Note: This page contains sample records for the topic weather variability tides from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (? = 0.15, p-value < 0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (? = ?1.03, p-value = 0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention.

Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

2006-01-01

2

Failure to predict abundance of saltmarsh mosquitoes Aedes sollicitans and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) by using variables of tide and weather.  

PubMed

Weather and tide variables were used to develop regression models with light trap counts of Aedes sollicitans (Walker) and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) from 1984 to 1995. Rains, tides, and temperatures, both during and preceding the sample period, all showed significant correlations with trap counts. These multiple regression models forecasted general population levels during 1996 and 1997, but not the size of the peaks. Therefore, weather alone can predict general trends but cannot be used to accurately predict population levels of Ae. sollicitans and Ae. taenio-rhynchus. PMID:9615534

Ailes, M C

1998-05-01

3

Weather sends red tide packing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mobile Register newspaper article provides general information about the impact of a cold front on red tide in Alabama. Red tide in the area had been rising until the front passed through, killing most of the phytoplankton bloom.

Finch, Bill; Register, Mobile

4

Weather Variables Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students collect weather data for eight days and enter it into a chart to look for relationships. Students should find the relationship between air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, and the chance of precipitation. They also should see the relationship between air pressure and cloud cover and the relationship between temperature and air pressure. The site also provides a list of required materials, a formatted copy of the data table, and links to online references.

Hildreth, Carol

5

Tide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives an encyclopedic statement on tides with definitions of various tidal actions, explanations on the formation of tides and historical as well as current studies of various kinds of tides. Statements in generalization are made on tides and t...

B. D. Zetler

1971-01-01

6

Migrating diurnal tide variability induced by propagating planetary waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migrating diurnal tide is one of the dominant dynamical features in the low latitudes of the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region, representing the atmospheric response to the largest component of solar forcing, propagating upwards from excitation regions in the lower atmosphere. Ground-based observations of the tide have resolved short term variations attributed to nonlinear interactions between the tide and planetary waves also in the region. However, the conditions, effects, and mechanisms of a planetary wave - tidal interaction are still unclear. These questions are addressed using the NCAR Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) to examine two types of planetary waves, known to attain significant amplitudes in the low latitude and equatorial region where the migrating diurnal tide is dominant. The quasi-two day wave (QTDW) can rapidly amplify to large amplitudes from the summer hemisphere during post-solstice periods, while ultra fast Kelvin (UFK) waves occur sporadically in the temperature and zonal wind fields of the equatorial lower thermosphere. While child waves resulting from a nonlinear interaction are resolved in both cases, the response of the tidal structure and amplitudes to the two planetary waves differs significantly. In the case of the QTDW, the migrating diurnal tide displays a general amplitude decrease of 20 - 40%, as well as a shortening of vertical wavelength by roughly 4 km. Nonlinear advection is found to result in energy transfer to and from the tide, resulting in latitudinal smoothing of the tidal structure. The QTDW also produces significant changes to the mean zonal winds in the equator and at summer mid to high latitudes that can also account for changes in tidal amplitude and vertical wavelength. Filtering of gravity waves by the altered mean winds can also result in changes to the zonal mean zonal winds in the tropics. However, gravity wave momentum forcing on the tide is smaller than the advective tendencies throughout most of the MLT region, and cannot iv directly account for the changes in the tide during the QTDW model simulation. In the case of the UFK wave, baseline tidal amplitudes are found to show much smaller changes of 10% or less, despite the larger amplitudes of the UFK wave in the lower thermosphere region compared to the QTDW. Analysis of the nonlinear advective tendencies shows smaller magnitudes than those in the the case of the QTDW, with interaction regions limited primarily to a smaller region in latitude and altitude. Increased tidal convergence in the tropical lower thermosphere is attributed to eastward forcing of the background zonal mean winds by the UFK wave. Increasing the UFK wave forcing by an order of magnitude, although unrealistic, results in changes to the tide comparable in magnitude to the case of the QTDW. While child waves generated by nonlinear advection are present with both of the propagating planetary waves examined, the QTDW produces much greater tidal variability through both nonlinear and linear advection due to its broader horizontal and vertical structure, compared to the UFK wave. Planetary wave induced background atmosphere changes can also drive tidal variability, suggesting that changes to the tidal response in the MLT can also result from this indirect coupling mechanism, in addition to nonlinear advection.

Chang, Loren C.

7

Understanding the variability of an extreme storm tide along a coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correctly determining the peak storm tide height along the coastline, and expressing the associated natural variability, is essential for a robust prediction of coastal flood risk. A new approach is proposed that calculates a storm tide relationship (relative to a tide gauge) by using a storm surge model to describe the natural spatial variability based on the features of a large number of very high storm tides. Two historic flood events (1953 and 2007) were used to validate this characteristics approach along the East Anglia coastline (U.K.), and predicted water-levels were found to be in good agreement with tide gauge observations (Root Mean Squared Error of 36 cm), especially when compared to the method of assuming a storm tide of constant return period (Root Mean Squared Error of 59 cm). Detailed observations of storm tide height between tide gauge locations are rare; therefore, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was employed to calculate the LiDAR geo-referenced storm tide height along the North Somerset coastline of the Bristol Channel (U.K.). Two SAR observed "extreme" storm tide events were used to validate the characteristics approach between tide gauges (Root Mean Squared Error of 1.2 m and 0.7 m), and indicated the presence of localised wave effects to the observed storm tide height that could have a significant effect to flood risk estimates.

Lewis, M.; Schumann, G.; Bates, P.; Horsburgh, K.

2013-05-01

8

Energetics and temporal variability of internal tides in Luzon Strait: a nonhydrostatic numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully nonlinear, three-dimensional nonhydrostatic model driven by four principal tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, and O1) is used to investigate the spatial-temporal characteristics and energetics of internal tides in Luzon Strait (LS). The model results show that, during spring (neap) tides, about 64 (47) GW (1 GW=109 W) of barotropic tidal energy is consumed in LS, of which 59.0% (50.5%) is converted to baroclinic tides. About 22 (11) GW of the derived baroclinic energy flux subsequently passes from LS, among which 50.9% (54.3%) flows westward into the South China Sea (SCS) and 45.0% (39.7%) eastward into the Pacific Ocean, and the remaining 16 (13) GW is lost locally owing to dissipation and convection. It is revealed that generation areas of internal tides vary with the spring and neap tide, indicating different source areas for internal solitary waves in the northern SCS. The region around the Batan Islands is the most important generation region of internal tides during both spring and neap tides. In addition, the baroclinic tidal energy has pronounced seasonal variability. Both the total energy transferred from barotropic tides to baroclinic tides and the baroclinic energy flux flowing out of LS are the highest in summer and lowest in winter.

Li, Mingjie; Hou, Yijun; Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Po

2012-09-01

9

SPATIAL INTERPOLATION OF WEATHER VARIABLES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop growth simulation models use weather data such as temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall to simulate crop development and yield. The crop models are often needed for locations with missing or incomplete observed weather data. An accurate estimation of these weather variables has thus become necessary. Artificial neural network (ANN) models could be used to accurately estimate these weather variables.

Bin Li

10

S 2 tide aliasing in GRACE time-variable gravity solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Errors in high-frequency ocean tide models alias to low frequencies in time-variable gravity solutions from the Gravity Recovery\\u000a and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We conduct an observational study of apparent gravity changes at a period of 161 days, the\\u000a alias period of errors in the S2 semidiurnal solar tide. We examine this S2 alias in the release 4 (RL04) reprocessed GRACE monthly

J. L. Chen; C. R. Wilson; Ki-Weon Seo

2009-01-01

11

Correcting low-frequency variability bias in stochastic weather generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic weather generators used with agricultural simulation models tend to under predict interannual variability of generated climate, often resulting in distortion of simulated agricultural or hydrological variables. This study presents a stochastic weather generator that attempts to improve interannual variability characteristics by perturbing monthly parameters using a low-frequency stochastic model, and evaluates the effectiveness of the low-frequency component on interannual

James W Hansen; Theodoros Mavromatis

2001-01-01

12

Relationships between condensation nuclei number concentration, tides, and standard meteorological variables at Mace Head, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The set of hourly averaged condensation nuclei (CN) data collected at Mace Head during 1991-1994 was examined for relationships that might exist between CN number concentrations and the more commonly measured meteorological variables, including tides. CN number concentrations at Mace Head can be characterized by typically low ``background'' levels (less than about 700 particles cm-3) when the wind is from

Enda W. O'Brien; S. Gerard Jennings; Michael Geever; Christoph Kleefeld

2000-01-01

13

Variability of the semidiurnal internal tides observed on the Timor Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semidiurnal internal tides drive strong flow variations on the shelf between Timor Island and Australia. The variability of the internal tide over seasonal to interannual time scales is studied using temperature and velocity measurements from 11 moorings, a first attempt for an observational regional synthesis of internal tide behavior. The energy density and flux carried by the semidiurnal tides were calculated from the full water column profile estimated by the Gauss-Markov fit of the vertical modes incorporating the effects of sloping bottom topography. The estimated energy flux can be interpreted either as generated at and propagating from nearby forcing sites where strong barotropic tides flow over steep topography or as trapped by and circulating around an island topography. The relevant horizontal length scale of the topography is several tens of kilometers, which is the wavelength of the vertical first-mode internal tides. At some of the moorings with sufficiently long records, seasonal variations of energy density and flux are found with maxima in late summer to winter, which is the same phase as the seasonal variation of the temperature stratification between 100 and 200 m depths. The relationship between the temperature stratification and the internal tide energy density is not linear. For the energy density, the amplitude of the seasonal variation as well as the standard deviation correlates well with the mean value with a correlation coefficient >0.8 and a p value <0.03, but the correlation between the energy density and area-integrated barotropic tidal forcing is not significant.

Katsumata, K.; Wijffels, S. E.; Steinberg, C. R.; Brinkman, R.

2010-10-01

14

Atmospheric tides forced by troposphere heating: Longitudinal variability of upper atmosphere consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD work is motivated by the unprecedented observations provided by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. Through creative methods that avoid aliasing problems between tidal variations and mean background temporal variations, a fairly clear picture of both migrating and nonmigrating solar thermal tides from the stratosphere to the MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) region is obtained. The background structures in zonal mean temperatures, geopotential, and the zonal mean gradient zonal winds are also achieved. By retrieving net radiative heating rate profiles from the most updated solar radiative fluxes provided by ISCCP/NASA-GISS (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project/NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) and constructing latent heating rate profiles from the most recent TRMM/NASA-GSFC (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) daily latent heating profiles and 3-hourly TRMM rainfall rates, total tropospheric tidal heating rate profiles are obtained. The Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM) is thus updated with the new tropospheric heat sources and observed mean background inputs to result in the latest version of GSWM, GSWM-09. By comparing GSWM-09 and SABER tidal signatures, the importance of troposphere heat energy in driving atmospheric tides in the MLT region is confirmed and the relative importance of radiative and latent heat sources for migrating and nonmigrating tides is demonstrated with emphasis on longitudinal variability of MLT tides. It confirms that the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 is the outstanding nonmigrating tide due to the topography-modulated tropospheric heating. The critical factors for the seasonal-latitudinal variations of DE3 are examined based on classical tidal theory and its modern developments, since these variations are much improved in GSWM-09, taking observed SABER tidal signatures as the reference. It demonstrates that both mean zonal wind and tropospheric heating are critical in determining the seasonal-latitudional variations of DE3.

Zhang, Xiaoli

15

Spatial Variability and Interpolation of Stochastic Weather Simulation Model Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of 58 precipitation and temperature parameters from the `generation of weather elements for multiple applications' (GEM) weather generator has been investigated over a region of significant complexity in topography and climate. GEM parameters were derived for 80 climate stations in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon. A technique was developed and used to determine the GEM parameters from

Gregory L. Johnson; Christopher Daly; George H. Taylor; Clayton L. Hanson

2000-01-01

16

The influence of atmospheric tide and planetary wave variability during sudden stratosphere warmings on the low latitude ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations are performed for a sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) under different atmospheric tide and planetary wave forcing conditions to investigate the tidal variability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The influence of variability of different tides in the MLT on generating perturbations to the low latitude ionosphere is also investigated. Significant changes are found to occur in the migrating semidiurnal solar (SW2) and lunar (M2) tides as well as in the westward propagating nonmigrating semidiurnal tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1). The changes in the zonal mean atmosphere that occur during SSWs lead to an enhancement in the SW2 and M2 tides. The vertical wavelength of the SW2 is also changed, resulting in phase variability in the SW2 at a constant altitude. Significant enhancements in the SW1 are found to occur only in the presence of additional planetary wave forcing, and this demonstrates that nonlinear planetary wave?tide interactions lead to the enhanced SW1 during SSWs. The amplitude and phase variability of the SW2 is found to be capable of producing temporal variability in the vertical plasma drift velocity that is similar to the observed variability. Changes in the M2 during SSWs can contribute up to an additional ˜30% of the total ionosphere variability; however, the overall influence of the lunar tide is found to be dependent upon the phase of the moon relative to the timing of the SSW. Although the influence is relatively minor, the SW1 also contributes to the low latitude ionosphere variability during SSWs. The simulation results for the vertical plasma drift velocity and total electron content (TEC) further illustrate that significant longitude variability occurs in the ionosphere response to SSWs.

Pedatella, N. M.; Liu, H.-L.

2013-08-01

17

Winter variability in the western Gulf of Maine: Part 1: Internal tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the winter 1997-1998, a field program was conducted in Wilkinson Basin-western Gulf of Maine-as part of a study of winter convective mixing. The field program consisted of (1) Wilkinson basin-scale hydrographic surveys, (2) a tight three-mooring array with ˜100 m separations measured temperature and conductivity at rates of 2-15 min and (3) a single pair of upward/downward-looking pair acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) instruments measured currents with 8 m vertical resolution over the 270 m water column in north-central Wilkinson basin at a rate of 10 min. The moored array measurements below the mixed layer (˜100 m depth) between 11 January and 6 February 1998 were dominated by a combination of the relatively strong semidiurnal external (depth-independent or barotropic) tide; upon which were superposed a weaker phase-locked semidiurnal internal tide and a very weak water column mean currents of about 1 cm/s southward or approximately across the local isobaths. The harmonic analysis of a vertical average of the relatively uniform ADCP velocities in the well-mixed upper 123 m of the water column, defined the external tidal currents which were dominated by a nearly rectilinear, across-isobath (326°T) M 2 semidiurnal tidal current of about 15 cm/s. The depth-dependent residual current field, which was created by subtracting the external tidal current, consisted of (1) clockwise-rotating semidiurnal internal tidal currents of about 5 cm/s below the mixed layer; (2) clockwise-rotating inertial currents; and (3) a considerably less energetic subtidal current variability. The results from both frequency-domain empirical orthogonal function and tidal harmonic analyses of the of isotherm displacement series at each of the three moorings in the 100 m array mutually confirm an approximate east-northeastward phase propagation of the dominant M 2 semidiurnal internal tide across Wilkinson Basin. Further investigation supports the idea that this winter internal tide is very likely generated by the interaction of the external tidal currents and the southwestern wall of Wilkinson Basin. The definitions of the local Wilkinson Basin external tide and phase-locked internal tides will enable us to analyze a less "noisy" set of measurements for the subtle atmospherically forced convective and wind-driven motions.

Brown, W. S.

2011-09-01

18

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...

Lai, Ms.

2007-02-08

19

Weather variability and adaptive management for rangeland restoration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inherent weather variability in upland rangeland systems requires relatively long-term goal setting, and contingency planning for partial success or failure in any given year. Rangeland plant communities are dynamic systems and successional planning is essential for achieving and maintaining system...

20

Understanding Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate tidal phenomena by exploring water level observational (or predicted tidal) data from several locations around the world that provide examples of semi-diurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides. Students are asked to identify patterns of variability and differences among the sites on time scales of just a few days and over a period of a couple months. The activity is designed more to get students thinking about tides, asking questions about the causes of tidal variations, and thinking about ways to answer these questions, as opposed to providing an explanation of tidal processes. The activity leads to a body of observations that generate numerous questions about tides. The goal is to capture student's interest before spending subsequent class time developing a conceptual/theoretical model of how tides work.

Cook, Tim

21

Variability of diurnal tides and planetary waves during November 1978–May 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear interactions between stationary waves and the migrating tides have been proposed as possible sources of nonmigrating tides in the middle and upper atmosphere. The objective of this study is to increase observational support for these processes. We examine the evolution of stationary planetary waves and nonmigrating diurnal tides in the lower mesosphere during November 1978–May 1979, based on a

R. S. Lieberman; J. Oberheide; M. E. Hagan; E. E. Remsberg; L. L. Gordley

2004-01-01

22

Low frequency Sea Level Variability: correlation between altimetry and tide gauges in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea over the decadal time scale is studied using a combination of sea level and in-situ observations. A method to decompose the different sea level signals for tide gauges and altimetry is proposed, so that a coherent comparison between the two measurements is possible. The steric component and the atmospheric pressure contribution (inverse barometer) are filtered in order to look at sea level changes over decadal time scales. Low frequency sea level from tide gauges data is found to be representative of a large scale signal and results to be comparable, along all the basin, with satellite altimetry data. In particular the two signals are better correlated in the areas where the continental shelf is extended, such as the northern Adriatic. The same occurs in the case where the tide gauge station is located on an island, such as Malta, where the station is representative of the open ocean sea level signal. Moving towards the Levantin basin, the shelves extension generally decrease and the two data sets tend to be less correlated even if still correlated positively with a root mean square error lower than 5 cm (Hadera, Israel). Looking at the sea level trend, a positive trend of 2.15 ± 0.7 mm yr -1 is observed in the Mediterranean basin considering satellite altimetry during the period from 1993 to 2010 . Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) has been considered correcting sea level data with ICE-5G model data. This value represent just and index of the sea level changes occurring at basin scale. The basin presents a marked trend spatial variability, mainly characterized by strong positive trends in the shelves areas and negative trends in the Ionian sea, due to a strong change in the circulation in this basin. The variability of the trend values as a function of the number of years considered is such that at least 15 years of data are needed in order to obtain a significant and stable positive trend. The total lack of in-situ data in the southern part of the basin represent a major point of weakness of this study and in general affects the significance of the studies about sea level in the Mediterranean sea.

Bonaduce, A.; Pinardi, N.

2012-04-01

23

Interannual variability of diurnal tide in the tropical mesopause region: A signature of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term MLT radar observations of the diurnal tide at 86 km over Jakarta (6.4°S, 106.7°E) and Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) during the years 1993-1999 are examined in this work. Monthly estimates of tidal amplitudes in the meridional direction over these sites reveal a pronounced interannual variability. The satellite derived Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is used as a proxy for deep tropical convection in this study. Removal of composite seasonal cycle yields `anomalies' in the diurnal tide over Jakarta and Tirunelveli that are correlated with the OLR anomalies over the western Pacific region (~120°E). It is suggested that the lower atmospheric large-scale convective systems originating over the western Pacific region in response to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) facilitate excitation of nonmigrating tides through latent heat release or large-scale redistribution of water vapor that compete with the dominant migrating tide and possibly induce the observed interannual variability in the diurnal tide.

Gurubaran, S.; Rajaram, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tsuda, T.

2005-07-01

24

MV-WG: a new multi-variable weather generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new stochastic multi-variable weather generator (MV-WG) and compares its performance with LARS-WG version 4.0. Daily data of 109 meteorological stations from a North American database were used in a twofold comparison of the two generators: (1) the capability of reproducing the mean and variance of annual, seasonal and monthly values, and (2) the capability of reproducing extreme weather events were compared. Both generators did very well on imitating the mean and the variance of the monthly values of the investigated variables, but both showed a more moderate performance as far as the generation of extreme events was concerned. The three-parameter Weibull function, which is first introduced in MV-WG, was found to be a powerful tool to describe not only the distribution of the daily precipitation amounts, but also the distribution of dry and wet spell lengths, as well.

Fodor, Nándor; Dobi, Ildikó; Mika, János; Szeidl, László

2010-08-01

25

MV-WG: a new multi-variable weather generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new stochastic multi-variable weather generator (MV-WG) and compares its performance with LARS-WG version\\u000a 4.0. Daily data of 109 meteorological stations from a North American database were used in a twofold comparison of the two\\u000a generators: (1) the capability of reproducing the mean and variance of annual, seasonal and monthly values, and (2) the capability\\u000a of reproducing

Nándor Fodor; Ildikó Dobi; János Mika; László Szeidl

2010-01-01

26

Time-variable aliasing effects of ocean tides, atmosphere, and continental water mass on monthly mean GRACE gravity field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission will provide new measurements of Earth's static and time-variable gravity fields with monthly resolution. The temporal effects due to ocean tides and atmospheric mass redistribution are assumed known and could be removed using current models. In this study we quantify the aliasing effects on monthly mean GRACE gravity estimates due to

Shin-Chan Han; Christopher Jekeli; C. K. Shum

2004-01-01

27

POSSIBLE LUNAR TIDE EFFECTS ON CLIMATE AND ECOSYSTEM VARIABILITY IN THE NORDIC SEAS AND THE BARENTS SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflow of North Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea has a major influence on northern Europe climate and ecosystem dynamics in the Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea. In the period from 1900 to 2005, the temperature variability of North Atlantic Water and the Barents Sea temperature was correlated with the 18.6 year amplitude tide

Harald Yndestad

28

The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

Damé, Luc

2013-05-01

29

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...

Hyde, Mrs.

2007-02-08

30

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Bullough, Ms.

2010-06-24

31

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

32

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

33

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

34

How does stratospheric variability affect surface weather and climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes to the stratosphere, due to both natural variability and ozone depletion, have substantial effects on surface weather and climate, especially at middle to high latitudes. Despite clear evidence of these impacts, the primary dynamics of this phenomenon are not yet well understood. Here we show that the stratospheric meridional circulation forces the column of air above the Arctic downwards into the troposphere, acting like a mechanical plunger that controls the day-to-day thickness of the troposphere. This vertical motion directly affects temperatures and the strength of jets in the mid- to upper troposphere. Raising and lowering of the Arctic tropopause layer leads to stretching and compression of the tropospheric column and a north-south dipole in surface pressure similar to the Northern Annular Mode.

Baldwin, Mark; Birner, Thomas

2013-04-01

35

Congruent responses to weather variability in high arctic herbivores  

PubMed Central

Assessing the role of weather in the dynamics of wildlife populations is a pressing task in the face of rapid environmental change. Rodents and ruminants are abundant herbivore species in most Arctic ecosystems, many of which are experiencing particularly rapid climate change. Their different life-history characteristics, with the exception of their trophic position, suggest that they should show different responses to environmental variation. Here we show that the only mammalian herbivores on the Arctic islands of Svalbard, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and sibling voles (Microtus levis), exhibit strong synchrony in population parameters. This synchrony is due to rain-on-snow events that cause ground ice and demonstrates that climate impacts can be similarly integrated and expressed in species with highly contrasting life histories. The finding suggests that responses of wildlife populations to climate variability and change might be more consistent in Polar regions than elsewhere owing to the strength of the climate impact and the simplicity of the ecosystem.

Stien, Audun; Ims, Rolf A.; Albon, Steve D.; Fuglei, Eva; Irvine, R. Justin; Ropstad, Erik; Halvorsen, Odd; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif Egil; Veiberg, Vebj?rn; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

2012-01-01

36

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...

Tuttle, Rachelle

2005-10-25

37

Understanding the link between large-scale climate variability and regional hydrologic variability using weather patterns as intermediate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate naturally follows specific modes of variability, quantified by some climate indices (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation NAO, Southern Oscillation Index SOI, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation AMO, etc.). These modes of variability are due to large-scale climatic processes affecting large areas, and whose temporal scales range from a few months to a few decades. The temporal variability of hydrological regimes depends on such modes of variability, as has been reported in several regions worldwide. However, this relationship is more difficult to observe in some other regions, for several possible reasons: (i) the large natural variability of hydrological regimes, especially in the extreme domain, might strongly restrict the ability to detect weak or moderate relationships; (ii) Standard modes of variability like the NAO, SOI, etc. might not be the most relevant for some regions. This presentation explores an approach which, instead of directly seeking links between large-scale climate variability and regional hydrologic variability, decomposes the problem into two transitive "sub-problems" involving weather patterns as intermediate variables. Weather patterns are used to describe the atmospheric situation over a region as a categorical variable. As region-specific indices, they are potentially more explanatory than larger-scale indices like the NAO or SOI to explain the regional variability of hydrologic regimes. Consequently, two probabilistic models are derived: (1) a model to predict the frequency of weather patterns using large-scale climate indices (NAO, SOI, etc.) as predictors; (2) a model to predict the regional distribution of some hydrologic variable (e.g. number of flood events) using the frequencies of weather patterns as predictors. A case study based on French flood data is used to illustrate the application of this approach. It shows that each sub-model has some predictive ability: for instance, the annual number of flood events can be predicted (to some extent) from the frequency of weather patterns; in turn, the frequency of weather patterns can be predicted (to some extent) from NAO and SOI values. However, much of this predictive ability is lost when attempting to directly predict the annual number of flood events from NAO and SOI values. The consequences of these findings and avenues for improvement will be discussed.

Renard, Benjamin; Lall, Upmanu

2013-04-01

38

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1996-01-01

39

Solar variability effects on mesospheric meridional winds and tides from the Imaging Doppler Interferometer at Halley, Antarctica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meridional mesospheric winds from the Imaging Doppler Interferometer (IDI) at Halley, Antarctica (76° S, 27° W), have been compared with solar output through the F10.7 index. Winds are available from 75 - 105km altitude, and are binned in 5km steps. Data are available from 1996 to the present, and so cover a full solar cycle. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tides have been computed on a 4-day running basis. Both these and the monthly mean climatology have been removed from the data to leave the residual variability. Variations in the average meridional wind speeds and in the tides are seen over the range of F10.7. We split the data set according to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the equatorial stratospheric winds to examine the difference in this correlation with F10.7 between the total data set and the easterly and westerly phases, to explore the relationship between the high latitude mesospheric winds and solar output, and coupling to the equatorial stratosphere. The meridional winds and tides from IDI data are also compared with the Ap index, so that the influence of geomagnetic activity and solar irradiance can be determined.

Ford, Elaina; Jarvis, Martin; Hibbins, Robert E.

40

Atmospheric tides forced by troposphere heating: Longitudinal variability of upper atmosphere consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This PhD work is motivated by the unprecedented observations provided by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. Through creative methods that avoid aliasing problems between tidal variations and mean background temporal variations, a fairly clear picture of both migrating and nonmigrating solar thermal tides from

Xiaoli Zhang

2010-01-01

41

Interannual variability characteristics and simulated crop response of four stochastic weather generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many stochastic weather generators commonly used with crop models tend to under predict interannual variability of climate and, as a result, distort distributions of crop simulation results. We examine the ability of four stochastic weather generators, WeatherMan, MARKSIM, WM2 and LARS-WG, to reproduce interannual variability of monthly climate and crop simulation results. Comparisons were based on bias and RMSE of

Theodoruos Mavromatis; James W Hansen

2001-01-01

42

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

43

Graphing Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student graphing of high and low tide from locations showing the three tide types (diurnal, semi-diurnal, and mixed) and the Bay of Fundy (tidal amplitude increased by resonance). Students recognize that not all tides are the same and that location is an important control on tides.

Farley, Martin

44

Physical mechanisms of solar variability influence on weather and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researches into correlation of weather and climate characteristics with solar and geomagnetic activity confirm that such correlation does exist. However there is some uncertainty in interpretation of the Sun-weather-climate relations. The paper considers the main causes of this uncertainty which are as follows - the lack of permanent monitoring data on ionizing solar EUV\\/X-ray radiation including periods of flares;

Sergei Avakyan

2010-01-01

45

Seasonal variability of surface and internal M2 tides in the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling results of surface and internal M2 tides for summer and winter periods in the Arctic Ocean (AO) are presented. We employed a modified version of the three-dimensional finite-element hydrothermodynamic model QUODDY-4 differing from the original model by using a rotated (instead of spherical) coordinate system and by considering the equilibrium-tide effects. It has been shown that the modeling results for the surface tide differs little from the results obtained earlier by other authors. According to these results, the amplitudes of internal tidal waves (ITWs) in the AO are significantly lower than in other oceans and the ITWs proper have the character of trapped waves. Their source of generation is located at the continental slope northwest of the New Siberian Islands. Our results are consistent with the fields of average (over a tidal cycle) and integral (by depth) densities of baroclinic tidal energy, the maximum baroclinic tidal velocity, and the coefficient of diapycnic mixing. The local rate of baroclinic tidal energy dissipation at the AO ridges increases as it approaches the bottom, as was observed on Mid-Atlantic and Hawaii ridges (but merely within the bottom boundary layer) and is two to three orders of magnitude lower than in other oceans. The ITW degeneration scale in the AO is several hundreds of kilometers in summer and winter, remaining within the range of its values between 100 and 1000 km in mid- and low-latitude oceans. In both seasons, the integral (over the AO area) rate of baroclinic tidal energy dissipation is two orders of magnitude lower than the global estimate (2.5 × 1012 W).

Kagan, B. A.; Timofeev, A. A.; Sofina, E. V.

2010-10-01

46

The Intelligent Wind Detection System of Weather UAV Based on the Multimode Variable Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present wind detection model of weather UAV has limitations. In order to detect the wind speed of multi- flight states, the intelligent wind detection system of weather UAV based on the multi-mode variable structure was proposed in this paper. According to the change of acceleration and angular velocity, three detection equations were established. Based on flight motion states, the

Zhou Shudao; Wang Yanjie; Ye Song; Zhu Guotao; Cheng Long

2011-01-01

47

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

48

An Interpretative Review of Existing Capabilities for Measuring and Forecasting Selected Weather Variables (Emphasizing Remote Means).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The variability in weather many times influences significantly the decisions made in military tactical planning and operations affecting the utilization of Army weapons systems, smoke deployment for both offensive and defensive purposes, and air and groun...

H. H. Monahan R. M. Cionco

1978-01-01

49

Analyzing the impact of weather variables on monthly electricity demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electricity industry is significantly affected by weather conditions both in terms of the operation of the network infrastructure and electricity consumption. Following privatization and deregulation, the electricity industry in the U.K. has become fragmented and central planning has largely disappeared. In order to maximize profits, the margin of supply has decreased and the network is being run closer to

Ching-Lai Hor; Simon J. Watson; Shanti Majithia

2005-01-01

50

Variability of the Ionospheric WN4 Structure and the Causative DE3 Tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that the longitudinal wavenumber-4 (WN4) structure in the ionospheric F-region is caused by the non-migrating tidal mode DE3 (diurnal eastward wavenumber-3) in the upper atmosphere at the ionospheric E region altitudes. In order to investigate the relationships existing in these two kind waves, we first deduce the WN4 structure from the latitudinally integration of total electron content (ITEC), which is retrieved from the JPL GIMs. Meanwhile, we use the upper atmospheric observation of SEBER and TIDI on board the TIMED satellite to obtain the temperature (T), the zonal and meridional wind (U, V) components of DE3 tide. It is found that both the intra-and inter-annual variations WN4 is much similar to the T and U components of DE3, while it is quite different to the V component. The intra-annual variation of WN4 and DE3-T/U is mainly acted as that both waves present chiefly in two periods of a year, they appear in later spring with moderate strength, and become very strong in summer and autumn seasons. In contrast, both waves are very weak or tend to vanish during winter. The inter-annual variation of WN4/DE3 waves are represented as the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Both them are stronger during the eastward QBO wind phase than during the westward wind phase. The similar intra-and inter-annual variations of the WN4 and DE3-T/U waves provide a signify evidence that the ionospheric longitudinal WN4 structure is excite by the upper atmospheric non-migration tide DE3.

Wan, Weixing; Xiong, Jiangang; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Zhang, Manlian; Ding, Feng; Ning, Baiqi

51

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

52

King Tide floods in Tuvalu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

2013-05-01

53

Physical mechanisms of solar variability influence on weather and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous researches into correlation of weather and climate characteristics with solar and geomagnetic activity confirm that such correlation does exist. However there is some uncertainty in interpretation of the Sun-weather-climate relations. The paper considers the main causes of this uncertainty which are as follows - the lack of permanent monitoring data on ionizing solar EUV/X-ray radiation including periods of flares; and also the data on electron fluxes of keV energy precipitating from radiation belts first of all during geomagnetic storms; - multiplicity of Sun-weather-climate links; - the lack of understanding what are the mechanisms of solar-geomagnetic activity (flares and storms) influence on weather and climate characteristics; By now mainly the research on galactic cosmic rays (GSR) including Forbush effects and solar cosmic rays (SCR) influences on atmosphere transparence characteristics and further on climate-weather characteristics have been carried out. The GCR flux increase causes the growth of low (usually optically thick) cloudness and therefore produces in generally cooling effect on the mean surface air temperature. The appearance of SCR causes the reduction of stratospheric and tropospheric transparence and produces also usually cooling effect However these events are rare and corresponding variations of fluxes energy are small. At the same time such strong and frequent manifestations of solar activity as flares and magnetic storms are not so far taken into account since it is not known what physical mechanisms could be responsible for energy transfer from solar flares and magnetic storms to the lower atmosphere. The paper describes a novel radio-optical mechanism responsible for the solar-terrestrial links which acts as a three-stage trigger and which could be useful for solving the problem "Sun- weather-climate". This physical mechanism is based on taking into account the excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and molecules in generation of the ionospheric microwave radiation and in realization of the dissociative recombination of cluster ions in troposphere. The mechanism enables agents of solar and geomagnetic activities affect atmospheric processes with help the flux of microwaves from ionosphere. This first agent under consideration is variation of fluxes of solar EUV and X -ray radiation during flares. The second agent is fluxes of electrons and protons which precipitate from radiation belts as a result of geomagnetic storms.. Our novel radiooptical trigger mechanism of influence of solar and geomagnetic activity on the formation of weather and climate changes consists of three stages. The first stage is an increase in generation of the microwave radiation which penetrates from the ionosphere to the earth surface. The microwave radiation arises from the transitions between Rydberg states which are exited by the energetic ionospheric electrons namely photoelectrons, secondary electrons and Auger electrons. The second stage is a change in the proportion of water vapour to water clusters caused by increased microwave radiation. The third stage is a change of the atmosphere transparence in the absorption bands of water vapour and clusters and appearance of optically-thin clouds at high and middle altitudes. These clouds cause a net warming due to their relative transparency at short wavelengths but opacity in the IR region The atmosphere transparence determines the fluxes of solar irradiance coming down as well as flux of the thermal radiation coming out from the underlying surface. We emphasize that all stages of the proposed mechanism are experimentally confirmed: the microwave ionospheric emission, which intensifies during solar and magnetic storms, was detected; the regulation of humidity at altitude higher than 2 km by the solar microwave emission and during of solar flares was registered; a direct influence of solar flares and magnetic storms on the total cloudiness is distinctly registered at least in some geographic areas.

Avakyan, Sergei

2010-05-01

54

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

55

Meteogram: A Day's Weather Variables, Hour by Hour, on the Same Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to teach students how to read and understand a meteogram. It should enable students to more readily understand the movements of fronts and the interactions of weather variables as illustrated by the meteogram. Generally students measure and observe the variables as separate entities but by viewing the weather variables including temperature, dew point, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, cloud cover, atmospheric pressure, cloud elevation, maximum and minimum temperatures simultaneously hour by hour, the interrelationships are more evident. The site includes suggested questions and links to helpful sites.

Rauch, Arden

56

Lunar Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the relationship between our tides on Earth and the Moon. Differential forces are explained as a function of distance from various points on Earth to the Moon. The site explains both a simple tidal model with a smooth water covered Earth and a more realistic tidal model that takes into account the earth-moon system and friction. This site also explains spring tides and neap tides and also tidal coupling and gravitational locking.

2007-03-04

57

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

58

Understanding Tides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents an elementary explanation of tides and tidal datums. It is written to explain the natural phenomenon of tides in terms and concepts readily understandable by students as well as those in all walks of life merely wishing to be enriched b...

S. Dopp-Hicks

2006-01-01

59

Migrating thermospheric tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of the global-scale wave model (GSWM) [Hagan et al., 1995, 1999] are extended to include migrating thermospheric solar tides. The GSWM thermospheric tidal forcing parameterization is based on neutral gas heating calculated from first principles in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere/ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM). This is the first time that a physics-based thermospheric forcing scheme has been used in a model like GSWM. Previous two-dimensional steady state linear tidal models used exospheric temperature measurements to calibrate upper atmospheric tidal forcing. New GSWM results illustrate thermospheric tidal responses that are largely consistent with tides in the TIE-GCM. Diurnal temperature amplitudes increase with increasing solar activity, but there is no analogous diurnal wind response. The thermospheric semidiurnal tide is much weaker than the diurnal tide. Semidiurnal temperature perturbations peak in the lower thermosphere where the semidiurnal forcing maximizes. The new in situ results must be combined with the GSWM upward propagating tide in the lower thermosphere, because the upward propagating components dominate the semidiurnal response throughout the region and the diurnal response below ˜130 km. In situ forcing accounts for most of the diurnal response aloft. Our preliminary evaluation of the GSWM thermospheric predictions is inconclusive. More extensive evaluations are necessary to make a firm assessment of whether the model captures the salient features of the seasonal and solar cycle variability of thermospheric tides.

Hagan, M. E.; Roble, R. G.; Hackney, J.

2001-07-01

60

Weather variability, ecological processes and optimization of soil micro-environment for rangeland restoration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arid and semi-arid rangelands occupy over half of the earth’s surface and are characterized by relatively high variability in seasonal and annual patterns of precipitation. Invasive plants compete for soil and water resources and exacerbate inherent weather limitations for native plant establishmen...

61

Oceanic Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena of tides are a matter of common experience: ocean tides under the influence of the Moon and the Sun, differences of the surface level of the oceans reaching several meters, following well-established cycles. In the present chapter we propose a first step in the general and classical mathematical formulations of the tidal potential and tidal force. Then we apply this formulation to the concrete case of the lunisolar ocean tides at a given point of the surface of the sea. At the end we give a review of various tidal manifestations all around the world.

Simon, Bernard; Lemaitre, Anne; Souchay, Jean

62

Weather variability permitted within amphibian monitoring protocol and affects on calling Hylidae.  

PubMed

Anuran populations are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and act as useful indicators. Presently, much information collected concerning frog populations comes from volunteers following the North American Amphibian Monitoring Protocol. Does weather variability allowed within protocol affect the abundance of calling frogs? For 10 years, Credit Valley Conservation (Ontario, Canada) has been collecting anuran data concerning nine frog species employing three frog monitoring runs. Records include frog abundance by protocol code and five weather variables. Antecedent precipitation and temperature were determined from the nearest weather station. Locations with large source populations of two Hylidae species were selected (spring peeper calling in April and gray tree frog in May). Spearman correlations suggested there were no significant relationships between calling abundance of Hylidae species and ambient wind speed or humidity. However, gray tree frogs were temperature sensitive and calling was significantly related to increased water and air temperatures as well as day time high temperatures over the previous 2 weeks. Both species of calling Hylidae were affected by the volume and timing of precipitation (though, in different ways). Gray tree frogs seem to prefer drier conditions (when temperatures are significantly warmer) while spring peepers prefer to call during, or closely following, precipitation. Monitors targeting gray tree frog should track local weather conditions and focus on evenings when it is (a) warmer than the minimum temperatures and (b) drier than suggested by the protocol. It is recommended that an additional monitoring run could be added to reduce detection variability of this species. PMID:23625355

Milne, Robert; Bennett, Lorne; Hoyle, Mathew

2013-04-27

63

Variable Quaternary chemical weathering fluxes and imbalances in marine geochemical budgets.  

PubMed

Rivers are the dominant source of many elements and isotopes to the ocean. But this input from the continents is not balanced by the loss of the elements and isotopes through hydrothermal and sedimentary exchange with the oceanic crust, or by temporal changes in the marine inventory for elements that are demonstrably not in steady state. To resolve the problem of the observed imbalance in marine geochemical budgets, attention has been focused on uncertainties in the hydrothermal and sedimentary fluxes. In recent Earth history, temporally dynamic chemical weathering fluxes from the continents are an inevitable consequence of periodic glaciations. Chemical weathering rates on modern Earth are likely to remain far from equilibrium owing to the physical production of finely ground material at glacial terminations that acts as a fertile substrate for chemical weathering. Here we explore the implications of temporal changes in the riverine chemical weathering flux for oceanic geochemical budgets. We contend that the riverine flux obtained from observations of modern rivers is broadly accurate, but not representative of timescales appropriate for elements with oceanic residence longer than Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. We suggest that the pulse of rapid chemical weathering initiated at the last deglaciation has not yet decayed away and that weathering rates remain about two to three times the average for an entire late Quaternary glacial cycle. Taking into account the effect of the suggested non-steady-state process on the silicate weathering flux helps to reconcile the modelled marine strontium isotope budget with available data. Overall, we conclude that consideration of the temporal variability in riverine fluxes largely ameliorates long-standing problems with chemical and isotopic mass balances in the ocean. PMID:19325631

Vance, Derek; Teagle, Damon A H; Foster, Gavin L

2009-03-26

64

Prospects for downscaling seasonal precipitation variability using conditioned weather generator parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of synoptic-scale predictor variables to downscale both high- and low-frequency components of daily precipitation at sites across the British Isles. Part I investigates seasonal and inter-annual variations in three weather generator parameters with respect to concurrent variations in a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and area-average sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Marked spatial gradients were

R. L. Wilby; D. Conway; P. D. Jones

2002-01-01

65

Does solar variability affect Indian (Tropical) weather and climate? : An assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly, seasonal and annual data of all India rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, representing Indian weather and climate, and geomagnetic index aa, as proxy for solar variability, have been utilized. About hundred years' data of these parameters were divided into six groups on the basis of intensity/amount of all India summer monsoon rainfall. Using the method of superposed analysis, simultaneous variations in rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, and geomagnetic indices were obtained in different months, season (i.e. monsoon) and years after dividing the whole period into six groups of very low to very high rainfall years. We present evidence that, (i) decreasing (increasing) solar activity during Indian summer monsoon months appears to influence the temperature in the season, (ii) Indian summer monsoon rainfall is higher (lower) during the periods of decreasing (increasing) solar activity in monsoon months, and (iii) Indian summer monsoon period is cooler during the years of higher summer monsoon rainfall. We found evidence that Indian (Tropical) weather and climate is affected by solar variability. It is proposed that in order to improve the predictive capability of Indian weather and climate, the assessment of contributions, and careful monitoring of solar variability may be useful.

Badruddin; Singh, Y. P.; Singh, M.

66

The impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-mantled upland landscapes are widespread across the habitable world, support extensive life, and are the interface between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere but typically are not cultivated. Soil found across such landscapes fits the conceptual framework of a physically mobile layer derived from the underlying parent material along with some locally derived organic content. The extent and persistence of these upland soils depend on the long-term balance between soil production and erosion. Here we briefly review methods used to quantify the physical and chemical processes of soil production and erosion and revisit three granitic study areas in southeastern Australia and northern California that enabled early quantification of the soil production function and topographic controls on chemical weathering. We then present new major and trace element data from 2-m by 2-m pits dug at each field site to quantify local variability of Zr concentrations and the chemical index of alteration (CIA), weathering indices used to determine chemical weathering rates and extents in soils and saprolites. Using both new and previously published data, we compare differences between local variability and regional, as well as intersite variability of these important indices. For each of the 2-m pits, we collected 25 samples and found that the simple mean and the 2? standard deviation best describe the local variation in the data. We also find that the variability in the 2-m pit data lies within variability observed in the same data from samples collected in individual soil pits across each of the field sites and that the differences between sites are consistent with previously published results. These observations highlight the importance of quantifying local scale variability in studies that use similar, multifaceted measurements to quantify hillslope soil production and erosion processes.

Heimsath, Arjun M.; Burke, Benjamin C.

2013-10-01

67

WEATHER RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. All calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures.

CAMERON, M.A.

2007-04-16

68

WEATHER RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. Calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures.

CAMERON, M.A.

2007-04-16

69

The impact of the spatial variability in bottom roughness on tidal dynamics and energetics, a case study: the M 2 surface tide in the North European Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified version of the 3D finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4 is used to quantify the changes in the dynamics and energetics of the M 2 surface tide in the North European Basin, induced by the spatial variability in bottom roughness. This version differs from the original one, as it introduces a module providing evaluation of the drag coefficient in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) and by accounting for the equilibrium tide. The drag coefficient is found from the resistance laws for an oscillatory rotating turbulent BBL over hydrodynamically rough and incompletely rough underlying surfaces, describing how the wave friction factor as well as other resistance characteristics depend on the dimensionless similarity parameters for the BBL. It is shown that the influence of the spatial variability in bottom roughness is responsible for some specific changes in the tidal amplitudes, phases, and the maximum tidal velocities. These changes are within the model noise, while the changes in the averaged (over a tidal cycle) horizontal wave transport and the averaged dissipation of barotropic tidal energy may be of the same orders of magnitude as are the above energetic characteristics as such. Thus, contrary to present views, ignoring the spatial variability in bottom roughness at least in the North European Basin is only partially correct: it is valid for the tidal dynamics, but is liable to break down for the tidal energetics.

Kagan, Boris A.; Sofina, Ekaterina V.; Rashidi, Ebrahim

2012-12-01

70

Using a Weather Generator and SWAT to Improve Understanding of Variability in Watershed Flows and Phosphorous Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable weather data and accurate predictions of their variability can increase the reliability and precision of the current hydrologic modeling and analysis scenario. This paper explores the use of a network of coherent stochastic models called \\

S. Gaur; C. A. Shoemaker; D. Wilks; D. Cowan

2008-01-01

71

Effects of soil variability and weather conditions on pesticide leaching--a farm-level evaluation.  

PubMed

In line with European regulations, Dutch law imposes an environmental threshold of 0.1 microg L(-1) on pesticide concentrations in ground water. During registration, the risk of exceeding this threshold is assessed through simulations for one or a few standard scenarios that do not reflect spatial variability under field conditions. The introduction of precision agriculture, where soil variability is actively managed, can increase control over pesticide leaching. This study presents a step-wise evaluation of the effects of soil variability and weather conditions on pesticide leaching. The evaluation was conducted on a 100-ha arable farm and aimed at identifying opportunities for precision management. As a first step, a relative risk assessment identified pesticides presenting a relatively high risk to the environment. Second, the effect of weather conditions was analyzed through 20 years of simulations for three distinct soil profiles. Results were summarized in cumulative probability plots to provide a probabilistic characterization of historical weather data. The year matching 90% probability (1981) served as a reference to simulate pesticide leaching from 612 soil profiles. After interpolation, areas where concentrations exceeded the environmental threshold were identified. Out of a total of 19 pesticides, isoproturon [N-dimethyl-N'-(4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl)urea], metribuzin [4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methylthio)-as-triazin-5(4H)-one], and bentazon [2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one, 3-isopropyl-, 2,2-dioxide] showed the highest risk for leaching. Leaching was strongly affected by soil variability at the within-field, field, and farm levels. Opportunities for precision management were apparent, but depended on the scale level at which environmental thresholds were implemented. When legislation is formulated in this issue, the presented step-wise evaluation can serve as a basis for identification and precision management of high-risk pesticides. PMID:12026082

van Alphen, B J; Stoorvogel, J J

72

Short-term variability and summer-2009 averages of the mean wind and tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Langfang, China (39.4°N, 116.7°E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained from the newly installed MF radar at Langfang (39.4°N, 116.7°E), China, during the summer months of 2009 are used to study the short-term variability and summer averages of the mean wind and tidal oscillations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Both the zonal and meridional daily winds between 80 km and 98 km show considerable day-to-day variability; their Lomb–Scargle spectra reveal active quasi-2-day and quasi-16-day planetary waves. The tidal large day-to-day variations have time scales of days or longer, which could be attributed to the contribution of planetary waves. The summer-averaged zonal wind is westward below 82 km and eastward above 88 km with the transition altitude at ?85 km. The meridional wind is dominated by the southward wind. The summer-averaged zonal and meridional semidiurnal tides exhibit amplitudes of 10–15 m/s; they are larger than the diurnal tides, whose amplitudes are 5–10 m/s. The phase tilt of the semidiurnal tide is downward, indicating this component is excited below the MLT. For the diurnal tide, the phase propagation is downward above 86 km but it is upward below 86 km, which indicates that the tide is evanescent or a mixture of evanescent and propagating modes. These wind and tide observations are compared with data from other mid-latitude stations at ?40°N and with the HWM and GSWM models. Comparisons show that HWM-93 is better than HWM-07 in delineating the 2009 summer-averaged zonal wind over Langfang while both have systematic discrepancy in delineating the meridional mean winds. The prediction of the 2009 summer-averaged diurnal tide over Langfang by GSWM-09 is better than that from GSWM-02 but not the semidiurnal tide.

Xiao, Cunying; Hu, Xiong; Smith, Anne K.; Xu, Qingchen; Chen, Xuxing

2013-01-01

73

Spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load of urban wet weather pollution in combined sewers.  

PubMed

In Paris, the OPUR research programme created an experimental on-site observatory of urban pollutant loads in combined sewer systems in order to characterise the dry and wet weather flows at different spatial scales. This article presents the first results on the spatial variability of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) load during wet weather flow (WWF). At the scale of a rain event, investigations revealed that (i) PAH concentrations were relatively homogenous whatever the spatial scale and were greater than those of the dry weather flow (DWF), (ii) PAH distributions between dissolved and particulate phases were constant, and (iii) PAH fingerprints exhibited a similar pattern for all catchments. Moreover, an evaluation of the contribution of DWF, runoff and erosion of sewer deposits to WWF load was established. According to the hypothesis on the runoff concentration, the contributions were evaluated at 14, 8 and 78%, respectively, at the scale of the Marais catchment. For all the catchments, the runoff contribution was found quite constant and evaluated at approximately 10%. The DWF contribution seems to increase with the catchment area, contrary to the sewer erosion contribution, which seems to decrease. However, this latter still remains an important source of pollution. These first trends should be confirmed and completed by more investigations of rain events. PMID:17120649

Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G

2006-01-01

74

Simulation of extreme temperature events by a stochastic weather generator: effects of interdiurnal and interannual variability reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A WGEN-like four-variate (maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation) stochastic daily weather generator Met&Roll is used to provide synthetic weather series for models simulating crop growth and hydrological regime in present and changed climate conditions. Since impacts of climate change will be largely affected by changes in climate variability and extreme events, present climate models should satisfactorily reproduce

Jan Kyselý; Martin Dubrovský

2005-01-01

75

SIMULATION OF EXTREME TEMPERATURE EVENTS BY A STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATOR: EFFECTS OF INTERDIURNAL AND INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY REPRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A WGEN-like four-variate (maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation) stochastic daily weather generator Met&Roll is used to provide synthetic weather series for models simulating crop growth and hydrological regime in present and changed climate conditions. Since impacts of climate change will be largely affected by changes in climate variability and extreme events, present climate models should satisfactorily reproduce

JAN KYSEL

76

Influence of Weather Variables and Plant Communities on Grasshopper Density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996–2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density, these weather variables and plant communities had differential influence on the dominant grasshopper species.

de Wysiecki, Maria Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, Maria Marta

2011-01-01

77

New Jersey Tide Telemetry System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each summer the population of the barrier-island communities of New Jersey increases by tens of thousands. When a coastal storm threatens these communities, the limited number of bridges and causeways that connect the islands with the mainland become overcrowded, making evacuations from the barrier islands to the mainland difficult. Timely evacuation depends on well-defined emergency evacuation plans used in conjunction with accurate flood forecasting and up to the minute (real-time) tide-level information. The 'Great Nor'easter' storm that struck the coastal areas of New Jersey on December 11, 1992, caused about $270 million in insured damages to public and private property (Dorr and others, 1995). Most of the damage was due to tidal flooding and storm surge, which were especially severe along the back bay areas. Comprehensive and reliable tide-level and meteorological data for the back bays was needed to make accurate flood forecasts. Collection of tidal data for the ocean and large bays was adequately covered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Ocean Service (NOAA's NOS), but in New Jersey little to no data are available for the back-bay areas. The back bays behave quite differently than the ocean as a result of the complex interaction between the winds and the geometry of the inlets and bays. A slow moving Nor'easter can keep tide levels in back bays several feet higher than the ocean tide by not allowing tides to recede, resulting in flooding of bridges and causeways that link the barrier islands to the mainland. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT), designed and installed the New Jersey Tide Telemetry System (NJTTS) with assistance from NOAA's NOS in 1997. This system is part of a statewide network of tide gages, weather stations, and stream gages that collect data in real time. The NJTTS supplies comprehensive, reliable real-time tide-level and meteorological data for flood-prone areas along the New Jersey shore and back bays. These data are transmitted to computer base stations located at offices of the National Weather Service, New Jersey State Police (NJSP), NJDOT, county emergency management agencies, other critical decision-making centers, and the World Wide Web (WWW). This fact sheet describes the NJTTS and identifies its benefits.

Hoppe, Heidi L.

2007-01-01

78

Spatial variability of the characteristics of combined wet weather pollutant loads in Paris.  

PubMed

An on-site observatory of urban pollutant loads in combined sewers has been created in Paris in order to investigate wet weather pollutant loads at different spatial scales. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering areas from 41 to 2581ha. For a wide range of parameters including suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs), this article serves to evaluate the potential scale effect on wet weather flow (WWF) quality. Although the extensive data set compiled herein has emphasized the high variability in WWF quality from one rain event to the next, no scale effect could be observed for a given rain event on pollutant concentrations, distributions between dissolved and particulate phases, pollutant contents and loads. Such results are of prime importance since they suggest (i) no spatial scale influence on WWF quality for the considered catchments and (ii) similar dominant sources and transfer processes at the various spatial scales. PMID:17822734

Kafi, Mounira; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R; Gromaire, M C; Chebbo, G

2007-08-12

79

Plant development scores from fixed-date photographs: the influence of weather variables and recorder experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1944, John Willis produced a summary of his meticulous record keeping of weather and plants over the 30 years 1913 1942. This publication contains fixed-date, fixed-subject photography taken on the 1st of each month from January to May, using as subjects snowdrop Galanthus nivalis, daffodil Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum and beech Fagus sylvatica. We asked 38 colleagues to assess rapidly the plant development in each of these photographs according to a supplied five-point score. The mean scores from this exercise were assessed in relation to mean monthly weather variables preceding the date of the photograph and the consistency of scoring was examined according to the experience of the recorders. Plant development was more strongly correlated with mean temperature than with minimum or maximum temperatures or sunshine. No significant correlations with rainfall were detected. Whilst mean scores were very similar, botanists were more consistent in their scoring of developmental stages than non-botanists. However, there was no overall pattern for senior staff to be more consistent in scoring than junior staff. These results suggest that scoring of plant development stages on fixed dates could be a viable method of assessing the progress of the season. We discuss whether such recording could be more efficient than traditional phenology, especially in those sites that are not visited regularly and hence are less amenable to frequent or continuous observation to assess when a plant reaches a particular growth stage.

Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Croxton, P. J.

2006-05-01

80

The effect of weather variability on pediatric asthma admissions in Athens, Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between weather variability and asthma admissions among children in Athens, Greece. Medical data were obtained from hospital registries of the three main Children's Hospitals in Athens during the 1978-2000 period; children were classified into two age groups: 0-4 and 5-14 years. The application of Generalized Linear Models with Poisson distribution revealed a significant relationship among asthma hospitalizations and the investigated parameters, especially for the children aged 0-4 years. Our findings showed that Hospital admissions for childhood asthma in Athens, Greece, is negatively correlated with discomfort index, air temperature and absolute humidity whereas there is a positive correlation with cooling power, relative humidity and wind speed. PMID:18259997

Nastos, Panagiotis T; Paliatsos, Athanasios G; Papadopoulos, Marios; Bakoula, Chryssa; Priftis, Kostas N

81

Control of equatorial ionospheric morphology by atmospheric tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly discovered 1000-km scale longitudinal variation in ionospheric densities is an unexpected and heretofore unexplained phenomenon. Here we show that ionospheric densities vary with the strength of non-migrating, diurnal atmospheric tides that are, in turn, driven mainly by weather in the tropics. A strong connection between tropospheric and ionospheric conditions is unexpected, as these upward propagating tides are damped

T. J. Immel; E. Sagawa; S. L. England; S. B. Henderson; M. E. Hagan; S. B. Mende; H. U. Frey; C. M. Swenson; L. J. Paxton

2006-01-01

82

Agricultural disaster payments in the southeastern US: do weather and climate variability matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments around the world are forced to react to disasters caused by weather. The agricultural sector is particularly susceptible to weather extremes and adverse climate conditions. In the US, agricultural disaster payments account for a significant part of total agricultural subsidies. The payments, and their distribution, are more important in the areas most affected by disastrous weather events, usually coinciding

Denis Nadolnyak; Valentina Hartarska

2012-01-01

83

Agricultural disaster payments in the southeastern US: do weather and climate variability matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments around the world are forced to react to disasters caused by weather. The agricultural sector is particularly susceptible to weather extremes and adverse climate conditions. In the US, agricultural disaster payments account for a significant part of total agricultural subsidies. The payments, and their distribution, are more important in the areas most affected by disastrous weather events, usually coinciding

Denis Nadolnyak; Valentina Hartarska

2011-01-01

84

High-Frequency and Low-Frequency Variability in Stochastic Daily Weather Generator and Its Effect on Agricultural and Hydrologic Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-frequency and low-frequency variabilities, which are often misreproduced by the daily weather generators, have a significant effect on modelling weather-dependent processes. Three modifications are suggested to improve the reproduction of the both variabilities in a four-variate daily weather generator Met&Roll: (i) inclusion of the annual cycle of lag-0 and lag-1 correlations among solar radiation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature,

Martin Dubrovský; Josef Buchtele; Zden?k Žalud

2004-01-01

85

Validation of ocean tide models around Antarctica using onshore GPS and gravity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean tide models around Antarctica are presently only sparsely tested against independent data. Ocean tide modeling errors, along with subsequent ocean tide loading (OTL) displacement modeling errors, alias into altimetry and time variable gravity (e.g., Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) time series, for example. To validate various ocean tide models around Antarctica, GPS data from 15 sites have been

Matt A. King; Nigel T. Penna; Peter J. Clarke; Ed C. King

2005-01-01

86

Characterizing the Temporal Variability of Atmosphere Zenith Delay using a High Resolution Numerical Weather Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variations of the atmosphere delay affect the estimation of other parameters of interest from space geodetic observations in two ways: the estimated values depend on the characteristics of the variability, and the uncertainties of the estimated values also depend on those characteristics. An accurate assessment of the contribution of each source of error is important for evaluating which areas should be addressed to improve the measurements. A possible source of the statistical properties of the zenith atmosphere delay is a high horizontal resolution Numerical Weather Model (NWM). The actual zenith delays calculated from the NWM are not accurate enough to provide corrections to the space geodetic observations, but the statistics of the time variability may be useful as an external source of information on the temporal variations. This information may be in the form of a constraint on the change in zenith delay rate between segments of a piecewise linear model, or it may provide a daily value for the variance rate for a stochastic model as used in a Kalman filter estimation). To evaluate the accuracy of the NWM we will compare the statistical properties, such as the temporal structure function, of the zenith wet delays calculated from MM5 forecasts with three kilometer horizontal resolution with those from water vapor radiometer (WVR) measurements. The observation period is the CONT02 VLBI campaign in 2002 October. A WVR was operated at three of the eight participating VLBI sites. For geodetic VLBI data analysis the statistical properties of the atmosphere delay should cover time intervals as short as 30 seconds. For at least one WVR (Kokee, Hawaii) the sampling interval was sixteen seconds. For the MM5 forecasts the time step for the three kilometer resolution grid (the smallest of four nested grids) is only nine seconds. Comparison will also be made with the statistical model of Treuhaft and Lanyi (1987 Radio Science, V22, 251-265).

Niell, A. E.; Leidner, M.

2006-12-01

87

Temporal Variability of Fair-Weather Cumulus Statistics at the ACRF SGP Site  

SciTech Connect

Continental fair-weather cumuli exhibit significant diurnal, day-to-day, and year-to-year variability. This study describes the climatology of cloud macroscale properties, including the cloud-base height, cloud-top height, cloud thickness, and cloud chord length over the U.S. Department of Energy¹s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARCF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The diurnal cycle of cloud fraction, cloud-base height, and cloud-thickness were well defined. The cloud fraction reached its maximum value near 14:00 CST. The average cloud-base height increased throughout the day, while the average cloud thickness decreased with time. In contrast to the other cloud properties, the average cloud-chord length remained nearly constant throughout the day. The sensitivity of the cloud properties to the year-to-year variability and to changes in low-level moisture were compared. The cloud-base height was found to be sensitive to both the year and the low-level moisture, the cloud thickness was much more sensitive to the year then to the low-level moisture, and the cloud fraction and cloud chord length were more sensitive to the low-level moisture than to the year. Distributions of the cloud-chord length over the ARCF SGP site were computed and were well fit by an exponential distribution. The contribution of clouds of each cloud-chord length to the total cloud fraction was computed, and it was found the clouds with a chord length of about 1 km contributed the most to the observed cloud fraction.

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.

2008-07-01

88

The role of variable weather for the dynamics of a seed-seed predator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model is presented describing the interaction between weather conditions, seed production of a longlived herb, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria (Asclepiadaceae), and abundance of a predispersal seed predator, Euphranta connexa (Diptera, Tephritidae). The model is used to investigate the role of weather-induced fluctuations in seed set on the interaction between plant and seed predator and the resulting longterm production of seeds

Christer Solbreck; Birgitta Sillén-Tullberg

1986-01-01

89

HarborTides.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HarborTides.com is a neat, user-friendly facility for tide information for over 2,500 harbors in the US (and Bermuda). Users may browse by state or search by zip code for information on high and low tides, sunrise and sunset, and longitude and latitude for every harbor. After filling out a form for free membership, users can also print out monthly tide tables.

90

Waves and Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-10 day investigation, learners develop an understanding of waves and tides and their motion through discussion, demonstration, and hands-on activities. Learners demonstrate wave motion in containers and create marigrams to show local tide data and to compare tide patterns from different parts of the world. Learners consider whether waves or tides account for the movement of bath toys to their final locations. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, and curricular connections.

Grant, Alaska S.

2011-01-01

91

Earth Tides, Ocean Tides and Tidal Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distortion of the Earth's gravitational potential field by the M2 ocean tide has been calculated, accounting for both the elastic deformation of the Earth and the self potential of the water. The potential field generated by the ocean tide is almost everywhere greater than a tenth, and over much of the ocean is half as large as the lunar

W. E. Farrell

1973-01-01

92

Moon and Tide Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use Moon and tide data from the internet to construct charts and answer questions about the patterns they see. They will be reminded that the Moon has something to do with ocean tides and will discover what the connections are. They will also discover when tides, moonrise and moonset, and phases of the Moon occur.

Passow, Michael

93

What Causes Tides?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of tides has a faraway source. This rise and fall of the water level over a period of several hours is a result of the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth's oceans. Tides exhibit predictable cycles on daily, monthly, and yearly scales. The magnitude of the tides is dependent on the position of the Earth and Moon in…

Donovan, Deborah

2004-01-01

94

What Causes Tides?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The phenomenon of tides has a faraway source. This rise and fall of the water level over a period of several hours is a result of the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on Earth's oceans. Tides exhibit predictable cycles on daily, monthly, and yearly scales. The magnitude of the tides is dependent on the position of the Earth and Moon in…

Donovan, Deborah

2004-01-01

95

The origin of tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This QuickTime animation points out how the pull of gravity results in the tides. A high tide results on the near side of the Earth-moon alignment. The bulge on the opposite side results as the solid earth is pulled away from water on its far side where the moonÃøΩs gravitational pull is weakest. These two high tide bulges stay in place as the earth rotates, leading to two high tides and two low tides every day.

Mcgraw-Hill

96

Spatial variability of characteristics and origins of urban wet weather pollution in combined sewers.  

PubMed

An experimental on-site observatory of urban pollutant loads in combined sewers was created in the centre of Paris to quantify and characterise the dry and wet weather flow in relation to spatial scale. Eight rainfall events were studied from April 2003 to May 2004. Samples were analysed for suspended solids, organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals. Results confirm the extent of wet weather pollution. They have shown the relative homogeneity of SS and organic matter characteristics from one urban catchment area to another. Two groups of heavy metals were identified. The first one concerns Cu, which has a higher concentration in wet weather flow (WWF) than in dry weather flow (DWF), and runoff. The second includes Cd, Pb and Zn, where higher concentrations were measured in urban runoff than in WWF and DWF. A first evaluation of contribution of wastewater, urban runoff and sewer deposit erosion sources to wet weather pollution was established and has highlighted the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to this pollution. However, it has shown that sewer deposit erosion remains an important source of wet weather pollution at different spatial scales. PMID:16206844

Kafi-Benyahia, M; Gromaire, M G; Chebbo, G

2005-01-01

97

Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.  

PubMed

In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A. PMID:20420329

Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

2010-03-01

98

Spatial Variability of the Depth of Weathered and Engineering Bedrock using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the spatial variability of the depth of weathered and engineering bedrock in Bangalore, south India using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) survey. One-dimensional MASW survey has been carried out at 58 locations and shear-wave velocities are measured. Using velocity profiles, the depth of weathered rock and engineering rock surface levels has been determined. Based on the literature, shear-wave velocity of 330 ± 30 m/s for weathered rock or soft rock and 760 ± 60 m/s for engineering rock or hard rock has been considered. Depths corresponding to these velocity ranges are evaluated with respect to ground contour levels and top surface levels have been mapped with an interpolation technique using natural neighborhood. The depth of weathered rock varies from 1 m to about 21 m. In 58 testing locations, only 42 locations reached the depths which have a shear-wave velocity of more than 760 ± 60 m/s. The depth of engineering rock is evaluated from these data and it varies from 1 m to about 50 m. Further, these rock depths have been compared with a subsurface profile obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) MASW survey at 20 locations and a few selected available bore logs from the deep geotechnical boreholes.

Anbazhagan, P.; Sitharam, T. G.

2009-03-01

99

Understanding climate variability in Greenland ice cores for the last two centuries: insights from the weather regime approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenland ice cores offer highly resolved (seasonal to annual) ?18O reconstructions over the last few centuries to millennia. Previous analyses relate multidecadal variability in these reconstructions to changes in Arctic temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and also to blocking activity in the North Atlantic. However, the relative weight of each driver remains unclear. In this study, we analyse the regional imprints of different large-scale modes of variability as well as external forcings on ?18O reconstructions from Greenland ice cores. For this purpose, a compilation of 20 different shallow ice-core reconstructions over Greenland has been considered to provide the best spatial coverage possible within the instrumental era, all covering the period from 1767 to 1967AD. This guarantees an overlap of about a century with several instrumental indices of climate variability (NAO, AMO and Southwest Greenland temperatures), large-scale climate datasets (SSTs and sea-ice cover from HadISST), and also with the second version of the Twentieth Century atmospheric Reanalysis (20CRv2), which spans from 1871 to 2008AD. This latter reanalysis is used to assess the impact of daily atmospheric variability on ice core records, through the calculation of the North Atlantic weather regimes (using clustering techniques) and the respective changes in their time of occurrence. In particular, we investigate if the fraction of ?18O variance explained by the common climate indices can be improved by considering the weather regimes and by taking into account both the changes in their seasonal frequency of occurrence and the spatial shifts in their centers of action. Finally, the link between water isotopes and weather regimes is further explored by using two isotope simulations with the IsoGSM and LMDZ-iso models, both nudged to the 20th century reanalysis. This allows to further evaluating the relationship between isotopes and other climate variables like temperature and precipitation.

Ortega, Pablo; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Risi, Camille; Yiou, Pascal; Vautard, Robert; Yoshimura, Kei; Vinther, Bo

2013-04-01

100

Spatial variability of the characteristics of combined wet weather pollutant loads in Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-site observatory of urban pollutant loads in combined sewers has been created in Paris in order to investigate wet weather pollutant loads at different spatial scales. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering areas from 41 to 2581ha. For a wide range of parameters including suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical

Mounira Kafi; J. Gasperi; R. Moilleron; M. C. Gromaire; G. Chebbo

2008-01-01

101

Tides in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tides in the water are important for any kind of human activities at sea. They have a periodic structure caused by solar and\\u000a lunar gravitational forces; the levels of the tides are provided everywhere along coastlines. Tables of tidal levels contain\\u000a forecasted levels of tides and are of extreme importance. The atmosphere is considered a fifth ocean, and we are

Igor G. Zurbenko; Amy L. Potrzeba

102

An assessment of European synoptic variability in Hadley Centre Global Environmental models based on an objective classification of weather regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of occurrence of persistent synoptic-scale weather patterns over the European and North-East Atlantic regions is examined in a hierarchy of climate model simulations and compared to observational re-analysed data. A new objective method, employing pattern correlation techniques, has been constructed for classifying daily-mean mean-sea-level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height fields with respect to a set of 29 European weather regime types, based on the widely known subjective Grosswetterlagen (GWL) system of the German Weather Service. The objective method is described and applied initially to ERA40 and NCEP re-analysis data. While the resulting daily Objective-GWL catalogue shows some systematic differences with respect to the subjectively-derived original GWL series, the method is shown to be sufficiently robust for application to climate model output. Ensemble runs from the most recent development of the Hadley Centre’s Global Environmental model, HadGEM1, in atmosphere-only, coupled and climate change scenario modes are analysed with regards to European synoptic variability. All simulations successfully exhibit a wide spread of GWL occurrences across all regime types, but some systematic differences in mean GWL frequencies are seen in spite of significant levels of interdecadal variability. These differences provide a basis for estimating local anomalies of surface temperature and precipitation over Europe, which would result from circulation changes alone, in each climate simulation. Comparison to observational re-analyses shows a clear and significant improvement in the simulation of realistic European synoptic variability with the development and resolution of the atmosphere-only models.

James, P. M.

2006-08-01

103

The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation.

Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

2001-01-01

104

Effect of variability in weather conditions on conductor temperature and the dynamic rating of transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous weather and conductor data were collected from these locations situated in New York State and Western Massachusetts. The two New York State locations represent the termination points of a 230 kV seventy-mile overhead line. The transmission line consists of a Drake 795 kcmil ACSR conductor. Data were monitored using on-line sensor equipment developed by the Research and Development Department

S. D. Foss; S. H. Lin; R. A. Maraio; H. Schrayshuen

1988-01-01

105

Internal-tide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal-tide generation is usually predicted from local topography, surface tides, and stratification. However, internal tides are often observed to be unrelated to local spring-neap forcing, appearing intermittently in 3-5 day bursts. Here we suggest a source of this intermittency by illustrating how remotely-generated shoaling internal tides induce first-order changes in local internal-tide generation. Theory, numerical simulations, and observations show that pressure perturbations associated with shoaling internal tides can correlate with surface-tide velocities to generate or destroy internal tides. Where shoaling internal tides have random phase, such as on the New Jersey slope, time-averaged internal-tide generation is unaffected, but instantaneous internal-tide generation varies rapidly, altering internal-tide energy and possibly affecting nonlinear internal waves, across-shelf transport, and mixing. Where shoaling internal tides are phase-locked to the local surface tide, such as in double-ridge systems, time-averaged internal-tide generation is affected and may result in resonance.

Kelly, S. M.; Nash, J. D.

2010-12-01

106

Carbon dioxide variability during cold front passages and fair weather days at a forested mountaintop site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes temporal carbon dioxide (CO2) changes at a new meteorological site on a mountaintop in the Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains during the first year of measurements. Continental mountaintop locations are increasingly being used for CO2 monitoring, and investigations are needed to better understand measurements made at these locations. We focus on CO2 mixing ratio changes on days with cold front passages and on fair weather days. Changes in CO2 mixing ratios are largest during cold front passages outside the growing season and on clear, fair weather days in the growing season. 67% (60%) of the frontal passages during the non-growing (growing) season have larger postfrontal than prefrontal CO2 mixing ratios. The increase in CO2 mixing ratio around the frontal passage is short-lived and coincides with changes in CO and O3. The CO2 increase can therefore be used as an additional criterion to determine the timing of frontal passages at the mountaintop station. The CO2 increase can be explained by an accumulation of trace gases along frontal boundaries. The magnitude and duration of the CO2 increase is affected by the wind speed and direction that determine the source region of the postfrontal air. Southward-moving fronts result in the largest prolonged period of elevated CO2, consistent with the postfrontal advection of air from the Northeastern United States where anthropogenic contributions are relatively large compared to other areas in the footprint of the mountaintop station. These anthropogenic contributions to the CO2 changes are confirmed through concurrent CO measurements and output from NOAA’s CarbonTracker model.

Lee, Temple R.; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kofler, Jonathan; Williams, Jonathan

2012-01-01

107

Students' Understanding of Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of research into students' understanding of tides. Students from secondary school and pre-service primary school teacher trainees were chosen as subjects and their understanding was assessed by questionnaire. (Author/CCM)

Viiri, Jouni

2000-01-01

108

The Earth Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to oceans, the earth is subjected to tidal stresses and undergoes tidal deformations. Discusses origin of tides, tidal stresses, and methods of determining tidal deformations (including gravity, tilt, and strain meters). (JN)|

Levine, Judah

1982-01-01

109

A study of climate and weather variability over the tropical southwest Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The climatology and variability of summer convection and circulation over the tropical southwest Indian Ocean is investigated using satellite imagery, routine synoptic observations, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data, sea surface temperatures (SST) and areal averaged rainfall departures. OLR has a -0.90 correlation with rainfall departures and the OLR minimum (ITCZ) in January and February lies across the 10°S latitude,

M. R. Jury; B. Pathack

1991-01-01

110

Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin. Nearest-Neighbour Resampling of Daily Circulation Indices and Conditional Generation of Weather Variables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The KNMI rainfall generator is a non-parametric stochastic weather generator based on nearest neighbor resampling of historical data. The weather generator produces daily values of precipitation and temperature. The latter is needed for the calculation of...

J. J. Beersma T. A. Buishand

1999-01-01

111

A Fourier series model to predict hourly heating and cooling energy use in commercial buildings with outdoor temperature as the only weather variable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate modeling of hourly heating and cooling energy use in commercial buildings can be achieved by a Generalized Fourier Series (GFS) approach involving weather variables such as dry-bulb temperature, specific humidity and horizontal solar flux. However, there are situations when only temperature data is available. The objective of this paper is to (i) describe development of a variant of the

A. Dhar; T. A. Reddy; D. E. Claridge

1999-01-01

112

The effects of daily weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals.  

PubMed

Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable daily meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether daily meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and temperature) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for temperature, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed. PMID:22855350

McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

2012-08-02

113

An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to the winter precipitation amount, observed on a daily basis. On the other hand, the three wettest WTs, namely the Cyclonic (C), South-westerly (SW) and Westerly (W) types, together representing roughly a third of all winter days, do account for more than 60% of the observed daily precipitation. It is shown that the large inter-annual variability of precipitation in both cities is highly related with the corresponding inter-annual variability of the wet WTs. Ansell, T. J. et al. (2006) Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European - North Atlantic region for the period 1850-2003, Journal of Climate, 19, 2717-2742, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3775.1 Huth R., Beck C., Philipp A., Demuzere M, Ustrnul Z, Cahynová M., Kyselý J., Tveito O.E. (2008) Classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns: recent advances and applications. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1146:, 105-152 Jones, P. D. , M. Hulme , K. R. Briffa. (1993) A comparison of Lamb circulation types with an objective classification scheme. Int. J. Climatol. 13: 655- 663. Lorenzo M.N., Taboada J.J. and Gimeno L. (2008) Links between circulation weather types and teleconnection patterns and their influence on precipitation patterns in Galicia (NW Spain). Int. J. Climatol. Published Online: Nov 12 2007 5:30AM DOI: 10.1002/joc.1646. Trigo R.M. and Da Camara C.C. (2000) Circulation weather types and their influence on the precipitation regime in Portugal. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

2009-04-01

114

Ocean tide energy converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tide motor energy source includes a tidal piston with a valved chamber. The piston drives a hydraulic ram to generate electrical power through a pressure accumulator and hydraulic motor. The ram can be locked hydraulically to enable the tidal piston to be held fixed at a desired elevation and the valves in the chamber permit it to be filled

Rainey

1980-01-01

115

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

116

Red Tide in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

Ely, Elenor; Ross, Neil W.; Island, Sea G.

117

Accuracy assessment of ocean tide models around Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate ocean tide models for the circum-Antarctic seas are required to remove unwanted signals from floating ice elevation and space-borne, time-variable gravity measurements (e.g., GRACE). We present accuracy assessments for several global (CSR4, FES2004, FES99, GOT00.2, NAO.99b, TPXO6.2) and Antarctic (CADA00.10 and CATS02.01) ocean tide models using coastal and pelagic tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records of ice shelf

Matt A. King; Laurie Padman

2005-01-01

118

The microplankton succession in the Ría de Vigo revisited: species assemblages and the role of weather-induced, hydrodynamic variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analysed meteorological, hydrographic, and microplankton species abundance data, collected every 3 4 days during 1987 in the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula), to investigate the effect of environmental variability on the structure of the microplankton community. Three microplankton assemblages were distinguished, composed chiefly of: small- to medium-sized centric and pennate diatoms (i.e., C- and/or R-species, r-strategists), small-sized organisms from different taxonomic groups (i.e., C- or S-species, r-strategists), and medium- to large-sized dinoflagellates (i.e., S-species, K-strategists). Community changes were related to different scales of meteorological and hydrographic variability. At the seasonal scale, the succession from r-strategists towards K-strategists, or from C- and/or R-species towards S-species, was related with the annual cycle of mixing/stratification and high/low flushing. Within this seasonal pattern, a series of short-term ‘successions’ were identified, the onset of which co-occurred with hydrodynamic changes induced by meteorological disturbances. These results support the conclusions articulated in a previous paper on microplankton community structure during 1991 concerning: (1) the relative persistence of characteristic microplankton assemblages and their ecological interpretation in terms of adaptive strategies, and (2) the key role of weather-induced, hydrodynamic variability, especially at short-term scales, in shaping the structure of the community. The contrasting meteorology in 1987 and 1991 would explain interannual differences of community structure, such as the larger proportion of diatoms in 1991 than in 1987 due to increased intensity and duration of the upwelling seasonal cycle that year. At the species level, the early phase of the seasonal succession was characterised by the coexistence (i.e., single-species biomass, Bi?40% of total biomass) or alternating dominance (Bi>40% BT) among (C R) species, while the late part was characterised by the alternating dominance among species with different adaptive strategies. For instance, in September October, the short-term succession started with the dominance of the (C R) species Leptocylindrus danicus (˜80% of BT, during 3 weeks), followed by the (S R) species Ceratium fusus+Ceratium furca (˜70% of BT, 1 week), and finished with the dominance of small microheterotrophs (˜70% of BT, 2 weeks).

Nogueira, E.; Figueiras, F. G.

2005-02-01

119

Yellowstone Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.

Park, Yellowstone N.

120

A Fourier series model to predict hourly heating and cooling energy use in commercial buildings with outdoor temperature as the only weather variable  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of hourly heating and cooling energy use in commercial buildings can be achieved by a Generalized Fourier Series (GFS) approach involving weather variables such as dry-bulb temperature, specific humidity and horizontal solar flux. However, there are situations when only temperature data is available. The objective of this paper is to (i) describe development of a variant of the GFS approach which allows modeling both heating and cooling hourly energy use in commercial buildings with outdoor temperature as the only weather variable and (ii) illustrate its application with monitored hourly data from several buildings in Texas. It is found that the new Temperature based Fourier Series (TFS) approach (1) provides better approximation to heating energy use than the existing GFS approach, (ii) can indirectly account for humidity and solar effects in the cooling energy use, (iii) offers physical insight into the operating pattern of a building HVAC system and (iv) can be used for diagnostic purposes.

Dhar, A. [Enron Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Reddy, T.A. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept.; Claridge, D.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Lab.

1999-02-01

121

Longitudinal variation of tides in the MLT region: 1. Tides driven by tropospheric net radiative heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates that the diurnal cycle of net radiative heating in the troposphere accounts for considerable longitudinal variability of diurnal and semidiurnal tidal fields in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) (˜80-120 km), whereas previously it was thought that latent heating associated with deep tropical convection is the predominant driver of this variability. The heating rates used for this study are derived from radiative flux products by NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and the model employed to estimate the corresponding MLT tides is the Global-Scale Wave Model (GSWM). The radiative flux products by NASA GISS utilize improved International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud climatology and ancillary data sets and were validated by Earth radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiative flux (0.2-200.0 microns) measurements at the top of the atmosphere and the Earth surface. Typical magnitudes of tidal temperature longitude variations at, e.g., 95 km or 110 km are 20 ± 5 K for the diurnal tide and 6 ± 2 K for the semidiurnal tide. The computed tides and their longitude variability are of comparable amplitude to those derived from TIMED SABER temperature measurements. Part 2 of this study provides new estimates of tidal forcing by latent heating and assesses the total MLT tidal response to these combined heat sources in comparison to tidal climatologies derived from TIMED SABER measurements.

Zhang, Xiaoli; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Hagan, Maura E.

2010-06-01

122

High Tide on Io!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a discussion of movement on the surface of Io, a satellite of Jupiter. It makes comparisons between ground movement on Io, where the ground itself moves up and down like an elevator taking people to the top and bottom of a 30-story building, and the earth, where similar ground tides cause total movements of only 8 inches. Galileo spacecraft and its visit to Io are briefly described.

123

Tides of io  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter's satellite Io is the most active earth-like planetary body in the solar system with a surface heat flow of, at least, 2.5 W m–2, a resurfacing rate of 1.3 cm a–1, and, possibly, a self-sustained magnetic field. It is universally accepted that the activity is driven by tidal energy dissipated in Io's mantle. Tides with amplitudes two orders of

Tilman Spohn

1997-01-01

124

Tides of io  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter's satellite Io is the most active earth-like planetary body in the solar system with a surface heat flow of, at least, 2.5 W m-2, a resurfacing rate of 1.3 cm a-1, and, possibly, a self-sustained magnetic field. It is universally accepted that the activity is driven by tidal energy dissipated in Io's mantle. Tides with amplitudes two orders of

Tilman Spohn

1997-01-01

125

NOAA: About Water Levels, Tides and Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive lesson on what causes tides, current and past techniques for predicting tides, how and why water level is measured, and the challenges of measuring water currents. Site provides additional links to other NOAA tide resources.

126

Mesospheric and thermospheric tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent calculations of atmospheric solar tides in the mesosphere and thermosphere are reviewed. The numerical models considered consist of a full three-dimensional solution of the tidal equations in a rotating viscous spherical atmosphere (Forbes and Garret 1976, 1978), and an approximate solution for some modes given by an equivalent gravity wave on a rotating plane (Forbes and Hagan 1979, 1980). Both models take into account eddy and molecular diffusion of heating and momentum, rotation, and hydromagnetic coupling, and use new calculations of thermal forcing by insolation absorption due to H2O and O3 below 70 km.

Forbes, J. M.

1980-08-01

127

8.F Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The figure below gives the depth of the water at Montauk Point, New York, for a day in November. How many high tides took place on this day? How many l...

128

International Symposium on Earth Tides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sixth International Symposium on Earth Tides was held in France at the University of Strasbourg, Sept. 15-20, 1969. It was organized by the Permanent Commission on Earth Tides, International Association of Geodesy, IUGG. The highlights of the symposiu...

B. D. Zetler

1970-01-01

129

A Hierarchical Bayesian model of wildfire in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot: Implications of weather variability and global circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we combined an extensive database of observed wildfires with high-resolution meteorological data to build a novel spatially and temporally varying survival model to analyze fire regimes in the Mediterranean ecosystem in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa during the period 1980–2000. The model revealed an important influence of seasonally anomalous weather on fire probability, with

Adam M. Wilson; Andrew M. Latimer; John A. Silander Jr.; Alan E. Gelfand; Helen de Klerk

2010-01-01

130

The Potential Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Health Impacts of Extreme Weather Events in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during

Gregg Greenough; Michael McGeehin; Susan M. Bernard; Juli Trtanj; Jasmin Riad; David Engelberg

2001-01-01

131

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

132

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Chemical Weathering and CO2 Fluxes: An Example From the Australian Victorian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps was collected at different locations during (i) high discharge (June 2006) and (ii) low discharge (February 2007) conditions and was analyzed for dissolved major ions, ?2H and ?18O, and ?34S of dissolved sulphate. River water chemistry implies that solutes are largely derived from precipitation and chemical weathering of silicate lithologies. Cl/Br ratios as low as 30 molar suggest that rivers have not dissolved halite, however, higher salinity (?100 mmol/L) winter samples have intermediate Cl/Br ratios (600 to 2000 molar) that are attributed to minor halite dissolution at the onset of the rainy season. Subsequent mixing of river water homogenizes ratios and evaporation is the dominant process that increases downstream salinities. Oxygen and Hydrogen isotopes also indicate that mixing and evaporation have occurred. Despite the lack of carbonate outcrops in the study area and uniform negative calcite saturation indices, the dissolution of hydrothermal calcite may account for up to 67% of the total dissolved cations, generating up to 92% of all dissolved Ca and Mg. The sulphur isotope data (16 to 20°CDT) indicates that the dissolved SO4 is derived predominantly from atmospheric deposition and minor gypsum weathering and not from bacterial reduction of FeS. This militates against sulphuric acid weathering in Victorian rivers. Si/(Na* + K*) ratios suggest that silicate weathering is dominated by the transformation of plagioclase (An40) to smectite and, to a lesser extend, the production of kaolinite. In total, chemical weathering consumes 17.6 x 106 (summer) to 71.59 x 106(winter) mol/km2/yr CO2, with the highest values in rivers draining the basement outcrops rather than sedimentary rocks. This range is at the upper end of the global scale and shows that the predominance of fresh silicate lithologies exerts the main control on higher CO2 fluxes; temperature and runoff, in turn, are crucial variables for the inter- seasonal variability in this region. Data on discharge and major ion chemistry, measured in regular intervals between 1977 and 1990, support this; however, the timing of absolute maxima of Si/(Na* + K*) and CO2 flux peaks do not coincide. We suggest that the combination of dissolution of diatoms that precipitated under low flow- and high temperature conditions in the tributaries and Na-adsorption by suspended clay particles, that were probably redistributed locally after bushfires and/or duststorms during drought periods in the early 1980's, as mechanisms to spontaneously elevate Si/(Na* + K*) ratios and, when coupled with irregular discharge fluctuations, explain deviations from seasonal CO2 fluxes.

Hagedorn, B.; Cartwright, I.

2007-12-01

133

[Red tides in México: a review].  

PubMed

With the purpose to make a review on the red tides occurence at mexican coasts, previous studies were analyzed. Dinoflagellates seem to be the main cause of toxic events mainly Gonyaulax polygramma, Gymnodinium catenatum, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and Ptychodiscus brevis. There are other species which cause red tides but are not toxic. They are: Mesodinium rubrum, Gonyaulax triacantha, Noctiluca scintillans, Prorocentrum dentatum, Gymnodinium splendens, G. sanguineum, Ceratium tripos var. ponticum, C. furca, Scrippsiella trocoidea and Oscillatoria erythraea. The first of these is the most common cilliate of the Pacific coastlines and the last one is the most common cyanophyceae during the strong events of "El Niño". The magnitude is quite variable, from small stains of a hundred square meters to several square kilometers and its density ranges from 0.5 to 36 million cells/l. Their residence time goes from 1 or 2 days to as long as 5 months. The great densities are due to Prorocentrum dentatum and P. minimum, the latter is only observed in estuarine ponds for shrimp cultivation, they have not been related to poisoning episodes. New areas of the red tide occurrence have been recorded during the last decades, such as Acapulco Bay, Huatulco, Salinacruz and Puerto Madero. These localities and also Mazatlán, are the only regions in which paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) have registered fatal cases and in the Gulf of Mexico a great mortality of fishes has been noted due to ictiotoxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis. On the other hand, at Yucatan and west coast of the Peninsula of California red tide events are little known. PMID:8900570

Cortés-Altamirano, R; Hernández-Becerril, D U; Luna-Soria, R

134

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

135

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting â from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment â and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

136

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

137

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

138

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

139

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

1994-01-01

140

Weather Predictions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the internet to learn about weather and play games enhancing their knowledge and interest. Using the knowledge they learned students will write out their prediction of their next 5 days of weather. Intro Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Intro Look at the current weather forecast-Click here Current Weather-CNN Task Search for information about what causes different kinds of weather and what instruments people use to predict weather. What is a person called who predicts weather? Resources Resource 1 Resource 2 Resource 3 Resource 4 Resource 5 Resource 6 Evaluation Rubric Conclusion After researching, create your ...

Burr, Miss

2009-03-27

141

Influence of weather on osteoarthritics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined the effects of selected weather variables on pain and pain-related stress in osteoarthritic subjects. Urban and rural dwelling arthritics who perceived that weather made their symptoms worse and those who did not were surveyed. Some persons with osteoarthritis in urban Chicago were more weather sensitive than their rural counterparts in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Multiple regression

Joyce M. Laborde; William A. Dando; Marjorie J. Powers

1986-01-01

142

Earth tide observations and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth tide observations with gravimeters, tilt- and strainmeters were obtained at many stations on the globe. The original aim of the research was to determine the global response of the earth to the tidal forcing in the form of Love and Shida numbers. This goal could not be reached due to strong perturbations of the body tide signals by ocean tide loading and attraction and by local elastic effects for the two latter types of instruments. Higher accuracy is needed for the instruments and the corrections for these perturbations, before the true body tide signal can be gleaned from the observations and information about the elastic and anelastic threedimensional structure of the earth can be retrieved.

Zürn, Walter

143

Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

144

Dynamic Tides in Close Binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic theory of dynamic tides in close binaries is reviewed. Particular\\u000aattention is paid to resonances between dynamic tides and free oscillation\\u000amodes and to the role of the apsidal-motion rate in probing the internal\\u000astructure of binary components. The discussed effects are generally applicable\\u000ato stars across the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, including the binary\\u000aOB-stars discussed at this

B. Willems

2005-01-01

145

Tides in Colliding Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long tails and streams of stars are the most noticeable traces of galaxy collisions. However, their tidal origin was recognized only less than 50 years ago and more than 10 years after their first observations. This review describes how the idea of galactic tides has emerged thanks to advances in numerical simulations, from the first simulations that included tens of particles to the most sophisticated ones with tens of millions of them and state-of-the-art hydrodynamical prescriptions. Theoretical aspects pertaining to the formation of tidal tails are then presented. The third part turns to observations and underlines the need for collecting deep multi-wavelength data to tackle the variety of physical processes exhibited by collisional debris. Tidal tails are not just stellar structures, but turn out to contain all the components usually found in galactic disks, in particular atomic/molecular gas and dust. They host star-forming complexes and are able to form star-clusters or even second-generation dwarf galaxies. The final part of the review discusses what tidal tails can tell us (or not) about the structure and the content of present-day galaxies, including their dark components, and explains how they may be used to probe the past evolution of galaxies and the history of their mass assembly. On-going deep wide-field surveys disclose many new low-surface brightness structures in the nearby Universe, offering great opportunities for attempting galactic archeology with tidal tails.

Duc, Pierre-Alain; Renaud, Florent

146

Disaggregation of screen-level variables in a numerical weather prediction model with an explicit simulation of subgrid-scale land-surface heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth's surface is characterized by small-scale heterogeneity attributable to variability in land cover, soil characteristics and orography. In atmospheric models, this small-scale variability can be partially accounted for by the so-called mosaic approach, i.e., by computing the land-surface processes on a grid with an explicit higher horizontal resolution than the atmosphere. The mosaic approach does, however, not account for the subgrid-scale variability in the screen-level atmospheric parameters, part of which might be related to land-surface heterogeneity itself. In this study, simulations with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO are shown, employing the mosaic approach together with a spatial disaggregation of the atmospheric forcing by the screen-level variables to the subgrid-scale. The atmospheric model is run with a 2.8 km horizontal grid resolution while the land surface processes are computed on a 400-m horizontal grid. The disaggregation of the driving atmospheric variables at screen-level is achieved by a three-step statistical downscaling with rules learnt from high-resolution fully coupled COSMO simulations, where both, atmosphere and surface, were simulated on a 400-m grid. The steps encompass spline interpolation of the grid scale variables, conditional regression based on the high-resolution runs, and an optional stochastic noise generator which restores the variability of the downscaled variables. Simulations for a number of case studies have been carried out, with or without mosaic surface representation and with or without atmospheric disaggregation, and evaluated with respect to the surface state variables and the turbulent surface exchange fluxes of sensible and latent heat. The results are compared with the high-resolution fully coupled COSMO simulations. The results clearly demonstrate the high importance of accounting for subgrid-scale surface heterogeneity. It is shown that the atmospheric disaggregation leads to clear additional improvements in the structures of the two-dimensional surface state variable fields, but to only marginally impacts on the simulation of the turbulent surface exchange fluxes. A detailed analysis of these results identifies strongly correlated errors in atmospheric and surface variables in the mosaic approach as the main reason for the latter. The effects of these errors largely cancel out in the flux parameterization, and thus explain the comparably good results for the fluxes in the mosaic approach without atmospheric disaggregation despite inferior performance for the surface state variables themselves. Inserting noise in the disaggregation scheme leads to a deterioration of the results.

Schomburg, A.; Venema, V.; Ament, F.; Simmer, C.

2012-05-01

147

Observations of upper atmospheric weather during solar minimum winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on a wide variety of thermospheric and ionospheric observations from three consecutive January World Day campaign periods. Despite remarkably similar geophysical conditions characterizing the in situ forcing of the upper atmosphere during these solar minimum campaigns, significant variability is found in the observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere, particularly at low latitudes in the American sector. Further observational evidence is presented of the unexpected exospheric temperature suppression at low latitudes initially reported by Hagan and Salah (1988). The paper discusses the lower and upper atmospheric coupling mechanisms of plausible importance to the interpretation of the observed thermospheric weather patterns. Evidence is reported that lower thermospheric nitric oxide number density and upward propagating atmospheric tides affected the thermospheric energy and momentum budgets during the campaign periods.

Hagan, M. E.; Barth, C. A.; Tobiska, W. K.; Manson, A. H.; Vincent, R. A.; Bounsanto, M. J.; Burnside, R. G.; Wickwar, V. B.

1992-04-01

148

Observations of upper atmospheric weather during solar minimum winter  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a wide variety of thermospheric and ionospheric observations from three consecutive January World Day campaign periods. Despite remarkably similar geophysical conditions characterizing the in situ forcing of the upper atmosphere during these solar minimum campaigns, they find significant variability in the observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere particularly at low latitudes in the American sector. In addition, they present further observational evidence of the unexpected exospheric temperature suppression at low latitudes initially reported by Hagran and Salah (1988). They discuss the lower and upper atmospheric coupling mechanisms of plausible importance to the interpretation of the observed thermospheric weather patterns. They report evidence that lower thermospheric (NO) (nitric oxide number density) and upward propagating atmospheric tides affected the thermospheric energy and momentum budgets during the campaign periods.

Hagan, M.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Westford (United States) National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Barth, C.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tobiska, W.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Manson, A.H. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)); Vincent, R.A. (Univ. of Adelaide (Australia)); Buonsanto, M.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Westford (United States)); Burnside, R.G. (Cornell Univ., Arecibo (Puerto Rico)); Wickwar, V.B. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States))

1992-04-01

149

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

150

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn how meteorologists measure the weather by examining some online, real-time data resources and collaborating to create an in-class weather station that tracks local weather patterns for one week. Students compare this information to weather patterns in two other locations. After completing this lesson, students should be able to explain ways that meteorologists measure and predict weather and use the Internet to research information about weather conditions in various locations in the United States, including their hometown. Students will also collaborate on creating some weather-measurement instruments and keep a weather journal for one week. This site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and an organizational path for students.

151

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

152

Stratospheric warmings and the geomagnetic lunar tide: 1958-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative comparison of the geomagnetic lunar tide and lower stratospheric parameters (zonal mean air temperature T and zonal mean zonal wind U) is carried out for the period 1958-2007. The correlation between the amplitude of the geomagnetic lunar tide at an equatorial station, Addis Ababa, and the lower stratospheric parameters from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis is examined. It is found that the lunar tidal amplitude tends to be positively and negatively correlated with the stratospheric T and U, respectively, in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during December and January. High correlations are observed in approximately 70% of stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events. The results suggest that variability of the geomagnetic lunar tide during the northern winter is closely linked with dynamical changes in the lower stratospheric parameters associated with SSWs.

Yamazaki, Y.; Richmond, A. D.; Yumoto, K.

2012-04-01

153

Weather Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

154

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

155

The Lunar Semidiurnal Tide in the Thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewed interest in lunar tidal influences on the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system has emerged in connection with Fejer's discovery of a possible connection between stratospheric warmings and lunar tidal perturbations of the equatorial ionosphere. By virtue of its gravitational force on the solid earth, oceans and atmosphere, the moon produces perturbations in the temperature, density, pressure and wind fields of earth's atmosphere. Lunar tidal winds in the dynamo region (ca. 100-150 km) can furthermore generate electric fields that map into the F-region and redistribute ionospheric plasma. Direct penetration (propagation) of lunar tides to F-region heights can also transport ionospheric plasma. In this paper we examine the global structure of the main M2 (period = 12.42h) lunar tide through examination of temperatures measured by the TIMED SABER instrument between 90 and 110 km and densities inferred from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites in the 350-550 altitude range. Ten-year mean SABER temperature amplitudes are of order 5-10 K while the corresponding density perturbations approach amplitudes of order 5% at 360 km and 10% at 480 km. Evidence for significant longitude variability is also presented. Global-Scale Wave Model (GSWM) simulations agree in seasonal-latitudinal structure with the above results, and moreover provide estimates of E- and F-region winds. The observed amplitudes are large enough to impose non-negligible day-to-day variability on the IT system.

Forbes, J.; Zhang, X.

2012-04-01

156

Rates of Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

Passow, Michael

157

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Large-scale weather patterns which occur in various locations around the Earth play a significant part in controlling the weather on a seasonal time scale. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded collaborative research effort between Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has led to a new understanding of the relationship between fall snow cover and winter climate variability. This research has led to the development of a new seasonal forecast model.

158

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

159

Comparison of ocean tide models for accurate computation of ocean tide loading in Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of different ocean tide models on the prediction of the ocean tide loading in Korean peninsula. The western part of Korean peninsula has large tidal range of water level and complicated rias coasts, so that accurate ocean tidal loading models are necessary for high-precise geodetic applications. The information of coastlines and the accuracy of the ocean tide model are key factors for high accurate ocean tide loading models. Recently, the global ocean tide models based on extensive observations and local tide models for the local area have been released. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of ocean tide loadings with various ocean tide models. We developed a program for the convolutions of the mass of ocean tide and the load Green's functions. Comparing the computations with GOTIC2, the differences of vertical deformations due to M2 constituent were less than 0.4 mm in the case of the same ocean tide model. The five global ocean tide models, NAO99b, FES2004, DTU10, EOT11a and HAMTIDE, one regional tide model, NAO99Jb, and two local tide models were tested. The tests were performed in two ways. One was to use only global ocean tide models and the other one combined each global tide model and local tide model. Finally, we compared the computations with the GPS observations.

Baek, J.; Na, S.; Park, P.; Choi, B.; Cho, S.

2011-12-01

160

Diurnal internal tides detected in the Adriatic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong diurnal oscillations, documented by temperature data that were collected along a submarine cliff on the Lastovo Island (southern Adriatic), are studied and compared with sea level and wind measurements at Dubrovnik and Komiža (island of Vis). Three thermistors were deployed at the depths of 15, 22 and 36 m between March 2001 and March 2002. Pronounced diurnal temperature oscillations were detected at 15 and 22 m during the stratified season. The correlation between the sea surface and thermocline displacements was highest in June 2001, when diurnal wind changes were not significant, while diurnal sea level oscillations achieved annual maxima. Thermocline oscillations were in phase with sea level changes. The range of diurnal sea surface variability was close to 19 cm, while the range of corresponding thermocline variability was about 5.4 m. The findings summarize the outcome of the first dedicated study of internal tides in the Adriatic.

Mihanovi?, H.; Orli?, M.; Pasari?, Z.

2006-11-01

161

WWW Tide and Current Predictor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of South Carolina's Wethey Lab Homepage, the tide and current predictor contains up-to-date basic predictions and a format for obtaining customized predictions. Access to data is organized by location. Location choices include US Upper East Coast (Maine through Virginia), US Lower East Coast (North Carolina through Florida Keys), US Gulf Coast sites (East to West), US West Coast sites (North to South), Northern sites (except Japan) outside contiguous US (East to West), Southern sites outside contiguous US (East to West), and Japan and nearby sites (North to South). Also, the site includes answers to FAQs concerning this tide predictor.

162

Earth Tides and Their Impact on Ocean Tide Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of obtaining the solid earth's response to tidal forces is outlined in this extract from Tim Whorf's thesis. The thesis treats the problem of searching for a non-Newtonian gravitational effect in earth tides which is due to a fixed universal r...

R. A. Haubrich

1975-01-01

163

NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website offers a brief explanation of red tide and a large bloom that spread from the Gulf of Maine to the Massachusetts Bay in 2005. The site explains NOAA's efforts to remediate red tide in New England as well as prevent new occurrences. The site features hyperlinks to research funding, legislation, and other NOAA sites that feature red tide.

164

Re-examining Galileo's theory of tides.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study expounds the model of the Earth tides by Galileo Galilei in all its amazing complexity by bringing to light its completely forgotten vision of the flux and reflux of the sea as a wave-like phenomenon and by reassessing Galileo's claim that this model was a physical proof of the double motion of the Earth as postulated by Copernicus, namely, its diurnal rotation about its polar axis and its annual revolution around the Sun. The study is organized in the chapters: (1) Galileo's tide-generating acceleration: the woad-grindstone model; composition of speeds and relativity; tide-generating acceleration as a historiographical stumbling block. (2) Newton's tide-generating force: Newton's dynamic model; asymmetric tide-generating force and asymmetric tide periods. (3) Galileo's oscillatory model: a simple oscillating system; the laws of basins and superposition of waves. (4) The "warping" of history: Galileo's claim that tides prove Copernicus; Galileo's notions on bodies that move around a centre; tide equations - the quasi-Galilean term; tides in a non-Newtonian universe. (5) Simulate the wind and the sea: comets and winds; rotating buckets and the terrestrial atmosphere; tide experiments - artificial vessels and tide-machines. (6) Celestial wheel clock: monthly and annual periodicities; the celestial balance-stick regulator. (7) Moon and waves: lunar trepidations and tides - a new research programme; a single great wave.

Palmieri, P.

1998-11-01

165

The tide in the seas of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of the tides in the near-global ocean that may exist on Titan are assessed. A formula for the difference between the maximum heights of the oceanic and body tides is used to determine that the amplitude of the apparent, near-stationary, oceanic tide on Titan is greater than about 100 m. The effects of tidal dissipation are evaluated, showing

Carl Sagan; S. F. Dermott

1982-01-01

166

Mathematical modelling of global interaction between ocean tides and earth tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid Earth deformation due to ocean tides gives rise to an essential interaction between ocean tides and Earth tides. A hydrodynamical-numerical 4°-ocean tide model has been generalized by including this interaction, which depends on gravitational attraction and loading effects. The resulting integro-differential equation system has been solved numerically for semidiurnal and diurnal tides. In this way global maps have been

Wilfried Zahel

1980-01-01

167

Multiyear Climate Variability and Dengue--El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, Weather, and Dengue Incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand: A Longitudinal Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The mosquito-borne dengue viruses are a major public health problem throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Changes in temperature and precipitation have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle and may thus play a role in changing incidence levels. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a multiyear climate driver of local temperature and precipitation worldwide. Previous studies have reported varying degrees of association between ENSO and dengue incidence. Methods and Findings We analyzed the relationship between ENSO, local weather, and dengue incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand using wavelet analysis to identify time- and frequency-specific association. In Puerto Rico, ENSO was transiently associated with temperature and dengue incidence on multiyear scales. However, only local precipitation and not temperature was associated with dengue on multiyear scales. In Thailand, ENSO was associated with both temperature and precipitation. Although precipitation was associated with dengue incidence, the association was nonstationary and likely spurious. In Mexico, no association between any of the variables was observed on the multiyear scale. Conclusions The evidence for a relationship between ENSO, climate, and dengue incidence presented here is weak. While multiyear climate variability may play a role in endemic interannual dengue dynamics, we did not find evidence of a strong, consistent relationship in any of the study areas. The role of ENSO may be obscured by local climate heterogeneity, insufficient data, randomly coincident outbreaks, and other, potentially stronger, intrinsic factors regulating transmission dynamics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Johansson, Michael A.; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Glass, Gregory E.

2009-01-01

168

Tides in asynchronous binary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Stellar oscillations are excited in non-synchronously rotating stars in binary systems due to the tidal forces. Tangential components of the tides can drive a shear flow which behaves as a differentially forced rotating structure in a stratified outer medium. Aims: The aims of this paper are to show that our single-layer approximation for the calculation of the forced oscillations

Oswaldo Toledano; Edmundo Moreno; Gloria Koenigsberger; R. G. Detmers; Norbert Langer

2007-01-01

169

Digital Tide-Coordinated Shoreline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoreline is one of the most important features on earth's surface. It is valuable to a diverse user community. But the dynamic nature of the shoreline makes it difficult to be represented in a naturally dynamic style and to be utilized it in applications. The officially used shoreline, for example in nautical charts, is the so-called tide-coordinated shoreline. It

Rongxing Li; Ruijin Ma; Kaichang Di

2002-01-01

170

Regional Ocean Tide Simulator Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the tides in the East Asian Seas started during the late 1970s with the formulation of a two-dimensional model for basic studies of tidal propagation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea continental shelf . This has been followed by a series of studies aimed at predicting tidal changes due to tidal barriers for potential tidal

B. H. Choi

171

Tide following wave power machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two spaced piers are constructed on a suitable tidal beach extending from the shore into the water a predetermined distance to meet the first breaking waves at low tide. A carriage is movably supported on the piers on an inclined path, the carriage having a frame supporting a pair of spaced sprocket wheels on each end over which

1982-01-01

172

An Automated Tide Gauging Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed for automatic acquisition and telemetry of tides and water levels from a network of permanent gauging stations. Called TATS, for Tidal Acquisition and Telemetry System, the new instrument consists basically of a specialized microcomputer interfaced to a water level sensor and a dial-up telephone line. Designed as a low cost, reliable instrument for remote, unattended

D. Knudsen

1978-01-01

173

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

174

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

175

Weather Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...

Harris, Ms.

2011-01-24

176

Comparison between physical variables acquired by a new multiparametric platform, ELFO, and data calculated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in different weather conditions at Tiber River mouth (Latium coast, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystem is characterized by high variability physical processes, which are strongly influenced by sudden changes in weather conditions. For this reason instruments able to collect data in a short time or mathematical models able to simulate the same phenomena from experimental data are basic. In this study in situ data are compared with data calculated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic

Simone Bonamano; Viviana Piermattei; Marco Marcelli; Maximo Peviani

2010-01-01

177

Middle and upper thermosphere density structures due to nonmigrating tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density measurements from the SETA satellites near 200 km during 1982-1984, and the CHAMP and GRACE satellites between 350 and 550 km during 2002-2009, are used to investigate longitudinal structures in density due to nonmigrating tides, and to evaluate performance of the recently-created Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermosphere (CTMT). Amplitudes for the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components fall roughly in the range of 4-10%. Diurnal tides at middle and low latitudes are often characterized by wave-3 and/or wave-4 structures, consistent with the presence of the eastward-propagating diurnal tides with zonal wave numbers s = 2 and s = 3 (DE2 and DE3, respectively) and with expected seasonal variability based on previous works. Semidiurnal structures often reflect the presence of the eastward-propagating tide with s = 2 (SE2), which gives rise to wave-4 structures that have a more antisymmetric relationship between N. and S. hemispheres. Similarities in structures between different years underscore the fact that the thermosphere is subject to repeatable and reproducible forcing by upward-propagating tides, but there are also occasions where considerable departures from climatology occur. Wave-2 structures at high latitudes likely contain signatures of the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with s = 1 (DE1) and the zonally-symmetric (s = 0) semidiurnal oscillation (S0) propagating upwards from below, but these and other waves that produce wave-2 can also be forced in-situ by high-latitude processes. The CTMT captures the salient features of the observations at middle and low latitudes, although with lower amplitudes that are likely due to phase cancelation effects resulting from averaging over multiple years (2002-2006). We propose that some discrepancies between the CTMT and our observational results may be associated with wave components arising in-situ in the thermosphere as the result of nonlinear tide-tide interactions and plasma neutral interactions, the latter being especially prominent at high latitudes where the displaced geomagnetic frame is particularly influential. Modeling studies are required to validate these proposed mechanisms, however.

Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Bruinsma, Sean

2012-11-01

178

Weather, Chinook, and Stroke Occurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Changes in weather and season have been linked to stroke occurrence. However, the association has been inconsistent across stroke types. Calgary is a city in the Chinook belt and is subject to high variability in weather conditions. Methods—We obtained hourly weather data over a 5-year period from 1996 to 2000; Chinook events were identified according to the accepted definition. We

Thalia S. Field; Michael D. Hill

2010-01-01

179

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

180

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

181

GSWM-98: Results for migrating solar tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on new global-scale wave model (GSWM) predictions for the migrating solar tide in the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The model revision, hereafter GSWM-98, includes an updated gravity wave (GW) stress parameterization and modifications to the background atmosphere based on 6-year monthly averaged Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) climatologies. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment and Microwave Limb Sounder ozone data are used to define the strato-mesospheric tidal source, while GSWM-98 background winds are based on UARS High Resolution Doppler Interferometer (HRDI) zonal mean zonal wind data. We quantify and interpret differences between previous diurnal and semidiurnal predictions, hereafter GSWM-95, and GSWM-98 results. The revised GW stress parameterization accounts for the most profound changes and leads to seasonal variability predictions that are consistent with diurnal amplitudes observed in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Unresolved differences between HRDI and other wind climatologies significantly affect MLT tidal predictions.

Hagan, M. E.; Burrage, M. D.; Forbes, J. M.; Hackney, J.; Randel, W. J.; Zhang, X.

1999-04-01

182

Coordinated radar observations of atmospheric diurnal tides in equatorial regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term behavior of atmospheric tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been observed with the meteor wind radar (MWR) in Jakarta, Indonesia (6°S, 107°E) from November 1992 to August 1997. The amplitudes and phases of the diurnal tides show systematic seasonal variations, particularly distinct in the meridional component. In addition, substantial interannual variability is evident, characterized by a biennial periodicity of tidal parameters, and considerably small tidal amplitudes exclusively seen in 1996. The MWR results are compared with the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM) as well as MF radar data collected in two equatorial sites in Pontianak (0.03°N, 109°E) and Christmas Island (2°N, 158°W) for November 1995-July 1997 and January 1996-October 1997, respectively. Comparison studies of these radar data have revealed the detailed latitudinal structure of the diurnal tide near the equator. The GSWM has successfully described the general characteristics of the radar results, although some discrepancies are recognized. In 1996 when radar data are available at all the three sites, the monthly mean values of tidal amplitudes at 90 km agreed very well between Jakarta and Pontianak, while significant discrepancy was found for Christmas Island, suggesting the existence of geographical effects such as non-migrating tides.

Tsuda, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Isoda, F.; Nakamura, T.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Harijono, S. W. B.; Sribimawati, T.; Nuryanto, A.; Wiryosumarto, H.

1999-07-01

183

Low-tide rainfall effects on metal content of suspended sediment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rain falling at or near low tide is capable of eroding and transporting cohesive sediment from intertidal areas. Given that metals adsorb strongly to silt- and clay-sized particles, it is conceivable that low-tide rainfall may also liberate previously-deposited metals from storage in intertidal sediment. To investigate the potential for rainfall as an agent of remobilization, this study tested the hypothesis that suspended sediment in a tidal creek during low tide rainfall events contains different suites of adsorbed metals than during wind-only events and fair weather days. Water samples were collected during low-tide rain events in winter and wind resuspension events in summer. The concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and the total adsorbed concentration (g L-1) of most metals were higher for a low-tide rainfall event than during wind-only and fair-weather conditions. Metal contents (g g-1) were also greater during the rain event for most metals. Principal components analysis and relationships between metal content and suspended sediment concentration suggest that rainfall during low tide can mobilize a different source of sediment than wind-wave resuspension and regular tidal action. The metal content of bulk sediment samples from around the study area could not be matched satisfactorily to the suspended sediment in any of the events. This implies that bulk sediment composition should not be used to extrapolate to suspended sediment composition in terms of adsorbed metal content.

Moskalski, Susanne M.; Torres, Raymond; Bizimis, Michael; Goni, Miguel; Bergamaschi, Brian; Fleck, Jacob

2013-03-01

184

Climate and Catastrophic Weather Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of global climate change are conventionally discussed in terms of changes in temperature averaged over the year and over the globe. Much less emphasis has been placed on anticipated changes in weather variability. Of particular interest are extreme events such as windstorms, hurricanes, floods, droughts, hailstorms, tornadoes, etc. In the last decade, the number of catastrophic weather events

G. J. MacDonald

1999-01-01

185

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

186

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

187

Internal Tide Transformation and Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of internal tides, or long internal waves, as they propagate over the variable topography of the continental\\u000a slope and shelf is discussed. Development of a model to describe this transformation is presented and is based on the Korteweg-de\\u000a Vries equation. The model includes cubic as well as quadratic nonlinearity, dispersion, Earth’s rotation and quadratic dissipation.\\u000a An initial waveform,

Peter Holloway; Efim Pelinovsky; Tatiana Talipova

188

Weathering of Oil at Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to trace the fate of petroleum products discharged in the marine environment and to determine the magnitude of the more important weathering variables on the physical and chemical changes which occur. Six carefully selected oils, fou...

J. W. Frankenfeld

1973-01-01

189

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

190

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following James Van Allen's discovery of Earth's radiation belts (1958), it was immediately recognized that the space environment would be hostile to the communications satellites that had been envision by Arthur Clark (1945) and John Pierce (1955). Van Allen's discovery set off a burst of "space weather" research and engineering that continues to today, paralleling "space weather" research that had, prior to 1958, been directed toward understanding environment effects on cable and early wireless communications, electric power distribution, and pipelines. Van Allen's discovery also meant that the flight of humans above the sensible atmosphere would be fraught with more peril than mere weightlessness. This Van Allen lecture will discuss the space weather considerations that arose from Van Allen's discovery as well as space weather effects that occur from numerous other physical processes in the complex sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environmental system.

Lanzerotti, L. J.

2005-05-01

191

Gravestone Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

192

Impact of seasonal and annual climate variability and extreme weather events on carbon exchanges in an age-sequence of temperate pine forest in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present five years (2003-2007) of eddy covariance flux measurements made in an age-sequence (68-, 33-, 18-, and 5-year-old) of eastern white pine (-Pinus strobus L.) forests in southern Ontario, near Lake Erie in Canada. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of seasonal and annual variations in climatic variables and extreme weather events on gross primary productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of all four stands. Five-year mean NEP values were 136 (36 to 219), 442 (318 to 666), 774 (684 to 885) and 40 (-126 to 164) g C m -2 y -1 in the 68-, 33-, 18-, and 5-year-old stand, respectively. The study period experienced three distinct extreme weather events: warm and dry spring of 2005, extremely wet summer of 2006 and summer drought of 2007. In 2005, NEP of 68-year-old stand was reduced to 36 g C m -2 y -1 (74% reduction) as compared to its five-year mean value, mostly because of decrease in photosynthetic activity due to an early spring drought. In 2005, GEP and RE values were 1237 and 1176 g C m -2 y -1 as compared to respective five-year mean GEP and RE values of 1349 and 1189 g C m -2 y -1. Similar decrease in NEP was observed at the 33-year-old site, while the 5-year-old site became a large source of carbon. The 18-year-old stand which had high water table due to its topography was least affected. In contrast, 2006 was the most productive year, with highest ever recorded GEP value of 1468 g C m -2 y -1 in the 68-year-old stand but hot summer temperatures resulted in highest RE as well (1292 g C m -2 which was 103 g C m -2 more compared to five-year mean value), effectively making 2006 an average year in terms of annual NEP. In 2007, a summer drought caused GEP to decline but RE was similar to its five-year mean value due to colder temperatures in late summer and autumn, resulting in NEP similar to its five-year mean value. The most productive year was 2003, when low temperature and RE resulted in 219 g C m -2 y -1 of NEP. The results of this study indicate that carbon cycle of forests in great lakes region in eastern North America might be more affected by changes in temperature rather than variations in precipitation, unless dry conditions coincide with short and intense growing season of the region. These results also highlight the complexity of forest ecosystem responses to climatic and extreme weather events.

Arain, M.; Brodeur, J.; Peichl, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; McLaren, J.; Khomik, M.

2008-12-01

193

Internal tides measured with multisatellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean tides flowing over rough topography generate internal tides, which may transport the tidal energy more than 2000 kilometers away from the generation sites. Eventual breaking of these waves produces turbulence and influences the mixing of heat and chemicals, ocean circulation, and global climate. However, mapping internal tides from their generation to dissipation over such great distances poses a significant challenge. Satellite altimeters, with nearly global coverage, can capture the approximately 2-centimeter sea surface height deflection caused by an internal tide (corresponding to tens of meters of subsurface displacements).

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-02-01

194

Intercomparison of recent ocean tide models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tremendous achievements of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) satellite mission is the release of 12 new global ocean tide models during 1994. Virtually all of these models are based on the high-precision altimetry obtainable from the T/P satellite, and all of the models are superior to both the Cartwright and Ray (1990, 1991) model as well as to the Schwiderski (1980a, b) model when compared to tide gauges. In the present intercomparison, only global ocean tide models released during 1994 have been tested. As T/P continues to operate, new ocean tide models will continue to be released and existing ocean models will be updated. Hence this intercomparison can only present a snapshot of the "state of the art" within ocean tide modeling. However, the intercomparison demonstrates the high accuracy and consistency of all these recent ocean tide models. From a comparison with a common 104 tide gauge data set compiled by Le Provost and others (unpublished data), the general result is that, six of the new ocean tide models have RMS agreement better than 3 cm. The obtainable accuracy with different tide gauge types raises the question about the accuracy of "ground truth." As ocean tide models become increasingly more accurate, the accuracy of the harmonic constants derived from the tide gauge recordings becomes significant. Generally, the RMS agreement between models based on 2 years of T/P altimetry is significantly better than the agreement between models based on 1 year of T/P altimetry. For models based on two years of T/P altimetry the RMS agreement has values around 2.0, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 cm for the M2, S2, K1 and O1 constituents, respectively. As a preliminary evaluation, these values might be taken as a measure of the consistency of ocean tides estimated from the first part of the T/P mission, which is extremely promising for future ocean tide models derived from T/P altimetry using 3 or more years of data. This also suggests that further improvement using 3 or more years of data will only be marginal. The differences arise when studying the ocean tides on continental shelves surrounding the ocean. Major differences are seen, especially on the Patagonian shelf. As the continental shelves are critical for tidal dissipation, it will be very important to improve tide models on the shelves in future global ocean tide models.

Andersen, O. B.; Woodworth, P. L.; Flather, R. A.

1995-12-01

195

The lunar tide in sporadic E  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems that the wind shear theory is accepted for the explanation of sporadic E at mid and low latitudes. Some examples from Arecibo are displayed to show this. The effect of lunar tides should then modify the wind-shear theory in a manner that yields the observed features of the lunar tide in the critical frequency foEs and the height h'Es of the sporadic E. This is shown to imply that the phase of the lunar tide in h'Es should be the same as the phase of the lunar tide in the eastward wind and that the phase of the lunar tide in foEs is three hours later. Hourly values of foEs, f bEs (the blanketing critical frequency) and h'Es from several observatories are analysed for the lunar semidiurnal tide. It is found that the phase of the tide in foEs is often about 3 hours later than for h'Es in agreement with the theory. Seasonal variations in the tide are also examined with the statistically most significant results (largest amplitudes) usually occurring in summer. After reviewing the many difficulties associated with determining the lunar tide in Es, both experimentally and theoretically, the analysed phase results are compared with what might be expected from Hagan's global scale wave model. Agreement is only fair (a success rate of 69% among the cases examined) but probably as good as might be expected.

Stening, R. J.

1999-10-01

196

Meteor radar observations of short-term variability of quasi 2 day waves and their interaction with tides and planetary waves in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteor radar measurements of zonal and meridional winds over a low-latitude station, Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E), during March 2006 to March 2009 are used to study the quasi 2 day wave structure in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Emphasis is placed on the study of the day-to-day variations of quasi 2 day waves and their interaction with diurnal tides and planetary waves. The seasonal variation of quasi 2 day waves showed two maxima, one during summer and the other during winter, coinciding with the strong eastward winds in the MLT region along with a distinct peak during the month of October. Subsequent analysis of TIMED/SABER observations during October revealed the presence of a westward propagating quasi 2 day wave with zonal wave number 3 over the present latitude. The seasonal variation of quasi 2 day wave is also discussed with respect to the Stratospheric Semiannual Oscillation (SSAO), and we found that the quasi 2 day wave activity peaks in the MLT region during the phase transition of SSAO as well as during the eastward phase. Wavelet and subsequent bispectral analysis confirmed the wave-wave interactions of quasi 2 day wave and planetary waves with periods of 5-10 and 15-20 days. The 16 h oscillation, which is believed to be generated by interaction of quasi 2 day wave and diurnal tide, showed an excellent correlation with quasi 2 day wave activity. Apart from reporting day-to-day variation of quasi 2 day wave for the first time over this latitude, there are two new results from the present study: (1) a consistent peak in quasi 2 day activity during October, which has never been reported and has been observed for the first time over low latitudes, and (2) the relation between SSAO and quasi 2 day wave activity.

Suresh Babu, Veena; Kishore Kumar, Karanam; John, Sherine R.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramkumar, Geetha

2011-08-01

197

National Weather Service: Weather Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Weather Service's Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services has a strong outreach component. This "Education" page offers a range of materials for educators and young people which includes lesson plans, brochures, satellite image collections and career information for the fields of meteorology and climatology. The site doesn't have a search engine, but visitors can scroll through eight topical sections, including "Classroom Materials", "Careers in Weather", and "Graphics, Photos, Images". Science teachers won't want to miss the "Classroom Materials", as they can find materials on the "One Sky, Many Voices" project designed to bring together meteorology projects from around the United States together in a collaborative learning environment. Moving on, the "Graphics, Photos, Images" area contains a range of lightning photos and satellite images organized into categories like "Ocean Events", "Severe Weather", and "Tropical Cyclones".

198

About Water Levels, Tides & Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oceanographic Products and Services Division (OPSD) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) "collects, analyzes and distributes historical and real-time observations and predictions of water levels, coastal currents and other meteorological and oceanographic data." This wonderful site explains the science behind the tides and changing water levels, gives historical background on tidal predictions and tidal machines (including several fascinating old photographs), and details the challenges of measuring water currents. The combination of engineering, history, and oceanography ensures that students and educators will learn much here. For access to tidal data, a tidal and current glossary, and an interactive tidal prediction page, users may follow links from the OPSD homepage.

2007-11-28

199

Diurnal and spatial variabilities of monsoonal CG lightning and precipitation and their association with the synoptic weather conditions over South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal variations in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and precipitation during the summer monsoon months in\\u000a Korea have been analyzed in relation to the regional synoptic weather conditions. The lightning data used in this study were\\u000a collected from a lightning detection network installed by the Korean Meteorological Administration, while the precipitation\\u000a data were collected from 386 Automatic Weather Stations

Yu-Kyung Hyun; S. K. Kar; Kyung-Ja Ha; J. H. Lee

2010-01-01

200

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society's risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society's risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.

Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J.; Siscoe, George L.

201

Accuracy assessment of recent ocean tide models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 20 global ocean tide models have been developed since 1994, primarily as a consequence of analysis of the precise altimetric measurements from TOPEX\\/POSEIDON and as a result of parallel developments in numerical tidal modeling and data assimilation. This paper provides an accuracy assessment of 10 such tide models and discusses their benefits in many fields including geodesy, oceanography, and

C. K. Shum; P. L. Woodworth; O. B. Andersen; G. D. Egbert; O. Francis; C. King; S. M. Klosko; C. Le Provost; X. Li; J.-M. Molines; M. E. Parke; R. D. Ray; M. G. Schlax; D. Stammer; C. C. Tierney; P. Vincent; C. I. Wunsch

1997-01-01

202

The lunar barometric tide in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar barometric tide has been determined with reasonable accuracy, on an annual and seasonal basis, at five stations on the mainland of New Zealand and at three of the outlying islands. The determinations show that in the New Zealand region the lunar tide has a larger amplitude and smaller phase than might have been expected from previously available southern-hemisphere

J. W. Hutchings; S. J. Webber

1985-01-01

203

Nonlinear Tides in Close Binary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions and nonlinear excitation of modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability

Nevin N. Weinberg; Phil Arras; Eliot Quataert; Josh Burkart

2011-01-01

204

The Dynamical Tide and Resonance Locking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general problem with the theory of stellar tides is that the observations indicate that the effectiveness in circularising binary orbits is much larger than predicted by current theories. A mechanism that may be at least part of the solution to this problem is resonance locking: prolonged enhanced tidal interaction when the tide is nearly resonant with a stellar oscillation

G.-J. Savonije

2008-01-01

205

Tides and the Evolution of Planetary Habitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal

Rory Barnes; Sean N. Raymond; Brian Jackson; Richard Greenberg

2008-01-01

206

Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks  

PubMed Central

This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

2009-01-01

207

Unisys Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

208

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

209

The Art of Red Tide Science  

PubMed Central

Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

2012-01-01

210

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

211

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

212

Weather control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to

Leepson

1980-01-01

213

A theory of ionospheric response to upward-propagating tides: Electrodynamic effects and tidal mixing effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric tide at ionospheric heights is composed of those locally generated and those propagated from below. The role of the latter in producing the variability of the daytime ionosphere is examined using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. The impact of upward-propagating tides is evaluated by running simulations with and without tidal forcing at the lower boundary (approximately 96 km), which imitates the effect of tides from below. When migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides at the lower boundary is switched on, the intensity of E region currents and the upward velocity of the equatorial F region vertical plasma drift rapidly increase. The low-latitude ionospheric total electron content (TEC) first increases, then gradually decreases to below the initial level. The initial increase in the low-latitude TEC is caused by an enhanced equatorial plasma fountain while the subsequent decrease is due to changes in the neutral composition, which are characterized by a global-scale reduction in the mass mixing ratio of atomic oxygen O1. The results of further numerical experiments indicate that the mean meridional circulation induced by dissipating tides in the lower thermosphere is mainly responsible for the O1 reduction; it acts like an additional turbulent eddy and produces a "mixing effect" that enhances net downward transport and loss of O1. It is stressed that both electrodynamic effects and mixing effects of upward-propagating tides can be important in producing the variability of ionospheric plasma density. Since the two mechanisms act in different ways on different time scales, the response of the actual ionosphere to highly variable upward-propagating tides is expected to be complex.

Yamazaki, Yosuke; Richmond, Arthur D.

2013-09-01

214

Variables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by Statistics Canada, is a section from "Statistics: Power from Data!" on variable classification. It discusses categorical and numerical variables and their types. The site discusses these variables: nominal, ordinal, numeric, continuous, and discrete. This is a good introductory site for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

2008-12-25

215

Mining Dynamic Interdimension Association Rules for Local-Scale Weather Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining dynamic interdimension association rules for local-scale weather prediction is to discover abnormal weather phenomena changing so that the professional weather forecaster can use these rules to predict some severe weather situations, such as hail storm, thunder storm and so on. A weather analysis is composed of individual analyses of the several meteorological variables. When some of meteorological variables have

Zhongnan Zhang; Weili Wu; Yaochun Huang

2004-01-01

216

Preliminary Study on Coupling Wave-Tide-Storm Surges Prediction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and East Sea. This complex oceanographic system includes large tides in the Yellow Sea and seasonally varying monsoon and typhoon events. For Korea's coastal regions, floods caused by wave and storm surges are among the most serious threats. To predict more accurate wave and storm surge, the development of coupling wave-tide-storm surges prediction system is essential. For the time being, wave and storm surges predictions are still made separately in KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) and most operational institute. However, many researchers have emphasized the effects of tides and storm surges on wind waves and recommended further investigations into the effects of wave-tide-storm surges interactions and coupling module on wave heights. However, tidal height and current give a great effect on the wave prediction in the Yellow sea where is very high tide and related research is not enough. At present, KMA has operated the wave (RWAM : Regional Wave Model) and storm surges/tide prediction system (RTSM : Regional Tide/Storm Surges Model) for ocean forecasting. The RWAM is WAVEWATCH III which is a third generation wave model developed by Tolman (1989). The RTSM is based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model, Blumberg and Mellor, 1987). The RWAM and RTSM cover the northwestern Pacific Ocean from 115°E to 150°E and from 20°N to 52°N. The horizontal grid intervals are 1/12° in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions. The development, testing and application of a coupling module in which wave-tide-storm surges are incorporated within the frame of KMA Ocean prediction system, has been considered as a step forward in respect of ocean forecasting. In addition, advanced wave prediction model will be applicable to the effect of ocean in the weather forecasting system. The main purpose of this study is to show how the coupling module developed and to report on a series of experiments dealing with the sensitivities and real case prediction of coupling wave-tide-storm surges prediction system.

You, S.; Park, S.; Seo, J.; Kim, K.

2008-12-01

217

Analysis of migrating diurnal tides detected in FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC temperature data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of atmospheric tides in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region are investigated using radio occultation (RO) measurements performed by the Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) satellite constellation and compared to tides observed in short-term forecast model fields of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Spectral analysis of 2 years of monthly data (2007 to 2008) yields the migrating diurnal tide to be the largest spectral component. This diurnal tide shows similar temporal, latitudinal, and altitudinal characteristics in all data sets equatorward of 50°. Beyond 50°, COSMIC local time sampling is insufficient within 1 month, which prevents space-time spectral analysis from isolating atmospheric waves. Diurnal tides of temperature are characterized by largest amplitudes in the tropics (0.8 K to 1.0 K at an altitude of 30 km). Amplitudes of diurnal tides analyzed in model data are more pronounced by ˜20%. An annual cycle of the amplitudes, characteristically linked to the movement of the intertropical convergence zone, is clearly revealed. Tropical diurnal phase features downward progression of waves fronts with a vertical wavelength of 20 km. Extratropical diurnal tides are most pronounced in the model data sets with amplitudes of up to 0.5 K at 30 km. In this analysis we also see the influence of high-altitude initialization of RO data by background information in using data processed by two different centers (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Wegener Center (WEGC)). UCAR data, initialized by a climatology without tidal information, exhibit no appreciable extratropical diurnal tides, while WEGC data, initialized by ECMWF forecasts, show more pronounced ones. Overall the results underpin the utility of the local-time resolving COSMIC RO constellation data for monitoring diurnal tide dynamics in the stratosphere. The agreement between observational and model data further confirms that the tidal dynamics is appropriately captured in the models, which is important for other (middle/upper) atmosphere models relying on ECMWF or NCEP dynamics.

Pirscher, B.; Foelsche, U.; Borsche, M.; Kirchengast, G.; Kuo, Y.-H.

2010-07-01

218

Possible forcing of global temperature by the oceanic tides  

PubMed Central

An approximately decadal periodicity in surface air temperature is discernable in global observations from A.D. 1855 to 1900 and since A.D. 1945, but with a periodicity of only about 6 years during the intervening period. Changes in solar irradiance related to the sunspot cycle have been proposed to account for the former, but cannot account for the latter. To explain both by a single mechanism, we propose that extreme oceanic tides may produce changes in sea surface temperature at repeat periods, which alternate between approximately one-third and one-half of the lunar nodal cycle of 18.6 years. These alternations, recurring at nearly 90-year intervals, reflect varying slight degrees of misalignment and departures from the closest approach of the Earth with the Moon and Sun at times of extreme tide raising forces. Strong forcing, consistent with observed temperature periodicities, occurred at 9-year intervals close to perihelion (solar perigee) for several decades centered on A.D. 1881 and 1974, but at 6-year intervals for several decades centered on A.D. 1923. As a physical explanation for tidal forcing of temperature we propose that the dissipation of extreme tides increases vertical mixing of sea water, thereby causing episodic cooling near the sea surface. If this mechanism correctly explains near-decadal temperature periodicities, it may also apply to variability in temperature and climate on other times-scales, even millennial and longer.

Keeling, Charles D.; Whorf, Timothy P.

1997-01-01

219

Possible forcing of global temperature by the oceanic tides.  

PubMed

An approximately decadal periodicity in surface air temperature is discernable in global observations from A.D. 1855 to 1900 and since A.D. 1945, but with a periodicity of only about 6 years during the intervening period. Changes in solar irradiance related to the sunspot cycle have been proposed to account for the former, but cannot account for the latter. To explain both by a single mechanism, we propose that extreme oceanic tides may produce changes in sea surface temperature at repeat periods, which alternate between approximately one-third and one-half of the lunar nodal cycle of 18.6 years. These alternations, recurring at nearly 90-year intervals, reflect varying slight degrees of misalignment and departures from the closest approach of the Earth with the Moon and Sun at times of extreme tide raising forces. Strong forcing, consistent with observed temperature periodicities, occurred at 9-year intervals close to perihelion (solar perigee) for several decades centered on A.D. 1881 and 1974, but at 6-year intervals for several decades centered on A.D. 1923. As a physical explanation for tidal forcing of temperature we propose that the dissipation of extreme tides increases vertical mixing of sea water, thereby causing episodic cooling near the sea surface. If this mechanism correctly explains near-decadal temperature periodicities, it may also apply to variability in temperature and climate on other times-scales, even millennial and longer. PMID:11607740

Keeling, C D; Whorf, T P

1997-08-01

220

GRACE: a Couple of Geodetic Satellites for Ocean Tide Determination ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GRACE mission has proved its pertinence for monitoring time variations of surface masses. Five years of geoid models from CNES/GRGS are now available at 10-day intervals on the BGI web site. They are delivered in terms of geoid and of equivalent water mass variation as well at a realistic spatial scale of 500 km and are used in the new global gravity models named EIGEN-5S and -5C produced in cooperation with GFZ. But if gravitational variations over 10 to 30 days can be relatively well modelled from GRACE GPS and K-band range-rate (inter-satellite) data, a new question is raised: can GRACE help improving long wavelength ocean tides models ? A positive answer would also help reducing aliasing effects already detected in geoid models. We have performed new computation of GRACE data over the year 2006, using a time variable a priori gravity model and adjusting along orbit and instrumental parameters some ocean tide spherical harmonic coefficients of main semi-diurnal and diurnal waves from the a priori FES2004 model. This GRACE ocean tide solution has been evaluated particularly in conjunction with altimeter crossover data from Jason1 and ENVISAT missions. Context, method and results are presented on poster.

Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.; Bruinsma, S.; Bourgogne, S.

2007-12-01

221

Comparing simulated crop yields with observed and synthetic weather data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic weather generators have been used in the development of climate scenarios which are input to agricultural simulation models that assess the climate impacts on crop growth and production. The synthetic data generated by a stochastic weather generator only mimic the observed weather data, thus discrepancies between the synthetic and the observed weather data often exist. For example, interannual variability

Budong Qian; Reinder De Jong; Jingyi Yang; Hong Wang; Sam Gameda

2011-01-01

222

Dissipation and Synchronization due to Creeping Tides.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new reophysical theory of the dynamical tides of celestial bodies. It is founded on a Newtonian creep instead of the classical delayed elastic approach of the standard viscoelastic theories. All results of the theory derive from the solution of a non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation and lags appear as a natural outcome from the solution of the equation and are not external ad hoc quantities plugged in an elastic model. The lag due to the Newtonian creep is proportional to the tide frequency (as in Darwin’s original theory), and is necessarily small. The amplitudes depend on the viscosity of the body and on the frequency of the tide. As a consequence, the so-called pseudo-synchronous rotation has an excess velocity roughly proportional to 6ne2/(?2+1/?2) (? is the tide frequency in units of a relaxation factor inversely proportional to the viscosity) instead of the exact 6ne2 of standard theories. The dissipation is inversely proportional to (? + 1/?) thus, in the inviscid limit it is roughly proportional to the frequency (as in standard theories), but that behavior is inverted when the viscosity is high and the response factor much smaller than the tide frequency. When the viscosity is high, however, the creeping tide fails to reproduce the actual geometric tide and, to reconcile theory and observation, we need to assume the coexistence of a small elastic tide superposed to the creeping tide. The theory is applied to several Solar System and extrasolar bodies and the values of the relaxation factor ? (and its current correspondent Q) are derived for these bodies on the basis of currently available data.

Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio

2012-05-01

223

Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed semidiurnal\\/diurnal tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed, mainly semidiurnal tides arises from both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within the estuary. The duration asymmetry in rise and fall of water level caused by principal tides on the west coast of the continental United States is ebb-dominant, and so the tide entering estuaries is also

Nicholas J. Nidzieko

2010-01-01

224

Earth tides observed by gravity and GPS in southeastern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed gravity data obtained in Juneau and global positioning system (GPS) data obtained from three PBO sites in southeastern Alaska (SE-AK), which are part of a US research facility called ‘EarthScope’, and we compared the obtained tidal amplitudes and phases with those estimated from the predicted tides including both effects of the body tide and ocean tide. Global tide

S. Miura; Y. Ohta; H. Fujimoto; W. Sun; C. F. Larsen; M. Heavner; A. M. Kaufman; J. T. Freymueller

2008-01-01

225

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will provide students with first hand knowledge of local weather changes and how they relates to local climates. After this activity students will understand the general distinctions between weather and climate, that daily weather measurements are highly variable compared to long-term climate data, and appreciate the difficulty of identifying climate trends based on limited data. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

226

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

227

Weather Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This completely updated edition explores in detail the unresolved debate on the existence of weather cycles. It provides a different perspective on one of the most difficult questions in the current global warming debate: how much of the recent temperature rise can be attributed to natural causes? The book examines the complex analysis required to assess the evidence for cycles with a minimum of mathematics. First Edition Hb (1992): 0-521-38178-9 First Edition Pb (1995): 0-521-47869-3

Burroughs, William James

2003-12-01

228

Coastal sea-level change at Cascais (Portugal) from tide gauge, GPS and satellite altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tide gauge record from Cascais (Portugal) is one of the world's oldest and longest records of relative sea-level height measurements. Since tide gauges measure the height of the sea surface relative to a reference on land, the resulting records are influenced by vertical land movements at the tide gauge site. Continuous GPS measurements are particularly suitable for addressing this problem and for attenuating the effect of land movements on relative sea-level records. A permanent GPS station is operating at Cascais since 1997 and has a reliable record, with few equipment changes and few data gaps. In this work sea-level variability at Cascais is examined using tide gauge, GPS and satellite altimetry data. The GPS data from Cascais covering the time span 1997.3 - 2010.0 was processed with GAMIT/GLOBK and GIPSY/OASIS II as part of large global network from the International GNSS Service, using a consistent set of orbits and coordinates expressed in the ITRF2005 reference frame, and absolute values for phase center variation, leading to a robust time series. The tide gauge and GPS daily time series are analysed in terms of low-frequency variability and linear trends for the period from May 1997 to December 2009. Both tide gauge and GPS series exhibit small trends, below 0.5 mm/year. Due to the short length of the series and the small magnitude of the slopes, statistical significance needs to be carefully assessed. A parametric approach taking into account serial correlation and a non-parametric approach of time series bootstrap are applied. The tide gauge observations are corrected for vertical land movements and further compared with absolute sea-level measurements for the same period using non-IB corrected along-track satellite altimetry observations from Jason-1 mission.

Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgílio; Fernandes, Rui

2010-05-01

229

Aviation weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has established three ground-based weather radar programs. The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) and weather system processor (WSP) provide wind shear detection capability for air traffic controllers in the terminal area. These systems also reduce weather related delays. The next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) is used by the FAA to improve safety and reduce weather related

D. H. Turnbull

1995-01-01

230

Weather Science Hotlist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

1969-12-31

231

Interactions between tides and other frequencies in the Indonesian seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of tidal constituents and the transfer of energy from the tidal frequencies to other frequencies are investigated\\u000a using 3-D tidal simulations for the Indonesian seas, focusing on an area of active internal tides. Semidiurnal tides strongly\\u000a affect diurnal tides; however, semidiurnal tides are essentially unaffected by diurnal tides. The semidiurnal and diurnal\\u000a constituents interact with each other through non-linear

Robin Robertson

2011-01-01

232

Vertical ground motion from tide gauges and satellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the evolution of Earth's shape which deforms in response to external processes such as erosion or sediment load and internal processes governed by mantle convection helps to better understand the Earth's internal dynamics. To do this one needs to study changes in relative and absolute sea level. Indeed, sea level is the intersection between the geoid and the solid Earth that are simultaneously deforming. Thus, sea level variations mirror the evolution of the Earth's shape. Tide gauges record apparent sea level since the XIXth century for oldest stations, relative to a terrestrial reference. They are attached to the coasts so part of the signal is due to vertical ground motion. Conversely, satellite altimetry only measures true sea level change, starting with TOPEX/POSEIDON since 1992. Subtraction of tide gauges measurements to those of satellites give an estimate of the magnitude of current vertical ground motion. Here we review the variety in methods of calculation and data selection. While some authors choose to use only data that corresponds to the recording period of TOPEX/POSEIDON (1992 to 2000) and work with the sea level height like Cazenave et al. (1999) and Nerem & Mitchum (2002), others like Kuo et al. (2008) and Bouin & Wöppelmann (2010) take into take advantage of the long record of tide gauges which provide estimates of apparent sea level change more accurately than those based on shorter timescales. All previous studies perform a drastic site selection for their quality. Because individual tide gauge records are nevertheless highly variable, we instead prefer the brute force approach to go towards a statistical evaluation of global ground motion and therefore consider all stations. We subsequently extract general trends by region, which indicate that vertical movements are not satisfactorily explained by estimates of glacio-hydro-isostatic readjustment (model ICE_5G, Peltier, 2004). Comparisons with previous methods and other records such as GPS are presented. We also compare the resulting estimates of instantaneous ground motion to our recently released compilation of ground motion from MIS5e (Pleistocene) and Holocene marine terraces. Such comparison suggests constantly increasing rates of ground motion with time, unless it reveals a correlation between the timescale of observation and the apparent ground motion. Bouin,M.N. & Wöppelmann, G., 2010. Land motion estimates from GPS at tide gauges: a geophysical evaluation, Geophys. J. Int., 180, 193-209. Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Ponchaut, F., Soudarin, L., Cretaux, J. F., & Provost, C. L., 1999. Sea level changes from Topex-Poseidon altimetry and tide gauges, and vertical crustal motions from DORIS, Geophys.Res.Let., 26, 2077-2080. Kuo, C.-Y., Shum, C., Braun, A., Cheng, K.-C., & Yi, Y., 2008. Vertical motion determined using satellite altimetry and tide gauges, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 19, 21-35. Nerem, R. S. & Mitchum, G. T., 2002. Estimates of vertical crustal motion derived from differences of TOPEX/POSEIDON and tide gauge sea level measurements, Geophys.Res. Let., 29(19), 190000-1 Peltier, W. R., 2004. Global Glacial Isostasy and the Surface of the Ice-Age Earth: The ICE-5G (VM2) Model and GRACE, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 32, 111-149.

Ostanciaux, Emilie; Husson, Laurent; Pedoja, Kevin

2010-05-01

233

The Tides--A Neglected Topic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that computer simulations can be used to visualize the processes involved with lunar tides. Technology adds value, thus opening new paths for a more distinct analysis and increased learning results. (Author/CCM)

Hartel, Hermann

2000-01-01

234

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

Schlenker, Richard M.

235

Sea anemone exposed at low tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea anemones are sensitive to drying out. To avoid drying out during low tide and periods of intense sunlight, the anemones roll up to keep their tentacles moist. The outer body of the anemone is thick and tolerant of heat.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-05

236

Tides at the Battery, New York  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use online data, spreadsheets, and graphs to analyze tidal fluctuations at the Battery in New York. They will be asked to examine and compare the observed and predicted tides, and then make their own predictions.

Burrows, Charles

237

Red Tides in the Australasian Region,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Australian waters are not subject to 'red tide' phenomena as a regular occurrence. Episodic water discolorations have been caused by blue-green algae (Trichodesmium), diatoms (Thalassiosira), prymnesiophytes (Phaeocystis) and especially dinoflagellates (N...

G. M. Hallegraeff

1987-01-01

238

Global Ocean Tides from GRACE Satellite Accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models such as FES2004 are routinely used to remove the effects of global ocean tides from GRACE data, but errors in ocean tide models alias into monthly GRACE solutions. Fortunately, GRACE inter-satellite ranging data can be used to solve for these tides directly. Nine years of GRACE inter-satellite acceleration data are inverted using a mascon approach to solve for residual amplitudes and phases of major solar and lunar tides relative to FES2004. Uncertainty estimates are derived from tidal solutions over land, and by subtracting two independent solutions that each use 4.5 years of data. Solutions are also obtained for non-sinusoidal oceanic signals with power at short (sub-monthly) periods.

Killett, B.; Wahr, J. M.; Desai, S. D.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M. M.; Peralta Ferriz, A. C.; Morison, J. H.

2011-12-01

239

The Interpolation of Earth-Tide Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented whereby earth-fide gravity records can conveniently be interpolated. It is based on the theoretical rigid-earth gravity tide\\/\\/o(t) and its time deriva- tive. The possibility is envisaged that earth-tide gravity records for any station may be gen- erated in their entirety by this method for any station for which a pair of constants has been determined. .

I. M. Longman

1960-01-01

240

Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.

Oceanography, Project

241

Mapping hurricane rita inland storm tide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of affected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-h intervals from midnight (00:00 hours) through noon (12:00 hours) on 24 September 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared with the extent of flood inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Berenbrock, C.; Mason, Jr. , R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.

2009-01-01

242

Destructive Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

Alizabethirwin

2010-11-03

243

Weather Tamers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

2007-03-01

244

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Chemical Weathering and CO2 Fluxes: An Example From the Australian Victorian Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps was collected at different locations during (i) high discharge (June 2006) and (ii) low discharge (February 2007) conditions and was analyzed for dissolved major ions, delta2H and delta18O, and delta34S of dissolved sulphate. River water chemistry implies that solutes are largely derived from precipitation and chemical weathering

B. Hagedorn; I. Cartwright

2007-01-01

245

Titan's Exotic Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of Titan, taken during the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini-Huygens mission, invoke a feeling of familiarity: washes wind downhill to damp lakebeds; massive cumuli form and quickly dissipate, suggestive of rain; and dark oval regions resemble lakes. These features arise from Titan's unique similarity with Earth: both cycle liquid between their surfaces and atmospheres, but in Titan's cool atmosphere it is methane that exists as a gas, liquid, and ice. While Titan enticingly resembles Earth, its atmosphere is 10 times thicker, so that its radiative time constant near the surface exceeds a Titan year, and prohibits large thermal gradients and seasonal surface temperature variations exceeding 3K. Titan also lacks oceans - central to Earth's climate - and instead stores much of its condensible in its atmosphere. As a result, Titan's weather differs remarkably from Earth's. Evidence for this difference appears in the location of Titan's large clouds, which frequent a narrow band at 40S latitude and a region within 30 latitude of the S. Pole. Ground-based and Cassini observations, combined with thermodynamic considerations, indicate that we are seeing large convective cloud systems. Detailed cloud models and general circulation models further suggest that these are severe rain storms, which will migrate with the change in season. Outside these migrating "gypsy" cloud bands, the atmosphere appears to be calm, humid and thus frequented by thin stratiform clouds. An intriguingly alien environment is predicted. Yet, the combined effects of Titan's patchy wet surface, atmospheric tides, possible ice volcanoes, and detailed seasonal variations remain unclear as we have witnessed only one season so far. This talk will review observations of Titan's lower atmosphere and modeling efforts to explain the observations, and explore the questions that still elude us.

Griffith, Caitlin A.

2006-09-01

246

Temperature tides determined with meteor radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new analysis method for producing tidal temperature parameters using meteor radar measurements is presented, and is demonstrated with data from one polar and two mid-latitude sites. The technique further develops the temperature algorithm originally introduced by Hocking (1999). That earlier method was used to produce temperature measurements over time scales of days and months, but required an empirical model for the mean temperature gradient in the mesopause region. However, when tides are present, this temperature gradient is modulated by the presence of the tides, complicating extraction of diurnal variations. Nevertheless, if the vertical wavelengths of the tides are known from wind measurements, the effects of the gradient variations can be compensated for, permitting determination of temperature tidal amplitudes and phases by meteor techniques. The basic theory is described, and results from meteor radars at Resolute Bay (Canada), London (Canada) and Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) are shown. Our results are compared with other lidar data, computer models, fundamental tidal theory and rocket data. Phase measurements at two mid-latitude sites (Albuquerque, New Mexico, and London, Canada) show times of maximum for the diurnal temperature tide to change modestly throughout most of the year, varying generally between 0 h and 6 h, with an excursion to 12 h in June at London. The semidiurnal tide shows a larger annual variation in time of maximum, being at 2 4 h in the winter months but increasing to 9 h during the late summer and early fall. We also find that, at least at mid-latitudes, the phase of the temperature tide matches closely the phase of the meridional tide, and theoretical justification for this statement is given. We also demonstrate that this is true using the Global Scale Wave Model (Hagan et al., 1999). Median values for the temperature amplitudes for each site are in the range 5 to 6 Kelvin. Results from a more northern site (Resolute Bay) show less consistency between the wind tides and the temperature tides, supporting suggestions that the temperature tides may be zonally symmetric at these high latitudes (e.g. Walterscheid and Sivjee, 2001).

Hocking, W. K.; Hocking, A.

2002-09-01

247

Surface-exosphere coupling due to thermal tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites, and taking advantage of the local time precession characteristics of these near-polar orbiting satellites, exosphere temperatures are derived as a function of local time, longitude and latitude. Significant longitude variability (e.g., ±25K maximum to minimum over the equator) in geomagnetically-quiet exosphere temperatures is shown to exist, and is attributed to a spectrum of diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that are excited in the troposphere and strongly influenced by the global land-sea distribution. Since exosphere temperatures are independent of height, this discovery constitutes evidence that exosphere variability is linked to surface variability. Recent evidence suggests that analogous effects exist at Mars.

Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Bruinsma, Sean L.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Oberheide, Jens

2009-08-01

248

On tidal variability induced by nonlinear interaction with planetary waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-time variability of the atmospheric tides is examined using a numerical simulation of tide-wave interaction similar to one described by Teitelbaum et al. (1989). It is shown that at least some observations of short-time tidal variability can be explained by the nonlinear interaction between tides and planetary waves whose periods are the same as the periods of the tidal

Hector Teitelbaum; Francois Vial

1991-01-01

249

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

250

Acoustic observations of internal tides and tidal currents in shallow water.  

PubMed

Significant acoustic travel-time variability and frequency shifts of acoustic intensity level curves in broadband signal spectrograms were measured in the East China Sea during the summer of 2008. The broadband pulses (270-330 Hz) were transmitted from a fixed source and received at a bottomed horizontal array, located at the 33 km range. The acoustic intensity level curves of the received signals indicate regular frequency shifts that are well correlated with the measured internal tides. Similarly, regular travel-time shifts of the acoustic mode arrivals correlate well with the barotropic tides and can be explained by tidal currents along the acoustic propagation track. These observations indicate the potential of monitoring internal tides and tidal currents using low-frequency acoustic signals propagating at long ranges. PMID:23556568

Turgut, Altan; Mignerey, Peter C; Goldstein, David J; Schindall, Jeffrey A

2013-04-01

251

Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate by variable drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 from weathering of basaltic provinces on continents drifting through the equatorial humid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small reservoir of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2) that modulates climate through the greenhouse effect reflects a delicate balance between large fluxes of sources and sinks. The major long-term source of CO2 is global outgassing from sea-floor spreading, subduction, hotspot activity, and metamorphism; the ultimate sink is through weathering of continental silicates and deposition of carbonates. Most carbon cycle models are driven by changes in the source flux scaled to variable rates of ocean floor production. However, ocean floor production may not be distinguishable from being steady since 180 Ma. We evaluate potential changes in sources and sinks of CO2 for the past 120 Ma in a paleogeographic context. Our new calculations show that although decarbonation of pelagic sediments in Tethyan subduction likely contributed to generally high pCO2 levels from the Late Cretaceous until the Early Eocene, shutdown of Tethyan subduction with collision of India and Asia at the Early Eocene Climate Optimum at around 50 Ma was inadequate to account for the large and prolonged decrease in pCO2 that eventually allowed the growth of significant Antarctic ice sheets by around 34 Ma. Instead, variation in area of continental basaltic provinces in the equatorial humid belt (5° S-5° N) seems to be the dominant control on how much CO2 is retained in the atmosphere via the silicate weathering feedback. The arrival of the highly weatherable Deccan Traps in the equatorial humid belt at around 50 Ma was decisive in initiating the long-term slide to lower atmospheric pCO2, which was pushed further down by the emplacement of the 30 Ma Ethiopian Traps near the equator and the southerly tectonic extrusion of SE Asia, an arc terrane that presently is estimated to account for 1/4 of CO2 consumption from all basaltic provinces that account for ~1/3 of the total CO2 consumption by continental silicate weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). A negative climate-feedback mechanism that (usually) inhibits the complete collapse of atmospheric pCO2 is the accelerating formation of thick cation-deficient soils that retard chemical weathering of the underlying bedrock. Nevertheless, equatorial climate seems to be relatively insensitive to pCO2 greenhouse forcing and thus with availability of some rejuvenating relief as in arc terranes or thick basaltic provinces, silicate weathering in this venue is not subject to a strong negative feedback, providing an avenue for sporadic ice ages. The safety valve that prevents excessive atmospheric pCO2 levels is the triggering of silicate weathering of continental areas and basaltic provinces in the temperate humid belt. Increase in Mg/Ca ratio of seawater over the Cenozoic may be due to weathering input from continental basaltic provinces.

Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.

2012-09-01

252

Substructure Formation Induced by Gravitational Tides?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics lectures always refer to the tides as a disruptive effect. However, tides can also be compressive. When the potential of two galaxies overlap, as happens during a merger, fully compressive tides can develop and have a strong impact on the dynamics of substructures such as star clusters or tidal dwarf galaxies. Using N-body simulations of a large set of mergers, we noticed the importance of these tidal modes at cluster scale. With a model of the Antennae galaxies, we conclude that the positions and timescales of these tidal modes match the actual distribution of young clusters. A detailed study of the statistics of the compressive tides shows a stunning correlation between this purely gravitational effect and the observed properties of the star clusters. In this contribution, we introduce the concept of compressive tide and show its relevance in the special case of the Antennae galaxies. We extend our conclusions to a broad range of parameters and discuss their implications on several critical points such as infant mortality, multiple star formation epochs in clusters or the age distribution.

Renaud, F.; Theis, C.; Naab, T.; Boily, C. M.

2010-06-01

253

Forecasting the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)|

Bollinger, Richard

1984-01-01

254

Weather Prediction Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

Bacmeister, Julio T.

255

Cockpit Weather Information Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weat...

C. H. Scanlon

1992-01-01

256

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

... CURRENT CONDITIONS Radar Climate Monitoring River Levels Observed Precipitation Surface Weather Upper Air Marine and Buoy Reports ... Weather Current Outlook Maps Drought Fire Weather Fronts/Precipitation Maps Current Graphical Forecast Maps Rivers Marine Offshore ...

257

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. Students also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-21

258

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

259

Calibration of USArray-TA Stations using Earth Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full deployment of the 400 stations comprising the transportable array (TA) portion of the USArray component of the NSF Earthscope program was accomplished during the summer of 2007 and equipment rollover to new sites has become a reality. These stations currently form a grid covering the continental US from the Pacific coast to the eastern state borders of Arizona, Utah and Idaho. Seismic data from TA stations is transmitted from the field to the Array Network Facility (ANF) located at UCSD and then onwards to the IRIS Data Management Center which distributes it to the scientific community at large. The current and future data collected by this mostly homogeneous network, consisting of 3-component broadband seismometers and high dynamic range digitizers installed within weather-proof shallow vaults with sensors deployed about 2 m below the surface, will constitute a great data set for years to come. Currently the instrument response of TA stations is derived from the specifications of the equipment manufacturers, which is believed to be reliable. However, in attempt to assess the accuracy of the published response information of these stations we will measure the amplitude and phase of the Earth's tides recorded by TA stations by comparing these measurements with values expected from the models of the elastic, solid earth derived from tidal and free oscillation measurements and from modern ocean tidal models based upon analysis of satellite data. We will present results from stations with continuous recordings of at least 60 days from each station in which the earth's tides are observed.

Astiz, L.; Davis, P.; Vernon, F. L.

2007-12-01

260

A Model for Teaching the Dynamical Theory of Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dynamical theory of tides is often neglected in teaching oceanography because students have difficulty in visualizing the movements of the tides across the glove. A schematic diagram portraying amphidromic systems as mechanical gears helps overcome these problems. (Author)

Railsback, L. Bruce

1991-01-01

261

FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR TIDES AND CURRENTS WITH FIELD APPLICATIONS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite element model, based upon the shallow water equations, is used to calculate tidal amplitudes and currents for two field-scale test problems. Because tides are characterized by line spectra, the governing equations are subjected to harmonic decomposition. Thus the solution variables are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of sea level and velocity rather than a time series of these variables. The time series is recovered through synthesis. This scheme, coupled with a modified form of the governing equations, leads to high computational efficiency and freedom from excessive numerical noise. Two test-cases are presented. The first is a solution for eleven tidal constituents in the English Channel and southern North Sea, and three constituents are discussed. The second is an analysis of the frequency response and tidal harmonics for south San Francisco Bay.

Walters, Roy, A.

1988-01-01

262

Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate by variable drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 from weathering of basaltic provinces on continents drifting through the equatorial humid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small reservoir of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2) that modulates climate through the greenhouse effect reflects a delicate balance between large fluxes of sources and sinks. The major long-term source of CO2 is global outgassing from sea-floor spreading, subduction, hotspot activity, and metamorphism; the ultimate sink is through weathering of continental silicates and deposition of carbonates. Most carbon cycle models are driven by changes in the source flux scaled to variable rates of ocean floor production, but ocean floor production may not be distinguishable from being steady since 180 Ma. We evaluate potential changes in sources and sinks of CO2 for the past 120 Ma in a paleogeographic context. Our new calculations show that decarbonation of pelagic sediments by Tethyan subduction contributed only modestly to generally high pCO2 levels from the Late Cretaceous until the early Eocene, and thus shutdown of this CO2 source with the collision of India and Asia at the early Eocene climate optimum at around 50 Ma was inadequate to account for the large and prolonged decrease in pCO2 that eventually allowed the growth of significant Antarctic ice sheets by around 34 Ma. Instead, variation in area of continental basalt terranes in the equatorial humid belt (5° S-5° N) seems to be a dominant factor controlling how much CO2 is retained in the atmosphere via the silicate weathering feedback. The arrival of the highly weatherable Deccan Traps in the equatorial humid belt at around 50 Ma was decisive in initiating the long-term slide to lower atmospheric pCO2, which was pushed further down by the emplacement of the 30 Ma Ethiopian Traps near the equator and the southerly tectonic extrusion of SE Asia, an arc terrane that presently is estimated to account for 1/4 of CO2 consumption from all basaltic provinces that account for ~1/3 of the total CO2 consumption by continental silicate weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). A negative climate-feedback mechanism that (usually) inhibits the complete collapse of atmospheric pCO2 is the accelerating formation of thick cation-deficient soils that retard chemical weathering of the underlying bedrock. Nevertheless, equatorial climate seems to be relatively insensitive to pCO2 greenhouse forcing and thus with availability of some rejuvenating relief as in arc terranes or thick basaltic provinces, silicate weathering in this venue is not subject to a strong negative feedback, providing an avenue for ice ages. The safety valve that prevents excessive atmospheric pCO2 levels is the triggering of silicate weathering of continental areas and basaltic provinces in the temperate humid belt. Excess organic carbon burial seems to have played a negligible role in atmospheric pCO2 over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.

2013-03-01

263

Martian atmospheric entry profiles and atmospheric tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we revisit trajectory and atmospheric reconstructions during Mars Entry Decent and Landing (EDL) with a specific focus on the Phoenix mission. Oscillations in temperature profiles derived from atmospheric entry probes are caused by a wide variety of waves and tides. We analyze vertical wavelengths and amplitudes of these oscillations in order to identify the effects of atmospheric tides on atmospheric entry profiles. The atmospheric profiles and the tidal analysis are compared with previous Mars entry reconstruction studies as well as with orbital remote sensing data such as those by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

Karatekin, Özgür; Van Hove, Bart; Verbruggen, Wim

2013-04-01

264

Experimental Research on Effect of Tide for Alongshore Groundwater Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a the surface water with apparently affected by the tide, its shore groundwater table fluctuates with the tide of surface water.\\u000a In this article, a tide simulation system based on two-way water pump technique was designed and development. Experimental\\u000a research on the influences of tide for alongshore groundwater table fluctuates and the mean periods groundwater table over\\u000a height. The experimental results

Longhua Wu

265

Effects of a red-tide toxin on fish hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red tides are formed from blooms of marine algae. Among them, the dinoflagellate (Karenia brevis) that is responsible for Florida red tides can release many types of natural toxins, which cause massive kills of marine animals, including endangered species, and threaten human health. This study was to investigate whether or not a neurotoxin, brevetoxin-3, purified from Florida red tides affects

Z. Lu; S. M. Tomchik

2002-01-01

266

NLOADF: A program for computing ocean-tide loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loading of the Earth by the ocean tides produces several kinds of signals which can be measured by geodetic technique. In order to compute these most accurately, a combi- nation of global and local models of the ocean tides may be needed. The program NLOADF convolves the Green functions for loading with ocean tide models using a station-centered grid

Duncan Carr Agnew

1997-01-01

267

Predictors of Cold Weather Health Behaviors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study screened potential predictors of maladaptive cold weather behaviors. Male Marine Corps volunteers (n = 161) completed questionnaires providing a battery of predictor measures, including: (a) Personal history variables related to cold injuries, ...

R. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

1984-01-01

268

'NATCOVAR' future weather patterns for crop simulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation presents a series of pre-defined future weather patterns for the GOSSYM cotton simulation model. The weather patterns are developed by using a long-term weather data set for one given location. These daily weather patterns are designed and built based upon a statistical normal conditions, six other hypothesized abnormal weather scenarios for each variable, and one comprehensive normal condition for all weather variables. The weather patterns built by this technical approach differs from the previous methods in many ways. The main advantage of this approach is that the variables in each weather pattern maintain the properties of daily and seasonal climatic distributions, and other statistical characteristics. These patterns also significantly preserve the natural covariance among weather variables ('NATCOVAR' future weather patterns). One sensitivity test is conducted to evaluate responses of the COSSYM cotton simulation model to the variations of those desired future weather patterns, different soil types and varieties, and several cultural practices. This sensitivity test indicates the responses of the GOSSYM model by simulating plant heights and lint yields to changes in weather variables. The results of yield predictions reasonably reveal the effect of each weather variable, and interactive effects among five variables. A software package, Weather Service Tool, is designed and written in the Borland C++ programming language. It provides the necessary tool for crop modeling users to build or update local future weather inputs. The system improved the accessibility and initialization of climatic data. With a user-friendly Windows interface, this computer program simplifies and automates many of the repetitive tasks on textural inputs and selections of initial input files. The tool also improves the usability of historical climatic data for agricultural applications.

Wang, Xiaoyuan

269

Impact of Tropospherically-Generated Tides on the Mean State of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now widely recognized that vertically-propagating tides exert significant variability on the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system. In particular, the impact of tropospherically-generated non-migrating tides on longitudinal variability of the IT system has been a topic of intense research in recent years. However, relatively little is known about how dissipation of these upward propagating waves affects the zonal mean state of the IT system. Herein we report on numerical experiments performed with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) that explore this topic using observationally based tidal lower boundary conditions near 97 km from the Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermosphere (CTMT after Oberheide et al., [2011]) for average solar conditions over a climatological year (i.e., steady-state monthly runs). A robust evaluation of the NCAR TIE-GCM close to the model lower boundary was performed to assess the validity of our results, since the TIE-GCM lower boundary is close to the height regime where many of these upward propagating tides dissipate and exchange energy and momentum with the background IT. Differences between simulations with and without tidal forcing are analyzed to establish the aggregate effects of tidal dissipation on the zonal mean circulation and temperature structure. Numerical experiments are also performed with several different combinations of tides at the lower boundary to identify those components that most effectively alter the zonal mean structure of the IT.

Jones, McArthur; Forbes, Jeffrey; Hagan, Maura; Maute, Astrid

2013-04-01

270

Is coastal mean sea level at tide gauges sites identical to the global mean based on satellite altimetry? A comparison over 1993-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using tide gauges records from the Global Sea Level Observing System network, we investigate the mean tide gauge-based sea level evolution between January 1993 and December 2007, a time span over which precise altimetry data are available. Mean sea level calculated over this time span from a set of carefully selected 91 tide gauges records, exhibits a positive trend of +3.1 +/- 0.2 mm/yr. This value is in good agreement with the rate of global mean sea level rise of +3.4 +/- 0.3 mm/yr, derived from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellite altimetry over the same period. Therefore coastal and global sea level rose at comparable rates during the last 15 years. We thus find no evidence of different trends at the coasts and in terms of global mean. However coastal mean sea level displays large interannual fluctuations associated with ocean-atmosphere natural variability, in particular ENSO.The large interannual variability of the tide gauge- based mean sea level is in good agreement with the variability of coastal mean sea level calculated from satellite altimetry data along the global coastline. Interannual sea level variability, enhanced along coastlines, is smoothed out when global averages are considered. Therefore the large interannual variability observed in tide gauge-based mean sea level is not only caused by insufficient tide gauge sampling but also by physical differences between open ocean and coastal processes.

Prandi, P.; Cazenave, A.

2008-12-01

271

NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center: More About Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features links to information about NOAA-funded harmful algal bloom (HAB) research, HAB species, and HAB toxins and their impacts on humans, marine environments, and coastal economies. It also offers a brief description of Red Tide.

National Ocean Service (NOS); Noaa

272

Global Ocean Tides. Part X. The Fortnightly Lunar Tide (Mf) Atlas of Tidal Charts and Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Part I (Schwiderski, 1978a) of this report, a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel ...

E. W. Schwiderski

1982-01-01

273

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

274

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

275

Controlling The Global Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and

Ross N. Hoffman

2002-01-01

276

Re-examining Galileo's theory of tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expounds the model of the Earth tides by Galileo Galilei in all its amazing complexity by bringing to light its completely forgotten vision of the flux and reflux of the sea as a wave-like phenomenon and by reassessing Galileo's claim that this model was a physical proof of the double motion of the Earth as postulated by Copernicus,

P. Palmieri

1998-01-01

277

Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-07-02

278

Precision Requirements for a Spacecraft Tide Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tidal analysis of sea-surface elevations from an'orbiting altimeter will include errors due to the instrument and the orbital determinations. Furthermore, the results may be somewhat degraded by the small amount of data and their random distribution in time. These effects have been evaluated in a numerical feasibility investigation with the use of observed hourly heights at two tide stations

Bernard D. Zetler; George A. Maul

1971-01-01

279

A dynamical picture of the oceanic tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed treatment of tide-generating forces is given, followed by a simplified dynamic theory of tidal waves. To clarify the underlying physics, we use a simple model of the ocean that consists of a water shell of uniform depth completely covering the globe. The treatment is appropriate for college and university undergraduate students studying introductory geophysics or astronomy, general physics,

Eugene I. Butikov

2002-01-01

280

Parents Who Moved against the Tide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article recounts the historical discrimination against children with mental retardation and the extraordinary efforts made by parents of children with disabilities to speak out against the tide that dehumanized their children. The growth of national, state, and local Arcs and parent advocacy efforts are discussed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

Perske, Robert

2003-01-01

281

GSWM-98: Results for migrating solar tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on new global-scale wave model (GSWM) predictions for the migrating solar tide in the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The model revision, hereafter GSWM-98, includes an updated gravity wave (GW) stress parameterization and modifications to the background atmosphere based on 6-year monthly averaged Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) climatologies. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment and Microwave Limb Sounder

M. E. Hagan; M. D. Burrage; J. M. Forbes; J. Hackney; W. J. Randel; X. Zhang

1999-01-01

282

Tide Pools of Carrigathorna and Barloge Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological account is given of tide pools on the remote promontory of Carrigathorna, formed of Devonian slates on edge, on the open Atlantic coast, and on a sheltered but otherwise similar slate reef nearby. Both sites are at the entrance to Lough Ine, County Cork, Republic of Ireland. In addition to its immediate ecological concern, this study is intended

Susan Goss-Custard; Jane Jones; J. A. Kitching; T. A. Norton

1979-01-01

283

In Brief: Red tide Web site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established the NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center to help people understand the significant red tides that are predicted to form there later this spring. The site (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/redtide) will provide a summary of the current red tide situation and its potential harmful impacts on humans and animals and will serve as a central repository of information. The site also will have direct links to news releases, changes to relevant federal fishing regulations, links to closures of shellfish waters, and links to state agency Web sites with localized information. In addition, the site will have information about NOAA's scientific response effort as well as information from several other sources including NOAA's major response partner, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). On 24 April, WHOI scientists, using forecast models developed with NOAA funding support, predicted ``that excess winter precipitation has set the stage for a harmful algal bloom similar to the historic red tide of 2005.'' That bloom shut down shellfish beds from the Bay of Fundy to Martha's Vineyard for several months.

Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

2008-06-01

284

Ocean tide energy converter having improved efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tide motor useful for converting periodic rising and falling water levels to useful work such as electric power generation includes a primary piston having a large enclosed chamber that can selectively be filled with air for generation of upward thrust when submerged in rising tidal water or filled with water for generating downward gravitational thrust when the piston is

Rainey

1980-01-01

285

Resonance of Infragravity Waves With Ocean Tides ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How and where the ocean tides dissipate the energy are longstanding questions whose answers would bear on consequences ranging from the history of the Moon to the climate changes. Historically, there are two principal mechanisms of the sink of tidal energy. One is the bottom friction in shallow seas and the other is topographic scattering of surface tides into internal waves in the open sea. Here we present evidence suggesting tidal dissipation by resonance with infragravity waves that occurs in deep oceans. The evidence comes from the records of broadband seismographs placed at deep seafloors with the depth variation of 1000 to 6000 m, which are rich in signature of infragravity waves with the dominant frequencies of 9 to 22 mHz suggesting that they should have wavelength 4 times larger than the water depth. We analyzed the vertical records of two long-term array observations, the 2003-2005 expeditions deploying 7 stations in the French Polynesia region and the 2005-2008 expeditions deploying 12 to 16 stations in the Philippine Sea and the Northwestern Pacific. We found that the low-pass filtered records in the tidal frequency band are coherent with the tilt component of the solid earth tide with neap and spring tidal variations, suggesting that they register the tilt motion of sensor axis. The bandpass-filtered records at frequencies 13-50 mHz are, on the other hand, dominated by signal of infragravity waves, which are strongly modulated by ocean tides. We found that the tide-modulated wave groups tend to propagate in directions approximately conjugate to the cophase lines of the M2 tide (Matsumoto et al., 2000) with the apparent propagation speed of a cophase line. We also found that this apparent propagation speed almost coincides with the theoretical propagation speed of infragravity waves determined by water depth. Such coincidence suggests that free infragravity waves in deep oceans can be amplified by resonance with ocean tides upon phase-velocity matching. We found that the phase velocity matching does not so generally and frequently occur in global ocean by comparing the apparent velocity of the M2 cophase line with the propagation speed of infragravity waves theoretically determined by water depth.

Sugioka, H.; Fukao, Y.; Suetsugu, D.; Shiobara, H.; Kanazawa, T.

2008-12-01

286

Nonlinear Tides in Close Binary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' >~ 10-100 M ? at orbital periods P ? 1-10 days. The nearly static "equilibrium" tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P <~ 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N ? 103[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ?N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P <~ a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing; this coupling appears particularly efficient at draining energy out of the dynamical tide and may be more important than either wave breaking or parametric resonance at determining the nonlinear dissipation of the dynamical tide.

Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

2012-06-01

287

A New Conceptual Model for Understanding Geographical Variations in Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing theory used to explain geographical variability in weathering is based on visual correlations with climatic regions. For instance, mechanical weathering is assumed to predominate in warm and cold deserts. Yet this visual perspective fails to account for a diversity and quantity of data at the mineral-atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interface where weathering processes actually occur. To address these discrepancies, a new

Gregory A. Pope; Ronald I. Dorn; John C. Dixon

1995-01-01

288

Weather Derivative Valuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

2005-04-01

289

Comparison between physical variables acquired by a new multiparametric platform, ELFO, and data calculated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in different weather conditions at Tiber River mouth (Latium coast, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal ecosystem is characterized by high variability physical processes, which are strongly influenced by sudden changes in weather conditions. For this reason instruments able to collect data in a short time or mathematical models able to simulate the same phenomena from experimental data are basic. In this study in situ data are compared with data calculated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The multiparametric platform was developed ad hoc by Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (DECOS, Tuscia University) for coastal monitoring by small vessels (ELFO), and integrates temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids measures with bio-optical measures like fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and PAR. The hydrodynamic model is the three-dimensional coastal hydrodynamic DELFT3D-FLOW simulating processes of temperature and salinity diffusion and the transport of suspended sediment (cohesive and non cohesive) in the water column. This study analyses the area at mouth of Tiber river investigated by two surveys wiht different weather conditions. Data collected during the first survey were used to calibrate the DELFT3D-FLOW model which computational domain extends from the Argentario headland to Capo Anzio. A microscale wind field (resolution of about 7 km), provided by the atmospheric model COSMO-ME (developed by CNMCA of Aeronautica Militare, Italy), was used to reproduce the hydrodynamic field and the distribution of the physical variables of the whole period. In this way the data calculated by the model can be compared with those collected in situ during the second survey. Moreover dynamic phenomena existed between the two monitoring periods can be investigated.

Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo

2010-05-01

290

Arctic Ocean tides from GRACE satellite accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models are routinely used to remove the effects of global ocean tides from GRACE data during processing to reduce temporal aliasing into monthly GRACE solutions. These models have typically been derived using data from satellite altimeters such as TOPEX/Poseidon. Therefore the Arctic ocean components of tide models are not constrained by altimetry data, potentially resulting in errors that are likely to alias into monthly GRACE gravity fields at all latitudes. Seven years of GRACE inter-satellite accelerations are inverted to solve for corrections to the amplitude and phase of major solar and lunar ocean tides at latitudes north of 50°N using a mascon approach. The tide model originally applied to our data was FES2004, truncated to maximum degree lmax = 90. Simulations are performed to verify that our inversion algorithm works as designed. Uncertainty estimates are derived from tidal solutions on land, and by subtracting two independent solutions that each use 3.5 years of data. Features above the noise floor in the M2, K1, S2, and O1 solutions likely represent errors in FES2004. Errors due to truncating the spherical harmonic expansion of FES2004 are too small, and errors in the land mask model (needed to transform sea surface heights into mass) only affect coastal areas and do not produce similar relative amplitudes for any examined tides. In the oceans north of 50°N, these residuals tend to reduce the FES2004 amplitudes for M2, K1, S2, and O1. Reductions in the variance of accelerations not used in our inversion suggest that our results can be used to improve GRACE processing.

Killett, B.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M.

2011-11-01

291

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

292

Modelling tides and surface drift in the Arabian Gulf—application to the Gulf oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tide and surge forecasting model capable of predicting conditions for up to 5 days ahead has been developed to provide environmental data on tides, currents and particle trajectories in the Arabian Gulf. A two-dimensional depth-integrated model on a 5' × 5' grid of the entire Gulf, driven by a 10 constituent tidal forcing at the mouth near the Strait of Hormuz and by meteorological forecasts from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office global numerical weather prediction model was used to provide hourly distributions of the depth-averaged tidal and wind-driven currents. Following the discharge of oil from Mina Al Ahmadi into the Gulf in January 1991 an oil spill model was interfaced to the tide and surge model, providing forecasts of the movement and spread of the oil slick. The oil spill model used a three-dimensional particle tracking algorithm to model the dispersion of the oil so that surface and sub-surface concentrations could be determined. The effects of surface evaporation and decay of the oil were included in the model.

Proctor, Roger; Flather, Roger A.; Elliott, Alan J.

1994-04-01

293

Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Isaac along the Gulf Coast of the United States, August 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of water-level and barometric pressure sensors at 127 locations along the gulf coast from Alabama to Louisiana to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Isaac. This deployment was undertaken as part of a coordinated federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Storm tide, as defined by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm. Hurricane Isaac initially made landfall on the coast of Louisiana in Plaquemines Parish on August 28, 2012, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (National Weather Service, 1974) and then stalled over southern Louisiana for several days, causing prolonged storm-tide impacts. A total of 188 water-level and wave-height sensors were deployed at 127 locations during August 27–28 prior to landfall. More than 90 percent of the sensors and all high-water marks (HWMs) were recovered and surveyed to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) within 7 days of the Isaac landfall. Only a handful of sensors in the Plaquemines Parish area of Louisiana could not be retrieved until weeks later due to prolonged flooding in the area. Data collected from this event can be used to evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

McCallum, Brian E.; McGee, Benton D.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Runner, Michael S.; Painter, Jaime A.; Frantz, Eric R.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

294

Development of Three-Dimensional Storm Surges/Tide Prediction System by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 30 years, an average of 26 typhoons per year has originated in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, among which three on average have affected the Korean Peninsula. Typhoons are particularly frequent in summer in the Pacific Ocean and can pass or make landfall on the Korean Peninsula, often causing serious damage to property in the coastal region. In this study, we developed three-dimensional Storm surges/Tide prediction system based on ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System). ROMS is a free-surface, terrain-following, primitive equations ocean model widely used by the scientific community for a diverse range of applications. This prediction system covers 115°E, 20°N with 1/12° horizontal resolutions and 20 vertical layers including the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and the East Sea, marginal seas around Korea. The newly developed three-dimensional Storm surges/Tide prediction system has been applied to hindcasting study for typhoon cases. Sea surface wind and pressure from the Korea Weather Research and Forecasting (KWRF) is used for forcing input of storm surge/tide prediction system. In this model, the level of storm surge calculated by the difference between tide level and sea level change caused by meteorological effects. The three-dimensional storm surges/tide prediction system simulates very well the storm surges/tide pattern around Korean Peninsular. The storm surges were hindcasted using pressure and wind field of Typhoon. The result showed that the storm surges by the three-dimensional model were in well agreement with the observed high storm surges height in the coastal areas.

Lee, W.; You, S.; Moon, K.; Seo, J.; Kim, K.

2008-12-01

295

A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

2006-03-30

296

WEATHER, SEASONAL TRENDS AND PROPERTY CRIMES IN MINNEAPOLIS, 1987–1988. A MODERATOR-VARIABLE TIME-SERIES ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relevance of routine activity theory to three property offences: burglary, robbery, and larceny-theft. We hypothesized that temperature would combine with time of day to predict these offences. This hypothesis was tested using a moderator-variable time-series analysis of property crime reports to police in Minneapolis over a 2-year period. The analysis indicated that time of day and

ELLEN G. COHN; JAMES ROTTON

2000-01-01

297

A decade-long climatology of terdiurnal tides using TIMED/SABER observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we globally characterize the solar terdiurnal tide in the 80-110 km region of Earth's atmosphere through analysis of 10 years of temperature measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics spacecraft. The Sun-synchronous ("migrating") component (TW3), which is longitude-independent and achieves maximum amplitudes of order of 5 K (10 K) at 90 km (110 km), not too different than the 7-15 K amplitudes that are typical of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in this region. Significant longitude variability (˜ 20-25%) in terdiurnal temperature amplitudes also exists, which is decomposed into zonal wave number components. The largest of these (TE1, TW4, and TW5) reveal distinct seasonal-latitudinal and height versus latitude patterns and interannual consistency. In addition, it is demonstrated that these particular components vary in ways that suggest that they originate from nonlinear interactions between diurnal and semidiurnal tides, specifically between DE3 and SW2 for TE1, between DW2 and SW2 for TW4, and between DW1 and SW4 for TW5. We also demonstrate that the terdiurnal tides derived here are not influenced to any significant degree by aliasing due to the presence of other waves.

Moudden, Y.; Forbes, J. M.

2013-07-01

298

Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

Cheng, R. T.; Gartner, J. W.

1985-01-01

299

Sensitivity of mesospheric mean flow, planetary waves, and tides to strength of gravity wave drag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global circulation model which extends from the surface to 125 km is used to study how the strength of gravity wave drag affects the dynamics of the mesosphere. The strength of gravity wave drag has a strong influence on the zonal mean state of the mesosphere, in particular the magnitude and variability of the summer mesopause temperature and the shear on the top of the mesospheric jets. This change in the zonal mean state strongly affects the susceptibility of the mesosphere to baroclinic and/or barotropic instability and hence the formation of the 2-day wave. The 2-day wave, in turn, interacts nonlinearly with the diurnal tide, producing secondary waves and a reduction in amplitude of the diurnal tide. Previous studies with quasi-linear mechanistic tidal models have captured some semiannual variation in tidal amplitude through direct interactions between tides and gravity waves. Our fully nonlinear global circulation model results support an alternative explanation in terms of interactions between planetary waves and tides.

Norton, W. A.; Thuburn, J.

300

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

301

Space Weather FX  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.

302

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

303

Internet Weather Links: Weather and Weather Related Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.

1996-01-01

304

Interactions between tides and other frequencies in the Indonesian seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of tidal constituents and the transfer of energy from the tidal frequencies to other frequencies are investigated using 3-D tidal simulations for the Indonesian seas, focusing on an area of active internal tides. Semidiurnal tides strongly affect diurnal tides; however, semidiurnal tides are essentially unaffected by diurnal tides. The semidiurnal and diurnal constituents interact with each other through non-linear interference, both destructive and constructive. Semidiurnal tides generate harmonics at nearly the diurnal frequency and higher vertical wavenumbers. In Ombai Strait, these harmonics are out of phase with the diurnal tides and interact destructively with the diurnal tides, effectively negating the diurnal response in some locations. However, this is not a general response, and interactions differ between locations. Energy is also transferred from both semidiurnal and diurnal tides to other frequencies across the spectrum, with more energy originating from semidiurnal tides. These energy transfers are not homogeneous, and the spectral responses differ between the Makassar and Ombai Straits, with the region east of Ombai showing a more active surface response compared to a more intense benthic response in Makassar. In deep water away from topography, velocity spectra generally follow the Garrett-Munk (GM) relation. However, in areas of internal tide generation, spectral density levels exceed GM levels, particularly between 4 and 8 cycles per day (cpd), indicating increased non-linear interactions and energy transfer through resonant interactions. The model indicates strong surface trapping of internal tides, with surface velocity spectra having significantly higher energy between 4 and 8 cpd even 100 km away from the prominent sill generating the internal tides.

Robertson, Robin

2011-01-01

305

Tide-influenced sedimentary environments and facies  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains examples of recent as well as fossil tide-influenced sedimentary facies. Studies of recent tidal processes and sediments provide an insight into the way in which tidal facies and sequences develop, and into the processes which are active. The studies performed on fossil rocks give information on one-to-one scale model experiments that have been executed by nature both relatively recently and in the distant past. In this work, the parallel presentation of papers on recent and fossil examples of tide-influenced sedimentary facies and environments follows the philosophy of comparative sedimentology, aiming at an understanding of both the past and the present, with the aim also, of forecasting future developments.

De Boer, P.L.; Van Gelder, A.; Nio, S.D.

1988-01-01

306

Air Weather Service Weather-Modification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Weather Service has recently inaugurated a program to field test those weather-modification techniques within the scientific state-of-the-art and of potential value to the Air Force in order to bring them to a state of operational readiness. The f...

H. S. Appleman

1968-01-01

307

Intercomparison of recent ocean tide models  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the tremendous achievements of the TOPEX\\/POSEIDON (T\\/P) satellite mission is the release of 12 new global ocean tide models during 1994. Virtually all of these models are based on the high-precision altimetry obtainable from the T\\/P satellite, and all of the models are superior to both the Cartwright and Ray (1990, 1991) model as well as to the

O. B. Andersen; P. L. Woodworth; R. A. Flather

1995-01-01

308

Mapping Hurricane Inland-Storm Tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, hurricane-induced storm-tides were documented through analysis of structural or vegetative damage and high-water marks. However, these sources rarely provided quantitative information about the timing of the flooding, the sequencing of multiple paths by which the storm-surge waters arrived, or the magnitude of waves and wave run-up comprising floodwaters. In response to these deficiencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed

M. Turco; J. W. East; M. E. Dorsey; B. D. McGee; B. E. McCallum; J. L. Pearman; A. H. Sallenger; R. R. Holmes; C. E. Berembrock; D. P. Turnipseed; R. R. Mason

2008-01-01

309

Arctic Ocean Tides from GRACE Satellite Accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models are routinely used to remove the effects of the global ocean tides from GRACE data during processing to reduce temporal aliasing into monthly GRACE solutions. These models have typically been derived using data from satellite altimeter missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon. Therefore the Arctic ocean components of the tide models are not constrained by altimetry data, potentially resulting in errors that are likely to alias into monthly GRACE gravity fields at all latitudes. Seven years of GRACE inter-satellite accelerations are inverted to solve for corrections to the amplitude and phase of major solar and lunar ocean tides at latitudes north of 50°N using a mascon approach. The tide model originally applied to our data was FES2004, truncated to maximum degree lmax = 90. Simulations are performed to verify that our inversion algorithm works as designed. Uncertainty estimates are derived from tidal solutions on land, and by subtracting two independent solutions that each use 3.5 years of data. Features in the M2 and K1 solutions that rise above the noise floor likely represent errors in the FES2004 model. Errors due to truncating the spherical harmonic expansion of FES2004 are too small, and errors in the land mask model (needed to transform sea surface heights into mass) only affect coastal areas and do not produce similar relative amplitudes in both tidal constituents. In the oceans north of 50°N, these residual estimates tend to reduce the FES2004 amplitudes for M2, K1, O1, and P1. The power spectra of accelerations are analyzed, and reductions in the variance of accelerations not used in our inversion suggest that our results can be used to improve GRACE processing.

Killett, Bryan

310

Nucleation of Particles at Low Tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John Aitken in the late 19th century and O'Dowd and colleagues in Finland in the last decade reported strong coastal new particle formation events at low tide and sunny conditions on the Scottish coast and at Western Ireland. Such new particles are produced in bursts and may start as dimmers of iodine compounds, around a half nm diameter, perhaps IOI. They rapidly coagulate and grow, eventually to be large enough to serve as condensation nuclei for cloud water droplets. In summer season of 2005 and 2006 we searched for such particle formation on the coasts of Kachejmak Bay in the Gulf of Alaska, a region of high biological productivity. Though some evidence was found for particle production at low tide, we found little evidence for strong bursts of particles in high concentrations. This region has high (6 meter) tides, with strong currents, which may not lay down sufficient biological material for long enough times to dry and produce particles, or the biological iodine may be lower in this marine region than in the northern Atlantic.

Shaw, G. E.

2006-12-01

311

Mantle Lateral Variations and Earth Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth strain and gravity responses to tides or atmospheric loads, are generally calculated assuming radially stratified earth models, and at hydrostatic equilibrium. However, some local observations show unexplained perturbations on the tidal gravity signal. A possible cause for those perturbations may be the neglect of rheology and density lateral variations as well as the non hydrostaticity of the Earth. We have investigated a non radially symmetrical earth numerical model with the intent to study the earth response to low frequency forcings. This model uses a finite element method (spectral elements) developed on the cubed sphere mesh (Chaljub et al., 2003 ; Ronchi et al., 1996), and has resolved the static gravito-elasticity equations. The non-hydrostaticity has been taken into consideration by a first order perturbation theory. As a first validation of our model, we computed the M2 and M3 tidal earth response for a radially stratified model: the Preliminary Referential Earth Model. We obtained, as expected, PREM Love numbers with a very good accuracy. As a second validation, we calculated the effect of ellipticity of the Earth and compared, for homogeneous model or for PREM, our numerical results with analytical solutions (using Maple computations), or literature solutions. Finally, as first applications, we have investigated the influence of the lateral variations induced by oceanic -continental crust distribution, and the possible influence of a mega-plume on gravity tide. In the future, we also intend to extend our approach to more local studies, for features affected by other forces than Earth tides.

Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Diament, M.

2003-12-01

312

Weekly Weather Generation for a Nitrogen Turnover Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods of deriving weather for use in a nitrogen decision support system with a weekly time-step are described and\\u000a evaluated. The simplest of these is simply the mean (M) of the three weather variables: Rainfall (R), evapotranspiration (ET) and temperature (T). To represent the variability of weather, many sets of generated data are needed but this is not possible

A. G. Dailey; J. U. Smith; A. P. Whitmore

2005-01-01

313

Project Weather and Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

2000-01-01

314

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Newsletters > Connections newsletter - Archives > Spring 2003 > HOT Weather Tips E-mail to a Friend Printable Version ©Family Caregiver Alliance We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled ...

315

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

316

Introduction to Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

2010-01-01

317

Vertical Crustal Movements in Italy from Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to determine vertical crustal movement rates from tide gauge and satellite altimetry measurements. Tide gauges measure sea level, but as they are fixed to the coast, they sense both sea surface height variations and vertical crustal movements. Satellite altimetric measurements determine sea surface height variations directly and can be used to separate the crustal signal from the sea surface height variations in tide gauge measurements. We apply the methodology to the Southern Italy, an area of broad scientific interest, due to its high seismic risk and its location as standpoint for a great bridge that should connect Sicily to the Italian mainland, but it can be exported to any parts of the world where tide gauge observations are available. Along the Italian coastline 26 tide gauge stations with 10-years of continuous data are available. We have explored the sea level data statistically, including a study of the space-time variation of rates, of the optimal way of calculating rates and of the correlation-coefficients between stations. The tidal sea level change rates have a relatively large variability, greatly ascribable to the short time interval of analysis (10 years), and are comprised between -5 and +9 mm/yr with an approximate uncertainty of 0.5 mm/yr. The satellite altimetric data pose a challenge to the joint analysis, due to very different time resolution (10 days versus hourly sampling of tide gauges), sparse spatial sampling of the Mediterranean due to track distances, and the difficulty in acquiring altimetric data in the vicinity of the coast. We have analyzed the satellites Topex/Poseidon and Jason1. The study of Envisat data is under way and it could provide more detailed data, since its track distance is sensibly shorter, even if time sampling interval is 35 days. We explore also the satellite altimetric data statistically, investigating the correlation matrices of the data and the time-space variation of the sea surface change rates. We move along the tracks, trying to approach the coast as near as possible. We construct time series with 10 day sampling interval at discrete locations with the criterion of covering the Mediterranean homogeneously. We calculate histograms as we go near the coast and we find that at a distance of about 45 km from the coast the number of points drastically is reduced leading to a time series with many interruptions. We also find that the sea surface change rates derived from the altimeter have an even greater variability compared to the tide gauges for the same years, showing that changes far from the coast are greater than near the coast. We discuss the problem of how to use the altimeter data in those cases in which the tracks are far from the tide gauges, as is the case for the satellite Topex/Poseidon and the tectonically interesting tide gauge stations of Sicily and Calabria. An adequate space-time interpolation of the satellite data produces maps of spatial variations of sea surface change that are used in the study of the differential sea level rates of tide gauges. We show that geologically consistent crustal uplift rates are found for the highly seismic area of eastern Sicily and Calabria.

Braitenberg, Carla; Lavinia, Tunini; Barbara, Grillo; Nagy, Ildiko'

2010-05-01

318

Tide normalized change detection using multitemporal satellite imagery to decipher the turtle rookery dynamics of Gahirmatha, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GIS based tide normalized change detection method is developed and tested for analyzing multi-temporal satellite imagery to decipher the morphological change pattern of the two major Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting landforms, namely Ekakula spit and Nasi sandbar situated in the Gahirmatha coast, India. The shoreline position of the coastal landforms at the time of satellite capture is variable

G. Prusty; S. Dash; S. S. Prasad

2005-01-01

319

Thermal Tides as Revealed by Mars Climate Sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive spatial and seasonal coverage provided by Mars Climate Sounder allows us to document the seasonal variation of temperature and cloud structure over the course of the two-plus Mars years. Nightside and dayside observations (at 3am and 3pm, respectively) enable the identification of nonmigrating thermal tides and provide much more detail on the migrating diurnal tide, previously characterized by [1]. Mars GCM simulations are also presented to better interpret the tide observations. Prior work [2,6] has suggested a coupling between the tides and water ice clouds, whereby the tides shape the temperature response and cloud radiative effects amplify the tide forcing. The MCS observations and MGCM modeling provide further support for this claim.

Wilson, R. J.

2012-09-01

320

Weather and climate applications for rangeland restoration planning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rangeland ecosystems generally have an arid or semi-arid climatology, and are characterized by relatively high variability in seasonal and annual patterns of precipitation. Weather variability during seedling establishment is universally acknowledged as a principal determinant of rangeland seeding...

321

Solar Tides in the winds of the southern polar region of Venus using VIRTIS-M/Venus Express images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the solar tides on the winds at the top of the clouds in Venus has been studied using cloud tracking technique applied to the Venus Express/VIRTIS-M images taken at wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.0 ?m. Both these wavelengths probe about the same altitude on the clouds top, allowing for the first time to retrieve winds in the dayside and nightside simultaneously. The dataset included observations from 17 orbits, covering a time span of 290 days and a latitude range between 70ºS and 85ºS, a region where resides the so called cold collar. Both the diurnal (wavenumber 1) and the semidiurnal (wavenumber 2) tides are present, with the diurnal tide being the dominant harmonic for both the zonal and meridional components of the wind. The diurnal tide induces wind oscillations with amplitudes of about 4.5 m/s and 8.0 m/s for the zonal and meridional winds respectively. These amplitudes are in good accordance with the Rayleigh friction expected for this level of the Venus atmosphere, and support the important role of the diurnal tide in the maintenance of the mean zonal flow and in determining the sense of the meridional flow. While the tidal amplitude seems not to undergo important changes, the phase displays a temporal variability of about 1.4 hours in the local time coordinate. The rate of change of the phase seems different for the diurnal and semidiurnal component, indicative of a dispersive character of the solar tides, and is consistent with the expected change due to the tidal vertical propagation. Finally, a persistent lag is apparent in most cases between the tidal phases of zonal and meridional disturbances, implying that the diurnal tides tend to force equatorward winds when in the sense of the mean flow, and poleward winds when in the opposite sense.

Peralta, J.; Luz, D.; Berry, D. L.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

2011-10-01

322

Extreme Weather on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

Mika, Anna; Education, National G.

323

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Burrows, Charles

324

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

325

Doppler weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler weather radar and its signals are examined from elementary considerations to show the origin and development of useful weather echo properties such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), range correlation, signal statistics, etc. We present a form of the weather radar equation which explicitly shows the echo power loss due to finite receiver bandwidth and how it is related to

RICHARD J. DOVIAK; DUSAN S. ZRNIC; DALE S. SIRMANS

1979-01-01

326

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

327

Severe Weather Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The severe weather primer from the National Severe Storms Laboratory of the NOAA provides text and graphic explanations of how severe weather phenomena form. Basics on thunderstorms, tornadoes, floods, hail, lightning, winter weather, and winds are provided in a question-oriented format including answers to frequently asked questions.

Laboratory, National S.

2010-04-24

328

Weather Girl Goes Rogue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

Ram, Deep R.; Technologies, Institute F.

329

Weather and Climate Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This primer from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) defines weather and climate, and explains related concepts such as the atmosphere, natural hazards, rising sea level, and modeling. Users explore how dynamic forces within the atmosphere change our weather and climate. They learn what causes weather events and climate change and how NCAR scientists are exploring our atmosphere through scientific research.

2008-01-01

330

American Weather Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

Hughes, Patrick

331

Space weather risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of space weather to society is in a continuous increase since we are more and more dependent on reliable spaceborne and ground-based technological systems. Physical processes involved in space weather constitute a complicated chain from the Sun to the Earth's surface, so the management of space weather risks requires expertise in many disciplines of science and technology. In

Risto Pirjola; Kirsti Kauristie; Hanna Lappalainen; Ari Viljanen; Antti Pulkkinen

2005-01-01

332

A stochastic daily weather generator for skewed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To simulate multivariate daily time series (minimum and maximum temperatures, global radiation, wind speed, and precipitation intensity), we propose a weather state approach with a multivariate closed skew-normal generator, WACS-Gen, that is able to accurately reproduce the statistical properties of these five variables. Our weather generator construction takes advantage of two elements. We first extend the classical wet and dry days dichotomy used in most past weather generators to the definition of multiple weather states using clustering techniques. The transitions among weather states are modeled by a first-order Markov chain. Second, the vector of our five daily variables of interest is sampled, conditionally on these weather states, from a closed skew-normal distribution. This class of distribution allows us to handle nonsymmetric behaviors. Our method is applied to the 20 years of daily weather measurements from Colmar, France. This example illustrates the advantages of our approach, especially improving the simulation of radiation and wind distributions.

Flecher, C.; Naveau, P.; Allard, D.; Brisson, N.

2010-07-01

333

Objective local weather types with applications on urban air pollution and on mortality with chronicle illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic climatology i.e. classification of the endless variability of the everyday weather states according to the pressure configuration and frontal systems relative to the point, or region of interest has long history in meteorology. Its logical alternative, i.e. classification of weather according to the observed local weather elements was less popular until the recent times when the numerical weather forecasts

Janos Mika; Anett Ivady; Andrea Fulop; László Makra

2010-01-01

334

Modeling the internal tide in combination with wind-driven circulation on the Oregon shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-driven alongshore currents and summer upwelling of cold waters are the dominant patterns of coastal circulation on the Oregon shelf, varying on scales of a few days to several months. This subinertial circulation can be modulated and affected by high-frequency barotropic and internal tides, particularly at the M2 and K1 frequencies. Using a 1-km horizontal resolution model based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), wind- and tidally-driven flows are studied in combination. The study period is May-August 2002, when data from the GLOBEC field program are available for model verification. Realistic time- and space-varying atmospheric forcing is provided by COAMPS and NCEP. Open boundary conditions are a combination of a solution from a larger scale, 3-km resolution ROMS model (run without tidal forcing) and barotropic tides from a data-assimilating shallow-water model. Modeled subtidal and tidal variability on the shelf are in good agreement with time-series of mooring velocity observations. The solutions reveal "hot spots" of the M2 internal tide generation over the slope. These hot spots are generally found over regions of supercritical bathymetry, where the bottom slope is steeper than the slope of internal wave characteristics. Topographic energy conversion in these hot spots is well balanced by baroclinic energy flux divergence. M2 baroclinic energy flux propagation on the shelf (across the 200-m isobath) is affected by the slope characteristic over the slope (supercritical or subcritical). Despite temporal and spatial variability in the baroclinic tidal energy fluxes on the slope and shelf, the integrated energy flux onto the shelf does not vary much in time. Experiments with bathymetry resolution show that the area-integrated generation of the internal tide energy on the slope is more affected than the integrated baroclinic tidal energy flux from the slope to the shelf. The model results show that not only the M2, but also the K1 tidal constituent can contribute to the surface current variability. In particular, the K1 barotropic tide is intensified over the broadest portion of the Oregon shelf, consistent with the high-frequency radar observations of surface velocities and predictions of resonant zones from the analysis of shallow water equations. Our model reveals the non-trivial three-dimensional structure of the K1 tide in this area.

Osborne, J.; Kurapov, A. L.; Egbert, G. D.; Kosro, M.

2010-12-01

335

NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' {approx}> 10-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} at orbital periods P Almost-Equal-To 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P {approx}< 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 3}[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of Almost-Equal-To N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P {approx}< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing; this coupling appears particularly efficient at draining energy out of the dynamical tide and may be more important than either wave breaking or parametric resonance at determining the nonlinear dissipation of the dynamical tide.

Weinberg, Nevin N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Arras, Phil [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh, E-mail: nevin@mit.edu [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-06-01

336

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. M.

2007-01-01

337

Estimates of vertical land motion along the southwestern coasts of Turkey from coastal altimetry and tide gauge data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differences between coastal altimetry and sea level time series of tide gauges in between March 1993 and December 2009 are used to estimate the rates of vertical land motion at three tide gauge locations along the southwestern coasts of Turkey. The CTOH/LEGOS along-track coastal altimetry retrieves altimetric sea level anomalies closer to the coast than the standard along-track altimetry products. However, the use of altimetry very close to the coast is not found to improve the results. On the contrary, the gridded and interpolated AVISO merged product exhibits the best agreement with tide gauge data as it provides the smoothest variability both in space and time compared with along track altimetry data. The Antalya gauge to the south (in the Mediterranean Sea) and the Mentes/Izmir gauge to the west (in the Aegean Sea) both show subsidence while the Bodrum tide gauge to the south (in the Aegean Sea) shows no significant vertical land motion. The results are compared and assessed with three independent geophysical vertical land motion estimates like from GPS. The GIA effect in the region is negligible. The VLM estimates from altimetry and tide gauge data are in good agreement both with GPS derived vertical velocity estimates and those inferred from geological and archaeological investigations.

Yildiz, Hasan; Andersen, Ole B.; Simav, Mehmet; Aktug, Bahadir; Ozdemir, Soner

2013-04-01

338

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Linder, Dave

2011-01-01

339

Weather-Related Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have linked weather to mortality; however, role of such critical factors as regional variation, susceptible populations, and acclimatization remain unresolved. Methods We applied time-series models to 107 US communities allowing a nonlinear relationship between temperature and mortality by using a 14-year dataset. Second-stage analysis was used to relate cold, heat, and heat wave effect estimates to community-specific variables. We considered exposure timeframe, susceptibility, age, cause of death, and confounding from pollutants. Heat waves were modeled with varying intensity and duration. Results Heat-related mortality was most associated with a shorter lag (average of same day and previous day), with an overall increase of 3.0% (95% posterior interval: 2.4%–3.6%) in mortality risk comparing the 99th and 90th percentile temperatures for the community. Cold-related mortality was most associated with a longer lag (average of current day up to 25 days previous), with a 4.2% (3.2%–5.3%) increase in risk comparing the first and 10th percentile temperatures for the community. Mortality risk increased with the intensity or duration of heat waves. Spatial heterogeneity in effects indicates that weather–mortality relationships from 1 community may not be applicable in another. Larger spatial heterogeneity for absolute temperature estimates (comparing risk at specific temperatures) than for relative temperature estimates (comparing risk at community-specific temperature percentiles) provides evidence for acclimatization. We identified susceptibility based on age, socioeconomic conditions, urbanicity, and central air conditioning. Conclusions Acclimatization, individual susceptibility, and community characteristics all affect heat-related effects on mortality.

Anderson, Brooke G.; Bell, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

340

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

341

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)|

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

342

National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

343

Introduction to Tides: The Tides of the Waters of New England and New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This interesting little book is not really about what its main title suggests, an introductory text on tides for oceanography students. Its subtitle gives more of a clue to its contents and intended readership. The author immediately points out in the preface that ‘this book is written for the many intelligent people who work or play along the coast between Sandy Hook and the Bay of Fundy.’In addition to discussing elementary tidal theory, the book describes in some detail the author's systematic analysis of coastal tides and currents in the New England and New York region. His analysis fits the solution of the telegrapher's equation to Tide Table predictions of tidal elevations and times of high water and slack current. In this way, Redfield separates the observed M2 tides in various straits, embayments, hydraulic channels, and estuaries into damped, progressive waves travelling in opposite directions. These waves arise through reflection of the primary wave at the head of an embayment or estuary, or through two primary waves entering a tidal strait or hydraulic channel from both ends.

Bowman, Malcolm J.

344

North Adriatic Tides: Observations, Variational Data Assimilation Modeling, and Linear Tide Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifteen open-sea time-series observations of tidal velocities and tidal bottom pressures for more than six months duration provide a new database for North Adriatic tides. The observations show nearly reversing tidal currents at most locations and increas...

H. Perkins J. W. Book M. Wimbush

2009-01-01

345

Introduction to Tides: The Tides of the Waters of New England and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interesting little book is not really about what its main title suggests, an introductory text on tides for oceanography students. Its subtitle gives more of a clue to its contents and intended readership. The author immediately points out in the preface that `this book is written for the many intelligent people who work or play along the coast between

Malcolm J. Bowman

1983-01-01

346

Tides and the evolution of planetary habitability.  

PubMed

Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars ( less or similar to 0.35 M(circle)). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating, and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet that is detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently discovered, approximately 5 M(circle) planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when constraints derived from the additional companions are included, most parameter choices that indicate past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable. PMID:18598142

Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

2008-06-01

347

Observations of tides and gravity waves in the lower thermosphere at 70 deg N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the atmospheric tides and gravity waves at 70 deg N were made with the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar on 3, 4 and 8 Aug. 1988. This paper discusses measurements of the electron density and the field-aligned velocity, which is related to the horizontal meridional neutral-air wind. The phase of the 12 h oscillation in the neutral wind behaves smoothly with height on 3 Aug., but abrupt phase changes at 120 and 130 km are observed on 4 and 8 Aug., respectively. At lower heights the vertical wavelength of the 12 h oscillation is about 45 km, which corresponds to the (2, 4) component of the semidiurnal tide. On 4 Aug. the vertical wavelength above 120 km altitude is about 200 km, which most probably indicates the dominance of the (2, 2) mode. On the other hand, the phase above 130 km on 8 Aug. and in the F-region on 4 Aug. is nearly constant. The amplitude of the 12 h oscillation is quite variable from day to day, but it has a maximum at 100-110 km, which also speaks for the dominance of the (2, 4) mode. In the F-region above 150 km, complex patterns of gravity waves are observed on all three days, which break up into discrete frequency ranges when subjected to filtering. The day-to-day variability of the 12 h oscillation may be due to interaction between the semidiurnal tide and the gravity waves.

Nygren, T.; Huuskonen, A.; Lanchester, B. S.; Rishbeth, H.

1992-10-01

348

What's SO COOL about Red Tide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mote Marine Laboratory magazine article details a new study by Sarasota Operations Coastal Oceans Observation Lab (SO COOL) that is using technology to track harmful algal blooms (HABs). Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are equipped with temperature and salinity meters as well as a "Breve-buster," which is an instrument that collects water samples and determines levels of red-tide causing algae by shining a light through the sample and noting the light absorbing characteristics within the sample (indicative of these algae).

Donald, David

2009-07-03

349

TEACHING PHYSICS: The tides - a neglected topic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar tides are generated by the movement of the Earth through the non-homogeneous gravitational field of the Moon while circling around the centre of mass of the Moon and Earth and simultaneously rotating around its own axis. This truly dynamic system is difficult to explain when the explanation is restricted to print media. Computer simulations, where these processes can be visualized directly, can be used to add value, thus opening new paths for a more distinct analysis and increased learning results.

Härtel, Hermann

2000-01-01

350

Preliminary analysis of the connection between ocean dynamics and the noise of gravity tide observed at the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamical Observatory, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental development of a PC controlled CCD ocular system applied for the LaCoste and Romberg G949 gravimeter of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of the Hung. Acad. Sci. made the continuous observation of time variation of gravity possible. The system was operated for half a year in the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamical Observatory to test its capabilities. The primary aim of this development was to provide an alternative and self-manageable solution for the standard/factory CPI reading of this type of gravimeter and use it for the monitoring of earth tide phenomenon. It, however, turned out that this system is sensitive enough to observe the effect of variable seismic noise (microseisms) due to the changes of ocean weather in the North Atlantic and North Sea regions at microGal level (1 ?Gal=10-8 m/s2). Up to now much attention was not paid to its influence on the quality and accuracy of gravity observations because of the large distance (> 1000 km) between the observation place (generally the Carpathian-Pannonian basin) and the source locations (centers of storm zones of the northern hydrosphere). Based on an elementary single wave surface deformation model the noise levels of gravity observations were compared to the spectral characteristics of seismic time series recorded at the same time in the Observatory. Although the sampling rate of gravity records was 120 s the daily variation of gravity noise level could be correlated to the variation of spectral amplitude distribution of the analyzed high pass filtered (cut-off frequency = 0.005 Hz) seismograms in the frequency band between 0.005 Hz and 10 Hz. Also available daily maps of ocean weather parameters were used to support both the correlation analysis and the parametrization of the source of microseisms for further statistical investigations. These maps which were processed by standard image processing algorithms provide numerical data about geometrical (distance and azimuth of the source relative to the observation point) and physical (mass of swelling water) quantities. The information can be applied for characterizing the state of ocean weather at a given day which may help the prediction of its influence in the future. Probably it is the first attempt to analyse quantitatively the effect of ocean weather on gravity observations in this specific area of the Carpathian-Pannonian region.

Papp, G.; Sz?cs, E.; Battha, L.

2012-04-01

351

Preliminary analysis of the connection between ocean dynamics and the noise of gravity tide observed at the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamical Observatory, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental development of a computer controlled photoelectric ocular system applied for the LaCoste and Romberg G949 gravimeter made the continuous observation of time variation of gravity possible. The system was operated for half a year in the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamical Observatory to test its capabilities. The primary aim of this development was to provide an alternative and self-manageable solution instead of the standard electronic (Capacitive Position Indicator) reading of this type of gravimeter and use it for the monitoring of Earth tide. It, however, turned out that this system is sensitive enough to observe the effect of variable seismic noise (microseisms) due to the changes of ocean weather in the North Atlantic and North Sea regions at microGal level (1 ?Gal = 10-8 m/s2). Up to now not much attention was paid to its influence on the quality and accuracy of gravity observations because of the large distance (>1000 km) between the observation place (generally the Carpathian-Pannonian basin) and the locations (centres of storm zones of the northern hydrosphere) of triggering events. Based on an elementary harmonic surface deformation model the noise level of gravity observations was compared to the spectral characteristics of seismic time series recorded at the same time in the observatory. Although the sampling rate of gravity records was 120 s the daily variation of gravity noise level showed significant correlation with the variation of spectral amplitude distribution of the analysed high pass filtered (cut-off frequency = 0.005 Hz) seismograms up to 10 Hz. Also available daily maps of ocean weather parameters were used to support both the correlation analysis and the parameterization of the triggering events of microseisms for further statistical investigations. These maps, which were processed by standard image processing algorithms, provide numerical data about geometrical (distance and azimuth of the storm centres relative to the observation point) and physical (mass of swelling water) quantities. The information can be applied for characterizing the state of ocean weather at a given day which may help the prediction of its influence on gravity measurements in the future. Probably it is the first attempt to analyse quantitatively the effect of ocean weather on gravity observations in this specific area of the Carpathian-Pannonian region.

Papp, G.; Sz?cs, E.; Battha, L.

2012-10-01

352

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

353

A Synoptic Approach to Weather Conditions Discloses a Relationship With Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHigher blood pressure (BP) values in cold than in hot months has been documented in hypertensives. These changes may potentially contribute to the observed excess winter cardiovascular mortality. However, the association with weather has always been investigated by considering the relationship with a single variable rather than considering the combination of ground weather variables characterizing a specific weather pattern (air

Marco Morabito; Alfonso Crisci; Simone Orlandini; Giampiero Maracchi; Gian F. Gensini; Pietro A. Modesti

2008-01-01

354

Oceanic Tide Maps and Spherical Harmonic Coefficients from Geosat Altimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps and tables for the global ocean tides, 69 degree N to 68 degree S, derived from two years of Geosat altimetry are presented. Global maps of local and Greenwich admittance of the (altimetric) ocean tide, and maps of amplitude and Greenwich phase lag o...

D. E. Cartwright R. D. Ray B. V. Sanchez

1991-01-01

355

Research-Based Teaching Unit on the Tides. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to develop a new research-based learning unit for tides to be used in lower secondary schools. The learning unit was based on the scientific theory of tides, textbooks, and also an analysis of students' conceptions. Descriptions are included of the content and the teaching-learning activities of the unit. The teacher talk…

Viiri, Jouni; Saari, Heikki

2004-01-01

356

Recreational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two separate Karenia brevis red tide events, we measured the levels of brevetoxins in air and water samples, conducted personal interviews, and performed pulmonary function tests on people before and after they visited one of two Florida beaches. One hundred and twenty-nine people participated in the study, which we conducted during red tide events in Sarasota and Jacksonville, FL,

Lorraine C Backer; Lora E Fleming; Alan Rowan; Yung-Sung Cheng; Janet Benson; Richard H Pierce; Julia Zaias; Judy Bean; Gregory D Bossart; David Johnson; Raul Quimbo; Daniel G Baden

2003-01-01

357

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A RUBBER "DUCK BILL" TIDE GATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A unique 54 in. diameter "duckbill" rubber tide gate (RTG) was designed, fabricated, and installed in a typical New York City tide gate chamber. The operation of the RTG was observed over two years. The RTG was very effective in preventing the inflow of tidal waters and generally...

358

Frontiers in outreach and education: The Florida red tide experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance information sharing and garner increased support from the public for scientific research, funding agencies now typically require that research groups receiving support convey their work to stakeholders. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) funded Aerosolized Florida Red Tide P01 research group (Florida Red Tide Research Group) has employed a variety of outreach strategies to meet this

Kate Nierenberg; Julie Hollenbeck; Lora E. Fleming; Wendy Stephan; Andrew Reich; Lorraine C. Backer; Robert Currier; Barbara Kirkpatrick

2011-01-01

359

Tides in textbooks, expert teachers' ideas and students' understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to construct a research-based teaching unit for tides. The study applies the educational reconstruction idea, which contains analysis of content structure, empirical investigations, and construction of instruction. In this paper we report the findings of the first two phases. The content structure analysis of tides revealed two main phenomena. Empirical studies included textbook analysis,

Jouni Viiri

360

Panic anxiety, under the weather?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between weather conditions and psychiatric disorders has been a continuous subject of speculation due to contradictory findings. This study attempts to further clarify this relationship by focussing on specific conditions such as panic attacks and non-panic anxiety in relation to specific meteorological variables. All psychiatric emergencies attended at a general hospital in Barcelona (Spain) during 2002 with anxiety as main complaint were classified as panic or non-panic anxiety according to strict independent and retrospective criteria. Both groups were assessed and compared with meteorological data (wind speed and direction, daily rainfall, temperature, humidity and solar radiation). Seasons and weekend days were also included as independent variables. Non-parametric statistics were used throughout since most variables do not follow a normal distribution. Logistic regression models were applied to predict days with and without the clinical condition. Episodes of panic were three times more common with the poniente wind (hot wind), twice less often with rainfall, and one and a half times more common in autumn than in other seasons. These three trends (hot wind, rainfall and autumn) were accumulative for panic episodes in a logistic regression formula. Significant reduction of episodes on weekends was found only for non-panic episodes. Panic attacks, unlike other anxiety episodes, in a psychiatric emergency department in Barcelona seem to show significant meteorotropism. Assessing specific disorders instead of overall emergencies or other variables of a more general quality could shed new light on the relationship between weather conditions and behaviour.

Bulbena, A.; Pailhez, G.; Aceña, R.; Cunillera, J.; Rius, A.; Garcia-Ribera, C.; Gutiérrez, J.; Rojo, C.

2005-03-01

361

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

362

Sea level variability in Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level variability in Long Island Sound is examined at both tidal and subtidal frequencies over a 1-yr period. The sound\\u000a is found to be decoupled effectively from the lower Hudson Estuary at tidal frequencies. The predominantly semidiurnal tides\\u000a in the sound are forced by the oceanic tides transmitted from the mouth. There is a near fourfold amplification of the

Kuo-Chuin Wong

1990-01-01

363

Watching the World's Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time of growing concern about the impact of pollution on the global climate, weather satellites will play an increasingly crucial role in monitoring how changes such as the ozone hole and global warming will affect the world's climate. The complexities of the global weather machine on every scale are attractively revealed through spectacular images of satellite photography. Anyone interested in how the weather satellite works now and in the future should buy this book.

Burroughs, William James

1991-04-01

364

Space Weather Media Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

2011-01-01

365

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center offers the latest observations and forecasts for the United States and Southern Canada. By simply selecting a state, individuals can find data on the temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud cover, and other weather information for stations throughout the selected region. The website provides a state forecast as well. The map on the homepage allows users to observe the overall weather patterns throughout the continental United States and Southern Canada.

366

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

367

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Environment Center (SEC) to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SEC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Spangler, Tim

2005-01-11

368

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

369

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

370

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

371

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

372

Climatology of terdiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from TIMED SABER/TIDI, ground-based sodium lidar and NCAR TIME-GCM model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the nature of the terdiurnal tide (8 hour period) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), using the Colorado State University (CSU) temperature/wind sodium lidar data set (41N, 105W) (5 years, 2002 to 2006), Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature and Doppler interferometer (TIDI) wind measurement for 7 years (2003 to 2009) both onboard of Thermosphere-ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model runs (TIME-GCM). The seasonal variability and global structure of the terdiurnal tide will be provided. The amplitude of the terdiurnal tide depends heavily on season, latitude and altitude. For example, at northern mid-latitude, the maximum amplitudes in horizontal wind (20 m/s) and temperature (8 K) appear at 100 km in late winter from the lidar measurement, while it is the weakest in summer. SABER measurement reveals that the maximum of the terdiurnal tide temperature above 100 km occurs near equinox at mid-latitude. TIDI wind finds that the maximum amplitude in meridional wind at mid-latitude is before and after the solstice. The vertical wavelength of the terdiurnal tide will be estimated. The comparison between the TIME-GCM and the observations will enhance our understandings of the excitation, propagation and dissipation of the terdiurnal tide in the atmosphere. This will benefit our future study of the terdiurnal tidal impact in the thermosphere/ionosphere coupling.

Yue, J.; Wu, Q.; Xu, J.; Liu, H.; Hagan, M. E.; Maute, A. I.; Yuan, T.; She, C.; Russell, J. M.

2011-12-01

373

Stochastic Weather Generator Based Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient water resources management owes considerably to skillful basin wide streamflow forecasts at both short (1-2 weeks) and long (seasonal and longer) time scales. The skillful projection of the streamflow probability density function (PDF) is especially of interest. Presently, the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach is used by River Forecasting Centers such as the Colorado Basin River Forecasting Center (CBRFC) with their hydrologic model to produce ensembles and thus the PDF. The main drawback of this is that the number of ensembles is limited to the number of years of the historical data, which is often quite small. CBRFC currently maintains a 30 year calibration period. Furthermore, if seasonal forecast information is included through a use of a subset of these years, the ensemble size decreases substantially, further degrading the resolution of the estimated PDF. To improve on this, we propose a stochastic weather generator based approach coupled to the hydrologic modeling system. The weather generator uses a Markov Chain to simulate the precipitation state of a day (wet or dry) and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) resampling approach to simulate the daily weather vector. This stochastic weather generator can also produce daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal categorical climate forecasts such as those issued by NOAA/CPC, as well as sequences at multiple locations across the basin. Daily weather sequences for a desired time horizon (1-2 weeks or seasonal) are produced using the K-NN weather generator; these are then driven through the hydrologic model to produce an ensemble forecast of streamflow. The weather generator's ability to produce a rich variety of daily weather sequences enables increased resolution and more accurate estimation of the streamflow PDF. We demonstrate this approach to San Juan River Basin and present preliminary findings. First, results from the stochastic weather generator are presented showing that the generated sequences capture the historic variability across multiple locations in the basin quite well. We also show that the weather sequences the PDF of the weather attributes appropriately based on seasonal climate forecast. CBRFC's new Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) was used in conjunction with the generated weather sequences to produce ensembles of streamflow. The skills from these simulations are compared with the existing ESP forecasting approach.

Caraway, N.; Werner, K.; Rajagopalan, B.; Wood, A. W.

2011-12-01

374

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

375

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

376

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

377

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

378

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible…

1998

379

The Home Weather Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

Steinke, Steven D.

1991-01-01

380

Advanced Aviation Weather Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal

Marilyn M. Wolfson; David A. Clark

2006-01-01

381

Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the…

Konvicka, Tom

382

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

383

The Home Weather Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)|

Steinke, Steven D.

1991-01-01

384

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

385

Northwest Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

Palewicz, Sue; Scurlock, Marianne; Edmon, Harry

386

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)|

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

387

Weather and Individual Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the influence of weather on happiness. While previous studies have examined climatic influence by comparing the well-being of people living in different regions, this paper focuses on how daily changes in weather affect individuals living in a single location. Our data set consists of 516 days of data on 75 students from Osaka University. Daily information on

Yoshiro Tsutsui

2011-01-01

388

Waste glass weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared

J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck

1993-01-01

389

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

390

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

391

Wave-, tide-, and current-controlled sandbodies of miocene molasse, western Switzerland  

SciTech Connect

The Miocene (Burdigalian) clastic sediments of western Switzerland were deposited in a wide variety of environments ranging from fan deltas to offshore coquina banks. Conglomerates and sandstones of the proximal fan-delta facies were deposited in distributary channels that were influenced by tides to varying extents. Tidal sand waves exhibiting bipolar paleocurrent patterns and intertidal sand flats are the most conspicuous features of the coastal facies belt. The nearshore facies is composed of thick, sandy subtidal shoals built of current-generated megaripples, intershoal swales containing horizontally stratified fine sandstones and mudstones, and swash bars or flood ramps with low angle accretionary bedding. The offshore facies belt contains very large coquina banks fashioned by vigorous (tidal) currents and reworked by fair-weather waves. Wave power, calculated from preserved ripple marks, indicates a moderate-energy sea of limited fetch, perhaps 100 km. The ratio of wave power to reasonable estimates of discharge effectiveness index suggests wave-dominated rather than fluvial-dominated deltaic systems. Additionally, comparison of wave power with interpreted tidal range (microtidal to mesotidal) indicates strong influence from both tides and waves but little influence from river outflow. The predicted association of sand-filled distributaries and laterally persistent nearshore features is in agreement with the facies described from the Burdigalian Molasse of the Fribourg area, western Switzerland. 16 figures.

Homewood, P. (Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, Switzerland); Allen, P.

1981-12-01

392

Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores  

PubMed Central

The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ? tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ? wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

Bird, Christopher E.; Franklin, Erik C.; Smith, Celia M.

2013-01-01

393

Bifurcation analysis of brown tide by reaction-diffusion equation using finite element method  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we analyze the bifurcation of a biodynamics system in a two-dimensional domain by virtue of reaction-diffusion equations. The discretization method in space is the finite element method. The computational algorithm for an eigenspectrum is described in detail. On the basis of an analysis of eigenspectra according to Helmholtz`s equation, the discrete spectra in regards to the physical variables are numerically obtained in two-dimensional space. In order to investigate this mathematical model in regards to its practical use, we analyzed the stability of two cases, i.e., hydranth regeneration in the marine hydroid Tubularia and a brown tide in a harbor in Japan. By evaluating the stability according to the linearized stability definition, the critical parameters for outbreaks of brown tide can be theoretically determined. In addition, results for the linear combination of eigenspectrum coincide with the distribution of the observed brown tide. Its periodic characteristic was also verified. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Kawahara, Mutsuto; Ding, Yan [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

394

Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores.  

PubMed

The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as 'intertidal', whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ? tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ? wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional "intertidal zone". We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic. PMID:24109544

Bird, Christopher E; Franklin, Erik C; Smith, Celia M; Toonen, Robert J

2013-09-19

395

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

396

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

397

Fortnightly Earth rotation, ocean tides and mantle anelasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of the fortnightly Mf tide comprises three main topics: (1) a new determination of the fortnightly component of polar motion and length of day (LOD) from a multidecade time-series of observed space-geodetic data; (2) the use of the polar motion determination as one constraint in the development of a hydrodynamic ocean model of the Mf tide and (3) the use of these results to place new constraints on mantle anelasticity at the Mf tidal period. Our model of the Mf ocean tide assimilates more than 14 years of altimeter data from the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellites. Because the Mf altimetric signal-to-noise ratio is very small, it is critical that altimeter data not be overweighted. The polar motion data, plus tide-gauge data and independent altimeter data, give useful additional information, with only the polar motion putting constraints on tidal current velocities. The resulting ocean-tide model, plus the dominant elastic body tide, leaves a small residual in observed LOD caused by mantle anelasticity. The inferred effective tidal Q of the anelastic body tide is 90 and is in line with a ?? frequency dependence with ? in the range 0.2-0.3.

Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, Gary D.

2012-04-01

398

The anelastic equilibrium tide in exoplanetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts of a body, the tidal dissipation of such solid regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, highly depends on its internal friction, and thus on its internal structure. Therefore, modelling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to provide constraints on planet interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the equilibrium tide in the solid central region of a planet, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope. We discuss how the quality factor Q depends on the rheological parameters, and the size of the core. Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and examinig the frequency-dependence of the solid dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune.

Remus, F.; Mathis, S.; Zahn, J.-P.; Lainey, V.

2012-12-01

399

Tides on Satellites of Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the satellites of the giant planets started in 1610 when Galileo Galilei pointed his telescope toward Jupiter. Since then observations from Earth- and space-based telescopes and outstanding in-situ observations by several space missions have revealed worlds of great richness and extreme diversity. One major source of energy driving the evolution of these satellites is the gravitational pull exerted by their planets. This force shapes and deforms the satellites and the resulting dissipation of mechanical energy can heat their interiors and drive spectacular activity, such as volcanic eruptions, as for Io or Enceladus. In addition, tides drive orbital evolution by circularizing the satellites' orbits and synchronizing their rotational motions.

Rambaux, Nicolas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

400

On the Theory of Bodily Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different theories of bodily tides assume different forms of dependence of the angular lag ? upon the tidal frequency ?. In the old theory (Gerstenkorn 1955, MacDonald 1964, Kaula 1964) the geometric Iag angle is assumed constant (i.e., ? ~ ?0), while the new theory (Singer 1968; Mignard 1979, 1980) postulates constancy of the time lag ?t (which is equivalent to saying that ? ~ ?1). Each particular functional form of ?(?) unambiguously determines the form of the frequency dependence of the tidal quality factor, Q(?), and vice versa. Through the past 20 years, several teams of geophysicists have undertaken a large volume of experimental research of attenuation at low frequencies. This research, carried out both for mineral samples in the lab and for vast terrestrial basins, has led to a complete reconsideration of the shape of Q(?). While in late 70s - early 80s it was universally accepted that at low frequencies the quality factor scales as inverse frequency, by now it is firmly established that Q ~ ??, where the positive fractional power ? varies, for different minerals, from 0.2 through 0.4 (leaning toward 0.2 for partial melts) - see the paper by Efroimsky (2006) and references therein. That paper also addresses some technical difficulties emerging in the conventional theory of land tides, and offers a possible way of their circumvention - a new model that is applicable both for high inclinations and high eccentricities (contrary to the Kaula expansion which converges only for i ? ?/2 and e < 0.6627434). Here we employ this new model to explore the long-term evolution of Phobos and to provide a more exact estimate for the time it needs to fall on Mars. This work is a pilot paper that anticipates a more comprehensive study in preparation (Efroimsky & Lainey 2007).

Efroimsky, Michael; Lainey, Valéry

2007-02-01

401

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)|

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

402

Analysis of Preflight Weather Briefings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather is often cited as a factor in general aviation (GA) accidents and mishaps. The type of weather information requested from, or provided by, automated flight service station (AFSS) specialists is dependent on weather conditions at the time the prefl...

A. M. Hendrix O. V. Prinzo R. Hendrix

2007-01-01

403

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

404

From tides to mixing along the Hawaiian ridge.  

PubMed

The cascade from tides to turbulence has been hypothesized to serve as a major energy pathway for ocean mixing. We investigated this cascade along the Hawaiian Ridge using observations and numerical models. A divergence of internal tidal energy flux observed at the ridge agrees with the predictions of internal tide models. Large internal tidal waves with peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 300 meters occur on the ridge. Internal-wave energy is enhanced, and turbulent dissipation in the region near the ridge is 10 times larger than open-ocean values. Given these major elements in the tides-to-turbulence cascade, an energy budget approaches closure. PMID:12869758

Rudnick, Daniel L; Boyd, Timothy J; Brainard, Russell E; Carter, Glenn S; Egbert, Gary D; Gregg, Michael C; Holloway, Peter E; Klymak, Jody M; Kunze, Eric; Lee, Craig M; Levine, Murray D; Luther, Douglas S; Martin, Joseph P; Merrifield, Mark A; Moum, James N; Nash, Jonathan D; Pinkel, Robert; Rainville, Luc; Sanford, Thomas B

2003-07-18

405

Ocean science. Enhanced: internal tides and ocean mixing.  

PubMed

Recent satellite and in situ observations have shown that at ocean ridges and other seafloor topographic features, a substantial amount of energy is transferred from the main ocean tides into "internal tides." In his Perspective, Garrett explains how these internal waves with tidal periods propagate through the density-stratified deep ocean and eventually break down into turbulence. The resulting mixing affects ocean stratification and ocean circulation. It thus influences climate as well as biological production. The energy for the internal tides is derived from the rotational energy of the Earth-Moon system changes of the length of the day and the distance to the Moon. PMID:14512611

Garrett, Chris

2003-09-26

406

Neural network load forecasting with weather ensemble predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a large amount of literature has evolved on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for electric load forecasting. ANNs are particularly appealing because of their ability to model an unspecified nonlinear relationship between load and weather variables. Weather forecasts are a key input when the ANN is used for forecasting. This paper investigates the use of

James W. Taylor; Roberto Buizza

2002-01-01

407

Sensitivity of building cooling loads to future weather predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction and the relationship between global warming and thermal performance buildings are dynamic in nature. In order to model and understand this behaviour, different approaches, including that of keeping the weather variable unchanged, the morphing approach and the diurnal modelling method, have been used to project and generate future weather data. Among these approaches, various assumptions of change in

Lisa Guan

2011-01-01

408

A stochastic daily weather generator for skewed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate multivariate daily time series (minimum and maximum temperatures, global radiation, wind speed, and precipitation intensity), we propose a weather state approach with a multivariate closed skew-normal generator, WACS-Gen, that is able to accurately reproduce the statistical properties of these five variables. Our weather generator construction takes advantage of two elements. We first extend the classical wet and dry

C. Flecher; P. Naveau; D. Allard; N. Brisson

2010-01-01

409

A weather generator for hydrological, ecological, and agricultural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a weather generator that allows simulation of hydrometeorological variables representative of a given geographic location: precipitation, total cloud cover, incoming shortwave radiation, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The approach captures the essential relationships among the quantities of interest, while modeling the diurnal variation of weather conditions at the hourly scale. Precipitation is considered to be the

Valeriy Y. Ivanov; Rafael L. Bras; David C. Curtis

2007-01-01

410

Weather-predicted control of building free cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the optimization of a weather-predicted free cooling system combined with heat storage is shown. The method of incorporating weather forecasts into the control system is presented. The regime of operation was selected and optimized based on free cooling energy and the required temperature parameters of a building’s indoor environment, using variable flow rate control through the heat

Klemen Dovrtel

2011-01-01

411

A new algorithm based on spectral differences for red tide monitoring in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red tide not only destroys marine fishery production and deteriorates the marine environment, it also causes human health problems. In China, the East China Sea has a high incidence of red tide disasters. Remote sensing technology has been proven an effective means of monitoring red tides. Spectral information of red tide water is an important basis for establishing red tide remote sensing monitoring models. This paper analyzes and compares the differences between red tide event spectral curves and multiyear monthly averaged spectral curves of MODIS data from July 2002 to June 2012, and develops a red tide monitoring algorithm based on the background field, to extract red tide information of the East China Sea. With the application of the algorithm in the East China Sea, it reveals that it can effectively determine the location of red tide and extract red tide information.

Xu, Xiaohui; Pan, Delu; Mao, Zhihua; Tao, Bangyi

2013-09-01

412

The Space Weather Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.

Kihn, E. A.; Ridley, A. J.; Zhizhin, M.

2002-12-01

413

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

414

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

415

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

416

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

417

Double Trouble: Internal Tide Attractors in Double Ridge Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical and experimental study is presented of the generation of internal tides by barotropic tidal flow over topography in the shape of a double ridge. A one-dimensional map is constructed that allows one to track the ray paths of waves reflecting between the ocean surface and topography, and this device is used to expedite the search for internal tide attractors between the ridges, these being attracting, closed ray paths. Calculations are then presented for the steady state scattering of internal tides from the barotropic tide. When attractors are present, these computations break down unless dissipation is also incorporated into the problem, in which case there is significantly enhanced energy conversion in the presence of attractors. We conclude with a direct comparison between theoretical predictions and the results of a laboratory experiment, as well as possible applications to geophysical locations.

Echeverri, Paula; Yokossi, Tite; Balmforth, Neil; Peacock, Thomas

2009-11-01

418

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

419

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

420

Earth Tide Algorithms for the OMNIS Computer Program System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents five computer algorithms that jointly specify the gravitational action by which the tidal redistributions of the Earth's masses perturb satellite motion. Covered are the perturbing effects of the lunar and solar atmospheric tide bulge...

W. J. Groeger

1986-01-01

421

The importance of weightlessness and tides in teaching gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the presentation of the weight, weightlessness, and tides in university-level physics textbooks. Introductory textbooks often do not discuss tidal forces even though their understanding would be useful for understanding weightlessness. The explanations of tides often miss the free gravitational motion of both interacting objects, which is essential for the symmetry of tidal deformation. The shortcomings in the explanations of weightlessness and tides as provided by students and teachers are compared to textbook discussions. We suggest that an explicit discussion of the different definitions of weight and a synergetic presentation of weightlessness and tides might lead to a better understanding of gravitation. Our approach is illustrated by examples of tidal effects appropriate for introductory courses.

Galili, I.; Lehavi, Y.

2003-11-01

422

Interpreting a Weathered Mars: Investigating the Effects of Weathering on Spectroscopic Observations Through Laboratory Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy is a critical tool for Martian mineralogy. Because it is crucial to evaluate the history of water on Mars, mineralogical study of weathering and alteration is among the most important topics of Mars spectroscopy. The state of alteration of the Martian surface is evaluated by the presence or absence of alteration phases and their overall abundance. Interpretations of Martian weathering processes are based on the types of alteration products, the mineral assemblages, and derived chemistry. The spectroscopy of alteration minerals has been studied in detail for decades; however, detecting and identifying alteration products from remotely- sensed spectra of natural surfaces is complicated by microtextural mixing of rock-forming minerals, alteration products, and void space. We are investigating the effects that low-temperature weathering has on spectral observations in order to facilitate interpretation of spectroscopic data of Martian surfaces that may be weathered. Our approach has been to characterize the infrared spectra, mineral assemblages, and textures of weathering rinds and rock coatings formed on volcanic rocks in a variety of environments. This approach enables us to witness the spectral variability that results from weathering and tie it to differences in texture or mineralogical composition. More importantly, by examining numerous rinds and coatings, we can determine what effects are common to broader weathering phenomena. For instance, basalt weathering typically leads to systematic changes in silicate vibrational absorptions that can hamper spectral modeling techniques used to assess Martian data. In addition, weathered surfaces may show little evidence of hydrated minerals in near-infrared data. Another important component of our research is the use of controlled laboratory experiments designed to simplify, yet emulate, important attributes of the naturally weathered surfaces, in order to better constrain the spectral effects of weathering. Based on our findings regarding weathering mineral detectability, assertions that Mars has lacked aqueous weathering in its latter history may be incorrect. Rather, we suggest that volumetrically small amounts of high-silica weathering products formed in aqueous environments at middle and high latitudes and that this is consistent with spectroscopic observations of Mars.

Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Michalski, J. R.; Rampe, E. B.

2007-12-01

423

The impact of deep internal tides on acoustic propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong deep (~250 m) internal tides have been observed off the south shores of Oahu. These tides result in large fluctuations in temperature (6-8°C) on a semi-diurnal basis, and in turn change the sound speed structure of the region where present. The authors quantify the impact of these tidally-induced sound speed variations on sonar system performance. Examples include an ASW

Subramaniam D. Rajan; James K. Lewis; Peter J. Stein

2001-01-01

424

Riser tensioning wave and tide compensating system for a floating platform  

SciTech Connect

A riser tensioner cylinder is provided with a hollow piston rod which forms a second cylinder in which a ram is reciprocated. The free end of the ram is connected to a link which in turn is connected to the end of the riser for providing tension on the riser. The ram reciprocates in the second cylinder under constant pressure to compensate for wave action on the floating platform and the second cylinder is automatically positioned within the first cylinder for adjustment for tide, vessel offset or other infrequent but variable factors.

Heeres, C.J.; Larsen, C.H.

1980-09-16

425

How does weather change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather temperature and weather data in the a.m and p.m. and develop a new, experimental question to predict temperature over the course of the year.

Susan Anderson, Taylors Falls Elementary, Taylors Falls, MN based on an activity from Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 2 Weather Patterns, p. D6.

426

The Weather Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of conversion tools helps convert units and values for weather data, including temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other parameters. Formulas are also provided for the conversions.

427

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

428

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

429

Winter Weather FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... lower your body temperature. What is the best clothing for cold weather? Adults and children should wear: ... coat and shoes several layers of loose-fitting clothing Be sure the outer layer of your clothing ...

430

Weatherization Materials Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook provides information on purchasing weatherization products, and is intended for use by Community Action Agencies and other community-based organizations in their energy conservation programs. Product information is given for insulation, stor...

1979-01-01

431

Experimentation with Weather Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Brief historical sketch (woes of citizens as a source of inspiration for, and a cause of difficulties in, weather control experimentation); Three consecutive hail-prevention experiments in Switzerland. Reports of the U.S. National Academy of Sci...

J. Neyman

1967-01-01

432

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

433

Mapping Weather Severity Zones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to develop a methodology to map winter severity from a winter maintenance perspective, and to create electronic maps and associated geospatial data depicting winter weather severity across the country. Work performed under t...

J. J. Mewes

2011-01-01

434

Tide- and wind-driven flushing of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flushing of Boston Harbor, a shallow, tidally dominated embayment with little fresh water input, is investigated using a depth-averaged model. The modeled tidal currents exhibit strong spatial variability and ebb/flood asymmetry due to complex topography and coastline geometry and were verified by shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements. At the inlets to the harbor, the asymmetry between flood and ebb gives rise to a net exchange of water, which acts over successive tidal cycles to flush the harbor. The flushing is examined by tracking water that starts out in Boston Harbor for 40 M2 tidal cycles. The tidal flushing is very efficient at mixing water in the vicinity of the inlets over several tidal cycles, but efficiency decreases with time as ``tidal mixing regions'' form on either side of the harbor inlets. When wind forcing is included, the wind-driven currents act to flush the tidal mixing regions, giving rise to more efficient flushing. The exception is when the wind is from the southwest, which confines the jet-like ebb flow from the harbor and therefore reduces the flushing efficiency. In general, flushing is shown to be a two-step process: (1) rapid exchange due to tides over a large region in the vicinity of the harbor inlets and (2) flushing of this region by wind-driven flow. The model also demonstrates that flushing is not uniform over the entire harbor but occurs rapidly in the deep tidal channels and slowly in the regions of weak tidal currents around the harbor periphery. Although the depth-averaged approach to flushing is appropriate over most of the harbor due to the harbor's shallow depth and broad depth distribution, the lack of bathymetric variability and the presence of locally important density driven currents in the Boston Inner Harbor indicates that flushing of this localized area must be approached with a three-dimensional model.

Signell, Richard

1992-01-01

435

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

436

An Ocean of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

437

Resonant amplification of subinertial tides in a submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal oscillations dominate the flow field in many submarine canyons. Observations have shown that semidiurnal tidal energy in submarine canyons is significantly amplified with respect to adjacent shelves. This amplification is thought to be caused by focusing of propagating internal tides incident from the open ocean, or local in-canyon generation on critical canyon floor slopes. These mechanisms require freely propagating internal tides, with superinertial frequencies. We present results from a moored array in a canyon at 44°N, where the observed velocities reached over 0.8 m s-1. The canyon flow field was highly unusual because it was dominated by the subinertial diurnal tide. This occurred despite the fact that the barotropic tide was predominantly semidiurnal. The diurnal tide was dramatically amplified in the canyon, its velocities increasing toward the seafloor and canyon head. The diurnal oscillations also exhibited marked modulation in time by the background barotropic forcing. Length scales suggest that the diurnal tide should be resonant in the canyon. An analytical framework is used to explain the mechanisms behind the strong diurnal currents observed by the moored array. In the model, along-shelf barotropic flow sets up a double Kelvin wave response in the canyon, generating along-canyon velocities which are subsequently amplified by resonance. The pattern of the model predictions is in excellent agreement with the observed velocity pattern.

Swart, N. C.; Allen, S. E.; Greenan, B. J. W.

2011-09-01

438

Evaluation of Fracture Properties Using Earth-Tide Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels in open wells are known to respond to earth tides tapping compressible aquifers, which have led to analytical solutions for estimation of aquifer transmissivity and storativity. However, evaluation of these aquifer properties using earth tides in fractured crystalline rocks has not been extensively developed. In this investigation, fracture aperture, orientation, and regional connectivity are shown to significantly affect observed tidal response in water-level records. Earth tide analysis of complex tidal signatures by least- squares inversion can be used to obtain the areal and volumetric strain components associated with the main tidal constituents responsible for fracture compression. The computed strain and observed stress (periodic water-level changes) can be used to produce elastic hysteresis loops that directly reflect the fracture specific storage. Borehole logging, that includes caliper and optical televiewer data provide orientation and aperture values that allow calculation of the storage coefficient of the fracture. Transmissivity is determined using a deformation model that includes the dip and aperture of the fracture. Transmissivity is a flow property and therefore depends on the phase lag between the predicted tidal strain and observed water levels in addition to the wellbore radius. Calculated transmissivity values using earth-tide analysis are corroborated with heat- pulse flowmeter data while storage values are corroborated with results from pumping tests. Results indicate that earth-tide determined hydraulic parameters reflect the values obtained from more traditional approaches indicating that earth tides can be used for calculating fracture storage and transmissivity.

Burbey, T. J.

2008-12-01

439

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF K-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR WEATHER GENERATING MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic weather generator, based on the K-nearest neighbour algorithm, is presented for producing synthetic weather sequences that can be used in conjunction with hydrological models. Application of the model to the Upper Thames River basin in Ontario has clearly demonstrated the practicality of the approach in generating plausible climate change scenarios for the basin. Daily weather variables (maximum temperature,

Mohammed Sharif; Donald H Burn

440

Isotopic tracers of chemical weathering and consequences for marine geochemical budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical breakdown of rock by physical weathering exerts a significant control on chemical weathering rates because it produces surface area. During periods of icehouse conditions on Earth, the grinding of rock by glacial processes should lead to faster chemical weathering of the continents, perhaps particularly during periods of pronounced climatic variability, like the Quaternary. Evidence is reviewed here for

D. Vance

2011-01-01

441

Weather Science, Weather Research: History of Their Problems and Findings from Documents during Three Thousand Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The prescientific era. Perception of weather; Establishment of the science of weather. Recording the weather in numbers; Extension of the science of weather. Representation of weather: climatic charts and weather charts; Meteorology up to the be...

K. Schneider-Carius

1975-01-01

442

Climatology of northern polar latitude MLT dynamics: mean winds and tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean winds and tides in the northern polar Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) have been studied using meteor radars located at Resolute Bay (75° N, 95° W) and Yellowknife (62.5° N, 114.3° W). The measurements for Resolute Bay span almost 12 years from July 1997 to February 2009 and the Yellowknife data cover 7 years from June 2002 to October 2008. The analysis reveals similar wind flow over both sites with a difference in magnitude. The summer zonal flow is westward at lower heights, eastward at upper heights and the winter zonal flow is eastward at all heights. The winter meridional flow is poleward and sometimes weakly equatorward, while non winter months show equatorward flow, with a strong equatorward jet during mid-summer months. The zonal and meridional winds show strong interannual variation with a dominant annual variation as well as significant latitudinal variation. Year to year variability in both zonal and meridional winds exists, with a possible solar cycle dependence. The diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal tides also show large interannual variability and latitudinal variation. The diurnal amplitudes are dominated by an annual variation. The climatological monthly mean winds are compared with CIRA 86, GEWM and HWM07 and the climatological monthly mean amplitudes and phases of diurnal and semidiurnal tides are compared with GSWM00 predictions. The GEWM shows better agreement with observations than the CIRA 86 and HWM07. The GSWM00 model predictions need to be modified above 90 km. The agreements and disagreements between observations and models are discussed.

Kishore Kumar, G.; Hocking, W. K.

2010-10-01

443

Weather and The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

Merritt, Mrs.

2005-10-15

444

Designing a better weather display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variables most commonly displayed on weather maps are atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, and surface temperature. But they are usually shown separately, not together on a single map. As a design exercise, we set the goal of finding out if it is possible to show all three variables (two 2D scalar fields and a 2D vector field) simultaneously such that values can be accurately read using keys for all variables, a reasonable level of detail is shown, and important meteorological features stand out clearly. Our solution involves employing three perceptual "channels", a color channel, a texture channel, and a motion channel in order to perceptually separate the variables and make them independently readable. We conducted an experiment to evaluate our new design both against a conventional solution, and against a glyph-based solution. The evaluation tested the abilities of novice subjects both to read values using a key, and to see meteorological patterns in the data. Our new scheme was superior especially in the representation of wind patterns using the motion channel, and it also performed well enough in the representation of pressure using the texture channel to suggest it as a viable design alternative.

Ware, Colin; Plumlee, Matthew

2012-01-01

445

Basalt weathering across scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of silicate minerals impacts many geological and ecological processes. For example, the weathering of basalt contributes significantly to consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) and must be included in global calculations of such consumption over geological timeframes. Here we compare weathering advance rates for basalt ( wD?), where D and ? indicate the scale at which the rate is determined and surface area measured, respectively, from the laboratory to the watershed scales. Data collected at the laboratory, weathering rind, soil profile and watershed scales show that weathering advance rate of basalt is a fractal property that can be described by a fractal dimension ( dr ? 2.3). By combining the fractal description of rates with an Arrhenius relationship for basalt weathering, we derive the following equation to predict weathering advance rates at any spatial scale from weathering advance rates measured at the BET scale: wD?=k(e. Here, k0 is the pre-exponential factor (1.29 × 10 7 mm 3 mm - 2 yr - 1 ), Ea is the activation energy (70 kj mol - 1 ), and a is a spatial constant related to the scale of measurement of BET surface area (10 - 7 mm). The term, (, is the roughness. The roughness fractal dimension can be conceptualized as a factor related to both the thickness of the reaction front and the specific surface area within the reaction front. However, the above equation can also be written in terms of a surface fractal dimension and the hypothetical average grain radius. These fractal dimensions provide insight into reaction front geometry and should vary with lithology. Once the surface area discrepancy has been accounted for using this method, we find a one to two order of magnitude range in weathering advance rates measured at any scale or temperature that can be attributed to factors such as changes in erosional regime, parent lithology, mechanism, climate, composition of reacting fluid, and biological activity. Our scaled equation, when used to predict global basalt CO 2 consumption based upon global lithologic maps, yields an uptake flux (1.75 × 1013 mol CO 2 yr - 1 ) within the predicted error of fluxes estimated based upon riverine measurements.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Brantley, Susan

2007-09-01

446

Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed semidiurnal/diurnal tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed, mainly semidiurnal tides arises from both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within the estuary. The duration asymmetry in rise and fall of water level caused by principal tides on the west coast of the continental United States is ebb-dominant, and so the tide entering estuaries is also ebb-dominant, prior to any internal distortions within the estuary. The interaction of higher harmonics with principal constituents either augments or cancels the duration asymmetry in the principal tides. In estuaries where tidal elevation and velocity phase are near quadrature (90° out of phase), the duration asymmetry in tidal elevation leads to asymmetries in tidal current magnitude. Asymmetry can be conveniently quantified in terms of the sample skewness, ?1, the normalized third sample moment about the mean. An analytic approximation to the skewness shows that traditional metrics of asymmetry, namely the ratio of constituent amplitudes and the relative constituent phase difference, arise from calculating the third sample moment. Observations from three California estuaries of different morphologies are presented as an illustration of how skewness can be used to quantify asymmetry in real systems. As in semidiurnal systems, morphology is a good predictor of whether higher harmonics engender ebb-dominance or flood-dominance, however asymmetry imposed by principal tides at the mouth must first be overcome and so there is a spatial evolution in the total asymmetry. Quantifying observations via skewness should be considered in addition to traditional metrics in estuaries with mixed tides.

Nidzieko, Nicholas J.

2010-08-01

447

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

448

[Weather, climate and health].  

PubMed

The notion of complex influence of atmospheric conditions on modem human population, especially the relationship between weather, climate and human healths, has actuated the World Meteorological Organisation to commemorate the coming into force, on March 23, 1950, of the Convention of WMO and this year to celebrate this day by focusing on theme of current interest--"Weather, climate and health". In the light of this, the authors of this paper reveal the results of recent studies dealing with influence of sudden and short-term changes in weather and climate on human health, and future expected climate changes due to "greenhouse" effect, increase in global temperature and tropospheric ozone depletion, as well. Special attention is given to climate shifts due to ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon because of its great impact on human society and epidemics of certain infectious diseases. The results of biometeorological studies dealing with complex influence of daily weather changes on incidence of certain diseases in Croatia have also been presented. In addition, the authors have stated their own view and opinion in regard to future biometeorlogical studies in Croatia in order to achieve better understanding of influence of climate and weather changes on human health, and help prevention of mortality and morbidity related to chronic noninfectious diseases. PMID:19658377

Bani?, M; Plesko, N; Plesko, S

449

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

450

Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering  

SciTech Connect

The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-10-01

451

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

452

Extreme Weather Sourcebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

453

Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.  

PubMed

Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. PMID:17087465

Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

2006-05-01

454

Wisconsin Weather Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

455

Indigenous Weather Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

456

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

457

Space weather in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information service as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data of local observation and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institute are used for daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issue has been carried out at several institutes and university, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, overview of current space weather forecast operation and system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation program from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.

Akioka, M.