Sample records for weathered rock

  1. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  2. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  3. Effect of Microbial Weathering on Carbonate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIAN, Bin; CHEN, Ye; ZHU, Lijun; YANG, Ruidong

    The interaction between microorganisms and minerals can facilitate the process of exogenic biogeochemical reaction, which is one of the important research contents in exogenic geochemistry. Microbes and their geological effects were summarized, and a variety of microbial weathering phenomena toward carbonate rocks, especially on different microcosmic scales, were analyzed. Weathering products and mechanisms of carbonate rocks by microbes were also expounded. The authors put forward four microbial weathering mechanisms of carbonate rocks: (1) microorganisms grow on rock surface or in crevices, resulting in bio-corrosion, bio-erosion, and boring, and accelerate rock decomposition and weathering; (2) boring meshes produced by microbial colony could increase the efficient superficial area of chemical denudation of rocks and could lead to the intensification of rock surface weathering to promote mechanical erosion, and the microbial destruction and loosing of cementation structure of rock particles would also accelerate the decomposition of mineral particles; (3) rock weathering can be intensified by the effects of microbial water-keeping, acidification of organic acids secreted by microorganisms, and the release of CO 2 induced by microbial respiration onto rock surface; (4) microorganisms obtain nutrition from rock surface to produce complicated organic ligands and promote the release of mineral elements in the growing process of microorganisms. Finally, how to carry out studies on the microbial weathering of carbonate rocks was proposed. The authors suggest to comprehensively exploit local low-grade mineral resources, which contain potassium and phosphate, and accelerate soil formation and evolution in karst regions by using microbial technology.

  4. WATER WEATHERING IN ROCKS DISCONTINUITIES Sandra Dochez*1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WATER WEATHERING IN ROCKS DISCONTINUITIES Sandra Dochez*1,2 , Farid Laouafa1 , Christian Franck1.bost@ifsttar.fr Abstract: The behavior of rock discontinuities at different spatial scales remains a major challenge for scientists who want to understand the rock alteration, both in the triggering of rock- fall

  5. On the weathering of Martian igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.

    1992-01-01

    Besides the young crystallization age, one of the first arguments for the martian origin of shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) meteorites came from the chemical similarity of the meteorite Shergotty and the martian soil as measured by Viking XRF analyses. In the meantime, the discovery of trapped rare gas and nitrogen components with element and isotope ratios closely matching the highly characteristic ratios of the Mars atmosphere in the shock glasses of shergottite EETA79001 was further striking evidence that the SNC's are martian surface rocks. The martian soil composition as derived from the Viking mission, with its extremely high S and Cl concentrations, was interpreted as weathering products of mafic igneous rocks. The low SiO2 content and the low abundance of K and other trace elements in the martian soils point to a mafic crust with a considerably smaller degree of fractionation compared to the terrestrial crust. However, the chemical evolution of the martian regolith and soil in respect to surface reaction with the planetary atmosphere or hydrosphere is poorly understood. A critical point in this respect is that the geochemical evidence as derived from the SNC meteorites suggests that Mars is a very dry planet that should have lost almost all its initially large water inventory during its accretion.

  6. Rock-weathering by lichens in Antarctic: patterns and mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Jie; Hans-Peter Blume

    2002-01-01

    Saxicolous species of lichens are able to induce and accelerate weathering of their rock substrate, and effects of lichens\\u000a on substrate can be attributed to both physical and chemical causes. This paper is focused on biotic weathering actions of\\u000a epilithic and endolithic species on the different rock types (sandstones and volcanogenic rocks) in Antarctica. The patterns,\\u000a mechanisms, processes and neoformations

  7. Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov., a rock-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2014-07-01

    A novel type of rock-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (tuff) surface collected from Dongxiang (Jiangxi, eastern China). Cells of strain G19(T) were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G19(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22(T) (97.4%) and Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T) (97.1%). The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain G19(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 49.4% to 55.0%) to these type strains of species of the genus Bacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain G19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G19(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2013273(T)?= JCM 19454(T)). PMID:24801156

  8. Effect of weathering on properties of coarsely fragmented residual rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Shvets; Yu. A. Gaiduk

    1976-01-01

    Conclusions 1. Atmospheric weathering of residual, coarsely fragmented rock formations causes mainly a change in their physical properties, and in this connection it is recommended that the weathering intensity should be determined from the change in the grain-size distribution.

  9. Confined groundwater zone and slope instability in weathered igneous rocks in Hong Kong

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Confined groundwater zone and slope instability in weathered igneous rocks in Hong Kong Jiu J conductivity (K) of weathered igneous rocks decreases with depth or as the rock mass becomes less weathered igneous rocks, if significantly kaolinized, may have low permeability and behave as a confining zone

  10. Association of trace elements with iron oxides during rock weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, R.D.; Helmke, P.A.; Jackson, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    The association of trace elements with Fe oxides during the early stages of rock weathering was determined by analysis of fresh diabase and granite rocks, their associated whole and size-separated saprolites, and goethite by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence. The same elements are found to be associated with Fe oxides when the results are interpreted by analysis of correlation, by the distribution of elements in the various size fractions by the effects of removing free Fe oxides, and by direct analysis of geothite from the saprolite. The elements Co, Cr, Mn, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of diabase, and As, Co, Cr, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of granite are associated with Fe oxides. The concentrations of Mn are too low in this system to separate the effects of Mn oxides from those of Fe oxides.

  11. Rock Rinds at Meridiani and Surface Weathering Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A.; Farrand, W.; Sullivan, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on the Mars rover Opportunity can brush away surface dust and grind away outcrop surface, exposing presumably less altered rock at depths of several mm. Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) and Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) analyses of pre- and post-RAT targets, thus, provide information on the chemical nature of weathering of Meridiani outcrop rocks. To date, Opportunity has analyzed some 25 undisturbed rock surfaces, brushed and then analyzed 7 more, and ground 23 targets for IDD analysis. Panoramic camera images show that outcrop surfaces are typically either buff or purple (as viewed in bands centered at 673, 535, and 432 nm, Farrand et al., JGR, in press). Relatively flat surfaces that are approximately parallel to the ground are typically buff, whereas those that slope steeply tend to be purple. Surfaces of rock interiors ground by the RAT are also commonly purple. Spectrally, these color differences correspond to more oxidized (buff) and less oxidized (purple), and appear to relate to the degree of eolian abrasion. Flat-lying surfaces are not eroded as quickly, thus surfaces chemically weathered by exposure to tenuous atmospheric vapor may be preserved. These observations are consistent with in-situ analyses of rock surfaces and interiors. Compared to interiors, rock surfaces have about 1/3 less S, and in general, surface compositions lie between those of rock interiors and average surface soil. In detail, they differ from soil-rock mixtures as follows: surfaces are relatively depleted in Mg, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Cr, and they are enriched in Al, Na, K, P, Cl, and Si. From MB analyses, surfaces are richer (compared to soil-rock mixtures) in oxidized Fe phases and poorer in magnetite, olivine, and pyroxene. Morphologically, numerous flat-lying rocks and outcrop surfaces that are at or near the ground surface have a rind of erosionally resistant material. Such rinds are also chemically distinct from outcrop interiors. A rind/subjacent rock pair analyzed in detail was "Lemon Rind" and "Strawberry," ca. sols 555-560. The rind is depleted in S (balanced mainly by increased Si and Al) and, compared to a soil-rock mixture, it is depleted in Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, and slightly in Fe, and it is enriched in Na, Cl, K, and P. Differences between rock surfaces and interiors, and between hardened weathering rinds and rock interiors, are consistent with loss of Mg-sulfate, oxidation of mafic minerals, enrichment of siliciclastic material, e.g., feldspar, and enrichment in chloride. These changes are consistent with slow rates of chemical weathering via interaction with small amounts of atmospheric water vapor or condensation. Erosionally resistant rinds may be related to preservation of aqueous condensate by a thin cover of soil on flat, near-surface rocks.

  12. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks and Regolith Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The exposed surfaces of lunar soil grains and lunar rocks become modified and coated over time with a thin rind of material (patina) through complex interactions with the space environment. These interactions encompass many processes including micrometeorite impacts, vapor and melt deposition, and solar wind implantation/sputtering effects that collectively are referred to as "space weathering". Studies of space weathering effects in lunar soils and rocks provide important clues to understanding the origin and evolution of the lunar regolith as well as aiding in the interpretation of global chemical and mineralogical datasets obtained by remote-sensing missions. The interpretation of reflectance spectra obtained by these missions is complicated because the patina coatings obscure the underlying rock mineralogy and compositions. Much of our understanding of these processes and products comes from decades of work on remote-sensing observations of the Moon, the analysis of lunar samples, and laboratory experiments. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Space weathering effects are largely surface-correlated, concentrated in the fine size fractions, and occur as amorphous rims on individual soil grains. Rims on lunar soil grains are highly complex and span the range between erosional surfaces modified by solar wind irradiation to depositional surfaces modified by the condensation of sputtered ions and impact-generated vapors. The optical effects of space weathering effects are directly linked to the production of nanophase Fe metal in lunar materials]. The size of distribution of nanophase inclusions in the rims directly affect optical properties given that large Fe(sup o) grains (approx 10 nm and larger) darken the sample (lower albedo) while the tiny Fe(sup o) grains (<5nm) are the primary agent in spectral "reddening". More recent work has focused on the nature and abundance of OH/H2O in the lunar regolith using orbital data and samples analyses. Advances in sample preparation techniques have made possible detailed analyses of patina-coated rock surfaces. Major advances are occurring in quantifying the rates and efficiency of space weathering processes through laboratory experimentation.

  13. Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional Fractures The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert not readily attributable to rock anisotropies or shape) in boulders or cobbles form due to tensile stresses

  14. Weathering of expansive sedimentary rock due to cycles of wetting and drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Day

    1994-01-01

    There are several different mechanisms by which sedimentary rock can weather, such as: (1) Rebound: for cut areas, where the overburden has been removed by erosion or during mass-grading operations, the sedimentary rock will rebound due to the release in overburden pressure, the rebound can cause the opening or widening of cracks and joints; (2) Physical Weathering: sedimentary rock can

  15. Weathering classification in the characterisation of rock for engineering purposes in British practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Dearman

    1974-01-01

    Summary  Weathering concepts in pedologya are discussed and found inadequate for engineering geology. Weathering classifications, in\\u000a engineering geological terms, that have influenced the development of ideas on the characterisation of weathered rock in the\\u000a United Kingdom are reviewed. A preferred system, involving characterisation of both weathering stages and weathering grades,\\u000a is presented, and an example of its application in engineering geological

  16. Generalized soil Thaumarchaeota community in weathering rock and Saprolite.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Kim, Woo-Sung; Tripathi, Binu Mani; Adams, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    Relatively little is known of the archaeal communities associated with endolithic environments, compared to other microbial groups such as bacteria and fungi. Analyzing the pyrosequenced archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V1-V3 region, we investigated the archaeal community associated with aboveground-exfoliated weathering layers of a granite gneiss, and of the saprolite derived from this rock at 1 m depth below the soil surface, in a forested hilly area south of Seoul, South Korea. In both these sites, an archaeal community dominated by the phylum Thaumarchaeota was identified. The archaeal community in all cases closely resembled that of the surface layer of acidic soils in temperate climates of Korea. It appears that there is no clear distinction in archaeal community composition between a soil and a rock and a saprolite despite a tremendous difference in the concentration of total nitrogen and organic carbon. Of the chemical properties we measured, pH was the best predictor of the archaeal community composition and relative abundance of thaumarchaeal subphyla. These findings reinforce the view that soil archaea are mostly generalists, whose ecology is not closely dependent on nitrogen concentration or soil organic matter status, the presence of living roots, or the abundant presence of any other biota. PMID:25370886

  17. The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash evaluated by some weathering indices for natural rock.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues consists of complicated phenomena. This makes it difficult to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash, which was relevant interactively to pH neutralization and formation of secondary minerals. In this study, mineralogical weathering indices for natural rock profiles were applied to fresh/landfilled MSWI bottom ash to investigate the relation of these weathering indices to landfill time and leaching concentrations of component elements. Tested mineralogical weathering indices were Weathering Potential Index (WPI), Ruxton ratio (R), Weathering Index of Parker (WIP), Vogt's Residual Index (V), Chemical Index of Alternation (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alternation (PIA), Silica-Titania Index (STI), Weathering Index of Miura (Wm), and Weatherability index of Hodder (Ks). Welch's t-test accepted at 0.2% of significance level that all weathering indices could distinguish fresh and landfilled MSWI bottom ash. However, R and STI showed contrasted results for landfilled bottom ash to theoretical expectation. WPI, WIP, Wm, and Ks had good linearity with reclamation time of landfilled MSWI bottom ash. Therefore, these four indices might be applicable as an indicator to identify fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash and to estimate weathering time. Although WPI had weak correlation with leachate pH, other weathering indices had no significant correlation. In addition, all weathering indices could not explain leaching concentration of Al, Ca, Cu, and Zn quantitatively. Large difficulty to modify weathering indices correctly suggests that geochemical simulation including surface sorption, complexation with DOM, and other mechanisms seems to be the only way to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash. PMID:22796015

  18. New weathering indices for evaluating durability and weathering characterization of crystalline rock material: A case study from NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceryan, Sener

    2015-03-01

    There are several methods to characterize petrochemical properties of crystalline rocks. One method is based on the ionic model. In the model, large oxygen atoms of the rock-forming minerals are close-packed framework structures. The distribution of cations, which is defined by the "Cation-Packing Index" or the k-value for each (stoichiometric) mineral phase, can be correlated with the petrophysical properties. These properties, representing the engineering behavior of the rock materials show a dependence on the physical and chemical changes due to weathering. The fundamental systems of the chemical weathering of rocks are the leaching of the alkaline and alkali-earth elements and the redistribution of the residual elements into secondary minerals. In this study, these conditions are considered as the basis for new petro-chemical weathering indices based on the cation-packing value for evaluating weathering characterization of crystalline rocks. These indices are the k-product index, the k-leaching index and the k-weathering index. The k-product index represents the quantity of the weathering product suggested in this study, whereas the k-leaching index represents the amount of chemical leaching during the weathering. The k-weathering index was defined as the sum of the k-leaching index and the k-product index. In addition to these new engineering indices, a k-durability index based on a slake durability index and the k-value of the rock materials was suggested in this study to estimate the durability and the mechanical properties of rock materials. These indices were applied to granitic rock samples weathered to various degrees, from the Kurtun Granodiorite in northeastern Turkey. The results of the regression analysis performed in this study show that the k-weathering index can be used as a weathering indicator and that the k-durability index can be used to evaluate the durability and the mechanical behaviors of the investigated samples. It would be useful to conduct further research to confirm the results of the present study.

  19. Weathering of Basalt: Changes in Rock Chemistry and Mineralogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Eggleton; CHRIS FOUDOULIS; DANE VARKEVISSER

    1987-01-01

    The weathering of eastern Australian basalts, sampled from the rounded, hard, core-stone to the rind of softer weathered material, has been examined by bulk chemical analyses, thin section pe- trography, electron microprobe, and X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Using density as a measure of weathering intensity, data from four core-stones show that at a stage of weathering in which the total

  20. Release of uranium and thorium from granitic rocks during in situ weathering and initial erosion 

    E-print Network

    Ledger, Ernest Broughton

    1978-01-01

    RELEASE OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM GRANITIC ROCKS DURING IN SITU WEATHERING AND INITIAL EROSION A Thesis by ERNEST BROUGHTON LEDGER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August. 1978 Major Subject: Geology RELEASE OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM GRANITIC ROCKS DURING IN SITU WEATHERING AND INITIAL EROSION A Thesis by ERNEST BROUGHTON LEDGER, JR. Approved as to style and content by...

  1. An Examination of the Space Weathering Patina of Lunar Rock 76015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S.; Chrisoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied under SEM and also by TEM using ultramicrotome sample preparation methods. However, to really understand the products involved in creating these coatings, it is helpful to examine the patina in cross section, something which is now possible though the use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) sample prep techniques, which allows us to preserve intact the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating and provides a unique cross-sectional view of the space weathering process. Several samples have been prepared from the rock and the coatings are found to be quite variable in thickness and composition from one sample to the next.

  2. Burkholderia susongensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jia-Yu; Zang, Sheng-Gang; Sheng, Xia-Fang; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from the weathered surface of rock (mica schist) collected from Susong (Anhui, China). Cells of strain L226(T) were Gram-stain-negative. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, with 1?% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 in trypticase soy broth. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, strain L226(T) was shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Burkholderia sprentiae WSM5005(T) (98.3?%), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816(T) (98.2?%), Burkholderia tuberum STM678(T) (97.2?%) and Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.1?%). The DNA G+C content was 63.5 mol% and the respiratory quinone was Q-8. The major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C17?:?0 cyclo and C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c. The polar lipid profile of strain L226(T) consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and unidentified aminophospholipids. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 25.8?% to 34.4?%) to the tested type strains of species of the genus Burkholderia and unique phenotypic characteristics, it is suggested that strain L226(T) represents a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia susongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L226(T) (?=?CCTCC AB2014142(T)?=?JCM 30231(T)). PMID:25575828

  3. Storage and release of fossil organic carbon related to weathering of sedimentary rocks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Storage and release of fossil organic carbon related to weathering of sedimentary rocks Yoann of various mineral and organic carbon forms. Among these carbon forms, fossil organic carbon (FOC) (i basins; weathering; fossil organic carbon flux; fossil organic carbon storage #12;1. Introduction Fossil

  4. The effect of rock composition on cyanobacterial weathering of crystalline basalt and rhyolite.

    PubMed

    Olsson-Francis, K; Simpson, A E; Wolff-Boenisch, D; Cockell, C S

    2012-09-01

    The weathering of volcanic rocks contributes significantly to the global silicate weathering budget, effecting carbon dioxide drawdown and long-term climate control. The rate of chemical weathering is influenced by the composition of the rock. Rock-dwelling micro-organisms are known to play a role in changing the rate of weathering reactions; however, the influence of rock composition on bio-weathering is unknown. Cyanobacteria are known to be a ubiquitous surface taxon in volcanic rocks. In this study, we used a selection of fast and slow growing cyanobacterial species to compare microbial-mediated weathering of bulk crystalline rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic composition, under batch conditions. Cyanobacterial growth caused an increase in the pH of the medium and an acceleration of rock dissolution compared to the abiotic controls. For example, Anabaena cylindrica increased the linear release rate (R(i)(l)) of Ca, Mg, Si and K from the basalt by more than fivefold (5.21-12.48) and increased the pH of the medium by 1.9 units. Although A. cylindrica enhanced rhyolite weathering, the increase in R(i)(l) was less than threefold (2.04-2.97) and the pH increase was only 0.83 units. The R(i)(l) values obtained with A. cylindrica were at least ninefold greater with the basalt than the rhyolite, whereas in the abiotic controls, the difference was less than fivefold. Factors accounting for the slower rate of rhyolite weathering and lower biomass achieved are likely to include the higher content of quartz, which has a low rate of weathering and lower concentrations of bio-essential elements, such as, Ca, Fe and Mg, which are known to be important in controlling cyanobacterial growth. We show that at conditions where weathering is favoured, biota can enhance the difference between low and high Si-rock weathering. Our data show that cyanobacteria can play a significant role in enhancing rock weathering and likely have done since they evolved on the early Earth. PMID:22694082

  5. Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects

    E-print Network

    Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects C. H. Dowding,1 to rock blasting- and wind gust- excitation are compared to those induced by long term climatological to measure crack expansion and contraction. Crack responses to 48 to 64 km/hr (30- 40 mph) wind gusts were

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF WEATHERING OF MINE ROCK PILES: EXAMPLE FROM THE QUESTA MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia T. McLemore; Lynn Heizler; Kelly Donahue; Nelia Dunbar

    The Questa mine (Chevron Mining Inc. or CMI, formerly Molycorp, Inc.), a porphyry molybdenum deposit in New Mexico, USA, constructed nine mine waste rock piles between 1969 and 1982. The evidence for weathering in the Goathill North (GHN) rock pile includes some combination of: 1) color changes, 2) bulk texture changes, 3) mineralogy changes, 4) mineral texture changes, and 5)

  7. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. Root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Bashan, Y; Li, C Y; Lebsky, V K

    2004-09-01

    Dense layers of bacteria and fungi in the rhizoplane of three species of cactus (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia cholla) and a wild fig tree (Ficus palmeri) growing in rocks devoid of soil were revealed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. These desert plants are responsible for rock weathering in an ancient lava flow at La Purisima-San Isidro and in sedimentary rock in the Sierra de La Paz, both in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The dominant bacterial groups colonizing the rhizoplane were fluorescent pseudomonads and bacilli. Seven of these bacterial species were identified by the 16S rRNA molecular method. Unidentified fungal and actimomycete species were also present. Some of the root-colonizing microorganisms fixed in vitro N(2), produced volatile and non-volatile organic acids that subsequently reduced the pH of the rock medium in which the bacteria grew, and significantly dissolved insoluble phosphates, extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone. The bacteria were able to release significant amounts of useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn from the rocks and were thermo-tolerant, halo-tolerant, and drought-tolerant. The microbial community survived in the rhizoplane of cacti during the annual 10-month dry season. This study indicates that rhizoplane bacteria on cacti roots in rock may be involved in chemical weathering in hot, subtropical deserts. PMID:15375735

  8. Geoelectric investigations into sandstone moisture regimes: Implications for rock weathering and the deterioration of San Rock Art in the Golden Gate Reserve, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, L.; Viles, H. A.

    2010-06-01

    The Clarens sandstone in the Golden Gate Reserve, South Africa, is the canvas for a collection of San (Bushmen) Rock Art, dating from Neolithic times until as recently as 150 years ago. This Rock Art is under threat from human interference but also, to a greater degree, from weathering processes on the rock surface. The dominant weathering processes occurring in the rock shelters which host the Rock Art are flaking and honeycombing. Two rock shelter sites in the Reserve have been investigated using electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and supportive methods for measuring surface moisture (Protimeter) and surface hardness (Equotip). These non-destructive techniques can be used in situ to assess the extent of weathering within a rock outcrop and are especially suited for investigations in sensitive areas such as Rock Art sites. Moisture movement has been mapped and related to the weathering processes observed on the surface. The aim of the study is to aid Rock Art conservation in the Golden Gate Reserve through a better understanding of the driving processes of surface weathering. The evidence shows that the extensive flaking and honeycombing found in the rock shelters is most likely caused by water pockets in the near-surface zone, which are replenished through internal moisture transport, driving the superficial weathering processes. These weathering processes pose a significant problem: Rock Art in the Golden Gate Reserve shows severe deterioration due to flaking. Conservation strategies should therefore take internal processes into account as much as their superficial expression.

  9. Uranium thorium chronometry of weathering rinds: Rock alteration rate and paleo-isotopic record of weathering fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F.; Innocent, C.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; Sak, P. B.; Brantley, S. L.

    2008-11-01

    The potential of 238U- 234U- 230Th chronometry for constraining the formation rate of weathering rinds developed on fresh rocks is assessed by analyzing a weathering rind on a basaltic clast from a 125 kyr old Costa Rican alluvial terrace. Eighteen subsamples were collected from one section of the clast by drilling cores (4 mm in diameter and 5 mm depth) along two transects straddling the core-rind boundary. Variations of major and trace element concentrations along the two transects point out (a) intense loss of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, (b) conservative behaviour of elements such as Zr, Hf and Th, and (c) external input of U into the rind without any evidence of U loss during basalt weathering. In addition, variations in U concentrations along the transects show that the main U-Th fractionation process associated with the weathering of the basaltic clast is an external input of U (without addition nor loss of Th) in the basalt rind transition zone, and that, once deposited U is immobile in the weathering rind. In the frame of this interpretation scheme, a weathering rate of 0.5 ± 0.2 mm/kyr can be calculated for the studied clast, which is consistent with geological and isotopic evidence constraining the depositional ages of the terraces. In addition, the variations in the ( 234U/ 238U) ratio along the analysed transects as well as the increase in Sr isotopic ratios within the weathering rind are best explained by temporal variation of the U activity ratios and Sr isotope ratios of the soil solutions brought into the rind. This work highlights how well detailed U-Th chronological studies of weathering rinds can (1) constrain the formation rates of weathering systems, and (2) record the time variation of isotopic composition of weathering fluids.

  10. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. LAi

    2007-02-08

    This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...

  11. Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-07-01

    This guide explores rocks, from processes that can change them (such as weathering), to what can happen to them as they move through the rock cycle. Using this guide, teachers of middle school students will focus on the tangible process of sedimentary roc

  12. Effect of groundwater and sea weathering cycles on the strength of chalk rock from unstable coastal cliffs of NW France.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Effect of groundwater and sea weathering cycles on the strength of chalk rock from unstable of ground water and sea weathering on the strength of the chalk rocks exposed on the coastline representative chalk units (Lewes Chalk, Seaford Chalk and Newhaven Chalk) exposed at various locations

  13. Acid rock drainage and rock weathering in Antarctica: important sources for iron cycling in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dold, B; Gonzalez-Toril, E; Aguilera, A; Lopez-Pamo, E; Cisternas, M E; Bucchi, F; Amils, R

    2013-06-18

    Here we describe biogeochemical processes that lead to the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and rock weathering on the Antarctic landmass and describe why they are important sources of iron into the Antarctic Ocean. During three expeditions, 2009-2011, we examined three sites on the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Two of them displayed intensive sulfide mineralization and generated acidic (pH 3.2-4.5), iron-rich drainage waters (up to 1.78 mM Fe), which infiltrated as groundwater (as Fe(2+)) and as superficial runoff (as Fe(3+)) into the sea, the latter with the formation of schwertmannite in the sea-ice. The formation of ARD in the Antarctic was catalyzed by acid mine drainage microorganisms found in cold climates, including Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Thiobacillus plumbophilus. The dissolved iron (DFe) flux from rock weathering (nonmineralized control site) was calculated to be 0.45 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) for the nowadays 5468 km of ice-free Antarctic rock coastline which is of the same order of magnitude as glacial or aeolian input to the Southern Ocean. Additionally, the two ARD sites alone liberate 0.026 and 0.057 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) as point sources to the sea. The increased iron input correlates with increased phytoplankton production close to the source. This might even be enhanced in the future by a global warming scenario, and could be a process counterbalancing global warming. PMID:23682976

  14. Effects of Space Weathering on Lunar Rocks: Scanning Electron Microscope Petrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Keller, Lindsay P.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Lunar rocks that have undergone direct exposure to the space weathering environment at the surface of the Moon commonly have patinas on their surfaces. Patinas are characterized by visible darkening and other changes in spectral properties of rocks. They form as a result of bombardment by micrometeorites, solar wind, and solar flares. Processes of space weathering and patina production have clearly been significant in the formation and history of the lunar regolith. It is very likely that other planetary bodies without atmospheres have undergone similar alteration processes; therefore, it is critical to determine the relationship between patinas and their host rocks in view of future robotic and remote-sensing missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies.

  15. In-Situ and Experimental Evidence for Acidic Weathering of Rocks and Soils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Arvidson, R. E.; Michalski, J. R.; Ming, D.; Schroeder, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data for alteration of synthetic Martian basalts at pH=0-1 indicate that chemical fractionations at low pH are vastly different from those observed during terrestrial weathering. Rock analyses from Gusev crater are well described by the relationships apparent from low pH experimental alteration data. A model for rock surface alteration is developed which indicates that a leached alteration zone is present on rock surfaces at Gusev. This zone is not chemically fractionated to a large degree from the underlying rock interior, indicating that the rock surface alteration process has occurred at low fluid-to-rock ratio. The geochemistry of natural rock surfaces analyzed by APXS is consistent with a mixture between adhering soil/dust and the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after brushing with the RAT is largely representative of the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after grinding with the RAT is largely representative of the interior of the rock, relatively unaffected by the alteration process occurring at the rock surface. Elemental measurements from the Spirit, Opportunity, Pathfinder and Viking 1 landing sites indicate that soil chemistry from widely separated locations is consistent with the low-pH, low fluid to rock ratio alteration relationships developed for Gusev rocks. Soils are affected principally by mobility of FeO and MgO, consistent with alteration of olivine-bearing basalt and subsequent precipitation of FeO and MgO bearing secondary minerals as the primary control on soil geochemistry.

  16. Microstructural weathering of sedimentary rocks by freeze–thaw cycles: Experimental study of state and transfer parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Saad; Sylvine Guédon; François Martineau

    2010-01-01

    The frost sensitivity of a rock is resulting from the combined action of processes linked to porous network characteristics (state parameters) and to the way water flows into this porous network (transfer parameters), our study was thus about the influence of these parameters on frost weathering of rocks. Sedimentary rocks often found on buildings (limestone and sandstone) and consequently submitted

  17. The role of disseminated calcite in the chemical weathering of granitoid rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Vivit, Davison V.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Clow, David W.

    1999-07-01

    Accessory calcite, present at concentrations between 300 and 3000 mg kg -1, occurs in fresh granitoid rocks sampled from the Merced watershed in Yosemite National Park, CA, USA; Loch Vale in Rocky Mountain National Park CO USA; the Panola watershed, GA USA; and the Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico. Calcite occurs as fillings in microfractures, as disseminated grains within the silicate matrix, and as replacement of calcic cores in plagioclase. Flow-through column experiments, using de-ionized water saturated with 0.05 atm. CO 2, produced effluents from the fresh granitoid rocks that were dominated by Ca and bicarbonate and thermodynamically saturated with calcite. During reactions up to 1.7 yr, calcite dissolution progressively decreased and was superceded by steady state dissolution of silicates, principally biotite. Mass balance calculations indicate that most calcite had been removed during this time and accounted for 57-98% of the total Ca released from these rocks. Experimental effluents from surfically weathered granitoids from the same watersheds were consistently dominated by silicate dissolution. The lack of excess Ca and alkalinity indicated that calcite had been previously removed by natural weathering. The extent of Ca enrichment in watershed discharge fluxes corresponds to the amounts of calcite exposed in granitoid rocks. High Ca/Na ratios relative to plagioclase stoichiometries indicate excess Ca in the Yosemite, Loch Vale, and other alpine watersheds in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains of the western United States. This Ca enrichment correlates with strong preferential weathering of calcite relative to plagioclase in exfoliated granitoids in glaciated terrains. In contrast, Ca/Na flux ratios are comparable to or less than the Ca/Na ratios for plagioclase in the subtropical Panola and tropical Rio Icacos watersheds, in which deeply weathered regoliths exhibit concurrent losses of calcite and much larger masses of plagioclase during transport-limited weathering. These results indicate that the weathering of accessory calcite may strongly influence Ca and alkalinity fluxes from silicate rocks during and following periods of glaciation and tectonism but is much less important for older stable geomorphic surfaces.

  18. Weathering products of basic rocks as sorptive materials of natural radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Omelianenko, B.I.; Niconov, B.S.; Ryzhov, B.I.; Shikina, N.D. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Geologii Rudnykh Mestorozhdenij, Petrografii, Mineralogii i Geokhimii

    1994-06-01

    The principal requirements for employing natural minerals as buffer and backfill material in high-level waste (HLW) repositories are high sorptive properties, low water permeability, relatively high thermal conductivity, and thermostability. The major task of the buffer is to prevent the penetration of radionuclides into groundwater. The authors of this report examined weathered basic rocks from three regions of Russia in consideration as a suitable radioactive waste barrier.

  19. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  20. A landscape in three biospheres: biological rock weathering in a model ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presler, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Biological rock weathering is the process by which life breaks down minerals into forms that are readily available for creation of an ecosystem. In order to test how microbes, plants and mycorrhizal communities interact with bedrock to initiate a primary ecosystem that will eventually lead to soil formation, we developed a modular experiment in the desert biome of Biosphere-2. In this presentation we present selected phases in the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, we aimed to replicate a large-scale primordial landscape in a closed, mesocosm system involving six carefully designed, identical chambers, each containing 48 experimental columns, 30cm long. The rocks used, i.e. basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist, represent four prevalent rock types in the natural landscape. The biotic communities are represented by combinations of rock microbial communities, plants and their associated mycorrhizae. Bacterial inoculum was optimized for each rock type. Each model was created to remain completely separated from outside influence. We expect that this experiment will provide crucial knowledge about primary interactions between rock and biota on Earth. Experimental Modules

  1. Weathering in interbedded marls and conglomerates - the 1806 Goldau rock slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuro, K.; Eberhard, E.

    2003-04-01

    Despite improvements in recognition, prediction and mitigation, landslides still exact a heavy social, economical and environmental toll in Switzerland. Recent landslides experienced in the Swiss Alps demonstrate the need for a deeper understanding of the geological and physical processes leading to catastrophic slope failure. Large-scale rockslides (e.g. Randa, Sandalp, Goldau, Elm, etc.), illustrate the destructive potential of these mass movements and the need for further study to improve our comprehension of the mechanisms involved. Advances in rockslide hazard assessment and forecasting will only be made when the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of catastrophic failures are better understood. To date, the study of mass movements (including rockslides) has been largely descriptive and qualitative. Studies that do focus on some quantitative aspect of large-scale mass movements are often limited to individual mechanisms or triggering processes. Traditional treatments have pursued phenomenological based approaches where a two-dimensional slide plane is assumed or delineated from survey or air photo data, and a back analysis is performed to determine the conditions existing on the surface at failure. In other words, rock slope stability analyses have largely focused on the back-analysis of a static picture of the problem, without considering how the development of the instability evolved with time. In this paper, we aim to emphasize on the evolutionary failure processes leading to large-scale mass movements in adversely dipping bedded marls and conglomerates. Of key importance are the weathering characteristics of the marl and which tend to rapidly degrade when exposed to weathering processes. The proposed hypothesis contends that rock slope instability, in such geological environments, occurs through 3 primary processes: (1) weathering of the marls including increases in pore volume (promoting water seepage), decalcification and intact strength degradation; (2) saturation of the weathered marls and pore pressure build-up during periods of heavy precipitation and snow melt; (3) progressive development of the slide surface parallel to bedding due to decreases in cohesion and frictional strength as a function of time. Under these conditions, it is often reported that the slide surface develops along "weak" bedding interfaces between the conglomerates and marls. However, recent investigations of the 1999 Rufi slide in similar rock mass conditions reveal that instead, the failure plane developed along the boundary separating moderately weathered and highly weathered marls. As an ideal project site the Rossberg/Goldau region was chosen because of the large rock slide event that occurred there in 1806, earlier historic and prehistoric events, and on-going mass movement activity (last event 5000 cbm in fall 2002).

  2. Enrichment and Release of Rare Earth Elements during Weathering of Sedimentary Rocks in Wujiang Catchments, Southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoliang Song; Congqiang Liu; Guilin Han; Zhongliang Wang; Zhaozhou Zhu; Cheng Yang

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen weathering profiles of sedimentary rocks such as limestone, dolomitic limestone, dolomite, sillicalite, black shale and purple sandrock from Wujiang catchments were selected for study on enrichment and release behavior of rare earth elements (REE) during weathering, and its impact on plant growth and riverine REE distribution in the catchments with methods of hierachical cluster analysis and mass balance calculation

  3. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Stearns

    2008-10-25

    This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

  4. International Symposium on Hydrogeology and the Environment, Wuhan, China, Oct. 17 20, 2000 A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact on slope stability Jiu Jimmy Jiao in igneous rock saprolites are a serious natural hazard in Hong Kong and have been extensively studied groundwater zone may exist in the weathered igneous rock profile due to a highly fractured zone. In Hong Kong

  5. Decay patterns of brick wall in atmospheric environment: a possible analogue to rock weathering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana; P?ikrylová, Ji?ina; Jablonský, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    This study is focused on the decay of bricks exposed in enclosing wall of the Regional maternal hospital in Prague city centre (Czech Republic). The hospital, listed as a Czech architectural monument, has been constructed from locally produced bricks in neo-Gothic style in the period of 1867-1875. The bricks of the enclosing wall show sequence of decay patterns that resemble weathering forms observable on monuments built of natural stone. This study aims to study the observed decay patterns by means of in situ mapping and by analyses of decayed material (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction, Hg-porosimetry, water soluble salts analysis) and to interpret them based on the phase composition and other properties of bricks. Finally, the decay patterns of studied brick wall are compared to known weathering sequences on porous rocks (both on natural outcrops and on artistic monuments).

  6. Weathering damage evaluation of rock properties in the Bunhwangsa temple stone pagoda, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan Hee; Yi, Jeong Eun

    2007-06-01

    The stone pagoda of the Bunhwangsa temple in Republic of Korea was made of piling small brick-shaped stones. The majority of stone bricks are andesitic rocks with variable geneses. Rock properties of the pagoda roof suffer partial significant deterioration, such as multiple peel-offs, exfoliation, onion-peel-like decomposition, cracks forming round lines and falling-off stone pieces. The stylobates and tabernacles at the four corners are composed of granitic rocks, which are heavily contaminated by lichens and mosses. Some of these contamination marks show dark black or yellowish brown colors by inorganic secondary hydrates. The four tabernacles and northern face of the pagoda body have been exposed to relatively high humidity, which causes light gray efflorescence as stalactites between the northern and western sides of the body. The efflorescences are composed of calcite, gypsum and clay minerals. The stone lion statues at the southeast and northeast corners are made of alkali granite, while the others are lithic tuff. Total rock properties of the pagoda consist of 9,708 stone bricks. Among them, 11.0% are fractured, 6.7% are fallen off, and 7.0% show considerable surface efflorescence, which shows that the pagoda has been highly deteriorated by physical, chemical and biological weathering. The authors strongly suggest long-term monitoring and comprehensive conservation researches.

  7. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachelle Tuttle

    2005-10-25

    Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...

  8. The role of forest trees and their mycorrhizal fungi in carbonate rock weathering and its significance for global carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Rachel M S; Taylor, Lyla L; Banwart, Steve A; Leake, Jonathan R; Beerling, David J

    2014-09-11

    On million-year timescales, carbonate rock weathering exerts no net effect on atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, on timescales of decades-to-centuries, it can contribute to sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and increase land-ocean alkalinity flux, counteracting ocean acidification. Historical evidence indicates this flux is sensitive to land use change, and recent experimental evidence suggests that trees and their associated soil microbial communities are major drivers of continental mineral weathering. Here, we review key physical and chemical mechanisms by which the symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi of forest tree roots potentially enhance carbonate rock weathering. Evidence from our ongoing field study at the UK's national pinetum confirms increased weathering of carbonate rocks by a wide range of gymnosperm and angiosperm tree species that form arbuscular (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partnerships. We demonstrate that calcite-containing rock grains under EM tree species weather significantly faster than those under AM trees, an effect linked to greater soil acidification by EM trees. Weathering and corresponding alkalinity export are likely to increase with rising atmospheric CO2 and associated climate change. Our analyses suggest that strategic planting of fast-growing EM angiosperm taxa on calcite- and dolomite-rich terrain might accelerate the transient sink for atmospheric CO2 and slow rates of ocean acidification. PMID:25211602

  9. Chemical weathering of granitic rock: experiments and Pb-Li isotopes tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Négrel, P.

    2011-12-01

    In a recent study (Négrel et al. 2010, Chem. Geol. Vol. 274) focusing on the lead geochemistry and Pb-isotope ratios of groundwaters along a small (53 km2) endoreic granitic catchment in India (Masheshwaram, Andhra Pradesh), we have shown that most of the lead in the groundwaters is of geogenic origin. Combining a weathering model and field observations, we were able to define a two-step weathering process that includes a control on the Pb-isotope ratios by accessory phases and by the main minerals from the granite in a second step of weathering. In order to go further and to better characterize water/rock interactions, we performed laboratory experiments with the two main granite bedrocks from this site. The aim of the present work is to better constrain the processes of water/rock interactions both in terms of source (dissolution of different primary minerals) and extent of weathering, by measuring Pb isotope signatures in addition with Li isotope signatures. Laboratory experiments consisted in measuring the evolution through time of major and trace elements, as well as Pb and Li isotopic compositions of a rainwater solution in equilibrium with a granite powder. Experiments were carried out at 25°C with a solution/powder mass ratio of 10 considering 15 mL of reference solution TMRAIN-95 and 1.5 g of powdered granite placed in screw-top Teflon° PFA beakers. The beakers were kept in a temperature-controlled oven, which temperature was maintained within 5% of target temperature over the total duration of the experiments. Aliquots of the solution (after filtration at 0.2 ?m) in contact with the granite powder were periodically sampled (from weeks up to 2 years) and analyzed for lead and lithium isotopic compositions. The results show that a radiogenic contribution of lead is observed during the experiments, in agreement with the field observations, and that the light lithium isotope (6Li) is preferentially retained during uptake of Li into secondary minerals. The results of these experiments will be discussed in the frame of the relative proportion of granite weathering (dissolution of primary minerals) to secondary mineral formation.

  10. Rock Abrasion as Seen by the MSL Curiosity Rover: Insights on Physical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Day, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ullan, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet, with actively blowing sand in many regions. In the absence of stable liquid water and an active hydrosphere, rates of chemical weathering are slow, such that aeolian abrasion is a dominant agent of landscape modification where sand is present and winds above threshold occur at sufficient frequency. Reflecting this activity, ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles, and wind-eroded outcrops, are common. They provide invaluable markers of the Martian wind record and insight into climate and landscape modification. Ventifacts are distributed along the traverse of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. They contain one or more diagnostic features and textures: Facets, keels, basal sills, elongated pits, scallops/flutes, grooves, rock tails, and lineations. Keels at the junction of facets are sharp enough to pose a hazard MSL's wheels in some areas. Geomorphic and textural patterns on outcrops indicate retreat of windward faces. Moonlight Valley and other depressions are demarcated by undercut walls and scree boulders, with the valley interiors containing fewer rocks, most of which show evidence for significant abrasion. Together, this suggests widening and undercutting of the valley walls, and erosion of interior rocks, by windblown sand. HiRISE images do not show any dark sand dunes in the traverse so far, in contrast to the large dune field to the south that is migrating up to 2 m per year. In addition, ChemCam shows that the rock Bathurst has a rind rich in mobile elements that would be removed in an abrading environment. This indicates that rock abrasion was likely more dominant in the past, a hypothesis consistent with rapid scarp retreat as suggested by the cosmogenic noble gases in Yellowknife Bay. Ventifacts and evidence for bedrock abrasion have also been found at the Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity sites, areas, like the Curiosity traverse so far, that lack evidence for current high sand fluxes. Yardangs are also common on the planet, regardless of whether local sand is mobile. This suggest that abrasion on Mars is an episodic process driven by the passage of sand in which rock retreat rates, based on fluxes of current active dunes, may reach 10s of microns per year. Such a process has acted, over long time scales, to imprint upon the surface a record of sand activity.

  11. Terrestrial and stream chemical linkages reveal extent of rock weathering in the perhumid coastal temperate rainforest of Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Trainor, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate influences the rate of reactions that drive material fluxes, especially the rock-water interaction within the earth's critical zone. The perhumid temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska (PCTR) are valuable sites for testing theories and applying models for ecosystem development. The landscape of the PCTR is chronologically young, but by contrast, has experienced rapid change during the Holocene due to a humid climate that promotes intense soil weathering and rapid accumulation of soil organic carbon. We investigated the magnitude of present rock-water interaction in several catchments and watersheds arrayed across a spectrum of this landscape evolution. All of the catchments had evidence of weathering as indicated by cation export relative to sea-salt aerosol input. The magnitude of the weathering signature was inversely related to the accumulation of organic carbon in the catchment. We conclude that biological processes inhibit the weathering of lithologic materials due to organic matter accumulation. However, there is clear evidence that the landscape is still actively weathering. The extent of the consumption of CO2 by rock weathering will be critical in determining long-term carbon budgets in the region and determining the sink strength of the terrestrial ecosystem. This study provides a template for examining landscape evolution in the context of critical zone science in a relatively pristine landscape.

  12. Chemical weathering on Mars - Thermodynamic stabilities of primary minerals /and their alteration products/ from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical weathering on Mars is examined theoretically from the standpoint of thermodynamic equilibrium between primary rock-forming minerals and the atmospheric gases O2, H2O, and CO2. The primary minerals considered are those common to mafic igneous rocks and include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, troilite, pyrrhotite, and apatite. The importance of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in controlling possible weathering processes on Mars is discussed within the limits of currently available data, and the possible influence of liquid water on Martian weathering processes is evaluated where appropriate. For gas-solid weathering of mafic igneous rocks at the Martian surface, it is concluded that upon attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium: (1) oxides and carbonates should dominate the mineral assemblage of weathering products; (2) hematite rather than goethite should be the stable mineral form of Fe (III); (3) FeSO4 or FeSO4.H2O could be the stable weathering product of iron sulfides in the absence of liquid water; and (4) kaolinite is apparently the only clay mineral that should be thermodynamically stable over all ranges of temperature and water-vapor abundance at the Martian surface.

  13. Evidence for Physical Weathering of Iron Meteorite Meridiani Planum (Heat Shield Rock) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; McCoy, T. J.; Schröder, C.

    2009-12-01

    Meteorites on the surfaces of other solar system bodies can provide natural experiments for monitoring weathering processes. In the case of Mars, clues to the more subtle aspects of water occurrence and reaction may be revealed by the effects of highly sensitive aqueous alteration processes, while physical processes may be recorded through aeolian abrasion effects. Over the past 2000 sols, the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) spacecraft have formally identified a minimum of 11 meteorite candidates [1-3], with many more unofficial candidates likely, posing an intriguing set of questions concerning their chemical, mineralogical, and morphological conditions. Five meteorite candidates, including the newly discovered MER-B rock Block Island, and one confirmed meteorite [Meridiani Planum (MP; originally Heat Shield Rock)] [4] have been investigated with the rover arm instruments. All contain levels of ferric iron, which should not be present in pristine samples (i.e. without fusion crust and/or alteration phases). Moreover, preliminary morphologic evidence contributes to the case of possible chemical weathering in Block Island. Scrutiny of a Microscopic Imager (MI) mosaic of MP shows clear evidence for both localized aeolian sculpting, and the Widmanstätten pattern common to sliced and acid-etched surfaces of many iron-nickel meteorites. These latter features are manifest as millimeter-sized chevrons and subparallel linearities, most prominent across a partially brushed surface approximately 3 x 2 cm in area. Similar patterns are observed on a number of hot and cold desert meteorites (e.g. Drum Mountain and Ft. Stockton), and are attributed to physical ablation by sand grains differentially weathering the kamacite and taenite lamellae within the rock. A similar or identical process is interpreted as responsible for the features observed in MP. Other macro-scale features on MP are of questionable weathering origin. While some prefer a regmaglypt interpretation for the cavities in MP, others question whether differential weathering (either aqueous or physical) of softer sulfide (troilite) nodules or other inclusions such as schreibersite [5] in the metal matrix may be at least partly responsible. A discontinuous coating of darker material, interpreted to be oxide (though it is uncertain whether this is relict fusion crust or weathering rind), appears in the MI images also to have been polished and sculpted by abrasive forces. Laboratory experiments designed to address the requirements for iron shaping by wind abrasion would help provide constraints on the wind velocities involved in these processes. Preliminary results for Block Island display many features that are also consistent with aeolian abrasion. References: [1] Schröder C. et al. (2008) JGR 113, E06S22, doi:10.1029/2007JE002990. [2] Ashley J. W. et al. (2009) LPSC XL. [3] Schröder C. et al. (2009) LPSC XL. [4] Connolly H.C.J. et al. (2006) Meteoritical Bulletin #90, Meteoritics and Planet Sci. 41(9): p. 1383-1418. [5] Fleischer I. et al. (2009) Meteoritics and Planet Sci. 44, p. A70.

  14. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze-thaw cycle. Such rate factors are necessary to predict acid rock drainage and implement best management practices to minimize environmental impacts. To better understand the early geochemical evolution of the waste rock, sulfide minerals from different periods in the experiments were analyzed for discrete mineral characteristics indicative of a weathered state. Element transfer from the mineral to aqueous phase is transport limited because of the formation of Fe-(oxy)hydroxide weathered rims that can be an inhibitor of dissolution. Application of various x-ray spectroscopy techniques indicated that pyrrhotite transforms to marcasite [FeS2] prior to formation of Fe(II)-(oxy)hydroxides and further to Fe(III)-hydroxide/oxides. Iron appears to migrate through the weathered rims leaving the S-rich layer behind, and oxygen likely is retarded from migrating inward with formation of Fe(III) species. As these Fe-mineral transformations occur, they influence the retention of the secondary metals such as Co and Ni that preferentially remain in the +2 oxidation state and may leave the system as hydroxides, oxides, and sulfates. Understanding mineral evolution in this climate assists in adjusting appropriate rate factors for temporal changes in element release from the weathering of the pyrrhotite.

  15. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hendricks

    2007-12-06

    Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

  16. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

  17. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Jennie

    2009-10-22

    What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

  18. Excavatability Assessment of Weathered Sedimentary Rock Mass Using Seismic Velocity Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam; Noor, Muhazian Md; Isa, Mohamed Fauzi Bin Md.; Mazlan, Ain Naadia [Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai. Johor (Malaysia); Saad, Rosli [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-23

    Seismic refraction method is one of the most popular methods in assessing surface excavation. The main objective of the seismic data acquisition is to delineate the subsurface into velocity profiles as different velocity can be correlated to identify different materials. The physical principal used for the determination of excavatability is that seismic waves travel faster through denser material as compared to less consolidated material. In general, a lower velocity indicates material that is soft and a higher velocity indicates more difficult to be excavated. However, a few researchers have noted that seismic velocity method alone does not correlate well with the excavatability of the material. In this study, a seismic velocity method was used in Nusajaya, Johor to assess the accuracy of this seismic velocity method with excavatability of the weathered sedimentary rock mass. A direct ripping run by monitoring the actual production of ripping has been employed at later stage and compared to the ripper manufacturer's recommendation. This paper presents the findings of the seismic velocity tests in weathered sedimentary area. The reliability of using this method with the actual rippability trials is also presented.

  19. Chemical weathering on Mars thermodynamic stabilities of primary minerals (and their alteration products) from mafic igneous rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES L. GOODING

    1978-01-01

    Chemical weathering on Mars is examined theoretically from the standpoint of heterogeneous equilibrium between solid mineral phases and gaseous 02, H20, and CO2 in the Martian atmo- sphere. Thermochemical calculations are performed in order to identify important gas-solid decomposition reactions involving the major mineral constituents of mafic igneous rocks. Where unavailable in the thermochemical literature, Gibbs free energy and enthalpy

  20. Studies of Fe\\/sup 2 +\\/. -->. Fe\\/sup 3 +\\/ transitions during the process of rock weathering by nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Vasilev; V. F. Babanin; A. A. Solovev

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the mineral and weathering assessment of rocks and carbonaceous matter based in gamma spectroscopy and transitions between iron ions. The method is applied to rocks collected near the Teberda preserve. Four latitudinal bands of rocks parallel to the Greater Caucasus Ridge are identified in this territory. Isomer shift and hyperfine parameters of the Moessbauer

  1. Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryWeathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides, when springs emerge from crystalline massifs, rock structure must be accounted in formulas describing the area of minerals exposed to the percolating fluids, for a realistic evaluation of the rates. These particular features are not included in the available approaches and for that reason a new model was developed, coined THROW model. This is a lumped approach that integrates (T)opography, (H)ydrology, (RO)ck structure and (W)eathering in a single algorithm. The study area comprises several stream watersheds and spring sites of the Vouga River basin (northern Portugal), shaped on granites. Firstly, the THROW model couples a terrain modeling analysis with hydrologic models based on discharge rates, to determine hydraulic conductivities (K), effective porosities (ne) and annual recharges (Vr) at the stream watershed scale. Subsequently, these parameters are used in a water balance model to estimate concomitant groundwater travel times (t). The mean K [(4.7 ± 3.2) × 10-7 m s-1] and ne [(2.0 ± 1.3) × 10-2] values are adopted as proxies for the spring watersheds and a firm regression equation is defined between time and stream watershed area (A). Secondly, two more runs of terrain modeling analysis are executed to extrapolate morphologic parameters for the spring watersheds. The first run hinges on scaling properties of the drainage networks, known as Horton laws, and is used to scale watershed areas across stream orders (i). The scaling function is described by another regression equation. The second run evaluates the order of a spring watershed, defined as equivalent order (ieq) and equated to the mean order of the surrounding stream watersheds. Having calculated the ieq, spring watershed areas and travel times were downscaled using the regression equations (A < 10 km2 and t = 1.4-2.8 year). Standing on the physical and hydrologic parameters of the spring watersheds, the THROW model finally calculates plagioclase weathering rates in the vicinity of the spring sites. The SiB model (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 1996) was used before to estimate the contribution of plagioclase dissolution to the chemical composition of these springs (Van der Weijden and Pacheco, 2006). The chemical data were now coupled with K, ne and t in a rate equation to estimate chemical weathering rates of plagioclase in the basin. In the THROW model, the rate equation describes the exposed surface area as a function of fracture spacings, openings and porosities (Pacheco and Alencoão, 2006). The calculated rates (WPl = (2.5 ± 1.2) × 10-14 mol m-2 s-1) are consistent with previous reports and with results of experimental kinetic models. The SiB results predict formation of halloysite and gibbsite along the flow path, which were indeed close to equilibrium with the dissolved Al and Si activities.

  2. Characterizing the process and quantifying the rate of subaerial rock weathering on desert surfaces using roughness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, Amit; Sagy, Amir; Trabelci, Eran

    2013-04-01

    Subaerial weathering of rocks is a common process observed on desert surfaces on Earth and other planetary terrestrial surfaces such as on Mars. On Earth, this weathering process has been previously identified as one of the key erosion agent driving geomorphic surface evolution and the development of desert pavements. And yet, fundamental aspects of the process, such as the relative contribution of the different weathering modes that drive it (e.g., mechanical breakdown of rocks, chemical weathering, aeolian abrasion and exfoliation) as well as the rate by which this weathering process occurs have not been systematically examined. Here, we present a new approach for quantitatively addressing these fundamental aspects of process geomorphology on desert surfaces. We focus here on co-genetic desert alluvial surfaces of different ages, i.e. alluvial chronosequences, which provide excellent recorders for the evolution of boulder-strewn surfaces into smooth desert pavements through in-situ subaerial weathering of rocks. Our approach combines independent measures of two different surface attributes: High resolution (mm-scale) 3D ground-based laser scanning (LiDAR) of surface micro-topography, and numerical dating of surface age. Roughness analysis of the LiDAR data in power spectral density (PSD) space allows us to characterize the geometric manifestation of rock weathering on the surface and to distinguish between the different weathering modes. Numerical age constraints provide independent estimates for the time elapsed since the process began. Accordingly, we are able to constrain surface roughness evolution on alluvial fan desert chronosequences through time, and present PSD analysis of surface roughness as a new quantitative tool to examine the process of subaerial rock weathering in desert environments. In this study we present results from two late Quaternary alluvial chronosequences along the Dead Sea Transform in the hyper-arid Negev desert of southern Israel. LiDAR scanning was applied on representative areas (~30-50 m2) of 10 separate surfaces ranging from rough Holocene surfaces to fairly smooth surfaces with well-developed pavements displaying an OSL age of 87 kyr. We find typical and recurring time-dependent changes in the offset as well as shape of the PSD curves in both chronosequences: PSD offset is continuously reduced over time reflecting the overall reduction in the amplitude of roughness at all wavelengths. The PSD curves display progressive moderation of slopes at the longer wavelengths with the moderation point itself systematically shifted to shorter wavelengths. This characteristic evolution of PSD offset and slope moderation at longer wavelengths reflects the typical break up of boulder-sized clasts through time as the surfaces mature into well-developed desert pavements and points towards mechanical breakdown as the dominant weathering mode. In addition, we are able to determine the rate by which the larger clasts are removed from the system. We build on these new insights into process and rate of rock weathering to propose PSD analysis of surface roughness as a complementary method for constraining the age of desert alluvial surfaces in places where 'conventional' dating cannot be applied.

  3. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps. Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. Teachers looking to incorporate this site in their classroom can check out the "Teacher's Guide" for helpful hints on using the site with students.

  4. Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Woodruff

    2010-06-21

    This year we are going to learn about rocks. Do you like to collect rocks? Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. So you want to learn about rocks? Go to Intro to Rocks for some fascinating facts about rocks! Now lets learn about some of the different kinds of rocks. Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Click here to see the differences between the types of rocks that you have learned about What Type Of Rock Do I Have?. After doing all the activities above, ...

  5. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Caitlin

    2009-10-21

    In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

  6. Rare earth element trends and cerium-uranium-manganese associations in weathered rock from Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppi, Anthony J.; Edis, Robert; Field, Damien J.; Geering, Harold R.; Klessa, David A.; Cockayne, David J. H.

    1996-05-01

    At Koongarra, Australia, three drill cores from the Cahill Schist Formation containing U-ore, and regolith above it containing secondary U-ore, were studied to ascertain the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) and U. The unaltered schist has a REE trend similar to the Post Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS), which is, therefore, used as a normalising standard. Unweathered rock from the zone of primary U mineralisation contained strong enrichment of the heavy REEs, and this pattern is retained during most of the weathering. Strongly bleached and very weathered shallow samples from this zone do not show enrichment of HREEs. In general, however, weathering appears to have little effect on the pattern of REEs in the bulk rock at this site. Zones rich in Mn oxy-hydroxides, occurring as coatings on fissure surfaces, contain large concentrations of Ce and U, with a clear Ce anomaly (Ce/ Ce * = 3.8). The Ce and U apparently occur together as microcrystalline oxides within (1-2 ?m diameter) globules on mineral surfaces in the Mn-rich zones.

  7. Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO

    2008-01-01

    Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed

  8. Lithium isotope ratios measured in scottish rivers and weathering of old silicate rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vigier; B. C. Reynolds; K. W. Burton; N. W. Rogers

    2003-01-01

    Silicate weathering is often considered as one of the most important sinks of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales, but the palaeovariations of the silicate weathering rates are still debated and depend on the reliability of the chosen proxies. It has recently been suggested that Li isotopes significantly fractionate during continental erosion (Huh et al., 1999), and that 7Li measured in

  9. Rock and stone weathering at Citadel fortifications, Gozo (Malta): benefits from terrestrial laser scanning combined with conventional investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Gigli, G.; Mugnai, F.; Vannocci, P.; Pecchioni, E.; Morelli, S.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Military architecture heritage is frequently built on rock masses affected by slope instability and weathering processes, which progressively undermine the foundations and cause collapses and toppling of the masonries. The latter can be also weakened by alteration of the stone surfaces, as a consequence of the interactions with the local environmental conditions. These conservation issues are emphasized for those sites, whose susceptibility to structural damages is also due to the similarity between the lithotypes constituting the geologic substratum and the construction materials. Effective solutions for the protection from such a type of phenomena can be achieved if the whole "rock mass - built heritage system" is analyzed. In this perspective, we propose a new approach for the study of the weathering processes affecting historic hilltop sites, taking benefits from the combination of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and conventional investigations, the latter including geotechnical and minero-petrographic analyses. In particular, the results here presented were obtained from specific tests on the fortifications of Citadel, Gozo (Malta), performed in co-operation with the Restoration Unit, Works Division, Maltese Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs and the private company Politecnica Ingegneria e Architettura. The Citadel fortifications are built at the top of a relatively stiff and brittle limestone plate, formed by Upper Coralline Limestone (UCL) and overlying a thick Blue Clay (BC) layer. Differential weathering creates extensively fractured ledges on the cap and erosion niches in the strata beneath, thereby favouring block detachment, even rockfall events, such as the last one occurred in 2001. The locally quarried Globigerina Limestone (GL), historically employed in restoration masonries, is also exposed to alveolization and powdering, and several collapses damaged the underwalling interventions. Since the erosion pattern distribution suggested a correlation with the structural setting of the rock mass and the mineralogical properties of the limestones, an overall weathering study was carried out, by combining surface surveys with analyses of the inner structure. A holistic TLS point cloud of Citadel, produced by Consorzio Ferrara Ricerche of the University of Ferrara and made available by the Restoration Unit, was exploited to perform a 3D quantitative kinematic analysis of the entire rock mass. Each sector was classified in relation to the probability of occurrence of instability mechanisms, among which plane failure, block toppling and wedge failure. The latter was found associated with the highest index measured (30%), followed by the flexural toppling mechanism (17%), providing a confirmation to the field survey and the results of geotechnical analyses. The integration with geologic and diagnostic investigations (e.g., boreholes, thin section observations) highlighted the intrinsic weaknesses of the rocks and stones to weathering, with a quite unexpected higher susceptibility to erosion and disaggregation characterizing the inner layers. Hence, the textural appearance of the erosion surfaces, the rock/stone structural properties and the TLS-based classification of the cliff sectors were mutually correlated, and the most unstable areas were mapped. As main implication for the conservation, on site monitoring system (i.e., biaxial inclinometers and crack gauges) was installed and targeted restorations have been properly designed.

  10. Accelerated weathering of carbonate rocks following the 2010 forest wildfire on Mt. Carmel, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Tessler, Naama; Tsatskin, Alexander; Greenbaum, Noam

    2015-04-01

    Massive destruction of carbonate rocks occurred on the slopes of Mt. Carmel, during the severe forest fire in 2010. The bedrock surfaces exhibited extensive exfoliation into flakes and spalls covering up to 80%-100% of the exposed rocks; detached boulders were totally fractured or disintegrated. The fire affected six carbonate units -- various types of chalk, limestone, and dolomite. The burned flakes show a consistent tendency towards flatness, in all lithologies, as 85%-95% of the flakes were detached in the form of blades, plates, and slabs. The effects of the fire depend to a large extent on the rocks' physical properties and vary with lithology: the most severe response was found in the chalk formations which are covered by calcrete (Nari crusts). These rocks reacted by extreme exfoliation, at an average depth of 7.7 to 9.6 cm and a maximum depth of 20 cm. The flakes formed in chalk were thicker, longer, and wider than those of limestone or dolomite formations. Moreover, the chalk outcrops were exfoliated in a laminar structure, one above the other, to a depth of 10 cm and more. Their shape also tended to be blockier or rod-like. In contrast, the limestone flakes were the thinnest, with 99% of them shaped like blades and plates. Scorched and blackened faces under the upper layer of spalls provided strong evidence that chalk breakdown took place at an early stage of the fire. The extreme response of the chalks can be explained by the laminar structure of the Nari, which served as planes of weakness for the rock destruction. Three years after the fire, the rocks continue to exfoliate and break down internally. As the harder surface of the Nari was removed, the more brittle underlying chalk is exposed to erosion. If fires can obliterate boulders in a single wildfire event, it follows that wildfires may serve as limiting agents in the geomorphic evolution of slopes. However, it is difficult to estimate the frequency of high-intensity fires in the Carmel region over the past 2-3 million years. It is even harder to assess the frequency of fires (and the destruction) of a single rock outcrop. Our findings show that rock outcrop may lose even 20 cm of its thickness in a single fire. This value, if accounted to the long run, can be responsible for a high percentage of the total denudation rate and therefore, in the mountainous carbonate slopes of the Mediterranean region, wildland fires may serve as extremely important factors in landscape evolution.

  11. Lithium isotope ratios measured in scottish rivers and weathering of old silicate rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, N.; Reynolds, B. C.; Burton, K. W.; Rogers, N. W.

    2003-04-01

    Silicate weathering is often considered as one of the most important sinks of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales, but the palaeovariations of the silicate weathering rates are still debated and depend on the reliability of the chosen proxies. It has recently been suggested that Li isotopes significantly fractionate during continental erosion (Huh et al., 1999), and that 7Li measured in large rivers could mainly reflect the degree of silicate weathering at large scales. Two main reasons have been proposed, the high Li contents in silicate minerals relative to carbonates, and the preferential uptake of 6Li by secondary clay minerals. Nevertheless, very few measurements have been made either on source minerals or on weathering products. In principle, the study of small silicated catchments should allow us to better constrain the factors controlling the fractionation of Li isotopes. A previous study has shown that 7Li measured in Icelandic basaltic rivers displays a large range (from 10 to 25.3) which correlates well with estimated weathering rates (Gislason et al., 1996). Here we present results for about 15 rivers located in Northern Scotland, which show little evidence for anthropogenic contamination, and draining mainly old silicated terrains (>500Ma). These rivers have been sampled twice, in May and in October 2002, in order to constrain the seasonal variations of the Li signature. Major and trace elements have also been measured, as well as the dissolved organic carbon. All rivers have very low Ca/Na and Mg/Na ratios (average of 0.38 and 0.17 respectively), that corresponds to the end-member previously defined for silicate rivers (Gaillardet et al, 1999), suggesting negligible contribution from carbonate dissolution. Li contents range between 0.2 and 1.2 ppb and are significantly greater than in Iceland rivers (up to 0.09 ppb). First results for the May 2002 samples show a restricted range in 7Li (from 16 to 22) relative to basaltic rivers of Iceland, and this range compares well with shield rivers of the Orinoco and the Mississipi basins (13 - 22). 7Li display negative trends with Ca/Na and Mg/Na, unlikely to be explained by carbonate dissolution since rivers with high Ca/Na and Mg/Na have higher Si content and lower 7Li. These trends could rather be explained by a mixing between a seawater component, probably of atmospheric origin, and an intensive weathering of Ca-Mg silicate minerals present in soils.

  12. Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    This slide show provides basic information on the three major rock types and the rock cycle. Diagrams of the rock cycle explain the processes and changes that connect the three rock types and illustrate how one type can be changed into another. Each of the three types (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic) are described and illustrated with photographs. Addresses for websites with additional information are also included.

  13. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  14. Effect of Weathering Processes on Mineralogical and Mechanical Properties of Volcanic Rocks Used as Ballast Material for Railway Between Sabuncupinar and Kütahya in Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Ad?güzel, Ömer; Derman, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Geomaterials used in engineering projects and man-made structures such as railway ballasts, buildings, historical structures, monuments and tombstones naturally weather as a result of various physico-chemical factors. Due to being long-term exposure to the anthroposphere, geomaterials used for these purposes provides important information to the researchers for understanding the effect of weathering processes on their time dependent physical, mineralogical and mechanical changes. Thus, researchers frequently can take advantage of available engineering time of man-made structures to assess weathering properties of the geomaterials used in their construction in terms of time dependent durability and stability of these structures. Considering the fact that railway ballasts produced from natural deposits of limestone, dolomite, granite, basalt etc., supply an important contribution for evaluation weathering processes, a research was carried out to determine the effect of weathering as a function of time on physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of ballasts used for railway between Kütahya and Sabuncup?nar in western Turkey. For this purpose, fresh and weathered rock samples exposed to physical and chemical weathering processes at different times were collected from quarry located in Sabuncup?nar and nearby railway. This volcanic rock was previously classified as basalt based on the detailed mineralogical and geochemical analyses performed at the laboratories of the Mineral Research & Exploration General Directorate located in Ankara (Turkey). In-situ characteristics of sampling site were also investigated at different locations of quarry site by line surveying technique to describe the influence of discontinuity conditions on the weathering rate of selected rocks. Several techniques were utilized to determine time dependent deterioration in mineralogical and chemical composition of these samples for understanding their weathering rate. The porosity, water absorption by weight, weight loss after slake durability index and freezing-thawing tests and Los Angeles abrasion value of these samples subjected to weathering processes at different time intervals at field conditions were also determined to measure the time dependent resistance of collected ballast materials against natural weathering processes. When all results obtained from mineralogical and chemical analyses, field observations and further laboratory tests are considered, it can be concluded that collected ballast materials provide important information for understanding weathering rate of basalt. Furthermore, despite of being exposure to the anthroposphere for very long time, the very little water absorption content, resistance to extreme weather conditions and very angular characteristics of collected samples indicate that these previously used materials can still serve the purpose as ballast materials in accordance to related standards (TS 7043 and EN 13450).

  15. Venus - Chemical weathering of igneous rocks and buffering of atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Data from the Pioneer Venus radar mapper, combined with measurements of wind velocity and atmospheric composition, suggest that surface erosion on Venus varies with altitude. Calcium- and magnesium-rich weathering products are produced at high altitudes by gas-solid reactions with igneous minerals, then removed into the hotter lowlands by surface winds. These fine-grained weathering products may then rereact with the lower atmosphere and buffer the composition of the observed gases carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen fluoride in some regions of the surface. This process is a plausible mechanism for the establishment in the lowlands of a calcium-rich mineral assemblage, which had previously been found necessary for the buffering of these species.

  16. Use of hydraulic tests at different scales to characterize fracture network properties in the weathered-fractured layer of a hard rock aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Maréchal; B. Dewandel; K. Subrahmanyam

    2004-01-01

    The hydrodynamic properties of the weathered-fractured layer of a hard-rock pilot watershed in a granitic terrain are characterized using hydraulic tests at different scales. The interpretation of numerous slug tests leads us to characterize the statistical distribution of local permeabilities in the wells. The application of flowmeter profiles during injection tests determines the vertical distribution of conductive fracture zones and

  17. Experimental Acid Weathering of Fe-Bearing Mars Analog Minerals and Rocks: Implications for Aqueous Origin of Hematite-Bearing Sediments in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Koster, A. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    A working hypothesis for Meridiani evaporite formation involves the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [1, 2]. However, there are no reported experimental studies for the formation of jarosite and gray hematite (spherules), which are characteristic of Meridiani rocks from Mars analog precursor minerals. A terrestrial analog for hematite spherule formation from basaltic rocks under acidic hydrothermal conditions has been reported [3], and we have previously shown that the hematite spherules and jarosite can be synthetically produced in the laboratory using Fe3+ -bearing sulfate brines under hydrothermal conditions [4]. Here we expand and extend these studies by reacting Mars analog minerals with sulfuric acid to form Meridiani-like rock-mineral compositions. The objective of this study is to provide environmental constraints on past aqueous weathering of basaltic materials on Mars.

  18. Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. This lesson focuses on sedimentary rocks and how they are formed. Students review the rock cycle and three rock types: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. They then write children's books about sedimentary rocks to explain the process to a younger audience. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. Also available are videos which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  19. The Crayon Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Muller

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners use crayons to draw conclusions about rocks and the rock cycle. Learners form crayons ((which can be "weathered"—heated, compressed and cooled—like rocks) into models of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of uranium in a shallow weathered rock aquifer in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Elango, L.; Nair, R. N.

    2011-10-01

    Uranium occurs naturally in groundwater and surface water. The objective of this study is to understand the causes for the occurrence of uranium and its spatio-temporal variation in groundwater in a part of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, south India. Uranium deposits occur in the southeastern part of this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 44 wells every two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The samples were analyzed for pH, ORP and uranium concentration. The uranium concentration in groundwater varies from 0.2 ppb to a maximum of 68 ppb with a mean of 18.5 ppb. About 21.6% of the samples were above the drinking water limit of 30 ppb set by USEPA. The uranium concentration varied with fluctuation in groundwater level, pH and ORP. Uranium concentration in groundwater changes depending on lithology, degree of weathering and rainfall recharge.

  1. Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Work is devoted to the study of volcano sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The Geyser Valley is one of the most unique nature objects in Russia. There are quite large geyser fields. The valley of the river is part of the Uson-Geysernaya depression, where hydrothermal activity is very high. Besides geysers here are hot springs, mud pots and fumarols. In the late Pleistocene (about 45-35 thousand years ago) the lake was located in the site of the modern valley of the Geysernaya river, where sediments accumulated intensively. Sedimentary material came from several sources in the form of pyroclastic flows, ash falls, was supplied by permanent and temporary water streams. The total deposit thickness reached several hundred meters. In the late Pleistocene there was breakthrough of reservoir and further conditions for the lacustrine deposits formation did not arose. Later the rocks were intensively processed by thermal water. In 2007 large landslide was formed in lower part of the Geysernaya River on their left slope. Deposits of Geysernaya (Q34grn) series and Pemsovaya (Q34pmz) series were involved in landslide displacement. The headscarp was formed up to 100 m and a length of 800 m, exposing the volcano-sedimentary section of hydrothermally altered rocks - a unique opportunity for sampling and subsequent laboratory study. Thickness of lake sediments is interbedding of coarse-grain, medium-grain, fine-grain tuffites predominantly acidic composition. The study of thin sections revealed that all samples are lithoclastic and vitroclastic hydrothermally altered tuffits. Currently, the primary minerals and volcanic glass is largely replaced by clay minerals of the smectite group. Pores and cracks are made zeolites (heulandite and clinoptilolite). All this points to the low-temperature (<200 ° C) hydrothermal conditions with a pH near neutral. Tyere are acid plagioclase and quartz in most samples The high content of smectite causes high hygroscopy of deposits. Rocks are highly porous - of 37-65%, primarily low density - 0,9-1,65 g/cm3 wave velocities - from 0.74 km/s for porous to 3.42 km/sec for dense varieties. All samples are characterized by low strength characteristics: uniaxial compressive strength - 1.2 - 21.7 MPa, uniaxial tension - 0,6-4,7 MPa. By water saturation strength decreases rapidly. Soft coefficient ranges from 0.22 to 0.57. Proving to be on the land surface as a result of slope deformation, volcanic-sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks are destroyed quickly by precipitation and temperature fluctuations Rock turned to sand, silt and clay depending on the original composition. It was found that often weathered to clayey state tuffites inherit structural and textural features of the primary species. The composition also varies: increased content of clay minerals (to 90%), decreasing the content of zeolites (not to exceed 10%). Quartz and plagioclase form sans fraction. Physical and mechanical properties vary widely: the density of the soil increases slightly up to 1,57-1,59 g/cm3 for sands, 1,2-1,79 g/cm3 for clays, porosity of 51-52% and 49-78% respectively, moisture 22-23% and 43-98/ Clays are in a state of semi-solid to fluid. The high content of smectite determines high plastic properties. Plasticity Index varies widely from 11 to 57. Cohesion and the internal friction angle obtained from shear tests also change widely. For clayey sand grip reaches 137 kPa, internal friction angle - 17 degrees. In clay grip ranges from 13 kPa to 120 kPa, and the internal friction angle - from 11 degrees to 31 degrees. Large variation of properties of the investigated soils is explained by the inhomogeneity of volcano-sedimentary formations both vertically and laterally, varying degrees of hydrothermal alteration and of weathering, fracturing and cracks filling The obtained datas can adequately characterize the volcanic-lacustrine sediments in the valley of the Geysernaya river and use them in calculations of slope stability and for and geological mapping.

  2. Sedimentary Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive lesson about sedimentary rocks begins with weathering and sediments and shows a sediment size chart. Next, it covers the three processes by which sediments are changed to rock: compaction, cementation, and recrystallization. Stream deposits along with the difference between clastic and non-clastic rocks are discussed and the formation of coal, shale, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, and breccia is explained.

  3. Gravestone Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leanne Wiberg

    2000-01-01

    In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

  4. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil suggesting their close genetic relationships. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data allow to identify four principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich pool at close to the surface, a leachable REE enriched pool at the bottom of the soil profile, the limestone facies on which the weathering profile developed and an anthropogenic, atmosphere-derived component detected in the soil leachates of the uppermost soil horizon. The leachable phases are mainly secondary carbonate-bearing REE phases such as bastnaesite. The isotope data and trace element distribution patterns indicate that at least four geological and environmental events impacted the chemical and isotopical compositions of the soil system since the Cretaceous.

  5. Climate and rock weathering: a study of terrestrial age dated ordinary chondritic meteorites from hot desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P. A.; Sexton, A. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Berry, F. J.; Thornley, D. M.; Astin, T. R.; Britt, D. T.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1998-09-01

    Ordinary chondrites (OC) recovered from the desert areas of Roosevelt County, New Mexico, the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia, and the Algerian and Libyan Sahara, for which 14C terrestrial ages have been determined, were examined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. OC were chosen as a standard sample to investigate weathering processes as their well constrained trace and bulk element chemistry, normative mineralogy and isotopic composition define a known, pre-weathering, starting composition. Given that terrestrial ages are known, it is possible to compare (initially very similar) samples that have been subsequently weathered in a range of climatic regimes from the present day to > 44 ka BP. In addition, recently fallen equilibrated OC contain iron only as Fe 0 and Fe 2+, thus the abundance of ferric iron is directly related to the level of terrestrial weathering. Mössbauer spectroscopy identifies two broad types of ferric alteration: paramagnetic phases (akaganéite, lepidocrocite, and goethite), and magnetically ordered (principally magnetite and maghemite). OC finds show a range in the percentage of total Fe existing as Fe 3+ from zero to over 80%. However, oxidation is comparable between fragments of the same OC separated since their time of fall (i.e., paired meteorites). Our results indicate several features of meteorite weathering that may result from climatic or geomorphologic conditions at the accumulation site: (1) Saharan samples are, overall, less weathered than non-Saharan samples, which may be related to the relatively recent age (ca. 20 ka) of the Saharan accumulation surface; (2) broad differences between sites in the rate of weathering, arising from regional differences in climate; (3) consistent differences in the weathering products between samples that fell during humid periods and those that fell during more arid periods (those falling during humid periods contain a higher proportion of magnetically ordered ferric oxides); (4) one region (the Nullarbor) that shows a variation in the total amount of ferric species that closely matches the climatic record for this area of Australia for the last 30 ka. Points (3) and (4) may be related to the identification of a rapid initial weathering phase: the majority of weathering occurs in the first few hundred years after fall, followed by passivation of weathering by porosity reduction. Porosity reduction, and the associated restriction in the ability of water to penetrate the sample, appears to be the mechanism whereby a weathering assemblage formed during the brief initial period of oxidation is preserved through subsequent climatic cycles over the terrestrial lifetime of the sample.

  6. Rates of Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

  7. Rare earth elements in stream waters from the Rokko granite area, Japan: Effect of weathering degree of watershed rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAIGA NAKAJIMA; YASUTAKA TERAKADO

    The concentrations of major elements and rare earth elements (REE) of the stream waters from the Rokko granite area, Japan, were analyzed to examine the relationship between the degree of weathering and chemistry of the waters. The clay minerals in the related soils from the watershed areas were also examined. It was found that the relative proportion of kaolinite to

  8. Deciphering post-Deccan weathering and erosion history of South Indian Archean rocks from cryptomelane 40Ar-39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Arnaud, Nicolas; Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Since the extrusion of Deccan traps ~ 63 Ma ago, weathering and erosion processes have shaped the landscapes of this Peninsula India. This resulted in pervasive bauxitic weathering on traps and deep lateritic weathering of their basement on either side of the Western Ghats Escarpment, which separates a coastal lowland from an East-dipping highland plateau. Mn-rich lateritic profiles formed by supergene weathering of Late Archean manganiferous protores in the different greenstone belts are exposed on relict paleosurfaces, which are preserved at different elevations on the highland plateau and in the coastal lowland, allowing for direct comparison of paleosurfaces and geomorphological processes across one of the most prominent relief in the Indian peninsula. Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of samples collected in the different Mn-rich lateritic profiles allowed for precise characterization of cryptomelane [Kx Mn8-xIV MnxIII O16, nH2O], a Mn-oxide suitable for 40Ar-39Ar dating. The ages obtained document major weathering periods at ~ 53-50 Ma, ~ 40-32 Ma, and ~ 30-23 Ma in the highland profiles, and ~ 47-45 Ma, ~ 24-19 Ma and a younger age at ~ 9 Ma in the coastal lowland profiles. The age clusters are in good agreement with major regional and global Cenozoic paleoclimatic events, e.g., the Eocene climatic optimum and the early beginnings of Asian monsoons at ~ 40 Ma. The old ages obtained both in the coastal lowland and high plateau indicate synchronous lateritic (mostly bauxitic) weathering on both sides of the escarpment. The ages also indicate that most of the incision and dissection of plateau landsurfaces must have taken place during successive periods after 45, 32 and 23 Ma, while the coastal lowland surface was only weakly incised after 19 Ma. Our results thus document post-Eocene divergent erosion and weathering histories across the escarpment since it was formed at least 47 Ma ago, suggesting installation of a dual climatic regime on either sides of this escarpment after the Eocene greenhouse peak.

  9. Rare earth element trends and cerium-uranium-manganese associations in weathered rock from Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Koppi; Robert Edis; Damien J. Field; Harold R. Geering; David A. Klessa; David J. H. Cockayne

    1996-01-01

    At Koongarra, Australia, three drill cores from the Cahill Schist Formation containing U-ore, and regolith above it containing secondary U-ore, were studied to ascertain the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) and U. The unaltered schist has a REE trend similar to the Post Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS), which is, therefore, used as a normalising standard. Unweathered rock from the

  10. Effects of direct and indirect heating on the validity of rock weathering simulation studies and durability tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Warke; B. J. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Rock surface and subsurface temperature responses in samples exposed to direct heating (insolation) under natural hot desert conditions reveal considerable variability between lithologies related to differences in thermal properties, especially albedo and thermal conductivity. However, when the same samples are heated indirectly by air in an oven-based environmental cabinet, lithological differences in temperature response disappear and all samples attain temperatures

  11. Rocks, Rocks, Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

  12. Rocks, Rocks, Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adventure Engineering,

    Continuing the Asteroid Impact challenge, student teams test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

  13. Critical zone co-evolution: evidence that weathering and consequent seasonal rock moisture storage leads to a mixed forest canopy of conifer and evergreen broadleaf trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Dawson, T. E.; Rempe, D. M.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent studies demonstrating the importance of rock moisture as a source of water to vegetation, much remains unknown regarding species-specific and seasonal patterns of water uptake in a Mediterranean climate. Here, we use stable isotopes of water (d18O, dD) to define the isotope composition of water throughout the subsurface critical zone of Rivendell, within the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. We find that a structured heterogeneity of water isotope composition exists in which bulk saprolite is chronically more negative than bulk soil, and tightly held moisture is more negative than the mobile water that recharges the saturated zone and generates runoff. These moisture reservoirs provide a blueprint from which to measure the seasonal uptake patterns of different species collocated on the site. Douglas-firs use unsaturated saprolite and weathered bedrock moisture (i. e. rock moisture) throughout the year. Contrastingly, hardwood species (madrone, live oak, tanoak) modify their source water depending on which moisture is energetically favorable. Hardwoods use freely mobile water in the wet season, and rely on unsaturated zone soil moisture in the dry season. When soil water tension decreases on the drier south-facing slope, hardwood species use saprolite moisture. Although adjacent hardwoods and Douglas-firs partition water based on matric pull on the north side, there is competition for saprolite moisture in late summer on the south side. These results reveal the eco-hydrological importance of moisture derived from weathered bedrock, and show that the hardwoods have a competitive advantage under the drier conditions predicted in many climate models. Finally, the data emphasize that isotope measurements of all subsurface reservoirs and potential water sources are necessary for a complete and accurate characterization of the eco-hydrological processes within the critical zone.

  14. Silicate weathering machine at work: Rock magnetic data from the late Paleocene–early Eocene Cicogna section, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edoardo Dallanave; Lisa Tauxe; Giovanni Muttoni; Domenico Rio

    2010-01-01

    We describe a scenario of climate forcing on sedimentation recorded in the late Paleocene–early Eocene Cicogna marine section from the Belluno Basin (NE Italy). Previously published magneto-biostratigraphic data revealed that the ?81 m Cicogna section extends from Chron C25r to Chron C23r spanning the NP7\\/NP8-NP12 nannofossil zones (?52.2–56.6 Ma). Using previously published rock magnetic data, augmented by data from this

  15. Linking Weathering, Rock Moisture Dynamics, Geochemistry, Runoff, Vegetation and Atmospheric Processes through the Critical Zone: Graduate Student led Research at the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory lies Rivendell, a heavily-instrumented steep forested hillslope underlain by nearly vertically dipping argillite interbedded with sandstone. Under this convex hillslope lies "Zb", the transition to fresh bedrock, which varies from less than 6 m below the surface near the channel to 20 m at the divide. Rempe and Dietrich (2014, PNAS) show that the Zb profile can be predicted from the assumption that weathering occurs when drainage is induced in the uplifting fresh bedrock under hillslopes by lateral head gradients driven by channel incision at the hillslope boundary. Infiltrating winter precipitation is impeded at the lower conductivity boundary at Zb, generating perched groundwater that dynamically pulses water laterally to the channel, controlling stream runoff. Below the soil and above the water table lies an unsaturated zone through which all recharge to the perched groundwater (and thus all runoff to channels) occurs. It is this zone and the waters in them that profoundly affect critical zone processes. In our seasonally dry environment, the first rains penetrate past the soil and moisten the underlying weathered bedrock (Salve et al., 2012, WRR). It takes about 200 to 400 mm of cumulative rain, however, before the underlying groundwater rises significantly. Oshun et al (in review) show that by this cumulative rainfall the average of the wide-ranging isotopic signature of rain reaches a nearly constant average annual value. Consequently, the recharging perched groundwater shows only minor temporal isotopic variation. Kim et al, (2014, GCA) find that the winter high-flow groundwater chemistry is controlled by relatively fast-reacting cation exchange processes, likely occurring in transit in the unsaturated zone. Oshun also demonstrates that the Douglas fir rely on this rock moisture as a water source, while the broadleaf trees (oaks and madrone) use mostly soil moisture. Link et al (2014 WRR) show that Doug fir declines in transpiration rate significantly compared to the madrone during summer high water stress periods, with may induce feedbacks from the forest to atmospheric temperature and humidity. Collectively these studies spotlight the seasonally dynamic unsaturated zone in the weathered bedrock beneath the soil as key to understanding critical zone processes.

  16. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The rock cycle is an ongoing process in which rock, driven by tectonic processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes, the surface processes of weathering and erosion, and compaction, is created, destroyed, and recycled. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the processes which come into play as rock proceeds through the various portions of the cycle.

  17. Quantification of physical weathering rates using thermodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gans; S. Arens; S. J. Schymanski; A. Kleidon

    2010-01-01

    Physical weathering plays an important role in the global rock cycle in that it breaks up primary rock, thereby increasing the surface area for chemical weathering and providing the substrate for soil formation. We use a simple, thermodynamics based approach to quantify magnitudes of weathering, their spatial variation across climatic regions and their sensitivity to climatic change. Our approach is

  18. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Through five lessons, students are introduced to all facets of the rock cycle. Topics include rock and mineral types, material stresses and weathering, geologic time and fossil formation, the Earth's crust and tectonic plates, and soil formation and composition. Lessons are presented in the context of the related impact on humans in the form of roadway and tunnel design and construction, natural disasters, environmental site assessment for building structures, and measurement instrumentation and tools. Hands-on activities include experiencing tensional, compressional and shear material stress by using only hand force to break bars of soap; preparing Jeopardy-type trivia questions/answers for a class game that reinforces students' understanding of rocks and the rock cycle; creating "fossils" using melted chocolate; working within design constraints to design and build a model tunnel through a clay mountain; and soil sampling by creating tools, obtaining soil cores, documenting a soil profile log, and analyzing the findings to make engineering predictions.

  19. Rock weathering and Carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Strozza

    2010-01-01

    In the history of the Earth system, we can find indicators of hot or glacial periods, as well as brutal climatic change... How can we explain those climate variations on a geological timescale ? One of the causative agents is probably the fluctuation of atmospheric CO2 amounts, (gas responsible for the greenhouse effect). A concrete study of some CO2 fluxes

  20. Geography & Weather. Weather Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Levine, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 35 activities that center around television and newspaper weather reports. Geography, weather, and other disciplines are included as well as various grade levels. Available resource materials are listed and their uses explained. Parent, administrator, and other faculty member involvement is emphasized. (KR)

  1. Honeycomb Weathering of Limestone Formations

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Honeycomb weathering of sandstone located on the shores of Puget Sound occurs when expanding salt crystals break fragments of rock, creating a small hole that becomes larger as the process repeats itself over time....

  2. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to give students an understanding of how to forecast weather and how to use weather reports for their personal benefit. They will be able to tell what weather is, read weather instruments, understand basic cloud formations in relation to the weather, and make forecasts for two days in advance.

  3. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  4. Weather Vane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fresno Community Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

  5. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  6. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 1 - Rocks and Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All soil ultimately forms from rocks or their weathering products. Geologists classify rocks according to their origins. General rock types can weather to give soils with distinctive properties. The objectives of this lesson are: 1. To be able to classify rocks based on visual characteristics accord...

  7. UM Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

  8. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

  9. The Rock Cycle Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King, Chris.

    Maintained by the BBC Education Web site, The Rock Cycle Experiments page contains ten activities related to the rock cycle, beginning with weathering and ending with the uplift of rocks. Each activity pops up after clicking the link within the very well done interactive diagram of the rock cycle. The activities are simple but effective; for example, the transportation lesson has students run water through sand to see its effects. The hands-on experience of the activities helps reinforce the learning and of course makes it fun.

  10. BBC Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

  11. Science Sampler: Rocks in our pockets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Plummer

    2005-10-01

    Rocks contain so many stories within them that they're a natural for young scientists. To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, begin your rocks unit with the following activities that develop their ability to make simple observations using their senses and conduct experiments to understand the effects of the weathering process and the rock cycle.

  12. Xenotime-hematite aggregates on opaline filaments: evidence for biomineralization in weathered siliciclastic rocks, Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Seabra Gomes, Antônio Augusto; Lehmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Dissolution cavities in weathered pebbly quartzite of the ~2.5-Ga Moeda Formation at Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are decorated with suspended filaments of opaline silica. The filaments sustain xenotime-hematite aggregates in the open space. Xenotime occurs as inclusions in buds and botryoidal aggregates of hematite. The filamentous structures consist of strand-forming buds, hypha-like extensions, and thin strands that compose mat-like arrangements. They resemble microbial filaments that were replaced by opaline silica and fossilized. The occurrence of spherical hematite as protuberances on hematite-free opaline hyphae is interpreted as accretion of dissolved iron onto extracellular polymers. Phosphate sites in polymeric substances expelled from the microbial filaments might have adsorbed yttrium and heavy rare-earth elements from groundwater to the iron-accreting polymers. These would have resulted in botryoidal aggregates of hematite with xenotime inclusions. The presence of authigenic xenotime in the weathering zone opens a new possibility to constrain the evolution of lateritic profiles by xenotime geochronology.

  13. Weather Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

  14. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  15. Weather Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

  16. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering.

    PubMed

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Phil; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results show that the choice of source rocks and material comminution technique dominate the CO2 efficiency of enhanced weathering. CO2 emissions from transport amount to on average 0.5-3% of potentially sequestered CO2. The emissions of material mining and application are negligible. After accounting for all emissions, 0.5-1.0 t CO2 can be sequestered on average per tonne of rock, translating into a unit cost from 1.6 to 9.9 GJ per tonne CO2 sequestered by enhanced weathering. However, to control or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations substantially with enhanced weathering would require very large amounts of rock. Before enhanced weathering could be applied on large scales, more research is needed to assess weathering rates, potential side effects, social acceptability, and mechanisms of governance. PMID:24597739

  17. World Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elias, Jaume Sanchez

    2014-02-20

    What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

  18. Weather Watcher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Singer, Mike

    As spring progresses, weather conditions can continue to fluctuate dramatically, something that may foil vacation plans or other outings. Keeping that in mind, visitors may do well to download the Weather Watcher application created by Mike Singer. With this application, users may automatically retrieve the current weather conditions, look through hourly forecasts, keep abreast of severe weather alerts, and take a look at weather maps for almost any city world-wide. This application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

  19. Role of Microorganisms in Wear Down of Rocks and Minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna A. Gorbushina; W. E. Krumbein

    Rock weathering is an awkward term. Near and below the Earth’s surface, physical and chemical processes operate under direct or indirect control of living matter. Weathering, however, strongly relates to physical and chemical changes produced by the weather and its long-term average, the climate. Meteorological connotation of the term ignores the importance of biological interactions in the process of rock

  20. Sub?basaltic weathering, damsites, palaeomagnetism, and the age of lateritization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Schmidt; D. T. Currey; C. D. Ollier

    1976-01-01

    Investigations described from three Victorian damsites indicate that weathering of Ordovician bedrock is increased where it is overlain by basalt, even though the basalt is little weathered. Sub?basaltic weathering may account for the fact that weathered rock beneath a Jurassic lava flow gives a weathering remagnetization age of Mid?Cainozoic, consistent with palaeomagnetically determined ages of lateritization from elsewhere in Australia.

  1. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  2. Rock Climbing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Join Jesse and Gordon on their rock climbing adventures. In this video you will learn about metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Learn what types of rocks are best for climbing and how to determine each rock type.

  3. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

  4. Rad Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-26

    Why do we have rocks? How are rocks formed? Why do we have rock cycles? There are all differnt kinds of rocks. What parts make up rocks? Can you sort rocks based on color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size? How do the things rocks are made of determine how people use them? Organize rocks by color, weight, shape, and sizes. Click here to find out the basics about ...

  5. Weathering-related Slope Instabilities of The Calabrian Arc (italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Calcaterra; M. Parise

    2002-01-01

    Weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks widely crop out in the Mediterranean area, where in recent years greater attention has been paid to weathering-related slope movements. Calabria, the southernmost region of the Italian peninsula, is one of the most challenging area where to study such topic. Many factors favoured during past times onset and development of the weathering processes in Calabria:

  6. Some topics on geochemistry of weathering: a review.

    PubMed

    Formoso, Milton L L

    2006-12-01

    Weathering is a complex process comprising physical disaggregation, chemical and biological decomposition of rocks and minerals transforming complex structure minerals in simpler ones. Hydrolysis of silicates is perhaps the most important process but associated certainly to biological weathering. It is discussed the role ofwaters: activities/concentrations of chemical species, pH, Eh, importance of complexes. Weathering is not only a destructive process. It can concentrate chemical species and form mineral deposits (kaolin, bauxite, Fe, Mn, P, Nb, Au). Weathering studies are important in pedology, engineering geology, hydrogeology, paleoclimatology and ecology. The use of stonemeal is based upon the study of rock weathering. PMID:17143414

  7. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-09-01

    Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

  8. Weathering crusts on peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Stober, Ingrid; Müller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2015-05-01

    Chemical weathering of dark-green massive peridotite, including partly serpentinized peridotite, produces a distinct and remarkable brown weathering rind when exposed to the atmosphere long enough. The structure and mineral composition of crusts on rocks from the Ronda peridotite, Spain, have been studied in some detail. The generic overall weathering reaction serpentinized peridotite + rainwater = weathering rind + runoff water describes the crust-forming process. This hydration reaction depends on water supply from the outcrop surface to the reaction front separating green peridotite from the brown crust. The reaction pauses after drying and resumes at the front after wetting. The overall net reaction transforms olivine to serpentine in a volume-conserving replacement reaction. The crust formation can be viewed as secondary serpentinization of peridotite that has been strongly altered by primary hydrothermal serpentinization. The reaction stoichiometry of the crust-related serpentinization is preserved and reflected by the composition of runoff waters in the peridotite massif. The brown color of the rind is caused by amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, a side product from the oxidation of Fe(II) released by the dissolution of fayalite component in olivine.

  9. Where fast weathering creates thin regolith and slow weathering creates thick regolith

    SciTech Connect

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Lebedeva, Marina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Pavich, Milan [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Parkinson, D. Y. [Advanced Light Source, LBNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

    2012-01-01

    Weathering disaggregates rock into regolith the fractured or granular earthmaterial that sustains life on the continental land surface. Here, we investigate what controls the depth of regolith formed on ridges of two rock compositions with similar initial porosities in Virginia (USA).A priori, we predicted that the regolith on diabasewould be thicker than on granite because the dominant mineral (feldspar) in the diabase weathers faster than its granitic counterpart. However, weathering advanced 20deeper into the granite than the diabase. The 20-thicker regolith is attributed mainly to connected micron-sized pores, microfractures formed around oxidizing biotite at 20m depth, and the lower iron (Fe) content in the felsic rock. Such porosity allows pervasive advection and deep oxidation in the granite. These observations may explainwhy regolithworldwide is thicker on felsic compared tomafic rock under similar conditions. To understand regolith formationwill require better understanding of such deep oxidation reactions and how they impact fluid flow during weathering.

  10. Planetary Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  11. Rock Hounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Rock Hounds web site offers information for younger students on how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed, safety tips for collectors, and illustrated pages describing a selection of rock types. After studying these pages, kids can take a quiz or work rock-themed puzzles. For teachers, there is a lesson plan about the rock cycle, a set of activities, ideas for collaborative activities, and a review of some literature on rocks and rock collecting.

  12. Weather Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes. Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature.

  13. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2, produce volatile and non-volatile organic acids, and reduce rock particle size to form mineral

  14. Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Name Geology 100 Harbor Section

    E-print Network

    Harbor, David

    Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Name Geology 100 Harbor Section Sedimentary rocks are usually identified and chemical products weathered from other rocks and organic remains. They can be classified into three genetic types: clastic, chemical, and organic. Clastic rocks contain the broken fragments of previously

  15. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  16. Weather Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KShumway

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

  17. Sedimentary Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-10-18

    Sedimentary Rocks is a course handout that accompanies the discussion of sedimentary rocks. The objectives of the handout are: to explain the formation of sedimentary rocks in terms of the rock cycle; explain and give examples of the various sedimentary depositional environments; discuss the textural characteristics of sediments; explain why sedimentary rocks are important in the study of Earth history; contrast the basic groups of sedimentary rocks; describe the principle characteristics of common sedimentary rocks; and describe the ways in which sedimentary rocks are lithified. There are many photos, which show examples of different types of sedimentary rocks. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  18. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moorland School

    This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

  19. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

  20. Estimating rock compressive strength from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Lennon, A.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.

    2013-06-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover carries a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) whose intended use was to abrade the outer surfaces of rocks to expose more pristine material. Motor currents drawn by the RAT motors are related to the strength and hardness of rock surfaces undergoing abrasion, and these data can be used to infer more about a target rock's physical properties. However, no calibration of the RAT exists. Here, we attempt to derive an empirical correlation using an assemblage of terrestrial rocks and apply this correlation to data returned by the rover Spirit. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between rock strength and RAT grind energy for rocks with compressive strengths less than about 150 MPa, a category that includes all but the strongest intact rocks. Applying this correlation to rocks abraded by Spirit's RAT, the results indicate a large divide in strength between more competent basaltic rocks encountered in the plains of Gusev crater (Adirondack-class rocks) and the weaker variety of rock types measured in the Columbia Hills. Adirondack-class rocks have estimated compressive strengths in the range of 70-130 MPa and are significantly less strong than fresh terrestrial basalts; this may be indicative of a degree of weathering-induced weakening. Rock types in the Columbia Hills (Wishstone, Watchtower, Clovis, and Peace class) all have compressive strengths <50 MPa and are consistent with impactites or volcanoclastic materials. In general, when considered alongside chemical, spectral, and rock textural data, these inferred compressive strength results help inform our understanding of rock origins and modification history.

  1. The Weather Doctor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heidorn, Keith C.

    Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

  2. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  3. Unisys Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

  4. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  5. Weather One

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    From the University of Illinois Extension comes the Weather One instructional Web site for kids. The lesson consists of six pages that cover various weather related topics including seasons, clouds, the atmosphere, wind, global warming, and storms. Each page describes the particular subject, provides related photographs, and contains several activities that reinforce the learning. For example, the clouds page shows how kids can make a cloud and create a collage out of simple material found around the house. The effective organization and clean look of the site will surely make it easy for students to follow and enjoy.

  6. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-11-06

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

  7. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

  8. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

  9. Today's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

  10. Weather Stations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  11. Weather Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

  12. Igneous Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive lesson on igneous rocks begins with a comparison of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks with diagrams to show their origin. This leads to a discussion of intrusive rock formations including dikes, sills, laccoliths and batholiths and a block diagram to show their location. Basaltic rocks are described to include basalt, pumice, and gabbro and are contrasted with granitic rhyolite and obsidian.

  13. Igneous Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynn Fichter

    This site explores igneous rocks in-depth through descriptions and pictures. The formation and distribution of this rock type are covered, as well as magma types associated with them (mafic to felsic). Classification of igneous rocks covers their texture and composition, including the difference between intrusive and extrusive. An alphabetical listing of rocks connects the user with a description, picture, tectonic association, and mineral composition of the rock. Bowen's Reaction Series is covered as well, with associated rock types. A self-test allows the user to identify rocks by picture alone. Links are provided to sites with further information.

  14. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-21

    The Rock Cycle SciPack explores different kinds and categories of rocks, the major processes through which they form and the cyclical nature of the formation and transformation of rock materials. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to the rock cycle as part of the transfer and transformation of matter and energy in Earth's system as well as a sense of the time scales involved and how rocks provide information about their own development and the history of Earth.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Rock Cycle: Categories by Process? List the three different types of rock. ? Make appropriate observations about rocks (e.g. describe rock composition and texture).? Make appropriate observations about the general environments in which the rocks formed.Rock Cycle: Environments of Formation? Realize that different rocks have specific origins, and that they are the product of any number of processes.? Identify the processes through which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock form.? Explain the role of intermediary materials such as sediment and magma in the formation of different kinds of rock.? Provide an overarching description of the steps in the rock cycle, the formation of sedimentary rock, the re-forming of rock by heat and pressure, and the process by which re-formed rock can return to the surface.Rock Cycle: Cycling? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography? State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).? Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.? Describe how rock formations and characteristics can be used to determine how different rock formed, making appropriate interpretations about the source of the rock, history and processes, and the environment of formation.? Describe how rocks provide a history of the changing surface of Earth and its lifeforms.

  15. Investigaing Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tiffany A. Lindsey

    2010-06-21

    Your mission is to look at different types of rocks and be able to sort them based on color, feel, hardness, texture, layering they may have, and particle size they are made of. Identify how the properties of rocks determine how people use them. Click below to find out more about different kinds of rocks there are: Types of Rocks Now, Start Your Rock Collection! It's a race against time! Can you do it? Identify Rock Types How are rocks made? Check out: The Rock Cycle Now take the quiz: Diagram the rock cycle quiz Next, click the link to view the Virtual Quarry website. Here, you will be able to look at different rock ...

  16. Discovering Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Rollins

    2010-04-26

    Utah 2nd grade core, Standard 2, Objective 3: Investigate the properties and uses of rocks. Go to Mineral Identification to learn about identifying minerals. Make sure you take notes. Then go to About Rocks to learn a little more about rocks. See if you can identify some of the minerals in these rocks. Choose at least ten different rocks to learn about and write down what you think their ...

  17. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Ramirez

    2008-09-13

    You are Miss Ramirez\\'s scientist on a mission to identify the three types of rocks found on Earth! By the end of this web journey, you will be able to: define what a rock is and where they are found. identify the three types of rocks. recognize the three types of rock based on their characteristics. Here are the materials you will need: Box of rocks (provided by Miss Ramirez) Identification Worksheet (provided by ...

  18. Geotechnical description and JGS engineering classification system for rock mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiko OSADA; Akio FUNATO; Ryunoshin YOSHINAKA; Hiroshi ITO; Takashi KITAGAWA; Katsuji SASAKI; Kenji AOKI; Omer AYDAN; Shinji AKUTAGAWA; Hideo KIYA; Keizo KUWAHARA; Masahiro SETO; Soichi TANAKA; Kazuo TANI; Toshiaki MIMURO; Takayuki MORI

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the new classification system which identifies and designates rock masses based on their fundamental engineering characteristics. The system encompasses the stepwise procedural classification with three steps and a sub-step. The first-step is to classify rock mass into two types; (1) hard rock mass and\\/or its weathered or altered rock mass, and (2) soft rock mass that is

  19. Weathering, Water, and Slope Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Blum, A.; Lee, J.; Cowie, R. M.; Williams, M. W.; Frederick, Z. A.

    2009-12-01

    Aspect controls solar radiation to hillslopes: north facing slopes are more shaded (in the northern hemisphere), while south facing slopes are not. Here we explore how this simple topographic control on energy balance plays out in the architecture of the Critical Zone of a subwatershed in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Gordon Gulch catchment is within the upper montane forest of the Colorado Front Range, with mixed lodgepole-ponderosa pine forest cover. Because the valley trends E-W, hillslopes are either N-facing or S-facing. The annual snowpack is deeper and longer lasting on the lodgepole pine dominated N-facing slopes. Snow is thin or patchy on the open ponderosa pine dominated S-facing slopes. These shading and snowpack differences can be seen in soil temperatures and soil moisture. In a series of soil pits, we found mobile regolith was nearly twice as deep on the moist, N-facing slopes, and saprolite was more weathered in these locations. Saprolite was found at shallower depths on south-facing slopes, and was less weathered, and more competent. We entertain two hypotheses. The depth of mobile layer and degree of weathering of saprolite reflect either differences in material transport rates or differences in chemical weathering rates. In the case of material transport rate control, creep and bioturbation remove highly weathered saprolite, keeping fresher rock closer to the surface on the S-facing slopes. In the case of chemical weathering control, soil moisture maintains greater rates of chemical alteration of saprolite, and physical disruption by creep and bioturbation is minimal on N-facing slopes. The differences in weathering profile development in association with slope aspect provide a natural experiment to unravel competing effects of weathering and erosion on landscape development.

  20. Weather Science Hotlist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

  1. Weather Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mitchell

    2010-09-23

    We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

  2. Annual fossil organic carbon delivery due to mechanical and chemical weathering of marly badlands areas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon (FOC) release by weathering of outcropping sedimentary rocks on continental surfaces is still are composed of a combination of various sedimentary, metamorphic and plutonic rocks. Sedimentary rocks and Landforms 37 (2012) 1263-1271" DOI : 10.1002/esp.3232 #12;2 particles are characterized by Rock-Eval 6

  3. This Rock is Your Rock, This Rock is My Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students discover that the types and relative proportion of minerals that occur together in a rock tell scientists the story of how that rock was formed. They also learn that rocks are named based on how they formed and by the types, amounts, and sizes of minerals in the rocks. Students will realize that one of the most important skills a geologist needs when studying a rock is the ability to observe and describe what he or she sees. As a result of this activity students will improve their observational skills and learn that rocks are made up of one or more minerals.

  4. Correlation of Rock Spectra with Quantitative Morphologic Indices: Evidence for a Single Rock Type at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Biedermann, K. L.; Pierre, N. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Johnson, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) landing site was predicted to contain a broad sampling of rock types varying in mineralogical, physical, mechanical and geochemical characteristics. Although rocks have been divided into several spectral categories based on Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) visible/near-infrared data, efforts in isolating and classifying spectral units among MPF rocks and soils have met with varying degrees of success, as many factors influencing spectral signatures cannot be quantified to a sufficient level to be removed. It has not been fully determined which spectral categories stem from intrinsic mineralogical differences between rocks or rock surfaces, and which result from factors such as physical or chemical weathering. This has made isolation of unique rock mineralogies difficult. Morphology, like composition, is a characteristic tied to the intrinsic properties and geologic and weathering history of rocks. Rock morphologies can be assessed quantitatively and compared with spectral data, to identify and classify rock types at the MPF landing site. They can also isolate actual rock spectra from spectral types that are surficial in origin, as compositions associated with mantling dust or chemical coatings would presumably not influence rock morphology during weathering events. We previously reported on an initial classification of rocks using the quantitative morphologic indices of size, roundness, sphericity and elongation. Here, we compare this database of rock characteristics with associated rock surface spectra to improve our ability to discriminate between spectra associated with rock types and those from other sources.

  5. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze even when the temperature decreases to -20 ºC, and the second group F in which the pore water freezes. It has been found that the rocks from group N contain critical portion of adsorbed water in pores which prevents freezing of the pore water. The presence of adsorbed water enables thermodynamic processes related to osmosis which are dominantly responsible for deterioration of rocks from group N. A high correlation (R = 0.81) between content of adsorbed water and freeze-thaw loss was proved and can be used as durability estimator of rocks from group N. The rock deterioration of group F is caused not only by osmosis, but also by some other processes and influences, such as hydraulic pressure, permeability, grain size, rock and mineral tensile strength, degree of saturation, etc., and the deterioration cannot be predicted yet without the freeze-thaw test. Since the contents of absorbed water and ratio between adsorbed and bulk water (of which the absorbed water consists) is controlled by the porosity and pore structure, it can be concluded that the deterioration of some rocks is strongly related to rock pore structure.

  6. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through the rock cycle. When students create the model, the various parts and processes in the rock cycle are reinforced for them.

  7. Geology of the Oceanic Crust: Magnetic Properties of Oceanic Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Fox; Neil D. Opdyke

    1973-01-01

    A diverse suite of rocks has been sampled from ocean basin escarpments in the North Atlantic and the Caribbean: fresh and weathered basalts, metabasalts (zeolite and greenschist facies), gabbros, met, agabbros (greenschist and amphiolite facies), serpentinized peridotites, and actinolite rocks. One hundred and three representative specimens were chosen from this diverse suite of rocks, and the natural remanent magnetization (NRM)

  8. Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

  9. Weather Tamers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna R. Sterling

    2007-03-01

    Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

  10. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  11. Weather Photography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

  12. Destructive Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    alizabethirwin

    2010-11-03

    What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

  13. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  14. Metamorphic Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Here is an in-depth description of metamorphic rocks, from their classification to formation and identification. It covers types of metamorphism (including Barrovian, or regional rock changes), classification by foliation, and metamorphic processes (facies and zones). An alphabetical list of rocks with picture, composition, description, tectonic association, and type of metamorphism is given. Common metamorphic minerals are covered as well.

  15. Sedimentary Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about sedimentary rocks! Directions: Make a poster about sedimentary rocks. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about sedimentary rocks. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

  16. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  17. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  18. Igneous Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about Igneous Rocks! Directions: Make a poster about Igneous Rocks. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about igneous rocks. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary ...

  19. Rock Jeopardy!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students reinforce their understanding of rocks, the rock cycle, and geotechnical engineering by playing a trivia game. They work in groups to prepare Jeopardy-type trivia questions (answers) and compete against each other to demonstrate their knowledge of rocks and engineering.

  20. The Weather Dude

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, Nick.

    2002-01-01

    The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

  1. Rock and the Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive rock cycle shows students how all rock types are recycled into other types, and how the cycle progresses. Materials include the definitions of each rock type (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), how they change over time, and how tectonic movements help to drive the process.

  2. Weathering of granodioritic crust, long-term storage of elements in weathering profiles, and petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wayne Nesbitt; G. Markovics

    1997-01-01

    The bulk composition and mineralogy of the Toorongo Granodiorite, Australia, are similar to average upper continental crust (AUCC). Weathering characteristics of the Toorongo profile consequently provide insight into large-scale chemical weathering of the upper crust. In situ weathered materials of the profile do not reflect parent granodiorite composition in quartz-plagioclase-K-feldspar (Q-P-K) or in quartz-feldspar-rock fragment (Q-F-L) compositional space. Intensive in

  3. Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  4. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  5. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  6. 'Earhart' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. The Weathering of Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ginneken, M.; Genge, M. J.; Folco, L.

    2014-09-01

    Despite the favorable conditions for their preservation, micrometeorites from Antarctica are affected by terrestrial weathering. Here we present a comprehensive work on the weathering of micrometeorites from Antarctica.

  8. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

  9. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  10. Field and laboratory experiments on weathering rates of granodiorite: Separation of chemical and physical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Yokoyama; Yukinori Matsukura

    2006-01-01

    To study the rate and mechanism of granitic rock weathering, field weathering experiments using granodiorite tablets (diameter 3.5 cm, height 1.1 cm, weight 30 g) were conducted at a catchment over 10 yr. The tablets were exposed at three positions having different weathering conditions: ground surface, above aquifer, and in aquifer. The weight of the tablets decreased linearly with time:

  11. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  12. Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2012-02-17

    Weathering of uplifted continental rocks consumes carbon dioxide and transports cations to the oceans, thereby playing a critical role in controlling both seawater chemistry and climate. However, there are few archives of seawater chemical change that reveal shifts in global tectonic forces connecting Earth ocean-climate processes. We present a 68-million-year record of lithium isotopes in seawater (?(7)Li(SW)) reconstructed from planktonic foraminifera. From the Paleocene (60 million years ago) to the present, ?(7)Li(SW) rose by 9 per mil (‰), requiring large changes in continental weathering and seafloor reverse weathering that are consistent with increased tectonic uplift, more rapid continental denudation, increasingly incongruent continental weathering (lower chemical weathering intensity), and more rapid CO(2) drawdown. A 5‰ drop in ?(7)Li(SW) across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary cannot be produced by an impactor or by Deccan trap volcanism, suggesting large-scale continental denudation. PMID:22282473

  13. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    richrigby

    2010-02-23

    Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

  14. Development of Rock Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This chapter describes the development of rock engineering and provides introductory descriptions of the following concepts: rockbursts and elastic theory, discontinuous rock masses, engineering rock mechanics, geological data collection, laboratory testing of rock, rock mass classification, rock mass strength, in situ stress measurements, groundwater problems, rock reinforcement, excavation methods in rock, and analytical tools used in rock engineering.

  15. Backyard Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students use their senses to describe what the weather is doing and predict what it might do next. After gaining a basic understanding of weather patterns, students act as state park engineers and design/build "backyard weather stations" to gather data to make actual weather forecasts.

  16. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  17. The Weather and Climate

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    The Weather and Climate Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades Shaun LovEjoy and DaniEL SChErTzEr #12;2/15/12 DRAFT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 DRAFT 1 The Weather And The Climate:2 Emergent Laws, weather, low frequency weather and the climate1 1.2.7 The scaling of the atmospheric boundary conditions2

  18. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  19. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  20. External Resource: Rock and the Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This Windows to the Universe interactive site investigates the rock cycle and illustrates that over millions of years, rocks are recycled into other rocks. Topics: rock cycle, igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary, plate tectonics, and geologic time.

  1. Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  2. Igneous Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash page provides information about the formation and crystallization of igneous rocks. It includes pictures and animations with supplementary information and is suitable for high school or introductory level undergraduate physical geology courses.

  3. Collecting Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This basic guide provides information about starting and maintaining a rock collection. Topics include starting a collection, identifying specimens, where and how to collect, and how to house and document a collection.

  4. Match Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Muller

    2003-01-01

    In this activity, learners try to figure out who has their matching rock type by reading a description of their rock (no talking!). This activity can be used in a variety of ways: to introduce students to each other (icebreaker), to improve communication and writing skills, to introduce classification schemes and taxonomy, and to show how scientists use observations and descriptions to draw links between others' data and interpretations.

  5. The Weather Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Emma Grasser

    2012-09-27

    This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

  6. Science Sampler: Weather RATS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Taft

    2006-02-01

    Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

  7. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  8. Interactive Weather Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

  9. Weather and Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Jones

    2012-04-12

    How are different types of weather common in our everyday life? How can we use what we know about weather to go about everyday activities? First, use the Weather Chart to write down what you learn from each website. Then, go to Weather Information Website #1 and click on "What's the Weather?" to dress the bear for the day. Make sure you write it down on your graphic organizer. Next, go to Weather Information Website #3 and explore at least 5(clouds, thunderstorms, winter storms, etc.) of ...

  10. Atmospheric CO2 Removal by Enhancing Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, A. F.; Schuiling, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The increase of the CO2 content in the atmosphere by the release of anthropogenic CO2 may be addressed by the enhancement of weathering at the surface of the earth. The average emission of mantle-derived CO2 through volcanism is ~0.3 Gt/year (109 ton/year). Considering the ~3.000 Gt of CO2 present in the atmosphere, the residence time of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere is ~10,000 years. Because the vast proportion of carbon in biomass is recycled through the atmosphere, CO2 is continuously removed by a series of weathering reactions of silicate minerals and stored in calcium and magnesium carbonates. The addition of anthropogenic CO2 from fossil fuel and cement production, which currently exceeds 35 Gt/year and dwarfs the natural production 100-fold, cannot be compensated by current rates of weathering, and atmospheric CO2 levels are rising rapidly. To address this increase in CO2 levels, weathering rates would have to be accelerated on a commensurate scale. Olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) is the most reactive silicate mineral in the weathering process. This mineral is the major constituent in relatively common ultramafic rocks such as dunites (olivine content > 90%). To consume the current total annual anthropogenic release of CO2, using a simplified weathering reaction (Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 4H2O --> 2 Mg2+ + 4HCO3- + H4SiO4) would require ~30 Gt/year or ~8-9 km3/year of dunite. This is a large volume; it is about double the total amount of ore and gravel currently mined (~ 17 Gt/year). To mine and crush these rocks to <100 ?m costs ~ 8/ton. The transport and distribution over the earth's surface involves additional costs, that may reach 2-5/ton. Thus, the cost of remediation for the release of anthropogenic CO2 is 300-400 billion/year. This compares to a 2014 global GDP of ~80 trillion. Because weathering reactions require the presence of water and proceed more rapidly at higher temperatures, the preferred environments to enhance weathering are the wet tropics. From a socio-economic view, this would require a transfer of funds to some of the poorest and neediest countries. An additional benefit is that weathered ultramafic rocks produce some of the most fertile soils. It also would contribute directly to the remediation of ocean acidification.

  11. The chemical weathering regime of Kärkevagge, arctic-alpine Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Colin E.; Darmody, Robert G.; Dixon, John C.; Schlyter, Peter

    2001-11-01

    Kärkevagge is a valley located in Swedish Lapland at approximately 68°N and represents an arctic-alpine landscape. It is a presently periglacial, glaciated trough incised into essentially horizontal metamorphic rocks, some of which are presumably pyrite-rich. A set of coordinated studies was undertaken to investigate the nature of chemical weathering and pedogenesis in the valley and upon the abutting ridges. August 1996 water quality measures reveal considerable spatial variation in solute totals with the highest Total Dissolved Solute abundances being correlated with high sulfate abundances. Ridge-crest soils exhibited poor horizonation, but more extensive development of secondary clay minerals developed in situ than was found in valley-flank and valley-bottom soils. Valley soils exhibited multiple thin horizons, many of which were buried, and are taken to reflect great paraglacial and periglacial instability. Favorable microenvironments in the valley permit significant development of Spodosols. Coarse debris along and across the valley bears both weathering rinds and rock coatings. Rock coatings in the valley include several types of iron films, sulfate crusts, carbonate skins, and heavy metal skins. Kärkevagge represents a mild arctic environment, which does not preclude substantial chemical weathering in locations where abundant pyrite-rich bedrock and water coincide. This weathering follows pathways which are eminently expectable given that weathering of the pyrite-rich rock permits generation of sulfuric acid which, in turn, weathers muscovite mica and calcite in local schists and marble, respectively. Zones of intense chemical weathering also generate clearly visible deposits of gypsum and iron sulfate deposits such as jarosite. Not all arctic and/or alpine environments are likely to be so active chemically, but the results from Kärkevagge clearly show that dismissal of chemical weathering in cold regions on the basis of presumed first principles is erroneous. Consequently, chemical weathering in such environments merits substantially more attention than it has hitherto received.

  12. Internet Weather Links: Weather and Weather Related Lesson Plans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.

  13. Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  14. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

  15. On Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Crane

    2004-05-01

    In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

  16. Winter Weather: Hypothermia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be successfully resuscitated. More Information: Frostbite Disasters & Severe Weather ... Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  17. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  18. In Depth Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

  19. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  20. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  1. Erosion and the rocks of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the surface of Venus returned by the Venera 9 and 10 spacecraft have revealed the presence of smooth and angular rockline forms. Two mechanisms previously suggested (Sagan, 1975) for erosion of crater ramparts on the surface of Venus might also explain the erosion of rocks. Chemical weathering by the hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acids present in the atmosphere of Venus may have been sufficient to erode angular projections of silicous rocks. Alternatively, the contours of rocks containing such low-melting materials as NaOH, KOH, HgS and KNO2 may have softened as the result of exposure to the high surface temperatures of the planet.

  2. How's the Weather Today?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to think about the weather in their area and introduces them to weather and temperature trends in different latitudes of the United States. They will look at the current weather map and record the high temperatures for a few cities. They will conclude by drawing pictures of themselves outdoors in their hometown and in another place that has different weather.

  3. Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

  4. Stormfax Weather Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-10

    This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

  5. Evidence of frost-cracking inferred from acoustic emissions in a high-alpine rock-wall

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evidence of frost-cracking inferred from acoustic emissions in a high-alpine rock-wall D. Amitranoa within rock is known to be an important driver of near-surface frost weathering as well as of rock damage at the depth of several meters, which may play a crucial role for the slow preconditioning of rock fall

  6. E-Rock: A Virtual Field Trip

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Reed

    This virtual field trip shows students the geologic features of Enchanted Rock, a dome of Precambrian granite located in central Texas. They can see small faults, fault gouge, close-up photos showing the texture of the granite, and a variety of features produced by weathering.

  7. Rock Pioneers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1981-01-01

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate organisms that live along the ocean's rocky coast. Learners add bare rocks to an intertidal zone, and over the course of 6-8 weeks observe what plant and animals colonize (come to live) on the new rocks. The intertidal zone, covered by water during high tides and uncovered at low tides, is usually densely covered with marine organisms such as seaweeds, mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, anemones and sea stars. Learners may not only discover pioneer organisms (first colonizers) of their new rocks, but other organisms that replace the first arrivals in the process of succession. This activity calls for multiple, weekly return visits to the intertidal zone.

  8. Pyroclastic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Gail A.

    Most of the advances in volcanology during the past 20 years have concerned the recognition, interpretation, and mode of emplacement of pyroclastic rocks. The literature on pyroclastic rocks is widely scattered, in part because the field draws from sedimentology, igneous petrology, physics, and fluid mechanics, and there have been few review papers on the topic. Fisher and Schmincke have done the discipline of volcanology and all field-oriented geologists a great service in assembling material from a wide range of sources in this comprehensive treatment of pyroclastic rocks. With its introduction to the petrology of magmas involved in explosive eruptions in chapter 2 and a complete treatment of magma rheology and the behavior of dissolved and exsolving magmatic volatiles in chapter 3, they lay sufficient groundwork that anyone with a rudimentary knowledge of geology can understand the book.

  9. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Environment Center

    The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

  10. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  11. Weather Girl Goes Rogue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deep Rogue Ram

    This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

  12. Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

  13. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  14. Weather Maps in Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

  15. METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa U.S.A. Yun-Ching Lin submitted to Weather and Forecasting July 05, 2010 Corresponding author: Dr. Mong-Ming Lu, Central Weather

  16. Spaceborne weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Meneghini; Toshiaki Kozu

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of

  17. Weather Data Gamification 

    E-print Network

    Gargate, Rohit

    2013-07-25

    . With the huge amount of weather data available, we have designed and developed a fantasy weather game. People manage a team of cities with the goal of predicting weather better than other players in their league, and in the process gain an understanding...

  18. Start a Rock Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2012-06-26

    Learners follow a three-step process to start their own rock collection. Learners will collect rocks, record information about each rock on a Rock Chart, observe and sort their rocks, and create a rock display. This activity also includes a book list with resources for rock classification.

  19. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  20. Seafloor weathering buffering climate: numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.; Abbot, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Continental silicate weathering is widely held to consume atmospheric CO2 at a rate controlled in part by temperature, resulting in a climate-weathering feedback [Walker et al., 1981]. It has been suggested that weathering of oceanic crust of warm mid-ocean ridge flanks also has a CO2 uptake rate that is controlled by climate [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001; Brady and Gislason, 1997]. Although this effect might not be significant on present-day Earth [Caldeira, 1995], seafloor weathering may be more pronounced during snowball states [Le Hir et al., 2008], during the Archean when seafloor spreading rates were faster [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001], and on waterworld planets [Abbot et al., 2012]. Previous studies of seafloor weathering have made significant contributions using qualitative, generally one-box, models, and the logical next step is to extend this work using a spatially resolved model. For example, experiments demonstrate that seafloor weathering reactions are temperature dependent, but it is not clear whether the deep ocean temperature affects the temperature at which the reactions occur, or if instead this temperature is set only by geothermal processes. Our goal is to develop a 2-D numerical model that can simulate hydrothermal circulation and resulting alteration of oceanic basalts, and can therefore address such questions. A model of diffusive and convective heat transfer in fluid-saturated porous media simulates hydrothermal circulation through porous oceanic basalt. Unsteady natural convection is solved for using a Darcy model of porous media flow that has been extensively benchmarked. Background hydrothermal circulation is coupled to mineral reaction kinetics of basaltic alteration and hydrothermal mineral precipitation. In order to quantify seafloor weathering as a climate-weathering feedback process, this model focuses on hydrothermal reactions that influence carbon uptake as well as ocean alkalinity: silicate rock dissolution, calcium and magnesium leaching reactions, carbonate precipitation, and clay formation.

  1. Weather affects us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimmy

    2009-11-09

    2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  3. Igneous Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Doe

    1983-01-01

    ``Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy ... and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not

  4. Rock Groups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Strogatz

    2010-02-07

    In this one-page article Steven Strogatz explains how representing numbers with concrete objects can make calculations less confusing. By using images of rocks, he demystifies concepts such as square numbers, parity, primes, and sums of consecutive numbers. This is the second in Steven's series of 15 articles on the Elements of Math (home page cataloged separately).

  5. Red Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Grillo; John Sipple; Ethan Weitzman

    2010-01-01

    This film explores the background and issues surrounding Senate bill 799 - A bill to designate as wilderness certain Federal portions of the red rock canyons of the Colorado Plateau and the Great Basin Deserts in the State of Utah for the benefit of present and future generations of people in the United States.

  6. Research Rocks

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Alex Andronikov, a geologist from the University of Michigan Department of Geological Science, and Kelley Brumley, a geologist from Stanford University, sort through rocks that were dredged from the Arctic Ocean floor Sept. 9, 2009, aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Healy.The dredging is part of the...

  7. National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

  8. Spatial, temporal and geographic considerations of the problem of rock varnish diagenesis

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    Spatial, temporal and geographic considerations of the problem of rock varnish diagenesis Ronald I. Dorn a, , David Krinsley b a School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 Palaeoenvironment Philosophy of science Rock varnish Weathering The rock varnish literature hosts an abundance

  9. Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Lab Name Geology 100 Harbor Section

    E-print Network

    Harbor, David

    Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Lab Name Geology 100 Harbor Section NOTE: if you use acid on any samples. Sedimentary rocks are usually identified in the field by their stratification or layering, which usually originates by the successive deposition of organic remains and clasts or ions weathered from other rocks

  10. A micromechanics-based elastoplastic damage model for quasi-brittle rocks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is applied to simulate triaxial compression tests on two sets of diabase samples, the first cored from a fresh diabase rock mass and the second from a slightly weathered one. Comparisons between numerical in the area of Danjiangkou Water Reservoir, such as diabase rock, sandstone, schist rock, etc. Among them

  11. Q00906010024 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    00906010024 rock check dam Q00906010025 rock check dam Q00906010021 rock check dam Q00906010022 rock check dam Q00906010027 rock check dam Q00906010026 rock check dam Q00906010018 rock check dam Q00906010023 rock check dam Q00906010011 rock check dam Q00906010008 rock check dam Q00906010007 rock check dam Q

  12. External Resource: Rock and Roll

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This page contains information on exactly what a rock is, as well as a diagram of the rock cycle. Topics include: characteristics of rocks, types of rocks, igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks.

  13. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

  14. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  17. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

  18. Welcome to Rock Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeaneen Benhart

    2004-01-01

    Seeking to revitalize a unit on rocks, sand, and soil for first-graders, the authors created new hands-on lessons. These included testing the hardness of rocks, making models of the Earth, and sorting rocks. As a culminating activity, students participated in a series of Rock Day events that focused on the three different types of rocks and the rock cycle.

  19. NOAA Daily Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

    2011-01-01

    The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

  20. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    PubMed

    Norris, Richard D; Norris, James M; Lorenz, Ralph D; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice. PMID:25162535

  1. Sliding Rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First Observation of Rocks in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved >60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, “windowpane” ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of ?4–5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2–5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice. PMID:25162535

  2. Space Weather Media Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

  3. Everything Weather- Archived Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

  4. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  5. Weather and Climate Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

  6. Winter weather activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

  7. Redistribution of uranium and thorium series isotopes during isovolumetric weathering of granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    1984-06-01

    Previous studies of the distribution of U and Th in parent versus weathered granites have shown both depletion and enrichment of these elements during weathering. In this study, the distribution of U and Th decay series isotopes was determined in a weathering profile of a granitic saprolite, which showed textural preservation indicating isovolumetric weathering. Two types of dissolution methods were used: a whole-rock dissolution and a sodium-citrate dithionite leach to preferentially attack noncrystalline phases of weathering products. Using volume-based activities, 45-70 percent of the total 232Th was gradually removed during weathering. Although the whole-rock 228Th /232Th activity ratios were in equilibrium, there were large excesses of 228Th in the leachable fraction of both parent rock ( 228Th /232Th = 2.06 ) and partially weathered saprolite ( 228Th /232Th = 3-6.5 ), due to alpha recoil and release of daughter 228Th to the weathering rind of the mineral grain. For the most weathered sample, 81 percent of the thorium was in the teachable fraction and 228Th /232Th = 1 , indicating that even the more resistant minerals were attacked. The total U activities showed as much variation in the six parent rock samples as in the weathered profile, and 234U /238U were in equilibrium in both the whole-rock and leachable fractions. 230Th was deficient relative to 234U and 226Ra in both fractions, suggesting recent addition of U and Ra to the entire profile. The large variation in U was not from absorption onto the intermediate weathering products, because only 11-23 percent of the U was in the leachable fraction.

  8. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  9. Net-Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Net-Weather presents a host of meteorological information for the UK at this website. Users can find out seasonal, monthly, 10-day, and additional relevant weather forecasts. The Charts and Data link offers live satellite images, links to numerous forecast models, and data on sea temperatures and anomalies. For people who like winter and snow, the website offers interesting stories about famous British winters as well as snow reports. The Net-Weather Forum is a great place to discuss any weather-related topic.

  10. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  11. Winter Storm (weather)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

  12. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  13. Washington Post Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

  14. Geochemistry and origin of ferruginous nodules in weathered granodioritic gneisses, Mysore Plateau, Southern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant K. Tripathi; V. Rajamani

    2007-01-01

    Fe-nodules occur within saprolites formed from weathering of granodioritic gneisses in the rain-shadow region of the Mysore Plateau adjacent to the Sahyadri Mountains in Southern India. These nodules and their host saprolites were studied for their geochemistry, including chemical speciation, to understand nodule formation and chemical redistribution processes during rock weathering. From their mode of occurrence, and mineralogical and geochemical

  15. Iron-sulfur mineralogy of Mars: Magmatic evolution and chemical weathering products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger G. Burns; Duncan S. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Models for the evolution of sulfide minerals on Mars and reaction pathways to their oxidative weathering products in Martian regolith have been proposed based on petrogenetic associations between komatiitic rock types, Viking geochemical data, SNC meteorites, and terrestrial Fe-Ni sulfide deposits. To test the weathering model, komatiitic pyrrhotites and olivines were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions, with and without dissolved

  16. IS CHEMICAL INDEX OF ALTERATION (CIA) A RELIABLE PROXY FOR CHEMICAL WEATHERING IN GLOBAL DRAINAGE BASINS?

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shouye

    IS CHEMICAL INDEX OF ALTERATION (CIA) A RELIABLE PROXY FOR CHEMICAL WEATHERING IN GLOBAL DRAINAGE weathering of silicate rocks in continents as an important sink of atmospheric CO2 is of great significance for global environmental change. Rivers play a key role in earth surface processes and are regarded

  17. Weathering in the cold: Granite hillslopes in Osborn Mountain, WY and Bodmin Moor, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Riggins; S. P. Anderson; R. S. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Low temperatures generally limit rates of chemical weathering, and hence might be expected to limit development and evolution of mobile regolith in cold climates. Chemical and physical processes operate to release material from bedrock into the mobile regolith. Rock is weakened by chemical weathering, while physical breakdown produces particles susceptible to transport. We examine two hillslopes mantled with mobile regolith

  18. Weathering-related Slope Instabilities of The Calabrian Arc (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcaterra, D.; Parise, M.

    Weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks widely crop out in the Mediterranean area, where in recent years greater attention has been paid to weathering-related slope movements. Calabria, the southernmost region of the Italian peninsula, is one of the most challenging area where to study such topic. Many factors favoured during past times onset and development of the weathering processes in Calabria: huge geody- namic events, still active today as proved by regional seismicity; high uplifting rate; long history of exposition to weathering agents; aggressive climatic conditions, char- acterized by intense, locally clustered, rainfall. In the late '80s a wide research pro- gramme was started in Calabria with the aim of defining an integrated, multidisci- plinary method, suitable to analyse and interpret both the weathering processes and the related instability phenomena. Two were the main goals of the research: a) the engineering-geological characteristics of weathered terrains; and b) the understanding of typology, mechanisms and triggering causes of mass movements. The research was carried out on several test sites distributed over the Calabrian Arc, a complex chain formed by several massifs (Coastal Chain, Sila, Serre, Poro, Aspromonte), largely made up of crystalline rocks. Choice of the sites was also dictated by the presence of important man-made structures (settlements, dams, tunnels, etc.) and the conse- quent availability of specific geological and geotechnical data. A summary of the re- sults so far obtained in the definition of the weathering characteristics of Calabrian crystalline rocks, in type and frequency of slope movements in weathered materials, and in the understandings of the main relations between weathering and instability as well, is here presented. In general terms, weathering in Calabria shows a complex profile, characterized by pronounced irregularity in the spatial distribution of weath- ered horizons. The latter have been recognized up to a depth of 150-200 m from the ground surface, where only occasionally fresh volumes are present. Mass movements range from slide-flows to rock instabilities, including also deep-seated phenomena. Frequency and activity of slope movements seems to be strictly related to outcropping of the more weathered horizons.

  19. All About Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Heffernan

    2010-06-21

    We will be learning about different types of rocks today.This project will teach you how to sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. We will even see a video of new rocks being formed! Visit this link to read an intro about rocks. Intro to Rocks Then visit these three links 1) Metamorphic Rocks 2) Igneous Rocks 3) Sedimentary Rocks Now answer these questions: 1) What types of rocks do you think you would find in your backyard? 2)Compare and contrast 2 of the 3 different types of rocks. 3)What is your favorite ...

  20. Multilingual Weather Forecast Generation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianfang Yao; Dongmo Zhang; Qian Wang

    The MLWFA (Multilingual Weather Forecasts Assistant) system will be demonstrated. It is developed to generate the multilingual text of the weather forecasts automatically. The raw data from the weather observation can be used to generate the weather element chart. According to the weather change trend, the forecasters can directly modify the value Of the element on the chart, such as

  1. Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Buss; Peter B. Sak; Samuel M. Webb; Susan L. Brantley

    2008-01-01

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2–2m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (?2.5cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ?V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates

  2. Frost weathering: Climate control of regolith production and critical zone evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Kelly, P. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Wickert, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rock generally displays greater fracture density and reduced strength near the surface than at depth. Relatively few processes can explain this profile of mechanical damage seen in rock. Motivated by weathered rock profiles measured in Gordon Gulch in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (Colorado Front Range, USA), we focus on frost cracking as an important weathering process. We use our measurements to guide a model of frost cracking. Although the modern mean annual ground temperature is ~4°C, it was subzero during Pleistocene glacial times. Frost cracking is therefore a plausible mechanism of rock damage. Rock on north-facing slopes in this high elevation catchment (~2600 m a.s.l.) is more deeply weathered and displays lower tensile strength than rock on south-facing slopes. We present detailed subsurface temperature profile records at sites on both slopes, reaching depths up to 1.5 m, and therefore crossing the mobile regolith - saprolite interface. We augment existing frost cracking models by incorporating daily thermal cycles, snow cover, latent heat, variation in material properties with depth, and limitations imposed by long transport distances for water to the freezing front. The north- and south-facing hillslope asymmetries in critical zone architecture can be explained with differences in mean annual surface temperatures, although moisture differences may also play a role. A temperature-controlled model of rock weathering enables consideration of the effect of climate change on weathered profile development.

  3. California Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Leech

    These course materials are for a basic college course in geology. Included are a course syllabus, websites of interest, the course project guidelines, and two field trip guides. Students can download a copy of the Periodic Table of the Elements and the Geologic Time Scale (detailed or simplified version). The main feature of the site is a series of slide shows for ten lectures covering basic geology with a focus on California. In addition there are lists of California's common rocks and minerals with photographs of each.

  4. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. Technical Focus Approaches to modelling mineral weathering by fungi

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    important roles in the soil, the plant-root zone, and in rock and mineral habitats. Modelling may serve by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fbr.2009.09.003 #12;important growth substrate mycelial growth models and examines how these can be adapted to describe weathering by ectomycorrhizal

  6. Home Weatherization Visit

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  7. People and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  8. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  9. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  10. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  11. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  12. Weather Vane and Anemometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

  13. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  14. Northwest Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Palewicz

    This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

  15. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  16. Weather and radar interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Booth

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of weather on radar system performance. This discussion were based on computer simulations and climatological data. The relationships between frequency and range were explored as they interact with the weather. This effort is being conducted in the RF Technology Division of the Applied Sensors, Guidance, and Electronics Directorate, US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development,

  17. Advanced Aviation Weather Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn M. Wolfson; David A. Clark

    2006-01-01

    n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal

  18. New weather forecasting aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new, computerized weather analysis and display system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is being used to provide air traffic controllers in Colorado with up-to-date information on weather systems that could affect aircraft within their control areas. The system, called PROFS (Prototype Regional Observing and Forecasting Services), was under development for four years at NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories in Boulder, and is undergoing operational evaluation at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in Longmont, Colo. FAA officials see the new system as a first step in upgrading the weather support services for the nation's air traffic control system. Originally created to help National Weather Service personnel with their forecasting duties (Eos, April 13, 1982, p. 233), the PROFS system was specially tailored for aviation use before being installed at the Longmont center. The system uses computers to process weather data from satellites, regional radar, wind profilers, a network of automated weather stations in eastern Colorado, and other sources, some of which are not normally available to forecasters. When this information is collected and formatted, weather personnel at the center can choose from several types of visual display on their terminals, depending on what information they require. The forecasters can then make printed copies of any display and distribute them within moments to controllers who use the information to alert air traffic to storms, wind shifts, and other weather disturbances.

  19. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  20. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2011-06-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  1. Predicting the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

  2. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  3. Weather Event Simulator Weather Event Simulator

    E-print Network

    Training Branch National Weather Service Norman, OK John Ferree Warning Decision Training Branch National for Applied Behavioral Science D iscus Audio/ Teac Le #12;Learn By DoingLearn By Doing #12;Simulations Improve ­ All Major Airlines ­ Flight Schools #12;Simulations Improve Job Performance Simulations Improve Job

  4. Space Weather CD

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-10

    This is a software package about space weather: what it is and what it does in space and here on Earth. The disc includes software that displays movies and images of the aurora and of the Sun in various wavelengths from the ground and from orbiting NASA spacecraft; a tutorial about what space weather is and how the aurora is formed; and more. Users will also find real-time space weather conditions from current satellite missions and can download the latest data without leaving the Space Weather application. A TicTacToe game is also included that tests space weather knowledge. The disc contains many other Space Weather resources, programs, sounds, and games for use at home or school, and there are several educational websites included in full on the disc for offline viewing. In addition there is an exhaustive list of links to a variety of space weather resources available online. The disc is available for free from a number of sites if downloaded.

  5. Space Weathering: A Lesson from Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Hiroi, T.; Nimura, T.

    Reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids are different from those of ordinary chondrites There are also spectral differences between lunar rocks and soils of the similar composition These spectral mismatches are explained by the so-called space weathering S-type asteroids exhibit more overall depletion and reddening of spectra and more weakening of absorption bands relative to ordinary chondrites Formation of nanophase metallic iron particles due to high velocity dust impacts as well as sputtering by solar wind would be responsible for the spectral change We succeeded in reproducing the spectral change expected in space weathering using nano-second pulse laser irradiation on silicates simulating high-velocity dust impacts We confirmed the formation of nanophase iron particles using TEM Sasaki S et al 2001 Nature 410 555-557 We considered regolith-like surface condition is essential for space weathering since evaporated materials may condense with nano-iron particles on the surfaces of other particles The size-dependent transition from Q-type ordinary chondrite-like objects to S-type objects also suggested that regolith is scarce abundant on objects smaller larger than the transition size Binzel R P et al 2004 Icarus 170 259-294 In 2005 Hayabusa spacecraft rendezvoused an S-type asteroid 25143 Itokawa with size of 550m and performed a color imaging by onboard camera AMICA Approximately 80 of Itokawa s surface is rough and boulder-rich but it has a somewhat weathered

  6. Weather satellite launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    NASA launched on 24 May the weather satellite GOES-N, the first of the new N series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The satellite, which becomes GOES-13 once it reaches its final orbit, joins the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collection of weather satellites that provide the agency with data for weather forecasts and warnings. The GOES-N series has several improvements over previous GOES satellites. A highly stable pointing platform will allow improved performance from the satellite's sounder-which gathers atmospheric data- and its imager. In addition, the satellite will enable NOAA to improve forecasts and warnings of solar disturbances.

  7. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  8. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

  9. Sun, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships, that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown causal mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climatic trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments.

  10. Weather Observing Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2014-03-11

    "Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

  11. World Weather Information Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

  12. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features visual resources and supporting data that illustrate the relationship between weather and climate. Resources are divided by topic including climate resources, weather forecasting, warnings and data, and evidence for global warming. Visualizations and data sets include GIS-based animated maps, static maps, simple animations, and links to real-time stream gauge data. This site provides an array of visual resources that help demonstrate the difference between weather and climate and may be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

  13. Major Rock Groups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

  14. EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

    E-print Network

    EUROCK 2006 ­ Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics ­ Van Cotthem. These fluid- saturated microcracks are the most compliant elements of the rock-mass and control rock behaves like almost every other complex interactive system: the weather; quantum mechanics; super

  15. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  16. All About Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-12-14

    Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the 3 main types of rocks and how they are made. Let's do a little warm up... 1.What do you already know about rocks? 2.Where have you seen rocks before? 3.Name all the ways you can think of that people use rocks, and what they use them for... 4.Do you know how rocks are formed? 5.What do you think the world would be like without any ...

  17. Collecting and Identifying Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Harvey, Marquette Catholic School, Virginia,MN

    In this Earth Science activity, students will investigate rocks in an outdoor field trip. Students will be divided into groups and given a Ziploc bag to collect rocks. We will then return to the classroom, and the students will put their rocks into different groups. The different groups could be the size, shape, color, and texture of the rocks. We will then talk about the Rock Cycle and the three main types of rocks. Students will record their observations in their science journals.

  18. Rocks are fun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Peterson

    2009-12-14

    Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Click on each of the links below to learn about the main types of rocks and then answer the questions that follow. *Igneous Rocks 1. In your own words, explain the TWO ways in which an igneous rock can be formed. 2. Please illustrate ONE of the ways an igneous rock is formed. *Metamorphic Rocks 1. Why ...

  19. Rock Cycle Roundabout

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners will learn how igneous rock, metamorphic rock, and sedimentary rock are formed as part of the rock cycle and that the same forces that produce/change rocks also produce/change landforms. They will learn this by playing a game where one player must describe a type of rock (that is chosen by random card selection) to another player who then must guess what type of rock that is. Then, there may be a discussion of geologic time and learners can create a timeline model based on the sequence of rock types that were chosen in the game.

  20. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt. %' indicates that the numbers tell what percentage of the total weight of each rock is silica (on the horizontal scale) and what percentage is oxides of sodium and potassium (on the vertical scale). The thin lines separate volcanic rock types identified on Earth by different scientific names such as foidite and picrobasalt. Various classes of Gusev rocks (see box in upper right) all plot either on or to the left of the green lines, which define 'alkaline' and 'subalkaline' categories (subalkaline rocks have more silica than alkaline rocks).

    Members of the rover team have named different classes of rocks after specimens examined by Spirit that represent their overall character. During the rover's travels, Spirit discovered that Adirondack-class rocks littered the Gusev plains; that Backstay, Irvine, and Wishstone-class rocks occurred as loose blocks on the northwest slope of 'Husband Hill'; and that outcrops of Algonquin-class rocks protruded in several places on the southeast face.

    These rocks have less silica than all previously analyzed Mars samples, which are subalkaline. The previously analyzed Mars samples include Martian meteorites found on Earth and rocks analyzed by the Mars Pathfinder rover in 1997. Gusev is the first documented example of an alkaline igneous province on Mars.

  1. Sun, weather, and climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Herman; R. A. Goldberg

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather\\/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5)

  2. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

  3. Weather Radar Network Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Junyent; V. Chandrasekar

    2008-01-01

    The Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) is investigating the use of dense networks of short-range radars for weather sensing. A first test-bed of this new paradigm is currently deployed in southwest Oklahoma. The potential benefits of closely deployed, overlapping, short-range weather radars are easy to see intuitively amounting to a greater ability to measure

  4. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

  5. An Ocean of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

  6. 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

  7. Recall of Television Weather Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A Minneapolis/St. Paul telephone survey revealed that most people interviewed relied on radio weather reports for weather information, that the amount of weather information retained from radio and television forecasts was minimal, and that most people were satisfied with television weather reports. (GW)

  8. All About Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Quinn

    2005-06-16

    What does igneous mean? What is a sedimentary rock? You have been given the challenge to learn all you can about rocks and minerals. Use the following sites to collect information. You will be compiling the information you learn into a book for the other classes. These two sites will give you information about how rocks are formed. Make sure you find out the 3 types of rocks! Discover How Rocks Are Formed Rocks for Kids What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? See if you can figure it out on these two sites. This planet really rocks! : all about rocks and minerals Rocks for Kids Test your knowledge about rocks with a ...

  9. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

  10. Weather and The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Merritt

    2005-10-15

    Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

  11. V00306010057 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« XY! 16-020 16-030(c) 16-026(l) 16-028(c) 16-026(l) V00306010057 rock check dam V00306010012 rock check dam V00306010040 rock check dam V00306010039 rock check dam V00306010058 rock check dam V00306010064 rock check dam V00306010061 rock check dam V00306010062 rock check dam V00306010063

  12. Thermal behaviour of weathered and consolidated marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedrich, J.; Weiss, T.; Siegesmund, S.; Tschegg, E. K.

    2003-04-01

    To optimise stone consolidation it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of weathering in marbles, the control by the mineralogical composition and the rock fabric. The knowledge of how the stone consolidants affect the weathering mechanisms and if they are compatible with the stone is also an important consideration. The weathering of marble can begin with thermal stress whereby cracks are generated. To verify whether consolidation influences the thermal behaviour of marbles, we compared the behaviour of weathered and consolidated marbles. For the investigations four marbles were selected with various fabrics (e.g. texture, grain size, grain boundary geometry, etc.) and different weathering conditions. Three consolidation approaches were adopted: a solved polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA I) dissolved in xylenes, a polysilicic acid ester (PSAE) and a total impregnation with a monomer methyl-methacrylate (PMMA II). Measurements of the porosity and effective pore size distribution evidenced a strong modification of the pore space by consolidation. Both PMMA approaches show a reestablishment of cohesion which can be determined by ultrasonic velocity measurements. The most conspicuous change of thermal dilatation behaviour is a pronounced reduction of expansion for the PMMA II consolidated marbles. By reaching the glass transition temperatures of PMMA I and PMMA II, a pronounced residual strain is observed in thermal dilatation measurements. This does not necessarily coincide with a deterioration, since ultrasonic wave velocities do not show a drastic decrease in thermally treated consolidated marbles. The PSAE consolidated marbles only show minor changes of dilatation, but due to its low bonding effect no significant cohesion between the crystals occurs.

  13. Everybody Find a Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

  14. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  15. All About Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

  16. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  17. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  18. Metamorphic Rock Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students develop skill in the visual identification of metamorphic rock species and conceptualize the relationships between non-metamorphosed species and their metamorphic counterparts. Students will use a hand lens to examine metamorphic rocks and make observations about grain size, foliation, and other characteristics. Then, using this data, they identify the rocks with the classification sheet included with the student worksheet. They will then match the metamorphic rock with its parent rock.

  19. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  20. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  1. Titan's Methane Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.

    2012-05-01

    Conditions in Titan's troposphere are near the triple point of methane, the second most abundant component of its atmosphere. Our understanding of Titan's lower atmosphere has shifted considerably in the past decade. Ground-based observations, Hubble Space Telescope images, and data returned from the Cassini and Huygens spacecraft show that Titan's troposphere hosts a methane-based meteorology in direct analogy to the water-based meteorology of Earth. What once was thought to be a quiescent place, lacking in clouds or localized weather and changing only subtly on long seasonal timescales, is now understood to be a dynamic system with significant weather events regularly occurring against the backdrop of dramatic seasonal changes. Although the observational record of Titan's weather covers only a third of its 30-year seasonal cycle, Titan's atmospheric processes appear to be more closely analogous to those of Earth than to those of any other object in our solar system.

  2. A framework for predicting global silicate weathering and CO2 drawdown rates over geologic time-scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George E. Hilley; Stephen Porder

    2008-01-01

    Global silicate weathering drives long-time-scale fluctuations in atmospheric CO2. While tectonics, climate, and rock-type influence silicate weathering, it is unclear how these factors combine to drive global rates. Here, we explore whether local erosion rates, GCM-derived dust fluxes, temperature, and water balance can capture global variation in silicate weathering. Our spatially explicit approach predicts 1.9-4.6 × 1013 mols of Si

  3. HEAVY METALS IN ROCKS AND STREAM SEDIMENTS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leticia ROSALES HOZ; Arturo CARRANZA EDWARDS; Susana SANTIAGO PEREZ

    In order to assess the amount of heavy metals apported by natural weathering to the coastal area of the northwestern part of Baja California, México, rocks from outcrops, rock fragments and sediments from the Guadalupe River and other streams that drain towards this area were studied. Major elements (Si, Al, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Ti) and

  4. Dilatometrical behaviour of porous calcareous rock samples subjected to freeze-thaw cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Prick

    1995-01-01

    Dilatometry can be used in geomorphology as an evaluation method for the behaviour of rocks during weathering by frost shattering and also for the role of unfrozen water migration during this process. It has already been demonstrated in other publications that calcareous rock cylinders undergoing humidification\\/drying cycles (no freezing) vary in length. These length changes are most significant when water

  5. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

  6. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

  7. Wisconsin Weather Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

  8. Indigenous Weather Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

  9. Weather and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-11-25

    This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

  10. Weather Depot 1.21

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

  11. Weatherization Works!: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  12. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  13. Interactives: The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How much do you know about rocks? Well, if you are a bit unsure about distinguishing an igneous rock from a sedimentary rock you'll certainly be on solid ground after taking a tour through this feature created by Annenberg Media. Visitors can make their way through graphically-enhanced sections that include "Types of Rocks", "How Rocks Change", and "The Rock Cycle Diagram". In the "Types of Rocks" area visitors will learn about the basic types of rocks and they can even check out a handy chart that will give them some of the finer points of rock identification. The "How Rocks Change" area provides a basic overview of the processes involved with rock creation and transformation through a heady blend of Flash animations and straight-forward prose. Finally, the "Rock Cycle Diagram" provides an illustration of rock transformation over time. This site will be quite useful to educators and anyone who has peered at a rock and wondered: "How did you come to be?"

  14. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  15. Fossils and tFossils and the Rock Cyclehe Rock Cycle The rock cycle explains how one type of rock

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Fossils and tFossils and the Rock Cyclehe Rock Cycle h ^ The rock cycle explains how one type of rock can be transformed into another in nature. The Geologic Cycle 3 key events: deposition, uplift geologic time Forms Strata: layers of rock The rock cycle explains how one type of rock can be transformed

  16. V01406010015 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    XY! ¬« ¬« V01406010015 rock check dam V01406010014 rock check dam V01406010013 rock check dam 1501403010012 earthen berm V01403010008 earthen berm V01406010003 rock check dam V01406010004 rock check dam V01406010010 rock check dam V01406010011 rock check dam 15-0651 15-0307 15-0588 15-0532 15-0575 stormdrain 7160

  17. Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chisholm

    1978-01-01

    A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

  18. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  19. Winter Storms Weather Quizzes

    E-print Network

    and report more exact measurements. As it comes closer to land, special weather radars track the hurricane, the sea may rise as high as 25 feet above normal high tide! That is taller than six kids standing on each up all the small things laying around your yard, like toys, tools and flower pots and bring them

  20. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  1. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  2. Winds, Weather, and Deserts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

  3. Weather in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The ATS-111 weather satellite, launched on November 18, 1967, in a synchronous earth orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, is described in this folder. The description is divided into these topics: the satellite, the camera, the display, the picture information, and the beneficial use of the satellite. Photographs from the satellite are included.…

  4. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  5. Sunspots and Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

  6. METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Submitted to Monthly Weather Review 9 September 2010 Corresponding Author Address: Angela K. Rowe Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State subsequent freezing to produce graupel. Similar features were also observed in an isolated cell over

  7. Blogging About the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Evans

    2010-04-01

    Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

  8. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Padilha; Hisao Takahashi; Eurico de Paula; Hanumant Sawant; Haroldo de Campos Velho; Icaro Vitorello; Joaquim Costa; Jonas Souza; José Cecatto; Odim Mendes; Walter Demétrio Gonzalez Alarcon

    2008-01-01

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the

  9. Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

  10. Weather and the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  11. The Weather Watchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Background information and six activities on predicting weather are provided. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also included are several ready-to-copy worksheets. (JN)

  12. Gulf of Maine: Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

  13. Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

  14. Spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks at the USGS Mill Creek, Oklahoma, remote sensing test site demonstrate that discrimination of rock types is possible through reflection measurements, but that the discrimination is complicated by surface conditions, such as weathering and lichen growth. Comparisons between fresh-broken, weathered, and lichen-covered granite show that whereas both degree of weathering and amount of lichen cover change the reflectance quality of the granite, lichen cover also considerably changes the photometric properties of the granite. Measurements of the spectral reflectance normal to the surface of both limestone and dolomite show limestone to be more reflective than dolomite in the wavelength range from 380 to 1550 nanometers. The reflectance difference decreases at view angles greater than 40?? owing to the difference in the photometric properties of dolomite and limestone. ?? 1971.

  15. Space Weather: A Research Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Research Council (NRC) sponsors the Space Weather: A Research Perspective Website. Space weather occurs due to the behavior of the sun, the "nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system." Space weather research will be useful for space weather forecasting, satellite troubleshooting, and gaining a greater understanding of Earth's place in space. To further understand space weather, the user can browse through sections such as What is Space Weather, The Elements of Near-Earth Space, Practical Consequences of Space Weather, and Earth-Space Meteorology, among others. Each section provides images, diagrams, and descriptions. Weather links and resources, as well as a glossary, round out the site.

  16. Pop Rocks Experiment 25 Pop rock packages

    E-print Network

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    Pop Rocks Experiment Materials · 25 Pop rock packages · Four 9 inch balloons · Four 16 oz sodas at ingredients) · What other things explode or pop that you can think of? (balloons, tires, etc) · What makes the popping noise that you think of? (air escaping from the closed space) · Why do you think they pop

  17. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 ?m.

  18. Engineering classification and index properties of a weathered granite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Irfan; W. R. Dearman

    1978-01-01

    Summary  A comprehensive range of classification, or index, and engineering design tests have been carried out on the seven stages\\u000a of weathering of rock material recognised in the Hingston Down granite from east Cornwall, England. Interrelationships have\\u000a been determined for all test results. It is concluded that the quick absorption, Schmidt hammer and point load strength tests\\u000a are reliable and simple

  19. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  20. Science Sampler: Clever with weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Crowder

    2011-02-01

    In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

  1. Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

  2. Making a Space Weather Script

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, learners write space weather reports using current data about the Sun and create a broadcast script to present the researched information to an audience. Several activities are related to this lesson, including "Understanding our Sun", "Sharing New Knowledge", and “Making Your Space Weather Action Center" in the Space Weather teacher's guide.

  3. Space weather activities in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cole

    2004-01-01

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network

  4. Weather impacts on space operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Madura; B. Boyd; W. Bauman; N. Wyse; M. Adams

    1992-01-01

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology

  5. US weather satellites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The weather satellites and services of the National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are discussed. The economy and public safety of Washington State, monitoring of the extreme weather conditions around Mount St. Helens and search and rescue satellites are included.

  6. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  8. The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Tauxe

    This site from Satellite Geodesy describes the rock cycle, and quantitative ways to estimate how long geological features took to form. Popcorn is used to demonstrate half-life and radio-active decay, which is used to date rocks.

  9. Online Field Journal: Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online activity is part of the museum's Online Field Journal Web site, where young children can explore the wonders of nature with the help of an adult. The challenge here is to take a closer look at three rocks. On the opening page, there are side-by-side photos of the three rocks; students are asked to describe each rock Clicking a rock's photo takes students to a magnified view of the rock that also asks students two additional questions. When students click on the magnified rock photo, they get a fun fact. The site also includes links to a Tips for Adult Helpers page and to a printable Rocks Field Journal page that has instructions for using it on a "rock hunt."

  10. Rock Cycle Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many people might know about the life cycle of a rock, but it can be a process that is hard to understand without a handy visual aid. Just such a series of aids can be found right here, courtesy of Mark Francek of Central Michigan University. These rock cycle animations display some of the most common rock-forming processes, including the crystallization of magma to form igneous rock, rock erosion to create sediment, and several others. That's not all, as visitors can also examine a comprehensive Flash animation which contains three separate movies, each of which looks at the formation of igneous rocks in environments that include a deep magma chamber and rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow. The site is rounded out by an interactive igneous rocks classification chart, arranged by texture and chemical composition.

  11. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  12. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  13. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT SHEET, SHEET 5; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSION SHEET, SECTION THROUGH CROWN, SHEET 6, APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 67. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: OUTLET GATES, CROWN SECTION, UPSTREAM ELEVATION AND DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION SHEET, SHEET 7; APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 64. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: PLAN VIEW, SHEET 2; APRIL, 1918. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J; Banwart, Steve A; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Leake, Jonathan R

    2012-12-23

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to 'trenching' of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO(2) and climate history. PMID:22859556

  20. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J.; Banwart, Steve A.; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E.; Leake, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to ‘trenching’ of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO2 and climate history. PMID:22859556

  1. The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a basic explanation of the rock cycle along with information on the difference between a rock and a mineral and a description of the three types of rocks (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary). The site also describes the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core, which are the four different layers of the Earth. In addition, it has a diagram of the rock cycle showing its relationship to the Theory of Plate Tectonics.

  2. PETER A. ROCK Thermochemistry

    E-print Network

    NCGC PETER A. ROCK Thermochemistry LaboratoryENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Office of Science Center, and precipitation in deep subsurface rock formations, to achieve the e cient lling of pore space with injected and computational methods, to build a next-generation understanding of molecular­to­pore scale processes in uid-rock

  3. Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

  4. Rock and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

  5. Metamorphic Rocks Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ann C.H. Hadley

    Students each obtain 2 rock samples from a collection of 20 for the lab. Students complete a data form for observations concerning metamorphic features. Each student identifies the 2 samples and describes the metamorphic parent rock. When everyone in the lab has finished, the group matches all the non-metamorphic samples to the metamorphic samples in a large rock cycle puzzle.

  6. Bottle Rock Power Corporation

    E-print Network

    Bottle Rock Power Corporation 1275 4th Street, No. 105 Phone: 707.541.0976 Santa Rosa, CA 95404 Fax 1516 9th Street, MS-2000 Sacramento, CA 95814-5512 RE: Bottle Rock Power Plant (79-AFC-4C) Petition for Extending Environmental Monitoring Program Dear Ms. Tronaas: The Bottle Rock Power Corporation (BRPC

  7. PRETTY ROCKS Kevin Knight

    E-print Network

    Knight, Kevin

    PRETTY ROCKS Kevin Knight * * * Curator's note: this story apparently predates the destruction. Maxine dug rocks out of the ground and piled them up... The man thought to himself: Then one day recognized Maxine. She was half buried in dirt, and there were vast numbers of rocks piled nearby. She had

  8. Soil vs. Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ama Xiong, Ames Elementary School, Saint Paul, MN Based on an original activity from the FOSS Kit, Pebbles, Sand, & Silt.

    This lesson will extend the learning on rocks with the Foss kit, Pebbles, Sand, and Silt to include soil. Students will perform the soil sifting activity like the one designed for rocks in the Foss it. Through their work, students will complete a Venn diagram of soil and rocks as a class.

  9. Piling in rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir

    1985-01-01

    Piles are usually used to bypass soft formations incapable of supporting shallow foundations. Piling in rock is, for economic reasons, interesting as well. For typical conditions, piling in rock leads to considerable savings in terms of construction duration, labor, concrete, steel and energy. Topics covered in this book include the following: rocks and their properties; site investigations; experience with piling

  10. The Rock Physics Handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Mavko; Tapan Mukerji; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-01-01

    The Rock Physics Handbook conveniently brings together the theoretical and empirical relations that form the foundations of rock physics, with particular emphasis on seismic properties. It also includes commonly used models and relations for electrical and dielectric rock properties. Seventy-six articles concisely summarize a wide range of topics, including wave propagation, AVO-AVOZ, effective media, poroelasticity, pore fluid flow and diffusion.

  11. Ranking the Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Student teams assign importance factors, called "desirability points," the rock properties found in the previous lesson/activity in order to mathematically determine the overall best rocks for building caverns within. They learn the real-world connections and relationships between the rock and the important engineering properties for designing and building caverns (or tunnels, mines, building foundations, etc.).

  12. The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about the rock cycle! Directions: Make a poster about the rock cycle. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about the rock cycle. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

  13. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  14. Chemical weathering in the Hong (Red) River basin: Rates of silicate weathering and their controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Seulgi; Huh, Youngsook; Qin, Jianhua; van Pho, Nguyen

    2007-03-01

    The Hong (Red) River drains the prominent Red River Fault Zone that has experienced various tectonic activities—intrusion of magma, exhumation of basement rocks, and influx of thermal waters—associated with the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia. We report dissolved major element and Sr isotope compositions of 43 samples from its three tributary systems (Da, Thao/Hong main channel, and Lo) encompassing summer and winter seasons. Carbonic acid ultimately derived from the atmosphere is the main weathering agent, and sulfuric acid from pyrite oxidation plays a minor role. Seasonality is manifested in higher calcite saturation index and Mg/TZ + and lower Ca/Mg in summer, suggesting calcite precipitation, and in higher Si/(Na ? + K) ratios in summer suggesting more intensive silicate weathering. We quantified the input from rain, evaporite, carbonate, and silicate reservoirs using forward and inverse models and examined the robustness of the results. Carbonate dissolution accounts for a significant fraction of total dissolved cations (55-97%), and weathering of silicates makes a minor contribution (1-40%). Our best estimate of the spatially averaged silicate weathering rate in the Hong basin is 170 × 10 3 mol/km 2/yr in summer and 51 × 10 3 mol/km 2/yr in winter. We tested for correlations between the rate of CO 2 consumption by silicate weathering and various climatic (air temperature, precipitation, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration) and geologic (relief, elevation, slope, and lithology) parameters calculated using GIS. Clear correlations do not emerge (except for ?CO 2 and runoff in winter) which we attribute to the complex geologic setting of the area, the seasonal regime change from physical-dominant in summer to chemical-dominant in winter, and the incoherent timescales involved for the different parameters tested.

  15. Major ion chemistry of the Ganga source waters: Weathering in the high altitude Himalaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Sarin; S. Krishnaswami; J. R. Trivedi; K. K. Sharma

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the major ion chemistry of the Ganga source waters—the Bhagirathi, Alaknanda and their tributaries—has\\u000a been carried out to assess the chemical weathering processes in the high altitude Himalaya. Among major ions, Ca, Mg, HCO3 and SO4 are the most abundant in these river waters. These results suggest that weathering of carbonate rocks by carbonic and sulphuric

  16. Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser

    E-print Network

    Balser, Dana S.

    Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

  17. Weather Crossword Puzzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site features weather crossword puzzles. Topics include the Earth's atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, fronts, clouds, winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather, lightning and thunder, how hurricanes form, and snow. Links at the bottom of the page allow users to reference other Windows to the Universe sites to help solve the puzzles. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  18. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelson; W. W. Shrader; J. G. Wieler

    1990-01-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver\\/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator\\/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the

  19. National Weather Service Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

  20. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C were acquired over 1 Ma. Compositional differences between soil and Zone C are largely attributed to illuvial processes, formation of additional Fe(III) oxides and incorporation of modern organic matter.

  1. Recent Near-Neutral Chemical Weathering of Martian High-Latitude Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, M. D.; Michalski, J. R.; Sharp, T. G.; Rampe, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Recent scientific investigations of Mars, including those conducted by TES, OMEGA, and the MER lander missions, have expanded the discussion about aqueous alteration on Mars. Results from these missions indicate that the styles and/or intensity of water-rock interactions on Mars have changed over time, and they provide evidence for geographical differences in weathering typically associated with latitude. Work that we have done on the spectroscopy of terrestrial weathering rinds and rock coatings indicates that small volumes of weathering products mixed with primary minerals considerably change thermal emission spectra of volcanic rocks. Based on that work, we suggest that low-intensity chemical weathering leading to the formation of small volumes of weathering products can explain the global distribution of TES observations. Whereas MER results indicate acidic alteration at low latitudes since the late Noachian, we suggest that major surface- mineralogical differences observed by TES (and broadly corroborated by OMEGA) may be due to near-neutral pH chemical weathering, pedogenically driven by near-surface pore waters at mid-to-high latitudes.

  2. An aem-tem study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: I. Weathering reactions in the volcanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Jones, B.F.; Veblen, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Abert Lake in south-central Oregon provides a site suitable for the study of sequential weathering and diagenetic events. In this first of two papers, transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the igneous mineralogy, subsolidus alteration assemblage, and the structural and chemical aspects of silicate weathering reactions that occur in the volcanic rocks (basalts, basaltic andesites, and dacitic/ rhyolitic extrusive and pyroclastics) that outcrop around the lake. Olivine and pyroxene replacement occurred topotactically, whereas feldspar and glass alteration produced randomly oriented smectite in channels and cavities. The tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer compositions of the weathering products, largely dioctahedral smectites, varied with primary mineral composition, rock type, and as the result of addition of elements released from adjacent reaction sites. Weathering of the highly evolved, Fe-rich Jug Mountain complex at the north end of the lake produced a homogeneous smectite assemblage that contrasts with the heterogeneous smectite assemblage replacing the volcanics along the eastern margin of the lake. The variability within and between the smectite assemblages highlights the microenvironmental diversity, fluctuating redox conditions, and variable solution chemistry associated with mineral weathering reactions in the surficial environment. Late-stage exhalative and aqueous alteration of the volcanics redistributed many components and formed a variety of alkali and alkali-earth carbonate, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride minerals in vugs and cracks. Overall, substantial Mg, Si, Na, Ca, and K are released by weathering reactions that include the almost complete destruction of the Mg-smectite that initially replaced olivine. The leaching of these elements from the volcanics provides an important source of these constituents in the lake water. The nature of subsequent diagenetic reactions resulting from the interaction between the materials transported to the lake and the solution will be described in part II (Banfield et al., 1991). ?? 1991.

  3. PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Graham

    2011-10-13

    This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

  4. T00406010008 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    XY! ¬« T00406010008 rock check dam T00406010009 rock check dam T00406010010 rock check dam T00406010011 rock check dam T-SMA-2.85 0.344 Acres 35-014(g) 35-016(n) T00406010005 rock check dam T00406010006 rock check dam T00403090004 curb T00402040007 established vegetation, green hatch area 7200 7200 7180

  5. Intense weathering of Archean basement associated with acid saline lakes in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, B. B.; Story, S.; Benison, K. C.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between bedrock weathering and surface chemistry is challenging and it is rare to find an environment where the bedrock has been exposed over geologic time scales (e.g. millions of years), has not undergone significant mechanical weathering, and has not been deeply buried by subsequent deposition. However, the Yilgarn Craton in southern Western Australia provides just such an environment. The Yilgarn Craton hosts a combination of exposed and highly weathered Archean bedrock, a variety of discontinuous Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and thousands of modern ephemeral saline lakes. Here, we use major oxide and trace element geochemistry to compare the weathering histories of rocks preserved in drill cores from two of these saline lakes - one acid (Prado Lake, pH ~3) and one neutral (Gastropod Lake, pH ~8). The extreme fluid chemistry of these lakes is reflected in the mineralogy and geochemistry of both drill cores, which preserve a combination of chemical sediments, early cements and long-term weathering products. The use of weathering indices (e.g. CIA, CIA-K, WIP) and trace element ratios (e.g. Ti/Al, Ti/Zr, Zr/Hf) through sediment and regolith cored below these lakes provides insight into the relationship between bedrock weathering and surface chemistry at Prado Lake and Gastropod Lake. The use of weathering indices and trace element data reveal that at both lakes, the Archean bedrock at depth is highly weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) = 45-88, CIA-K = 49-93, Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) = 16-92). Trace element ratios from the cores suggest that the local basement material the primary lithologic source of the overlying sedimentary material (?-Zr/Hf = -0.15-0.41). Weathering patterns in the Prado Lake drill core reflect weathering of the original crystalline bedrock and as well as that of a younger sandstone and the variably weathered surface materials. Despite the length of time the bedrock is interpreted to have been exposed, correlations between the CIA and CIA-K indicate the presence/preservation of only one well-developed paleosol/highly weathered surface. The relationship between the bedrock weathering histories at both lakes and their surface pH appears to be dependent on the availability of reactive surfaces within the near-surface material. When compared to other global data, this work and previously published studies in the region confirm that not only is the Yilgarn Craton is one of the largest intact pieces of Archean crust, it is also host to some of the most highly weathered and preserved pieces of Archean crust in the world.

  6. Rock Cycle: Categories by Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It provides an introduction to what rocks are, how and where they form, and what we can tell about a rock's formation by making observations about its characteristics. Different rocks have different compositions (element and mineral assemblages) and textures (grain size, orientation, etc.) Important observations of rock include characteristics of both a sample of the rock and its larger geologic context and natural setting. Observations of rocks can tell us about the processes and the environment in which they formed. The major categories of Earth's rocks include igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock. Learning Outcomes:? List the three different types of rock. ? Make appropriate observations about rocks (e.g. describe rock composition and texture).? Make appropriate observations about the general environments in which the rocks formed.

  7. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  8. Iron-sulfur mineralogy of Mars - Magmatic evolution and chemical weathering products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.

    1990-01-01

    Models are developed for the magmatic evolution and the oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals on Mars, based on petrogenetic associations among komatiitic rock types, Viking geochemical data, SNC meteorites, and terrestrial Fi-Ni deposits. The weathering model was tested by exposing komatiitic pyrrhotites and olivines to sulfuric acid solutions, with or without dissolved ferric iron, and identifying the reaction products by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results suggest that, on Mars, acidic groundwater has induced oxidative weathering of pyrrhotite, yielding FeS2 and then FeOOH.

  9. Oil and Gas CDT Bots in Rocks: Intelligent Rock Deformation for Fault Rock

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Bots in Rocks: Intelligent Rock Deformation for Fault Rock Petrophysical Properties://www.pet.hw.ac.uk/staff-directory/jimsomerville.htm Key Words Nano/Micro sensors; faults; fault zones; geomechanics; rock mechanics; rock deformation; experiment; petrophysical properties Overview Physical and petrophysical properties of fault rocks

  10. Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in the mnemonic 'MSATT' (Mars surface and atmosphere through time) is that rates of surface processes on Mars through time should be investigated, including studies of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidative weathering reactions occurring in the Martian regolith. Such measurements are described. Two major elements analyzed in the Viking Lander XRF experiment that are most vulnerable to atmospheric oxidation are iron and sulfur. Originally, they occurred as Fe(2+)-bearing silicate and sulfide minerals in basaltic rocks on the surface of Mars. However, chemical weathering reactions through time have produced ferric- and sulfate-bearing assemblages now visible in the Martian regolith. Such observations raise several question about: (1) when the oxidative weathering reactions took place on Mars; (2) whether or not the oxidized regolith is a fossilized remnant of past weathering processes; (3) deducting chemical interactions of the ancient Martian atmosphere with its surface from surviving phases; (4) possible weathering reactions still occurring in the frozen regolith; and (5) the kinetics and mechanism of past and present-day oxidative reactions on Mars. These questions may be addressed experimentally by studying reaction rates of dissolution and oxidation of basaltic minerals, and by identifying reaction products forming on the mineral surfaces. Results for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and dissolved ferrous iron are reported.

  11. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  12. Understanding the signature of rock coatings in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Nina L.; Ollila, Ann M.; Cousin, Agnes; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel; Mangold, Nicolas; Bridges, Nathan; Cooper, Daniel; Schmidt, Mariek; Berger, Jeffrey; Arvidson, Raymond; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton E.; Tokar, Robert; Hardgrove, Craig; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Jackson, Ryan S.; Clark, Benton; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Nachon, Marion; Anderson, Ryan B.; Blank, Jennifer; Deans, Matthew; Delapp, Dorothea; Léveillé, Richard; McInroy, Rhonda; Martinez, Ronald; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pinet, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Surface compositional features on rocks such as coatings and weathering rinds provide important information about past aqueous environments and water-rock interactions. The search for these features represents an important aspect of the Curiosity rover mission. With its unique ability to do fine-scale chemical depth profiling, the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument (LIBS) onboard Curiosity can be used to both identify and analyze rock surface alteration features. In this study we analyze a terrestrial manganese-rich rock varnish coating on a basalt rock in the laboratory with the ChemCam engineering model to determine the LIBS signature of a natural rock coating. Results show that there is a systematic decrease in peak heights for elements such as Mn that are abundant in the coating but not the rock. There is significant spatial variation in the relative abundance of coating elements detected by LIBS depending on where on the rock surface sampled; this is due to the variability in thickness and spatial discontinuities in the coating. Similar trends have been identified in some martian rock targets in ChemCam data, suggesting that these rocks may have coatings or weathering rinds on their surfaces.

  13. Understanding the signature of rock coatings in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanza, Nina L.; Ollila, Ann M.; Cousin, Agnes; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Mangold, Nicolas; Bridges, Nathan; Cooper, Daniel; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Berger, Jeffrey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton E.; Tokar, Robert; Hardgrove, Craig; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Jackson, Ryan S.; Clark, Benton C.; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Nachon, Marion; Anderson, Ryan B.; Blank, Jennifer; Deans, Matthew; Delapp, Dorothea; Léveillé, Richard; McInroy, Rhonda; Martinez, Ronald; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pinet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Surface compositional features on rocks such as coatings and weathering rinds provide important information about past aqueous environments and water–rock interactions. The search for these features represents an important aspect of the Curiosity rover mission. With its unique ability to do fine-scale chemical depth profiling, the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument (LIBS) onboard Curiosity can be used to both identify and analyze rock surface alteration features. In this study we analyze a terrestrial manganese-rich rock varnish coating on a basalt rock in the laboratory with the ChemCam engineering model to determine the LIBS signature of a natural rock coating. Results show that there is a systematic decrease in peak heights for elements such as Mn that are abundant in the coating but not the rock. There is significant spatial variation in the relative abundance of coating elements detected by LIBS depending on where on the rock surface sampled; this is due to the variability in thickness and spatial discontinuities in the coating. Similar trends have been identified in some martian rock targets in ChemCam data, suggesting that these rocks may have coatings or weathering rinds on their surfaces.

  14. WeatherPop 1.6.4

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Weather Pop is a small application that allows users to receive up-to-the-minute weather information for up to three US cities from the National Weather Service. WeatherPop is also fully customizable, as users can select weather update frequency, temperature display color, preferred weather information source, humidity, visibility, barometer, and other options. WeatherPop is fully compatible with all computers running Mac X operating system.

  15. Weather satellite deactivated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    NOAA 8, the polar-orbiting weather satellite that was revived last May after tumbling in its orbit for 11 months (Eos, July 2, 1985, p. 527), recently suffered additional setbacks and has been “deactivated” by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The satellite's only working oscillator faltered and caused episodes of tumbling in September, November, and December 1985, according to Gary K. Davis, manager of NOAA's satellite operations control center in Suitland, Md. In addition, the episode that began December 30 apparently was accompanied by the rupture of a damaged battery, sending what seem to be pieces of the battery's thermal blankets and shields into orbits near the satellite.

  16. Physical weathering and modification of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M. C.; Braakhekke, J. J. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2014-06-01

    Fragmental volcanic glass or `hyaloclastite' is a common glaciovolcanic eruption product that is formed in large abundance during basaltic, andesitic and rhyolitic subglacial eruptions. The physical weathering of rhyolitic hyaloclastites differs notably from basaltic hyaloclastites due to differences in cementation and edifice consolidation. As rhyolitic glasses are also much rarer, comparatively little is known about their physical weathering and fracturing characteristics. In the presented study, we provide a process-oriented analysis of the physical modification of subglacially erupted rhyolitic hyaloclastites from the Bláhnúkur edifice in Torfajökull (Iceland). Frost weathering experiments were performed to determine how vesicular glass particles fragment to finer particle sizes. The surficial porosity of the glass drives such frost weathering through the process of pore pressurisation and was quantified using high-pressure mercury intrusion. Uniaxial compression experiments were carried out to understand how the glass structure responds to the application of external stress. The observed fracturing in both experimental treatments was found to adhere to fractal statistics, which allowed the compression experiments to be used in conjunction with the frost weathering experiments for inferring the fracturing characteristics of rhyolitic volcanic glasses. Transport processes by wind and gravity were simulated by long-duration abrasion experiments in rock tumblers (through granular avalanching), but these low-energy particle interactions were not found to significantly abrade particles. A notable result from our fragmentation experiments was the production of <10 ?m particles. This size range is considered respirable and illustrates how physical weathering can continuously create potentially harmful ash textures; a process which is often overlooked in health hazard assessments after volcanic eruptions. Fragmentation by post-eruptive weathering can lead to overestimations of the fine ash fraction produced by syneruptive fragmentation and granulometric studies therefore need to be appreciative of the effects of such secondary fracturing processes.

  17. The Origin of "Space Weather"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, William B.; Chan-Park, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Although "space weather" is a fairly recent term, there is a rich history of similar terms being used beginning in the middle to late 1800s. "Solar meteorology," "magnetic weather," and "cosmic meteorology" all appeared during that time frame. The actual first appearance of space weather can be attributed to the publication Science News Letter in 1957 (with the first modern usage in 1959) and was possibly coined by the editor at the time, Watson Davis.

  18. Make Your Own Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

  19. Climate signal and weather noise

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, C.E.

    1995-04-01

    A signal of small climate change in either the real atmosphere or numerical simulation of it tends to be obscured by chaotic weather fluctuations. Time-lagged covariances of such weather processes are used to estimate the sampling errors of time average estimates of climate parameters. Climate sensitivity to changing external influences may also be estimated using the fluctuation dissipation relation of statistical mechanics. Answers to many climate questions could be provided by a realistic stochastic model of weather and climate.

  20. Science Shorts: Organizing Weather Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Often in schools, children collect weather data as part of their morning meeting or calendar time. These common primary level activities lend themselves nicely to introducing the importance of organizing data. In this lesson, children and teacher work together to find a structure for recording precipitation, temperature, and other weather information. Older children compare how using different types of graphs changes what is communicated about their weather data.

  1. Subsurface Evolution: Weathering and Mechanical Strength Reduction in Bedrock of Lower Gordon Gulch, Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Blum, A.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Weathering processes drive mobile regolith production at the surface of the earth. Chemical and physical weathering weakens rock by creating porosity, opening fractures, and transforming minerals. Increased porosity provides habitat for living organisms, which aid in further breakdown of the rock, leaving it more susceptible to displacement and transport. In this study, we test mechanical and chemical characteristics of weathered profiles to better understand weathering processes. We collect shallow bedrock cores from tors and isovolumetrically weathered bedrock in lower Gordon Gulch to characterize the mechanical strength, mineralogy, and bulk chemistry of samples to track changes in the subsurface as bedrock weathers to mobile regolith. Gordon Gulch is a small (2.7 km2), E-W trending catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory underlain by Pre-Cambrian gneiss and granitic bedrock. The basin is typical of the "Rocky Mountain Surface" of the Front Range, characterized by low relief, a lack of glacial or fluvial incision, and deep weathering. Although the low-curvature, low-relief Rocky Mountain Surface would appear to indicate a landscape roughly in steady-state, shallow seismic surveys (Befus et al., 2011, Vadose Zone Journal) indicate depth to bedrock is highly variable. Block style release of saprolite into mobile regolith could explain this high variability and should be observable in geotechnical testing. Gordon Gulch also displays a systematic slope-aspect dependent control on weathering, with N-facing hillslopes exhibiting deeper weathering profiles than the S-facing hillslope. We believe comparisons of paired geotechnical-testing, XRD, and XRF analyses may explain this hillslope anisotropy. Rock quality designation (RQD) values, a commonly used indicator of rock mass quality (ASTM D6032), from both N- and S- facing aspects in Gordon Gulch indicate that granitic bedrock in both outcrop and saprolitic rock masses is poor to very poor. Brazilian tensile testing of outcrop core samples show relatively low tensile failure forces, and exhibit a roughly logarithmic increase in failure force, and hence tensile strength, with depth. For many of the granitic strength profiles, the point of greatest curvature is around 0.5 m depth. Tests reveal small-scale variation in the tensile strength, suggesting that the tight fracture-spacing bounding blocks of saprolite plays an important role in regolith production. The origin of the micro- and macro-fractures is unclear. Preliminary results do not correlate clear depth-trends in mineralogy or bulk chemistry with mechanical strength. The lack of a strong signature from chemical or mineralogical weathering suggests that mechanical processes, such as frost cracking or biotite hydration, may dominate.

  2. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  3. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  4. Jetstream: An Online Weather School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Jetstream is an online weather school from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service. Materials featured here include a selection of modules on weather on the web, the atmosphere, global weather, synoptic meteorology and other topics. A certificate of completion for each module can be printed by students who successfully complete their work. A topic matrix provides access to the sections for each module, beginning with an introduction and ending with review questions. In addition, an appendix for teachers features a glossary, list of acronyms, downloading instructions, answers to review questions, and overviews of the lesson plans within each module.

  5. Declining rock movement at Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: An indicator of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2014-04-01

    We have inspected Racetrack Playa at Death Valley over the last 7 years and have not observed major episodes of rock movement and trail generation. We compare this null observation with the literature record of the rock movement using a Monte Carlo method and find 4-to-1 odds that the rock movement probability has systematically declined. This statistically significant drop in movement rate may indicate a change in the probability of the required conditions for movement: we note decline in the occurrence of strong winds and in ice-forming cold in nearby weather records. Rock movement and trail formation may serve as an indicator of climate change.

  6. Summary of Rock-Property Measurements for Hong Kong TuffSamples

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2005-09-21

    A series of rock-property measurements was performed on a suite of rhyolitic tuff samples from the area above the Aberdeen Tunnel of Hong Kong. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanical properties of these samples after weathering. This report contains petrographic descriptions, porosity, bulk and grain density, as well as ultrasonic measurements, elastic modulii calculations, and rock-strength determinations. Variations in rock properties are related to alteration and the presence of fractures in the tuff. Granitic rocks located adjacent to the altered tuffs would be better candidates for underground excavations.

  7. Rock Cycle Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Ebert

    In this exercise, sudents write a series of three stories that explain and/or illustrate rock-forming processes. As an alternative, they may write a single story that addresses the rock cycle. Describing these processes at a level appropriate for their target audience (second graders) requires an adequate understanding of the geologic processes involved and can reveal problems or misconceptions in the students' ideas of how rocks are formed. Teacher's notes and rubrics for teacher and peer review are provided.

  8. The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This interactive website explains rock cycle processes including igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Students can view an animated version of the rock cycle, learn about each step in the process, and take an online quiz to test their knowledge for each section. Understanding earth's deep past through the process that recycles rocks can help students develop concepts of the world in three dimensions and grasp the time-scale of geological changes.

  9. Hot Science: Hot rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site explores two kinds of igneous rock, pumice and granite. Pumice is an example of extrusive igneous rock, while granite is an example of intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive indicates that the magma was forced close to the surface, but then cooled more slowly underneath the surface. The question, "How hot is Lava?" is linked to an explanation of the heat of lava, why it must be sampled when it is very hot, and how the samples are taken.

  10. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  11. Applicability of the geological strength index (GSI) classification for very weak and sheared rock masses. The case of the Athens Schist Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hoek; P. Marinos; M. Benissi

    1998-01-01

    The Athens Schist Formation includes a wide variety of metasedimentary rocks, varying from strong or medium strong rocks\\u000a such as sericite metasandstone, limestone, greywacke, sericite schist through to weak rocks such as metasiltstone, clayey\\u000a and silty shale and phyllite. The overall rock mass is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic owing to the combined effect of\\u000a advanced weathering and severe tectonic stressing

  12. Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  13. Types of rocks exposed at the Viking landing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Guinness, E.; Arvidson, R.; Dale-Bannister, M.; Slavney, S.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral estimates derived from Viking Lander multispectral images have been used to investigate the types of rocks exposed at both landing sites, and to infer whether the rocks are primary igneous rocks or weathering products. These analyses should aid interpretations of spectra to be returned from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the upcoming Mars Observer Mission. A series of gray surfaces on the Landers were used to check the accuracy of the camera preflight calibrations. Results indicate that the pre-flight calibrations for the three color channels are probably correct for all cameras but camera 2 on Lander 1. The calibration for the infrared channels appears to have changed, although the cause is not known. For this paper, only the color channels were used to derive data for rocks. Rocks at both sites exhibit a variety of reflectance values. For example, reflectance estimates for two rocks in the blue (0.4-0.5 microns), green (0.5-0.6 microns), and red (0.6-0.75 microns) channels are 0.16, 0.23, and 0.33 and 0.12, 0.19, 0.37 at a phase angle of 20 degrees. These values have been compared with laboratory reflectance spectra of analog materials and telescopic spectra of Mars, both convolved to the Lander bandpasses. Lander values for some rocks are similar to earth based observations of martian dark regions and with certain mafic igneous rocks thinly coated with amorphous ferric-oxide rich weathering products. These results are consistent with previous interpretations.

  14. Silicate weathering of soil-mantled slopes in an active Alpine landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Kevin P.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2010-09-01

    Despite being located on high, steep, actively uplifting, and formerly glaciated slopes of the Swiss Central Alps, soils in the upper Rhone Valley are depleted by up to 50% in cations relative to their parent bedrock. This depletion was determined by a mass loss balance based on Zr as a refractory element. Both Holocene weathering rates and physical erosion rates of these slopes are unexpectedly low, as measured by cosmogenic 10Be-derived denudation rates. Chemical depletion fractions, CDF, range from 0.12 to 0.48, while the average soil chemical weathering rate is 33 ± 15 t km -2 yr -1. Both the cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates and model calculations suggest that these soils have reached a weathering steady-state since deglaciation 15 ky ago. The weathering signal varies with elevation and hillslope morphology. In addition, the chemical weathering rates decrease with elevation indicating that temperature may be a dominant controlling factor on weathering in these high Alpine basins. Model calculations suggest that chemical weathering rates are limited by reaction kinetics and not the supply rate of fresh material. We compare hillslope and catchment-wide weathering fluxes with modern stream cation flux, and show that high relief, bare-rock slopes exhibit much lower chemical weathering rates despite higher physical erosion rates. The low weathering fluxes from rocky, rapidly eroding slopes allow for the broader implication that mountain building, while elevating overall denudation rates, may not cause increased chemical weathering rates on hillslopes. In order for this sediment to be weathered, intermediate storage, for instance in floodplains, is required.

  15. Distribution System Reliability Assessment Incorporating Weather Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Billinton; J. Acharya

    2006-01-01

    Electrical distribution systems usually exist in outdoor environments. The weather creates varying degrees of physical stress on system components exposed to fluctuating weather conditions. The failure rate of an element is greatly enhanced in bad weather situations and the likelihood of multiple line failures is much higher in bad weather than in normal weather. The phenomenon of coincident failures of

  16. National Severe Storms Laboratory's Weather Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational website from NOAA has: facts on tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning and thunderstorms; lessons on weather symbols, maps and systems; an extensive list of weather and climate resources for teachers; information on careers in weather; and a list of weather links including weather data. Additionally, the site includes all the latest meteorological research including tornado genesis and lightning.

  17. Constructing design weather data for future climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SE Belcher; JN Hacker; DS Powell

    2005-01-01

    We develop a method, here called ‘morphing’, to produce design weather data for building thermal simulations that accounts for future changes to climate. Morphing combines present-day observed weather data with results from climate models. The procedure yields weather time series that encapsulate the average weather conditions of future climate scenarios, whilst preserving realistic weather sequences. In this sense the method

  18. Mechanical changes in thawing permafrost rocks and their influence on rock stability at the Zugspitze summit, Germany - a research concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamot, Philipp; Scandroglio, Riccardo; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    During the last century, alpine permafrost warmed up by 0.5 to 0.8 °C in the upper decameters. Its degradation can influence the stability of rock slopes in alpine environments. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides of all magnitudes are reported to originate from permafrost-affected rock faces which reveal massive ice at their detachment scarps after failure. Discontinuity patterns and their mechanical properties present a key control of rock slope stability. These fractures are considered to experience considerable mechanical changes during transition from frozen to unfrozen state: the shear resistance of rocks is reduced in terms of decreased critical fracture toughness of intact rock bridges and shear strength; compressive strength and tensile strength of the intact rock are reduced in the same way. The impact of rising rock temperature on rock-mechanical properties which control early stages of destabilization remains poorly understood. In this study we combine rock-mechanical testing in the laboratory with geotechnical, kinematic and geophysical monitoring at the Zugspitze summit, Germany, to investigate the influence of thawing rock on its rock-mechanical properties focusing on mechanisms of destabilization along discontinuities. Our investigations will contribute to a better rock-ice-mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. To assess stability conditions at the Zugspitze summit we conduct field work at an unstable area of about 104 m3 of rock at the crest at 2885 m a.s.l. that is affected by degrading permafrost. This is indicated by a persistent ice filled cave with direct contact to the area of instability. Our preliminary work consists of i) continuous and discontinuous fracture displacement measurements since 2009 which reveal deformation rates of 0.06 to 1.7 cm/year, ii) electrical resistivity (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) in the August of 2014 and iii) uniaxial compressive strength and tensile strength tests as well as P-wave velocity measurements of dozens of frozen and unfrozen Zugspitze limestone samples. Our future tasks are as follows: i) To assess the spatial permafrost distribution in the slope we plan to conduct further laboratory-calibrated ERT and SRT. A dense rock temperature measuring network as well as nearby weather stations will supply input data for a simple thermal model of the rock slope. ii) To assess the spatial and temporal pattern of rock instability at the test site we will continue measuring discontinuity movements. iii) Undertaking rock-mechanical laboratory tests on Zugspitze limestone and to focus on temperature related changes of friction along rock discontinuities without ice infill and fracture toughness KIIc of intact rock bridges. These tests will be carried out with a direct shear box in unfrozen and frozen state. The measurement of P-wave velocity of the same rock samples will help to upscale rock toughness values to the rock slope at the study site. We aim at developing and calibrating a discontinuum mechanical model of stability changes in thawing permafrost rocks. Krautblatter, M., Funk, D., Günzel, F. K. (2013): Why permafrost rocks become unstable: a rock-ice-mechanical model in time and space. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 876-887.

  19. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, ?, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter to compare weathering advance rates at varying scales. Given that, w=10^{-3.7}D^{0.23} we can use the fractal dimension of basalt weathering to define the roughness factor for basalt weathering as, ?=wD1/wD2=(D1/D2)^{0.23}.

  20. Basalt weathering in Central Siberia under permafrost conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Kudryavtzev, D. I.; Dupré, B.

    2005-12-01

    Chemical weathering of basalts in the Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia, has been studied by combining chemical and mineralogical analysis of solids (rocks, soils, river sediments, and suspended matter) and fluid solution chemistry. Altogether, 70 large and small rivers, 30 soil pore waters and groundwaters and over 30 solids were sampled during July to August 2001. Analysis of multiannual data on discharge and chemical composition of several rivers of the region available from the Russian Hydrological Survey allowed rigorous estimation of mean annual major element concentrations, and dissolved and suspended fluxes associated with basalt weathering. For the rivers Tembenchi and Taimura that drain monolithologic basic volcanic rocks, the mean multiannual flux of total dissolved cations (TDS_c = Ca + Mg + Na + K) corrected for atmospheric input is 5.7 ± 0.5 t/km 2/yr. For the largest river Nizhniya Tunguska—draining essentially basic rocks—the TDS_c is 6.1 ± 1.5 t/km 2/yr. The overall CO 2 consumption flux associated with basalt weathering in the studied region (˜700,000 km 2) achieves 0.08 × 10 12 mol/yr, which represents only 2.6% of the total CO 2 consumption associated with basalt weathering at the Earth's surface. The fluxes of suspended matter were estimated as 3.1 ± 0.5, 9.0 ± 0.8, and 6.5 ± 2.0 t/km 2/yr for rivers Taimura, Eratchimo, and Nizhniya Tunguska, respectively. Based on chemical analyses of river solutes and suspended matter, the relative dissolved versus particulate annual transport of major components is C inorg ? C org > Na + K > Ca > Mg > Si > Fe ? Mn ? Ti ? Al which reflects the usual order of element mobility during weathering. According to chemical and mineralogical soil and sediment analyses, alteration of basalt consists of (1) replacement of the original basaltic glass by Si-Al-Fe rich amorphous material, (2) mechanical desegregation and grinding of parent rocks, leading to accumulation of "primary" hydrothermal trioctahedral smectite, and (3) transformation of these trioctahedral (oxy)smectites and mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, into secondary dioctahedral smectite accompanied by removal of Ca, Mg, and Fe, and enrichment in Al. No vertical chemical differentiation of fluid and solid phases within the soil profile was identified. All sampled soil pore waters and groundwaters were found to be close to equilibrium with respect to chalcedony, gibbsite, halloysite, and allophanes, but strongly supersaturated with respect to goethite, nontronite, and montmorillonite. Over the annual cycle, the contribution of atmospheric precipitation, permafrost melting, underground reservoirs, litter degradation, and rock and soil mineral weathering for the overall TDS_c transport in the largest river of the region (Nizhniya Tunguska) is 9.3 ± 3, 10 ± 5, 10.5 ± 5, 25 ± 20, and 45 ± 30%, respectively. In the summertime, direct contribution of rocks and soil mineral weathering via solid/fluid interaction does not exceed 20%. The main unknown factors of element mobilization from basalt to the river is litter degradation in the upper soil horizon and parameters of element turnover in the vegetation.

  1. J00206010020 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    XY! J00206010020 rock check dam J00206010023 rock check dam 09-009 09-009 09-009 PJ-SMA-2 0.901 Acres J00206010021 rock check dam J00206010019 rock check dam J00206010014 rock check dam J00203010007 Smith DATE: 14-November-2014 REVISION NUMBER: 8 XY! IP sampler location Berm Channel/swale Check dam

  2. W02106010008 rock check dam

    E-print Network

    W-SMA-14.1 5.169 Acres W02106010008 rock check dam W02106010009 rock check dam W02106010010 rock check dam W02106010011 rock check dam W02106010012 rock check dam W02103010018 earthen berm W02103010016 dam Established vegetation Seed and mulch Sediment trap/basin Gabion Cap SWMU boundary SMA drainage

  3. Basalt weathering in an Arctic Mars-analog site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesavage, Tiffany; Thompson, Aaron; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-07-01

    The martian surface has undergone chemical and physical weathering in the past, and these processes may continue intermittently today. To explore whether martian rocks are likely to retain features indicative of weathering, we investigated how basaltic material weathers on Earth. Specifically, we investigated weathering of a Quaternary-aged basaltic flow at the Sverrefjell volcano in Svalbard, above the Arctic Circle. This flow weathered since deglaciation under cold, dry (<400 mm/yr) conditions. We analyzed a ?75-cm core of regolith for chemical loss and then characterized the mineralogical and morphological properties using electron microscopy (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and selective chemical dissolution. In addition, we ran colloidal dispersion, wetting/drying, and freeze/thaw experiments. In the regolith, we observed concentrations of short-range ordered (SRO) phases similar to those observed in warmer, wetter volcanic ash soils. IR and EM analyses of the clay-sized fraction were consistent with allophane as the predominant secondary phase. Selective chemical extractions targeting SRO phases indicated lower Al/Si ratios than those observed in volcanic soils reported in warmer localities, which we attribute to Si-rich allophane and/or abundant Si-rich rock coatings. The oxic circumneutral-pH colloidal dispersion experiments mobilized Al, Fe and Ti primarily as 260-415 nm particles and Ca, Mg and Na as solutes. Si was lost both in the colloidal and dissolved forms. Dispersed colloids likely contain allophane and ferrihydrite. Under anoxic conditions, dissolution of Fe oxide cements also released fines. The experiments help to explain elemental loss from the clay-sized regolith fraction at Svalbard: observed depletions in Ca, K, Mg and Na were likely due to solute loss, while particle-reactive Al, Fe, Si and Ti were mostly retained. Wetting/drying was observed to be as effective as freeze/thaw in driving material loss. It is thus possible that cyclic adsorption of water onto basaltic rocks in this dry climate may result in high physical spalling rates that in turn promote chemical leaching. Many observations at Sverrefjell are similar to inferences from Mars: the presence of SRO phases, Si-rich coatings, and/or Si-rich allophane, as well as the persistence of olivine. Given these similarities, it is inferred that Sverrefjell volcano is a good analog for martian weathering and that other processes operating at Sverrefjell may also have occurred on Mars, including Na leaching, surface spalling, and precipitation of Si-rich layers. Such processes could have occurred on Mars wherever basalts were exposed to water at circumneutral pH for thousands to tens of thousands of years.

  4. Limestone weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Levenson, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering rates of carbonate rocks is often thought to be controlled by chemical dissolution, although some studies have suggested that mechanical erosion could also play an important role. Quantifying the rates of the different processes has proved challenging due to the high degree of variability encountered in both field and lab settings. To determine the rates and mechanisms controlling long-term limestone weathering, we analyse a lidar scan of the Western Wall, a Roman period edifice located in Jerusalem. Weathering rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the average rates estimated for coarse-grained limestone blocks at the same site. In addition, in experiments that use atomic force microscopy to image dissolving micritic limestone, we show that these higher reaction rates could be due to rapid dissolution along micron-scale grain boundaries, followed by mechanical detachment of tiny particles from the surface. Our analysis indicates that micron-scale grain detachment, rather than pure chemical dissolution, could be the dominant erosional mode for fine-grained rocks in many carbonate terrains.

  5. THE WEATHER AND CLIMATE TOOLKIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Ansari; Chad Hutchins; Stephen Del Greco; Mark Phillips

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including NEXRAD Radar, GOES Satellite, NOMADS Model and surface in-situ data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and

  6. Dressing according to the weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Holland

    2011-04-06

    What should I wear so that I am comfortable outside? Get this Organizer 1. Go here Song for Telling the weather 2. Then here The weather today is? 3. Next play this Dressing Teddy Bear Game 4. Then play this game Dressing for the seasons! 5. Last play this game Dressing Caillou ...

  7. Internet Geography: Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on the topics of weather and climate, covering world climate zones, factors affecting climate, precipitation, pressure systems and weather hazards (tropical storms and tornadoes).

  8. Doing Something About the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an exercise that familiarizes students with the language of German weather reports, so that they will know what kinds of information to listen for. The exercise also helps students expand their vocabulary. The article includes transcriptions of actual German weather reports. (SED)

  9. Classification algorithms for weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Yanovsky; Vitaly Marchuk; Yaroslav Ostrovsky; Yulia Averyanova

    2008-01-01

    Theory, measurements, and signal processing applying to the radar remote sensing of weather objects are considered. Algorithms for hydrometeor type and turbulence intensity recognition are developed and analyzed. Particularly, fuzzy logic and neural network approaches are applied for weather radar signal processing.

  10. Principles of Numerical Weather Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-01-01

    This undergraduate meteorology tutorial uses a narrative format to discuss the strengths and limitations of computer weather forecasting models and aids students in recognizing when they will have problems. Students are expected to grasp the importance of initial conditions and of model resolution in a numerical weather forecast.

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  12. Federal plan for weather services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Plans for an improved severe weather warning system and the use of new technology for more efficient operations highlight a newly released Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research-Fiscal Year 1975, Expanded weather services to aviation are also projected.The plan, published yearly for presentation to the Congress, includes proposed activities of all Federal agencies conducting meteorological programsthe Departments of

  13. Weather service upgrade too costly?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Bush

    1991-01-01

    America needs timely and accurate weather forecasting, said Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.), chairman of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on National Ocean Policy. Calling the existing warning and forecast system dangerously obsolete, Hollings said that new technology ``should dramatically improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather predictions,'' as we face the new challenge of bringing the National

  14. Intelligent Weather Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for automatically displaying, visually and/or audibly and/or by an audible alarm signal, relevant weather data for an identified aircraft pilot, when each of a selected subset of measured or estimated aviation situation parameters, corresponding to a given aviation situation, has a value lying in a selected range. Each range for a particular pilot may be a default range, may be entered by the pilot and/or may be automatically determined from experience and may be subsequently edited by the pilot to change a range and to add or delete parameters describing a situation for which a display should be provided. The pilot can also verbally activate an audible display or visual display of selected information by verbal entry of a first command or a second command, respectively, that specifies the information required.

  15. Supporting Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Since its founding in 1992, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST), of Greenbelt, Maryland, has been developing technologies and providing services in support of NASA scientific research. GST specialties include scientific analysis, science data and information systems, data visualization, communications, networking and Web technologies, computer science, and software system engineering. As a longtime contractor to Goddard Space Flight Center s Earth Science Directorate, GST scientific, engineering, and information technology staff have extensive qualifications with the synthesis of satellite, in situ, and Earth science data for weather- and climate-related projects. GST s experience in this arena is end-to-end, from building satellite ground receiving systems and science data systems, to product generation and research and analysis.

  16. Observing and Sorting Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    In this activity, students examine garden variety rocks, classifying them based on observable properties. This lesson teaches students not only about rocks but also about how to take a closer look at objects and materials that they encounter every day. St

  17. Deformation of Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nelson, Stephen A.

    Professor Stephen Nelson of Tulane University created this resource on rock deformation. A synopsis and overview of principles associated with physical rock deformation is provided. Nelson also briefly touches on stress/strain, folds, deformation (Ducile/Brittle), faulting, and the earth's crust.

  18. Pore compressibility in rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    The unjacketed core compressibility in a porous rock is the change in pore volume due to change in pore pressure for constant differential pressure. This parameter affects how the saturated bulk modulus of a rock is related to the drained frame modulus and the pore fluid compressibility. Recent measurements of poroelastic constants and effective medium theories are used to estimate

  19. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  20. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  1. If Rocks Could Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they meet an Earth scientist at the AMNH, who explains the differences between the three rock groups (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and introduces students to six rocks in the museum's collection.

  2. Rock Cycle: Cycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

  3. The Oldest Moon Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Norman

    2004-01-01

    Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion

  4. Ranking the Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adventure Engineering,

    Continuing the Asteroid Impact challenge, student teams assign importance factors, called "desirability points," to mathematically determine the overall best rocks for building caverns within. Students learn the real-world connections and relationships between the rock properties found in the previous lesson and the important engineering properties for designing and building caverns (or tunnels, mines, building foundations, etc.).

  5. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  6. Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It investigates how geologists have used rocks to help determine the approximate age of the Earth and provide a timeline of how the Earth's surface and environments have changed over time. Scientists have tools to estimate the ages of rock and the overall time scale of the rock cycle. Some processes happen quickly and some happen slowly, but the oldest rocks indicate that the rock cycle has been recycling Earth's material continuously for roughly 4 billion years. The same processes have been at work throughout Earth's history, and therefore scientists can use the present to interpret the past. Observations of rock (textures, minerals, and fossils found within it) provides evidence of the environment and processes through which it formed, including the pressures, temperatures, and forces that created it.Learning Outcomes:? State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).? Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.

  7. Boulders, biology and buildings: Why weathering is vital to geomorphology (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, Heather A.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering is vital to geomorphology in three main senses. First, it is vital in the sense of being a fundamental and near-ubiquitous earth surface process without which landscapes would not develop, and which also provides a key link between geomorphology and the broader Earth system. Second, weathering is vital in the sense that, as it is heavily influenced by biotic processes, it demonstrates the importance of life to geomorphology and vice versa. In particular, weathering illustrates the many cross-linkages between microbial ecosystems and geomorphology. Finally, it is vital in the sense that weathering provides an important practical application of geomorphological knowledge. Geomorphologists in recent years have contributed much in terms of improving understanding the deterioration of rocks, stone and other materials in heritage sites and the built environment. This knowledge has also had direct implications for heritage conservation. This lecture reviews recent research on each of these three themes and on their linkages, and sets an integrated research agenda for the future. Weathering as a key process underpinning geomorphology and Earth system science has been the subject of much recent conceptual and empirical research. In particular, conceptual research advances have involved improving conceptualisation of scale issues and process synergies, and understanding weathering in terms of non-linear dynamical systems. Empirical advances have included the development of larger datasets on weathering rates, and the application of a wide range of non-destructive and remote sensing techniques to quantify weathering morphologies on boulder and rock surfaces. In recent years, understanding of the complex linkages between ecology and geomorphology (sometimes called biogeomorphology) has advanced particularly strongly in terms of weathering. For example, the influences of disturbance on biota and weathering have been conceptualised and investigated empirically in a range of settings including rocky coasts. The concept of bioprotection has also been explored within the context of weathering in deserts and other environments. Practical applications of geomorphological knowledge on weathering (including biogeomorphic aspects) have burgeoned in recent years. In conceptual terms, non-linear dynamical systems ideas have been applied to stone deterioration and the concept of durability, and biogeomorphic disturbance ideas expanded to investigate the impact of climate change on biota growing on stone heritage. The concept of bioprotection has been applied fruitfully to heritage conservation practice. Empirical investigations, for example of cavernous weathering on limestone buildings and green algal growths on sandstone structures, illustrate the application of new methods. Future research should enhance the vitality of weathering studies, through making better use of innovative technologies and improving cross-disciplinary research.

  8. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Yanes

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections

  9. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Cameron, A. C.; Morin, J.; Villadsen, J.; Saar, S. H.; Alvarado, J.; Cohen, Ofer; Holzwarth, V.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Reville, V.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the ``space weather''. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session ``Cool stars and Space Weather'', that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  10. Bounce Rock Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity panoramic camera image shows 'Bounce Rock,' a rock the airbag-packaged rover struck while rolling to a stop on January 24, 2004. This is the largest rock for as far as the eye can see, approximately 35 centimeters (14 inches) long and 10 centimeters (4 inches) high. There appears to be a dusty coating on the top of parts of the rock, which may have been broken when it was struck by the airbags. The rock was about 5 meters (16 feet) from the rover when this image was obtained. This is an enhanced color composite image from sol 36 of the rover's journey, generated using the camera's L2 (750 nanometer), L5 (530 nanometer), and L6 (480 nanometer) filters.

    Bounce Rock Spectra Figure 1 above is a plot of panoramic camera spectra extracted from three different regions on the rock dubbed 'Bounce.' The yellow spectrum is from the yellow box in the image on the left, from the dusty top part of the rock. The spectrum is dominated by the signature of oxidized 'ferric' iron (Fe3+) like that seen in the classic Martian dust. The red spectrum is from the darker Meridiani Planum soils that were disturbed by the airbag when it bounced near the rock. That spectrum is also dominated by ferric iron, though the reflectivity is lower. Scientists speculate that this may be because the grains are coarser in these soils compared to the dust. The green spectrum, which is from the right side of the rock, shows a strong drop in the infrared reflectance that is unlike any other rock yet seen at Meridiani Planum or Gusev Crater. This spectral signature is typical of un-oxidized 'ferrous' iron (Fe2+) in the rock, perhaps related to the presence of volcanic minerals like olivine or pyroxene. The possibility that this may be a basaltic rock that is distinctly different from the rocks seen in the Eagle Crater outcrop is being intensively explored using the rover's other instruments.

  11. Classification of Igneous Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Louis Robert Bartek III

    This is a Think-Pair-Share activity in which I show class photos of a range of igneous rocks in terms of composition and texture. I ask them to individually examine the texture and color of the rocks and decide how they might come up with a classification for the rocks. I also ask them to develop hypotheses about how the composition of the rocks may be related to tectonic settings and how the textures may be related to cooling history. After they do this individually I then have them partner with another student and they discuss their ideas. I then call upon different groups of students to address components of the topic. After they complete the activity I fill in the voids in their knowledge with lecture on igneous rock textures and composition are related to tectonic setting and cooling history.

  12. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance Veronica J. Berrocal, Adrian E are needed. Currently, anti-icing decisions are usually based on deterministic weather forecasts. However. Starting with deterministic numerical weather predictions, they produce a joint predictive probability dis

  13. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Schmidt, J. [Joe Schmidt, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  14. Seafloor weathering controls on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gislason, S.R. [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)] [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1997-03-01

    Alteration of surficial marine basalts at low temperatures (<40{degrees}C) is a potentially important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2} over geologic time. Petrologic analyses, thermodynamic calculations, and experimental weathering results point to extensive Ca leaching and consumption of marine CO{sub 2} during alteration. Basalt weathering in seawater-like solutions is sensitive to temperature. The activation energy for initial basalt weathering in seawater is 41-65 U kJ mol{sup -1}. If seafloor weathering temperatures are set by deep ocean fluids under high fluid to rock ratios the feedback between weathering and atmospheric CO{sub 2} is indirect, but sizeable. If the bulk of seafloor weathering occurs in the presence of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, the weathering feedback depends on the linkage between spreading rates and heat flow. In either case, the primary linkage between seafloor weathering and the global carbon cycle appears to be thermal as opposed to chemical. 81 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Effects of Space Weathering at UV Wavelengths: S-Class Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith

    2006-09-01

    We present evidence that space weathering manifests itself at near-UV wavelengths as a bluing of the spectrum, in contrast with the spectral reddening that has been seen at visible-near-IR wavelengths. Furthermore, the effects of space weathering at UV wavelengths tend to appear with less weathering than do the longer wavelength effects, suggesting that the UV wavelength range is a more sensitive indicator of weathering, and thus age. We report results from analysis of existing near-UV (~220-350 nm) measurements of S-type asteroids from the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope and comparisons with laboratory measurements of meteorites to support this hypothesis. Composite spectra of S asteroids are produced by combining UV spacecraft data with ground-based longer wavelength data. At visible-near-IR wavelengths, S-type asteroids are generally spectrally redder (and darker) than ordinary chondrite meteorites, whereas the opposite is generally true at near-UV wavelengths. Similarly, laboratory measurements of lunar samples show that lunar soils (presumably more weathered) are spectrally redder at longer wavelengths, and spectrally bluer at near-UV wavelengths, than less weathered crushed lunar rocks. The UV spectral bluing may be a result of the addition of nanophase iron to the regolith through the weathering process. The UV bluing is most prominent in the 300-400 nm range, where the strong UV absorption edge is degraded with weathering.

  16. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  17. Non-systematic weathering profile in the Blue Ridge Mountains, N. C. : Role of geochemical variables

    SciTech Connect

    Ciampone, M.A.; McVey, D.E.; Gerke, T.L.; Briggs, W.D.; Zhang, Yangsheng; Maynard, J.B.; Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Weathering profiles from representative cores of the Coweeta Group, schist, and Tallulah Falls Fm, gneiss, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina were examined. The predominant alteration minerals, which formed from the partial alteration of biotite and plagioclase, include kaolinite, chlorite, vermiculite interstratified with biotite, gibbsite. These mineral phases were identified using petrographic observation, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and selected electron microprobe analysis. These minerals commonly represent a weathering profile (developed from surface to depth on a single source rock) ranging from mature (gibbsite), to intermediate (kaolinite + interlayered biotite/vermiculite), to immature (plagioclase + biotite) at depth. In this study, however, there is no clear vertical zonation of the weathering profile. This indicates a more selective weathering process than would typically be assumed. This nonsystematic weathering profile may reflect variations in bulk composition of the parent rock and/or variations in the composition of ground water. The presence and abundance of gibbsite in these weathering profiles is unusual because it is normally associated with bauxite in which the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content is > 80 wt.%. In this study the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of the regolith is approximately 20 wt.%. The presence of gibbsite emphasizes the importance of solution-reprecipitation of Al-rich phases as an independent process in temperature climates, and suggests the activity of silica is more critical than regional climatological effects in controlling regolith formation.

  18. Enhanced weathering strategies for cooling the planet and saving coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerling, D. J.; Taylor, L.; Quirk, J.; Thorley, R.; Kharecha, P. A.; Hansen, J. E.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lomas, M.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Acceleration of the chemical weathering sink for atmospheric CO2 via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes has been proposed as a macro-engineering Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) scheme, but its effectiveness and response to ongoing global change is poorly understood. We employ a detailed spatially resolved weathering model driven by two ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of 21st Century climate (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) to assess enhanced weathering and examine feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 and ocean carbonate biogeochemistry. Atmospheric CO2 reduction of ~100-260 ppm by year 2100, the range depending mainly on rock composition, is obtained by spreading 5 kg m-2 yr-1 over 20 Mkm2 tropical weathering 'hotspots'. Ocean acidification is neutralized in RCP4.5 and ameliorated in RCP8.5 due to enhanced land-ocean export of weathered alkalinity products and reduced CO2 forcings, and the aragonite saturation state of surface oceans is raised to >3.5, thus avoiding likely extinction of coral reef ecosystems. We suggest that accelerated weathering has substantial potential to help limit global warming and benefits to marine life not obtained from other CDR approaches, but major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences should encourage urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  19. Chemical weathering and CO? consumption in the Lower Mekong River.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Lu, X X; Bush, Richard T

    2014-02-15

    Data on river water quality from 42 monitoring stations in the Lower Mekong Basin obtained during the period 1972-1996 was used to relate solute fluxes with controlling factors such as chemical weathering processes. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration of the Lower Mekong varied from 53 mg/L to 198 mg/L, and the median (114 mg/L) was compared to the world spatial median value (127 mg/L). Total cationic exchange capacity (Tz(+)) ranged from 729 to 2,607 ?molc/L, and the mean (1,572 ?molc/L) was 1.4 times higher than the world discharge-weighted average. Calcium and bicarbonate dominated the annual ionic composition, accounting for ~70% of the solute load that equalled 41.2×10(9)kg/y. TDS and major elements varied seasonally and in a predictable way with river runoff. The chemical weathering rate of 37.7t/(km(2)y), with respective carbonate and silicate weathering rates of 27.5t/(km(2) y) (13.8mm/ky) and 10.2t/(km(2) y) (3.8mm/ky), was 1.5 times higher than the global average. The CO2 consumption rate was estimated at 191×10(3)molCO2/(km(2)y) for silicate weathering, and 286×10(3)molCO2/(km(2)y) by carbonate weathering. In total, the Mekong basin consumed 228×10(9)molCO2/y and 152×10(9)molCO2/y by the combined weathering of carbonate and silicate, constituting 1.85% of the global CO2 consumption by carbonate weathering and 1.75% by silicates. This is marginally higher than its contribution to global water discharge ~1.3% and much higher than (more than three-fold) its contribution to world land surface area. Remarkable CO2 consumed by chemical weathering (380×10(9)mol/y) was similar in magnitude to dissolved inorganic carbon as HCO3(-) (370×10(9)mol/y) exported by the Mekong to the South China Sea. In this landscape, atmospheric CO2 consumption by rock chemical weathering represents an important carbon sink with runoff and physical erosion controlling chemical erosion. PMID:24291559

  20. The micromorphological approach to rock-lichen interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terribile, F.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks. Research on this topic over the last decades has demonstrated that a variety of interactions exist between these organisms and substrates and that further progresses in the study of the rock-lichen relationships rely on modern instrumental and analytical techniques application. In this investigation a micromorphological methodology has been produced in order to study the weathering phenomena resulting from the growth of six crustose (Lecidea fuscoatra, Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana, Lepraria sp., Rhizocarpon geographicum and Diploscistes actinostomus) and three foliose (Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoria ectaneoides and Parmelia conspersa) lichen species growing on volcanic and metamorphic rocks. Lecidea fuscoatra was collected on phonolitic tefrite from Mt. Etna (Sicily), Parmelia conspersa on tefritic leucitite from Mt. Vesuvius (Campania), Lepraria sp. and Rhizocarpon geographicum on granite from Alghero (Sardinia), Xanthoria ectaneoides on massive serpentinite from Impruneta (Toscana), Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana and Diploscistes actinostomus on metal-bearing schist from Argentiera (Sardinia). The methodology implies a multi-resolution analysis of rock-lichen undisturbed samples ranging from direct (OM) to electron microscopic (SEM/EDS) observations. Different litologies covered by lichens were sampled in the field in selected locations (1st level of resolution). Samples were analysed by both direct observation and stereomicroscopy in order to spot the most relevant zones for further study (2nd level of resolution). Such parts were impregnated with polyester resin to obtain a series of thin sections (30 micrometer thick). The thin sections were analysed by optical microscopy using point counting procedures (3rd level of resolution). Bulk and undisturbed microsamples, separated from the most representative weathering sites by microdrilling technique, were analysed by X ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and energy dispersive X ray spectrometry (EDS) (4th level of resolution). Rock-lichen weathering microsites, identified by the results of these analysis, were further subjected to ultrathin sectioning (60 nm thick ) for the TEM analysis (5th level of resolution). Multi-resolution analysis has proved to be an effective and powerful method in order to address the complexity of the rock-lichen environment; more specifically the selection and the analysis of the most relevant microsites for each type of resolution has provided a very interesting tool in order to obtain very detailed spatial study of specific weathering features.