded that the lunisolar gravitational tide has no significant effect on animal behavior in our experiment.

  15. Characterizing the semidiurnal internal tide off Tasmania using glider data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettger, Daniel; Robertson, Robin; Rainville, Luc

    2015-05-01

    The spatial structure of the semidiurnal internal tide in the vicinity of Tasmania is characterized using temperature and salinity data from Seaglider and Slocum glider deployments. Wavelet analysis of isopycnal displacements measured by the gliders was used to isolate the semidiurnal internal tide, with a solid signal observed both to the east and to the south of Tasmania. The signal south of Tasmania was attributed to local forcing, while that to the east of Tasmania was found to have propagated from the south east to the north west—a result which supports previous studies indicating the presence of an internal tidal beam originating over the Macquarie Ridge, south of New Zealand. Displacement amplitudes were observed to be amplified in the vicinity of the continental slope, with the incoming tidal beam shown to be both reflected and scattered on the continental slope and shelf, and energy transferred to higher modes.

  16. Relative sea levels from tide-gauge records

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.O.

    1980-12-01

    Mean annual sea levels at 247 tide-gauge stations of the world exhibit a general rise of relative sea level of about 3 mm/year during the past 40 years. In contrast, general uplift of the land is typical of high northern latitudes, where unloading of the crust by melt of Pleistocene ice sheets is significant. Erratic movements are typical of belts having crustal overthrusting and active volcanism. Short-term (5- and 10-year) records reveal recent changes in rates, but such short time spans may be so influenced by climatic cycles that identification of new trends is difficult, especially with the existing poor distribution and reporting of tide-gauge data.

  17. Observing atmospheric tides in Earth rotation parameters with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Böhm, Johannes; Schindelegger, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assess the contribution of diurnal (S1) and semi-diurnal (S2) atmospheric tides to variations in Earth rotation by analyzing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. Particular emphasis is placed on the dependency of S1 and S2 estimates on varying settings in the a priori delay model. We use hourly Earth rotation parameters (ERP) of polar motion and UT1 as determined with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) from 25 years of VLBI observations and we adjust diurnal and semi-diurnal amplitudes to the hourly ERP estimates after disregarding the effect of high-frequency ocean tides. Prograde and retrograde polar motion coefficients are obtained for several solutions differing in processing strategies (with/without thermal deformation, time span of observations, choice of a priori ERP model and celestial pole offsets) and we compare the corresponding harmonics with those derived from atmospheric and non-tidal oceanic angular momentum estimates.

  18. How do high tides and low tides occur? Is it possible to have an Earth-like planet orbiting a multiple-star system?

    E-print Network

    Redner, Sidney

    How do high tides and low tides occur? Is it possible to have an Earth-like planet orbiting a multiple-star system? Is there a maximum number of suns a planet could orbit and have we discovered any planets orbiting multiple-star systems? How do dunking birds work? How are we able to have water maintain

  19. Tides on the Patagonian shelf from the Seasat radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here is to show comparisons between measurements of the sea surface height by the Seasat radar altimeter and tidal elevations based on gauge data along the coast for two passes by the satellite along the shelf. The results provide initial confirmation that tides can be detected in this region by way of satellite altimetry. The study extends a similar presentation by Parke (1980).

  20. The enhanced nodal equilibrium ocean tide and polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The tidal response of the ocean to long period forcing functions was investigated. The results indicate the possibility of excitation of a wobble component with the amplitude and frequency indicated by the data. An enhancement function for the equilibrium tide was postulated in the form of an expansion in zonal harmonics and the coefficients of such an expansion were estimated so as to obtain polar motion components of the required magnitude.